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Philip II and the Art of the Cityscape Author(s): Richard L. Kagan Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 17, No.

1, The Evidence of Art: Images and Meaning in History (Summer, 1986), pp. 115-135 Published by: The MIT Press Stable URL: Accessed: 27/05/2010 10:29
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Journal of Interdisciplinary History, xvII: I (Summer i986),

1I5-13 5.

RichardL. Kagan
As mundane as they may seem, city views occupied an important place in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. The number and variety of these views multiplied rapidly during the first half of the sixteenth century, and, by I 50, the cityscape had developed into an independent genre, claiming numerous artists for whom the representation of cities was a particular speciality. Underlying this development was a growing demand for urban panoramas of various types. Cityscapes, along with maps, became a popular form of wall decoration; popes, monarchs, nobles, and burghers alike commissioned artists to adorn their residences with portraits of cities, either alone or in series. An even larger market existed for cheap, single sheet engravings of individual cities, and another for city atlases, the most ambitious of which endeavored not only to publish views of European cities, but also those of Africa, Asia, and the New World. Yet, despite their number and appeal, city views have attracted relatively little scholarly attention. In general, they have been interpreted as a response to the growth of European cities and towns, as well as one facet of the growing interest in geography sparked by the discovery of the Americas. They have consequently been considered as a demonstration of European interest in mapping the world as faithfully and accurately as possible. Yet city views had other uses. In some cases they served as expressions of local patriotism and regional pride; in others, they were used as demonstrations of suzerainty, both secular and spiritual. However, the personal and political uses of these views have rarely been considered, and this is the principal concern underlying this article, which focuses on a series of commissions offered by Philip IIof Spain (I556-1598) to Anton Van den Wyngaerde
(c. I512-I57I), views. I a Flemish artist who specialized in topographical

Philip II and the Art of the Cityscape

Richard L. Kagan is Professor of History at Johns Hopkins University. He is the editor of Spanish Cities of the Golden Age: The Views of Anton Van den Wyngaerde, forthcoming.
(? i986 by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the editors of TheJournal of Interdisciplinary History. I

For the artist's biography, I have principally relied on Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann,

near Segovia." 378. each of which was based upon sketches drawn from na"The Spanish Views of Anton van den Wyngaerde. I). Later that year he was in Malaga and North Africa and in I567 he undertook an extended trip through Andalucia and New Castile. Beginning in I563. but he seems to have devoted most of his time to the art that he knew best: the topographical view. and Italian cities when. "Spanish Views. His next excursion. Van den Wyngaerde was probably still in England in I 56I when Philip summoned him to Madrid. As a court artist Van den Wyngaerde's duties varied considerably. Toledo. I570. and Segovia followed in quick succession. see the Archivo General de Simancas: Casas y Sitios Reales. a valued position that provided lodging at court in addition to a regular stipend. in 1557. His first trip took him to the kingdom of Aragon and in I564 he went to La Mancha (Fig. dated I562. depicts the royal hunting lodge at Valsafn. Pt. a journey to Old Castile. however. Philip requested local Castilian officials to give all possible assistance to "our painter Antonio de las Vifias" who was travelling "upon our orders to paint the description of some of these most important towns.2 Van den Wyngaerde's earliest Spanish view. Shortly thereafterhe was named pintor de camara. French.ii6 RICHARD L. he entered the service of Philip II. KAGAN Van den Wyngaerde was already well known for his faithful representations of various Dutch. 54. The following year the artistjourneyed to England where he prepared drawings of places that Philip had visited at the time of his marriage to Mary Tudor in I555. 375399. . Philip ordered him to embark on a series of protractedjourneys for the purpose of executing topographical views of cities in various parts of the kingdom. This particular trip definitely took place under royal protection. Others representing Madrid. 95. no. suggesting that initially the artist did not venture very far from the royal court."3 In the course of these travels Van den Wyngaerde was able to prepare views of no less than sixty-two important cities and towns. 2 For references to salary payments paid to Van den Wyngaerde in i565/66. 3 Cited in Haverkamp-Begemann. legajo 275. VII (i969). fol. Flemish. 2. In a document dated August 8." Master Drawings. who was then residing in Brussels. legajo 82. took place in I 570.

1 Anton van den Wyngaerde. i565. View of Cuenca(from the east). . 4I. Min. Cod. SOURCE: Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek. fol. 3I.Fig.C.

no other sixteenth-century artist is known to have completed so many topographical views. 6 v. Appendix B. Skelton (Cleveland. the remainder found their way to England where they are now housed in the Ashmolean and the Victoria and Albert Museum.ii8 RICHARD L. . "facit ad vivum.). see the 1572-0617). 5 See Kagan (ed. shortly after Van den Wyngaerde's death in I57I. Contemporary reports indicate that the king had him decorate the walls and corridors of several palaces with paintings of maps and city views. the hunting lodge that Philip constructed near Madrid. Although a number of the drawings have been published separately in the last hundred years. it is only now. possibly by the Plantin themselves. as the artist himself often noted in his drawings. and later editions. The majority of the drawings wound up at the Hapsburg court in Prague and eventually in the Austrian National Library in Vienna. With the exception of the prolific Joris Hoefnagle.5 Although Van den Wyngaerde's drawings seem not to have been widely distributed. 4 Hoefnagle." This collection forms an impressive record. KAGAN ture. the principal islands and land of Zeeland. CivitatesOrbis Terrarum (Antwerp. "painted on canvas. that the corpus of Van den Wyngaerde's Spanish views is being published as a complete collection. I. 4 Haverkamp-Begemann has proposed that the king may have intended the views to form the basis of a Spanish city atlas since Philip arranged. to have the drawings sent to the Plantin press in Antwerp for engraving. Argote de Molina writes that El Pardo. a noted Flemish painter. roughly four centuries behind schedule. In a book published in 1582. Instead Van den Wyngaerde's Spanish views were dispersed. SpanishCities of the GoldenAge: The Viewsof Anton Vanden Wyngaerde. by the hand of Antonio de las Vinias. Yet for some reason the atlas project was never completed. i966). edited by Raleigh A. is not known for the accuracy of his views. however. some of which may have been large-scale versions of the drawings that the artist previously had made on his various trips across Spain and to other European countries. For a checklist of Hoefnagle's Spanish views. fascimile edition of this work. forthcoming. contained a corridor in which could be seen. or. Most of his work was reproduced in Georg Braun and Franz Hogenburg. his artistry could be admired first hand by visitors to the court of Philip II.

Although the inventory does not offer any indication of the artist who produced these views. Segovia. the views by Van den Wyngaerde that were displayed in the Pardo were destroyed by the fire that destroyed much of that palace in 1603. along with many other paintings in the Spanish royal collection. they were apparently destroyed. ports." suggests that at least some were by the hand of Van den Wyngaerde: ibid. Libro de monteria(Seville. albeit in different parts of the palace."6 In 1599 Cuelbis. A i686 inventory of the Alcazar specifies that many of these views were still on display. Diego de Cuelbis. Cuelbis also states that the "salagrande"in this palace was decorated with views of a number of Spanish cities. it seems likely that these views. Granada. 47. an entry for the views hanging in the "transito de las viviendas de las capellanes de la Encarnacion. including Antequera. extending across to the great kingdom of England. Were these cityscapes intended to demonstrate the extent of Philip's dominions and serve as a visual expression of his power and might? Or were they purely decorative: topographical views. and dikes. LX (1958)." fols. . astrology. in a devastating fire of 1734*7 Philip's reasons for commissioning Van den Wyngaerde to paint the cities of Spain remain obscure. Gravelines.. if not executed by Van den Wyngaerde himself. devoid of any particular meaning. Ghent. astronomy. PHILIP II AND THE GEOGRAPHERS Philip II's attraction to the city view grew out of his interest in geography. and Zaragoza. Cordoba. Yves Bottineau. rivers. were at least copied from his other work. Barcelona. Seville. a subject to which he was introduced by his father." Bulletin Hispanique. i8. Valencia. that simply reflected contemporary curiosity in geography and in maps? Such questions lead to a consideration of Philip's artistic and scientific concerns. and related subjects from some of the leading scholars 6 Gonzalo Argote de Molina. reported that painted views of Amsterdam. and Lisbon. as well as the sea. Charles is known to have received instruction in geography. "L'Alcizar de Madrid et linventaire de i686. 7 Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid): Ms. 456-48i. ch.472. the royal palace in Madrid. Burgos. a German visitor. Although Cuelbis does not name any artist. 39-42. Lerida. 1582). at the end of the seventeenth century. the Emperor Charles V. However.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES 119 with its towns. "Thesoro chorographico de las Espanas. As in the case of the Alcdzar. were hanging in the entrance hall to the Alcazar. Toledo. banks. Dordrecht. together with those of a number of Spanish cities. 469.

Geography was also a hobby of Philip's mother. whom the king asked in I558 for a series of detailed ground-plans of the cities of Flanders and of Holland. the Venetian ambassador. Spanish Cities. Jacob van Deventer('s-Gravenhage. it is likely that Philip's exposure to geography began at an early age. headed by Pedro Esquivel.8 Given such familial predilections. Two years later. His first formal introduction to the subject. which was preparing a new map of the Iberian peninsula that was to be based upon the latest mathematical principles and surveying techniques. Claudius Ptolemy and Pomponius Mela. ch.Jacques Deventer. io See Bert Van 'T Hoff. see Kagan. 1953). I884-I929). 86-88. however. The first of these went to Deventer. and Apianus's pupil. 36.I. he also knows a great deal about geography and something of sculpture and painting. 2 v.I. Ms. a Ptolemeic geographer. see Felipe Picatoste y Rodriguez. a noted mathematician. 2. Biblioteca de El Escorial. . Relations des ambassadeurs (Brussels.120 | RICHARD L.9 Philip's geographical concerns soon were expressed in a series of important commissions. as well as Gerard Mercator and Hieronymous Cock. Philip's interest in geography may have been further whetted by a journey to Italy and the Low Countries in 1548 and by another to England and Flanders in I555. who was himself fascinated by the study of geography. For Philip's support of this project. Following his return to Spain in I Philip gave royal backing to a team of cartographers. i891). KAGAN of his day. K. venetienssur Charles-Quintet Philippe II 9 Louis P. Gachard. 40. famous cartographers. an ambitious project that required nearly two decades to complete.10 8 For a more extensive discussion of Philip's geographical concerns. a copy of which still survives in the royal library at the Escorial. Gemma Frisius. He was in touch with Petrus Apianus. Atlas des villes de la Belgique aux XVie siecle (Brussels. reported from Brussels that "his Majesty loves learning and reads history. Empress Isabella of Portugal. the empress regularly commissioned maps and views of the New World. a Flemish cartographer. Daughter of Manoel I of Portugal. apparently for her own private enjoyment. i856). The efforts of the Esquivel group resulted in a remarkable set of maps. Apuntespara una biblioteca cientificaespanoladel siglo xvi (Madrid. Frederico Bodoaro. seems to have occurred only in 1545 when his tutors drew up a list of books for his education that included the works of two influential ancient geographers.

12 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY CITY VIEWS Philip's passion for geography was by no means unusual for his time and was shared with other sixteenth-century rulers. Royal interest in the subject seems to have begun with the dissemination of Ptolemy's Cosmography after its translation from the Greek into Latin in 1406. II. La Mancha.see Manuel F. and New Castile. Similar relaciones were planned for other parts of the kingdom but remained unfinished. Although the relaciones were never completed. Known as the Relaciones hist6ricogeogrdfico-topogrdficas. This collection was intended to replace Pedro de Medina's inadequate Libro de las grandezas de Espana (Seville. I979). Primeray segunda parte las grandezasy cosasnotablesde Espaiia (Alcald de Henares. I9I7). in i59i. who edited a revised edition of Pedro de Medina's topographical history in I595. Austria. Ciencia y tecnicaen la sociedadespaiiolade los siglos xvi y xvii (Madrid. See CarlJusti.the project began in 1575 and succeeded in collecting information about more than 6oo towns in Extremadura. The king's interest in these disciplines was even manifested in the throne room at the Escorial which. Jean iHermite (ed. I595). Miguelez. the royal architect. 98. evidently drawn from Abraham Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. L6pez Piniiero. and Italy. I936). 2i6-2i9. The models were said to be there as early as I57I. See also Jos6 M. I953). Le Passetemps(Antwerp. Pope Pius IV. among other subjects. 184-I85. but was really sparked at the end of the fifteenth century by Spanish and Portuguese discoveries in Africa. incorporated a series of wall maps. 68. They may in fact have been utilized by Diego P6rez de Mesa. establish a scientific academy in Madrid offering instruction in cosmography and geography.11 In 1582 Philip helped Juan de Herrera. they were deposited in the Escorial library and made available to scholars. . i890). Asia. An Italian traveller also reported that Philip had wooden models of Spain's principal cities on display in Madrid's Alcazar. Medina. I2 For this academy. including Cosimo I de' Medici. first published in I 570. 1548) and to rival the topographical histories that had already been produced for Germany. see Agustin Ruiz de Arcuate. Curiosity about distant lands was matched by a corresponding demand for I For the history of the relaciones. Veldzquezy su siglo (Madrid. and Elizabeth I. "Las relaciones hist6ricogeograficas de Espafia. 249-3 32. and the New World.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES | 121 Another of Philip's favorite geographical projects was the compilation of a detailed topographical description of every Spanish village and town on the basis of a standardized questionnaire. Charles Ruelens)." in Catcilogo los codices de espdnoles la biblioteca EscorialRelaciones de del hist6ricas(Madrid. Juan de Herrera(Madrid.

Map-making. by the start of the sixteenth century map-making was transformed into a major industry in Italy. The first and oldest of these mapping traditions is that of the encomiastic or emblematic view. A similar shift occurred in the art of depicting cities. and Portugal. I63-220. "Franciscode Holanda: A Little Known Source for the History of Fortification in the Sixteenth Century. Here I follow Schulz.14 I3 One example of the relationship of military concerns to city views is the sketchbook prepared by Francisco de Holanda for King John III of Portugal. In 1536 John sent Holanda to Italy "to see and make drawings of the fortresses and of the most famous and notable things in that country. who has identified two distinct artistic traditions that apply equally well to city views and to maps. Simultaneous advances in trigonometry and surveying also turned map-making. In this tradition topographical fidelity was subordinated to a larger message that views sought to communicate. seeJohn Bury. and Moralized Geography before the Year I500. City Views. Sixteenth-century map-makers increasingly used techniques pioneered by the makers of sea-charts and portalans and relied upon direct observation and mathematical projections. KAGAN new and more accurate descriptions of places closer to home. the Low Countries. The great political struggles of the day-Louis XI's invasion of Italy. . Charles V's battles against the Lutherans.122 | RICHARD L. and the most valued maps were those offering the greatest degree of topographical accuracy.XIV "Jacopo de' Barberi's View of Venice: Map Making." Art Bulletin. (I 979)." Holanda returned in I 54I with a remarkable series of views that accorded special emphasis to the fortifications that Italy's cities had erected. and similar fanciful details." Arquivos do Centro Cultural Portugues. and the HabsburgValois wars-contributed to this demand: generals in the field required accurate maps as well as accurate views of the cities that they were ordered to besiege. formerly the domain of artists.13 Whatever the precise impetus. Examples of this genre occur throughout the Middle Ages and include a 1344 view of Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti that apin peared in the center of a now-lost mappamundi that city's Palazzo Pubblico. LX (I978). into a skill that required training in mathematics and the use of various kinds of instruments. had developed into a science. Germany. A sign of the times in map-making was the disappearance of sea-monsters. 425-474. For this commission. The apparent purpose of the Lorenzetti view was to signify the unity of urbs and orbis and thus express Siena's universality. mermaids. I4 Jurgen Schulz. and the appearanceof precise mathematical scales measuring distance. in short.

bird's eye view of Venice. In this case the view of the Eternal City. XXXV (I976). i6 John A. and by humanistic concerns for understanding the natural world in rational terms. and in the course of this struggle many developed a new awareness of themselves as a communitasperfecta. mathematical rules. 472. the topographical tradition of city views does seem to bear a close relationship to the political developments in northern Europe at this time.." Although its precise purpose remains undefined. This scientific or topographical tradition placed a premium on accuracy and was inspired by the rediscovery of Ptolemy. The epitome of this particular tradition is Jacobo de'Barberi's majestic. however. On the other hand. Pinto. who helped to develop the ichnographic view in which the representation of a city is based a series of abstract. On the whole. first published as an engraving in 1500 and intended. Pomponius Mela. "Origins and Development of the Ichnographic City Plan. 462. by advances in the art of making portalan charts based on direct observation.15 The second city view tradition defined by Schulz first emerged at the start of the sixteenth century. this topographical tradition is customarily associated with artists and cartographers from north of the Alps. which formed part of a larger mural cycle centering on the virtues essential to just government. I5 . and other ancient geographers. Ibid. Strabo. its publisher. The Emperors Maximilian I and Charles V both tried to expand the power of imperial institutions at the expense of local autonomy and privilege. "principally for the glory [fama] of this illustrious city. the engraving was apparently meant to celebrate Venice as a great international maritime emporium. One of its pioneers was Leonardo da Vinci. if somewhat distorted. in the words of Anton Kolb. there is little historical evidence to support the recent assertion that the Low Countries had a "mapping impulse" that Italy lacked. was meant to exhort Siena's governors to follow the example of ancient Rome.16 Too much may have been made of the northern origins of this tradition. On the one hand. Cities in Flanders and in Germany resisted these initiatives." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 35-50. especially those in Germany and Flanders.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES 123 1 Another example of such an emblematic view is Taddeo di Bartolo's bird's-eye portrait of Rome (1413) which was also on display in Siena's Palazzo Pubblico.

and other parts of Germany than in Italy. the Rhineland. Van den Wyngaerde himself summarized the objective and purely visual aims of the new topographical genre in an inscription included in his 1553 engraving of Genoa: "Of all the pleasures offered by the delightful and ingenious [art of] painting. I973). and Genova (I553). Gerald Strauss. and traditions considered unique. and Conrad Morant's fish-eye view of Strasburg (1548). 1959). 498. III. ii9-i68. and other details as faithfully as possible. . The result was an outburst of local patriotism and a renewed sense of civic pride that found verbal expression in such works as Konrad Celtis's Norimberga. a panegyric originally presented to Nuremberg's governing council in 1495. I7 i983). notably those by Francesco Roselli. KAGAN each with a history.. none do I esteem more highly than the depiction of places. the demand for this type of city portrait developed faster in Flanders. and Felix Fabri's Tractatus de civitate ulmensi (1488). as well as Van den Wyngaerde's views of Amsterdam (1544). is invaluable for understanding the development of this genre."'18 The topographical tradition also found expression in a series of city atlases. Cornelis Massys' view of Brussels (1540). individual buildings. geographical gazetteers. Gaetano Milanesi). see Schulz. 472. Dordrecht (1544).its Topography and Topographbers(Madison. i8 Vasari's commentary on the vedutepainted by Pinturicchio for Pope Alexander VI in the Vatican Belvedere in I487 suggests that city views "in the Flemish style" had made their appearance in Rome before the end of the fifteenth century. Similar to the ancient periegesis in which authors used words to transport Svetlana Alpers. personal observation. Their authors took special care to depict the local topography. and travel books. In contrast. Examples of this type of topographical view include Albrecht Diirer's views of Innsbruck and Trent (1495). governing institutions. The Art of Describing:Dutch Art in the SeventeenthCentury(Chicago.17 These same ideas found visual expression in engraved views of individual cities that were based on direct. For other examples of fifteenth-century views of Italian cities. Sixteenth-Century Germany.124 RICHARD L. See Giorgio Vasari (ed." 429-430. artists in these northern regions began to specialize in the production of these views at a time when their Italian counterparts were still engaged in the production of what Schulz has described as "moralized" views. Although this particular tradition soon spread to the south. "Barberi's View of Venice. Cornelius Antoniszoon's bird's-eye view of Amsterdam (1544). The quotation by Van den Wyngaerde is cited in ibid. Opere(Florence. one of a new genre of local topographical histories. Consequently.

in "selecting certain places from the whole. "is to deal separately with a part of the whole. "The end of chorography. and battle scenes that Lafrery published in Rome around 1572." wrote Ptolemy. The king primarily envisioned this commission as a scientific enterprise designed to complement his other geographical projects. . as if one were to paint only the eye or the ear by itself. which initially appeared in 1572. Antoine Lafr6ry. Accordingly. and the collection of maps. was Schedel's Liber Cronicarum. the only existing views of Spanish cities were some rather crude and inaccurate woodcuts similar to those published in Medina's Librode lasgrandezas de Espaka. . The inadequacies of these works helps to explain why Philip was so eager to bring Van den Wyngaerde to Spain. Tavole moderne geographia la maggior I 572?). while Geography deals only with regions and their general features.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES 1 I25 readers from place to place. but the first to included accurate city portraits was probably Bernhard von Breydenbach's Sanctarum Peregrinationum. views. However. as Braun and Hogenburg's great multi-volume compendium. the remainder are interchangeable and were intended simply to illustrate the concept of the city rather than a specific place.(Rome. it treats more fully the particulars of each by themselves-even I1 di de parte del mondo. . Armchairtravel had come of age. a true city atlas with views of i i6 cities. Opusculum (Mainz. close-up view of each of the individual cities and towns that comprised his kingdom. or out of its province. Such a commission represented Philip's efforts to obtain a comprehensive chorography of Spain-a detailed. of which twenty-three are recognizable as representations of individual cities. therefore. and then by such works mographia. these books used city views to achieve a similar effect.19 The commission that Philip II offered to Van den Wyngaerde formed part of a burgeoning." Chorography also differs from geography because. Prior to this commission. Such books had existed in the Middle Ages. Hartmann published in Nuremberg in 1493. 1486). .. . this travel volume was subsequently superseded both in terms of its accuracy and its geographical scope by Sebastian Munster's Cosfirst published in Basel in I1544. it is not unworthy of Chorography. with illustrations by Erhard Reuwich. to describe the smallest details of places. . . European-wide demand for accurate maps and city views.

often exaggerated the size of buildings nearest the vantage point. 2). oblique perspective that simultaneously allowed a view of the fagades of principal monuments as well as a glimpse of the street plan. river courses. a tradition that was commonplace in the north of Europe. moreover. instead of the profile views and jumbled topography characteristic of most medieval cityscapes. and notable topographical features. he used perspective in order to convey a sense of depth and to illustrate the city's relationship to the surrounding countryside. however. He kept extraneous embellishments to a minimum. such as harbors. Geographyof ClaudiusPtolemy (New York. Yet there is little in his views to suggest that he purposely distorted the arrangement and scale of buildings. beginning with the views prepared on his journey to Andalucia in i567. and in his panorama of Zaragoza viewed from the east (Fig. Even the choice of 20 27.126 | RICHARD L. He tended also to increase the size and the height of churches. I932). KAGAN dealing with the smallest conceivable localities. but. for example. Furthermore. important historical sites. Van den Wyngaerde provided an alphabetized key to serve as a guide to major monuments and other sites. 2I . Van den Wyngaerde. for the sake of clarity. "Chorography needs an artist. Edward L."20 The chorographic quality of Van den Wyngaerde's views hardly requires demonstration.). and such like. farms. 26- In his first Spanish views each important building was labelled individually. possibly to draw attention to the city as a civitas christiana. and generally limited inscriptions to labels for principal monuments. and no one presents it rightly unless he is an artist. Stevenson (trans. The use of this oblique perspective is particularly evident in his view of Barcelona as seen from an imaginary vantage point at sea. He normally began with a series of site plans and sketches of individual buildings that he would later incorporate into a finished view. He also employed an elevated. His view of Granada. villages. inscriptions.21 Van den Wyngaerde's concern with topographical accuracy is further revealed in his working method. was the painstaking product of no fewer than four or five preliminary sketches. a practice that is unavoidable when the cavalier perspective is employed. and other devices that artists working in the encomiastic tradition used to invest cityscapes with some deeper meaning." According to Ptolemy. eschewed the emblems. allegorical figures.

i1563. 2 Anton van den Wyngaerde. 1:V K SOURCE ainabbithkCdMm Oes~~~~~~~~~Terecich 4 o .Fig. View of Barcelona(firom the east).

Van den Wyngaerde compiled a visual record of Spanish cities that was unique. and Sanluicar de Barrameda).-in an effort to compile the comprehensive chorography that Philip apparently had envisioned. in which the inscriptions detail the type and number of workers employed and offer a guide to where various activities connected with the almadrabawere carried out: "here are the sheds where the tuna are dried". His vision was that of a Fleming whose political loyalties were steadfastly local. the two Castiles. 6. Van den Wyngaerde's Spain was fragmented. see Kagan. A similar objectivity infused his portrait of the almadrabaor great tuna fishery at Zahara. although the selection may have been dictated by the king. making note of important inscriptions and other historical material. Yet his vision was also that of an objective observer: a chorographer whose task was primarily to record what he saw. If an overarching. Valencia. II. London. etc. Spanish Cities. Without a contemporary inventory of Van den Wyngaerde's work. Hoefnagle's contemporary view of the nearby almadraba at Conil reflected his interest in genre scenes rather than topographical accuracy. Van den Wyngaerde also depicted seigneurial towns (Alba de Tormes.22 Nonetheless. Consequently. Civitates. 22 .128 RICHARD L. his Spain was a collection of independent cities rather than a united realm. His scientific detachment was especially evident in his drawings of classical ruins. near Marbella. Van den Wyngaerde's drawing was that of an enthnographer and suggests that this was precisely the kind of detailed information that Philip was seeking when he ordered this artist "to paint a description of some of these most important towns. and Oxford. In contrast. etc. predetermined scheme existed. "here are where the merchants gather". pl. KAGAN cities appears to have been somewhat random. all of which were royal. 3). For a list of these cities and a map tracing his itineraries across Spain. on the southwest coast of Spain. there is no way of knowing whether he executed views of cities other than those represented in the collections of Vienna. it was an attempt to include cities representative of each of Spain's major political divisions-Aragon."23 As a result of these concerns. 23 Hoefnagle's view of Conil is printed in Braun and Hogenberg. At the time nothing remotely comparable existed for other European states. such as those at Italica (Seville) and Saguntum (Valencia) where he was simply content to prepare a visual catalogue. In addition to views of Spain's major cities. Chinchilla. and occasionally drew a small village such as Ojen. (Fig.

- r - - ... . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~> SOURCE Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek Cod Mm 4! fol47 . 0S Anton van den Wyngaerde...Fig.. 3 . -- - . View of the Almadraba Zahara de Los Atun at . r~~~~~~~~~~armiltar . - ..

both then and in the future. KAGAN Philip therefore could rightly boast of being the first European ruler to possess such a complete and accurate "description" of his realms. Spain's building and textile industries. is among the earliest representations of this important pastime. just as Philip's other geographical projects were intended to be made available for scholars. Roger Van der Weyden. this principle is one that Philip warmly embraced: he supported numerous artistic and scientific projects. that Van den Wyngaerde included in one of his views of Jerez de la Frontera. Architectural historians will be able to use these cityscapes to date and otherwise to reconstitute monuments that have long since disappeared. Economic historians will be interested in the information that Van den Wyngaerde provided about ships and shipping. he simultaneously established in the Escorial one PHILIP AND POSTERITY . Similarly. But was chorography the only thing that Philip had in mind when he invited Van den Wyngaerde to Spain? In I56o Felipe de Guevara. a noted humanist. together with the need for princes to gather around them men of learning.130 | RICHARD L. The detailed sketch of a juego de cakas. with tastes running the gamut from rare birds and exotic plants to ancient coins and medals. Indeed. and the works of Titian. advised the monarch that royal support of Esquivel's cartographic project would represent a gift to scholarship and a deed that could only add glory to Philip's name and perpetuate his fame. those scholars interested in urban history can use these views to trace the development of Spain's cities during an epoch when many were beginning to shed their medieval plan in favor of Renaissance principles of urban planning and design. Jacopo Bassano. and took a personal interest in architectural design. one of Philip's courtiers. Van den Wyngaerde's chorographic view of Spanish cities constitutes a rich cache of information about Spain that still awaits our exploration. Furthermore. built on a lavish scale. science. Even social historians will find something useful here. and Hieronymus Bosch. a type of aristocratic joust popular in the sixteenth century. and the interrelationship of urban and rural space. With the help of Benito Arias Montano. Philip also ranked as one of the greatest collectors of his day. and art. Philip's humanistic education would already have taught him this valuable lesson.

The king also had other artists. V. and Hebrew. Mural cycles of cities used for this purpose had existed in Italy since the end of the fifteenth century. a collection of more than 14.24 Philip's concern for posterity was also expressed by his desire to impress contemporaries with the extent of his power and the magnificence of his deeds. these vistas also belong to the older encomiastic tradition in which city portraits were invested with deeper meaning. Lafrery. and Van den Wyngaerde's task was to record the various stages of the battle. The resulting drawings pointedly portray this little skirmish as a great triumph of Christianity over Islam and include royal banners proclaiming the victory as a personal triumph for Philip II. fols. Tavole moderne. Sanchez Cant6n. as well as Latin and Greek. . Pintoresespanoles en San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorial(Madrid. I93I). "Current events" maps were a popular genre in the mid-sixteenth century. 231. I74. 21-39. among them Rodrigo de Holanda. Van den Wyngaerde's son-in-law. Chaldean. the Van den Wyngaerde commission can also be understood as part of the monarch's desire to be remembered as a patron and protector of the liberal arts. "Comentarios de la Pintura. and he himself may have been responsible for the engravings that recorded Spanish victories against the French in 1557 and I558. I923)." in Francisco J. see William Eisler.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES | 131 of the sixteenth century's largest and most comprehensive libraries of rare books and manuscripts. "Arte y Estado bajo Carlos Fuentes literarias para la historia de arte en Espaha (Madrid.Julian Zarco Cuevas. but the 24 25 Felipe de Guevara. decorate the Escorial with scenes of other Spanish victories. The precise purpose of this particular cycle remains controversial. He had seen the great Pannemaker tapestries celebrating the victory of his father against the Turks at Tunis that hung in I 555 in the nave of the cathedral in Bruges.000 volumes that incorporated works in Arabic. I." Fragmentos. 93-97. III (I984). Philip subsequently ordered Van den Wyngaerde to accompany the fleet sent to capture the Moorish stronghold of Pefion de Velez de Gomera in North Africa in 1564. For more on Charles V's tapestries. Within this context.25 Did not the cityscapes displayed in the Pardo and in the Alcazar have a similar purpose? Although executed in accordance with the topographical tradition that we associate with Van den Wyngaerde. The prototype was undoubtedly that painted by Pinturicchio for Pope Innocent VIII in the loggia of the Vatican Belvedere around 1487.

in keeping with humanists' concerns for the vita contemplativa. and featured profile views of Parma and Piacenza. 26 . Vasari and Stradano also joined forces to decorate Sala For an explicit political reading of the Pinturicchio cycle. the views decorating the apartments occupied by Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici in the 1590S were those of the major cities of Tuscany. 32I. Andres."in Henry A. Some of these camere. notably those of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. the heart of the Medicean domain. Sandstrhm's idea is challenged in David P. whereas those incorporated into the program of the Sala de Clemente VII honored Cosimo's military victories. "Pinturicchio and the Revival of Antiquity. 95. may have been intended simply for idle reflection. dedicated to the heroic deeds of the Farnese.XXV (i962). two jewels in the Farnese crown. Coffin. I976).132 | RICHARD L. Coffin. Glen M. the views in question were executed by Hans von der Straat. The Villa in the Life of RenaissanceRome (Princeton. as Giovanni Stradano. Such was obviously the intention in the loggia at Caprarola where the decorative program. Millon (ed. where the decorative program of the quarters of Leo X built by Cosimo I de' Medici included a series of city views that were intended as a record of Medicean triumphs. author of De Cardinaltu(I 5Io). Villa in RenaissanceRome. In and keeping with the tradition of using these city rooms for contemplative purposes. D'Amico. See Kathleen Weil-Garris and John F. 36. Studies in Italian Art and Architecture. a native of Bruges who. "The Renaissance Cardinal's Ideal Palace: A Chapter from Cortese's De Cardinalatu. The Villa Medici in Rome (New York. See also Schulz. " Journal of the Warburg CourtauldInstitutes. made Florence his adopted home. KAGAN loggia seems to have inspired the cameredella citta (the city rooms) that were subsequently incorporated into many of the Roman palaces built in the Cinquecento. 75. The frescoes in the Sala de Cosimo I included views of Tuscan cities that Cosimo had fortified. specifically recommended that "a painted picture of the world or the depiction of its parts" was appropriate for the interior decorations of a palace's summer rooms. in the Villa Medici. as well as the Farnese palace at Caprarola. 35-60." Konsthistorisk Tidskrift. i979). incorporated views of ten Farenese territories.). see Sven Sandstrhm. Paolo Cortese. I. including the Villa Farnesina.26 Similar motivations explain the purpose of camere della citta incorporated into other Italian palaces. XXIX (i960). Fifteenth throughEighteenthCenturies (Rome. i980). Designed by Vasari beginning in I55. including Caprarola itself. Likewise. "The Programme for the Decoration of the Belvedere of Innocent VIII. and the Villa Medici. but most were meant to serve as an expression of the authority and territorial possessions of the family associated with the villa in question. the Villa Guilia. 294.

was specifically commissioned to celebrate the marriage of Francesco de' Medici to Giovanna d' Austria. was a secondary concern. Philip could have learned about the cameradella citta from his agents and ambassadors in Italy. which depicted the imperial cities of Germany. i969). The similarity between these "city rooms and the city views hanging in the Alcazar adds yet another dimension to our understanding of why Philip brought Van den Wyngaerde to Spain." in his Opere. served principally as icons or emblems of fame. i66-I74. see Clifford W. Topographical fidelity. this room. For a detailed description of the various cycles of city views in the Palazzo Vecchio. may not have had a deeper political purpose. 8i-85. again with the intention of honoring the Medici. the city views in question were customarily subordinated to an overall decorative scheme designed to honor or somehow to demonstrate the power and majesty of a particular family.XLVII (I979). The first cortileof this same palazzo acquired yet another series of city views in I 565. I43-I49. the series. I74-I75. . there is no record that city views had previously been used as decoration in any Spanish palace. with its alternating views of "inland" and "maritime" cities. see Eitone Allegri and Alessandro Cecchi. VIII. The king intended this artist's cityscapes to serve as emblems of Habsburg power. "Francesco Bonsignori: Painter to the Gonzaga Court . Philip II was the first Spanish ruler ever to employ city views in this fashion. According to Schulz. 208-2I2." AccademiaVirgilianadi Mantova. What 27 For a reconstruction of the cameradella cittd that Francesco II Gonzaga. Vasari's description of how he had to climb various hills in order to sketch the panoramic view of the city that was subsequently painted on the walls of the sala de guardralda may be found in his "Ragionamento Primo. Executed by artists from the north of Italy.New Documents. i980). See Giovanni Paccagnini. the saletta della cittd that the Gonzaga incorporated into their palace in Mantua in the I590s does appear to have a program that reflects the family's keeping with the encomiastic tradition. included in his villa at Gonzaga in the I490s. But what remains to be established is how he came to the use of city views for this purpose. "Barberi's View of Venice.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES 1 133 de Gualdralda with a series of views of Florence." 465-466. These vedute. II palazzo ducaledi Mantova (Turin. I52-I56. Duke of Mantua. 277-28i. Palazzo Vecchioe i Medici. Brown. Guida storica (Florence. However.27 Although topographical accuracy came to be recognized as an integral part of the Italian cameradella citta. symbols of the vast empire under his personal control. Fig. although important. although there is no evidence of any such report. Atti e Memorie. prior to the Van den Wyngaerde commission. royal or otherwise. I5i.

en route to the Low Countries in 1548.XLIX (I979). 1544). reproduced in Munster's Cosmographia universalis. resulted in a rare yet remarkably complete contemporary portrait of a sixteenth-century state. visited the castle of Gian Giacomo de' Medici in Melegnano. and Frankfurt-on-the-Oder-previously Cologne. 1930)." Print Collector. visited "une maison de plaisance" that belonged to the Duke of Mantua. it seems reasonable to conclude that the entrance hall in Melegnano served as the model for the views that he later had painted in Madrid's Alcazar. he renamed the entrance hall the sala dell' Imperatore and commissioned local artists to copy on Spire. Dovill6). This may have been the Gonzaga palace at Marimolo where he could have seen yet another cameradella universalis(Basel. the Low Countries. redecorated this castle shortly before Philip's visit. For the palace at Melegnano. Cosmographia 28 . Worms. Erfurt. cittd. its walls views of seven imperial cities-Basel. notre seigneur (Brussels.28 Philip seems to have had mixed motives when he invited Van den Wyngaerde to Spain. Relation du beau voyage quefit aux Pays-Bas. en 1548. For Philip's visit to this palace. see Juan Crist6bal Calvete de Estrella. a small town near Milan. T. In terms of the genre of city views. M. and England. 48. but then Philip II was no ordinary patron. le princePhilippe d'Espagne. 91-92. KAGAN is certain is that Philip. upon leaving Mantua. El felicisimo viaje del muy alto y Vicente Alvarez (ed. Fulda. Munster. In honor of the prince's father.134 RICHARD L. who had served in the Emperor's army in Germany. in conjunction with the topographical skills of the artist. i964). I0-29. Scientific considerations mingled with dynastic and political concerns. In the traditions of views-the mid-sixteenth century such a synthesis was relatively new. Since Philip would not have encountered anything remotely similar on his subsequent travels to Germany. Philip's commission to Van den Wyngaerde is of considerable historical importance because it represents a synthesis of the two great encomiastic and the topographical. Philip. the physical appearance of the cities of sixteenth-century Spain can be established as never before. and this combination. As a ruler of cities as The only other contemporary use of city views as palace decoration in Spain were those painted during the s570S in the courtyard of the palace of the Marquis de Santa Cruz's palace at El Viso. According to Alvarez. Thanks to these drawings. muy poderosoprincipe don Felipe (Madrid. see Giovanni Battista Sannazzaro. Universalis:Comparison with Lom"For a Study of Some Woodcuts in the Cosmographia bardy Frescoes of the Sixteenth Century. Medici. I.

he was in a unique position to combine the Italianate cameradella citta with the topographical city views characteristic of Europe north of the Alps. Philip's ability to fuse these two genres in a single commission was not accidental. Madrid and Milan. it reflected the breadth and sophistication of his artistic tastes.THE ART OF CITYSCAPES 1 I35 widely dispersed as Brussels and Naples. . Rather.