Question 1

Answer The contingency approach to change contests that although change is important and a necessity at present times, not only for the organization as a whole but also for the workers involved in processing the work, but the magnitude of the change and acceptance by workers depends from organization to organization. The contingency approach looks at change as an understanding that there is no “one best way” for producing organizational change (Palmer et al 2009). Two organizations irrespective of the size, location, same products in the market vary differently and apply change in a unique way according to the organization goals and objectives. Secord (2003) also mirrors this in his book by illustrating that the right approach to change lies within the situation of the organization. They will be the only ones who are able to know what change approach best suits them based on their place in that time. There are five main change approaches (Palmer et al 2009):
• • • • •

Developmental transitions – change is consultative and constant Task-focused traditions – change is directive style, constant and seeks the cooperation of other members Charismatic transformation – consultative change and requires a leader to initiate Turnarounds – use of power to force change in the organization mainly, when time is short and less support from staff. Taylorism – usually avoid changes and new ideas

Each type has its own limitations so the right approach is simply one which is best suited to match the needs of the organization. The organization, for example, may decide to use a planned strategy at one time. And if this is not working and they need to make other changes as the change is failing, then they can switch to an emergent strategy. This way there is more scope and flexibility which can help to make the change work. But still the contingency approaches are not widely used because of difficulty in implementing, depends on style of leadership, and others. Whilst Organization Development (OD) approach to change management is based on various theories with the main goal of affecting organisation wide change in a positive and effective manner. The classic OD approach contains the following elements: it is systemically planned, has the support of top level executives, and is focused on actions that improve the effectiveness of the organisation for the long term (Palmer, Dunford & Akin 2009, p. 193). OD also pays particular attention to altering organizational attitudes and behaviour, using experimental-based learning, and prioritizing group and team changes (Rowland & Hilary 2007, p. 3). These focuses combined with the three core set of humanistic, democratic, and developmental values make OD a very people friendly approach to managing change. The application of OD follows a systematic structured set of planned steps (Anne 2005, p. 110). These steps can include common elements of problem solving such as: problem identification, data collection, client consultation, feedback, action planning/execution/monitoring/refinement (Palmer et. al. 2009, p. 194). All these OD actions can be categorized into three main phases of OD change. The phases are: unfreezing,

movement. al. p. these more effective new methods of doing things would then become the standard operating procedure for the organization (refreezing) (Palmer et. and refreezing. The phases illustrates the loosening of standard procedures within an organization (unfreezing) so that the way things are done can be made more effective (movement). 2009. . 195).

Security People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety. We ignore information that challenges the world we've created. Personality Conflicts When the change agent’s personality engenders negative reactions. Life is complex enough. it resists change. Selective Information Processing Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. So individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep their perceptions intact. So whenever we confronted with change. to employee concerns and feelings may meet considerable resistance. because employees perceive that their needs are not being taken into account. A change agent who appears insensitive.Question 3 Answer Individual sources of resistance to change reside in basic human characteristics such as perceptions. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. personalities. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won't be able to perform the new tasks Jr routines to their previous standards. The transition from high school to college is typically such an experience. Once they have created this world. . This tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance. Fear of the Unknown Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known. employees may resist the change. Economic Factors Another source of individual resistance is concern that changes will lower one's income. Day shift working. E. The Following summarizes six reasons why individuals may resist change. Habit A human being is creatures of habit.g. we don't need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. To do so we develop habit this is nothing but programmed responses. and needs. We hear what we want to hear.

Note that planned change.Question 4 Answer Difference between Planned and Unplanned change: There are two basic forms of change in organizations. Unplanned change is imposed on the organization and is often unforeseen. poor product performance quickly results in loss of customers. Difference between Adaptive and fracturing change: . Instead. often does not occur in a highly organized fashion. Not all change is planned. Responsiveness to unplanned change requires tremendous flexibility and adaptability on the part of the organizations. Planned change occurs when leaders in the organization recognize the need for a major change and proactively organize a plan to accomplish the change. for example. even though based on a proactive and well-done plan. which causes its members to respond in a highly reactive and disorganized fashion. significant public relations problems occur. Companies that wish to move from a traditional hierarchical structure to one that facilitates self-managed teams must use a proactive. planned change tends to occur in more of a chaotic and disruptive fashion than expected by participants. Managers must be prepared to handle both planned and unplanned forms of change in organizations Unplanned change usually occurs because of a major. Unplanned change might occur when the Chief Executive Officer suddenly leaves the organization. or other implementation of a change of this magnitude. plan for reorganization. sudden surprise to the organization. are often unplanned. or other disruptive situations arise. Planned change is change resulting from a deliberate decision to alter the organization. Planned change occurs with successful implementation of a Strategic Plan. Changes in government regulations and changes in the economy. carefully orchestrated approach.

Because decentralized end-user computing was a threat to the specialized skills held by those in the centralizing information systems departments. But you have no proof. Will the change. man a reduction in their budgets or a cut in their staff size? Those that most benefit from the current allocation of resources often feel threatened by changes that may affect future allocations. . group norms may act as a constraint. But if union norms dictate resisting any unilateral change made by management. if management changes the technological processes without simultaneously modifying the organization's structure to match. Threat to Established Power Relationships Any redeployment of decision. So. Group Inertia Even if individuals want to change their behaviour. which allow managers to gain access to information directly from a company's mainframe. The introduction of participative decision making or selfmanaged work teams is the kind of change that often seen as threatening by supervisors and middle managers" Threat to Established Resource Allocations Those groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a danger.Question 5 Answer People often resist change in a rational response based on self – interest. Threat to Expertise Changes in organizational patterns may terrorize the expertise of specialized groups. you can't change one without affecting the others.making authority can threaten long-established power dealings within the organization. However. a negative reaction that occurs when individuals feel that their personal freedom is threatened. is an example of a change that was strongly resisted by many information systems departments in the early 1980. They tend to be content with the way things are. for instance. An individual union member. there are countless other reasons people resist change. may be willing to accept changes in his job suggested by management. Many of these center around the notion of reactance – that is. So. The introduction of decentralized personal computers. the change in technology is not likely to be accepted. The following six reasons summarizes groups and organizational resistance to change Limited Focus of Change Organizations are made up of a number of mutually dependent subsystems. for instance. limited changes in subsystems tend to get nullified by the larger system. For example. The Risk of Change is seen as Greater than the Risk of Standing Still Making a change requires a kind of leap of faith: you decide to move in the direction of the unknown on the promise that something will be better for you. he's likely to resist.

Taking that leap of faith is risky. . feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction. and people will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly. Use numbers whenever you can. they get our attention. but that begins with the perception of risk. be sure to set out in stark. Making a change is all about managing risk. The power of the human fight-or-flight response can be activated to fight for change. But if you only sell your idea of change based on idealistic. truthful terms why you believe the risk situation favours change. because we in the West pay attention to numbers. you won’t be nearly as effective in moving people to action. and then when the rational mind is engaged. the emotional mind (which is typically most decisive) can begin to grapple with the prospect of change. unseen promises of reward. At the very least. If you are making the case for change.

Hence. The change could be minor of major. INTERNAL CHANGE FORCES EXTERNAL CHANGE FORCES The forces compels from outside the organization. client satisfaction. The major areas of changes in a company's internal environment include: • Strategic: Sometimes in the course of normal business operation it is necessary for management to adjust the firm's strategy to achieve the goals of the company. which are taking place at very fast rate. to retain and advance in competitive market. The external forces effecting change are: Technological developments: Nowadays most of the organizations use technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness. lower prices. EXTERNAL CHANGE FORCES and 2. Managers need to adjust their management styles to meet these values and needs. (basically under the organization control) are called Internal Change Forces. Organizational change can be described as a situation which emerge due to some management decisions that have an effect on employees. values and priorities of customers and political circumstances are unstable. a change is effected to revamp the internal systems of the organization. etc.Question 6 Answer Organizational change means any change that occurs in the work environment. Usually Organizational change re-aligns organizational systems and deal with the factors prevailing in the external environment of an organization. to sustain. The forces prompting change can be categorized as. Social and political pressure The needs. 1. or even . it is very important for organizations to keep themselves update according to the technological advancements. (on which organization normally have no or minimal control) are termed as External Change Forces. Now the market competitors are not from only contiguous area but from throughout the world. Competitive environment: The emerging global economy has the changed the style of business. Sometimes. This compels every business house to retain quality. INTERNAL CHANGE FORCES The forces compels from inside the organization.

People-centered: This type of change alters the attitudes. the kinds of products it will sell. Structural: Organizations often find it necessary to redesign the structure of the company due to influences from the external environment. the way employees learn new skills. how they will be sold. behaviors. Process-oriented change is often related to an organization's production process or how the organization assembles products or delivers services. change existing ones. many organizations undergo leadership training that teaches managers how to communicate more openly with employees. Changing people-centered processes involves communicating. Process-oriented: Organizations may need to reengineer processes to achieve optimum workflow and productivity. the level of global activity. motivating. Structural changes involve the hierarchy of authority.• • • to change the mission statement of the organization in response to demands of the external environments. . or as involved as restructuring the company to meet the customer needs more effectively. Adjusting a company's strategy may involve changing its fundamental approach to doing business: the markets it will target. Technological capabilities provide new products. or performance of employees in the company. and its various partnerships and other joint-business arrangements. Technological change: requires that organizations learn how to manage the innovation process. Other programs may concentrate on team processes by teaching both managers and employees to work together more effectively to solve problems. The adoption of robotics in a manufacturing plant or of laserscanning checkout systems at supermarkets are examples of process-oriented changes. and the organization. leading. their jobs. A structural change may be as simple as implementing a no-smoking policy. goals. and create a core competence. Improving the reliability and quality of goods and services is an important capability. Almost all change in how an organization is managed falls under the category of structural change. For example. its overall strategic orientation. skills. This focus may entail changing how problems are solved. and management systems. Organizations may need to restructure to achieve the benefits of new technology. and even the very nature of how employees perceive themselves. Some people-centered changes may involve only incremental changes or small improvements in a process. administrative procedures. and interacting within groups. structural characteristics.

Negative reactions may be manifested in overt behaviour. as was discussed in Chapter8. Typical disengagement statements include “No problem” or “This won’t affect me. disidentification. When employees are allowed to participate. Become involved in the change and establish a feeling of ownership in the process. and emotional support can go a long way toward managing resistance to change. Some companies provide counselling through their employee assistance plans. Employees who experience severe reactions to change can benefit from talking with a counsellor. Individuals reacting in this way feel that their identity has been threatened by the change. An expression of concerns about the change can provide important feedback that managers can use to improve the change process. and his teammates tried to persuade staffers at Mobilnet’s 350 . and they feel very vulnerable. Disidentification. Managing resistance to change is a long and often arduous process. they are more committed to the change. Active listening. Disengaged people seldom become cheerleaders for the change. “My job is completely changed” and “I used to . People show four basic. identifiable reactions to change: disengagement. Emotional support and encouragement can help an employee deal with the anxiety that is a natural response to change. Managers must realize that some resistance is inevitable. Disengagement can be recognized by behaviours such as being hard to find or doing only the basics to get the job done.Question 8 Answer: In spite of attempts to minimize the resistance to change in an organisation. They lack drive and commitment. Open communication. and disorientation 1. and it gave them a sense of security. . Another strategy for managing resistance is providing empathy and support to employees who have trouble dealing with the change.” The basic managerial strategy for dealing with disengaged individuals is to confront them with their reaction and draw them out so that they can identify the concerns that need to be addressed. some reactions to change are inevitable. Many times they cling to a past procedure because they had a sense of mastery over it. and should plan ways to deal with resistance early in the change process. and they need to be assured of your intentions. Ben Powel. The change agent. Disengagement This is psychological withdrawal from change. however. Employees who disengage may fear the change but take on the approach of doing nothing and simply hoping for the best. GTE Mobilnet faced substantial resistance to change when it implemented its customer connection initiative. The employee may appear to lose initiative and interest in the job. Drawing them out and helping them air their feelings can lead to productive discussions. Disengaged employees may not be aware of the change in their behaviour. 2. but they can be brought closer to accepting and working with a change by open communication with an emphatic manager who is willing to listen. or change may be resisted more passively. with the goal of building a cellular – phone network that ranks first in customer service. is an excellent tool for identifying the reasons behind resistance and for uncovering fears. participation. disenchantment. “ are verbal indications of disidentification. . and they simply comply without real psychological investment in their work. Disengaged employees are physically present but mentally absent. .

service centres to send new cellular phones out the door with fully charged batteries in them. it means to allow the individuals to let off the necessary steam so that they can come to terms with their anger. as well as to show them how it is possible to have the same positive experience in the new situation. The salespeople liked the idea – they could tell customers that their phones were ready to use when they sold them. however. . the first step in managing this reaction is to bring these employees from their highly negative. Managers can help them through the transition by encouraging them to explore their feelings and helping them transfer their positive feelings into the new situation. It is often difficult to reason with disenchanted employees. Typical verbal signs of disenchantment are “This will never work” and “I’m getting out of this company as soon as I can. such as badmouthing and starting rumors. Don’t have to stock all those batteries? We’ll help you redesign your identified employees often display sadness and worry. They may appear to be sulking and dwelling on the past by reminiscing about the old ways of doing things. Destructive behaviours like sabotage and backstabbing may result. Disenchanted employees realize that the past is gone. In these cultures. Because disidentified employees are so vulnerable. To neutralise the reaction does not mean to dismiss it. balked at the idea because they were the ones who had to install the batteries. This behaviour tends to get the issues out in the open. Thus. cultures view the expression of emotion at work as improper and like unbusiness. The Scientific Foundation presents a study that explored the reasons employees become cynical.” The anger of a disenchanted person may be directly expressed in organisational cultures where it is permissible to do so. emotionally charged state to a more neutral state. and it must be worked through to get to the core of the employee’s reaction. The average customer calls everybody he knows when he first gets the thing. One way to do this is to help them identify what it is they liked in the old situation. that they can let go of old ways and experience positive reactions to new ways of performing their jobs. Service workers. One of the particular dangers of enchantment is that it is quite contagious in the workplace. They may try to enlist the support of other employees by forming coalitions. More often. the anger is suppressed and emerges in more passive – aggressive ways. they often feel like victims in the change process. Disidentified employees need to see that work itself and emotion are separable – that is. however. Employees may become cynical about change. The second part of the strategy for dealing with disenchanted employees is to acknowledge that their anger is normal and that you do not hold it against them. like a kid with a new toy – but only if it has a charged battery in it. Sometimes disenchantment is a mask for one of the other three reactions. and they are mad about it. Powell and his team essentially repeated the following dialogue 350 times: “You cant see why you need to bother with installing the batteries? Here are sales figures showing how much revenue we lose by making customers wait to use their phones. They may lose faith in the leaders of change. Disenchantment It is usually expressed as negativity or anger. 3. rather.

. Disoriented employees are lost and confused. it is possible to help even strong resisters work through a transition successfully. By recognizing each reaction and applying the appropriate strategy. They waste energy trying to figure out what to do instead of how to do things. The employee needs a sense of priorities to work on. it creates uncertainty and a lack of clarity. “Analysis paralysis” is characteristic of disoriented employees. They feel that they have lost touch with the priorities of the company. Because each reaction brings with it significant and different concerns. and often they are unsure of their feelings. Disorientation A final reaction to change is disorientation. They may appear to need a good deal of guidance and may leave their work undone until all of their questions have been answered. The managerial strategy for dealing with this reaction is to explain the change in a way that minimizes the ambiguity that is present. Disoriented employees may ask questions like “Now what do I do?” or “What do I do first?” Disorientation is a common reaction among people who are used to clear goals and unambiguous directions. The information about the change needs to be put into a framework or an overall vision so that the disoriented individual can see where he or she fits into the grand scheme of things.4. no single universal strategy can help all employees adjust. Once the disoriented employee sees the broader context of the change. you can plan a series of steps to help this employee adjust. Disoriented individuals ask a lot of questions and become very detail oriented. When change is introduced. and they may want to analyze the change to death before acting on it. Managers need to be able to diagnose these four reactions.

organizational leadership. a transformative or effectiveness process as opposed to management. the term change agent or catalyst is synonymous with the notion of a leader who is engaged in doing leadership. a more incremental or efficiency based change methodology. Although behavioural science has provided the basic foundation for the study and practice of organizational development. competitive pricing and other features that are best achieved in complex environments by innovative organizational practices. morale and quality of work life are of concern to most organizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. Adaptability and responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive. collaborative management of organization’s culture –Indian Institute of Technology Madras Profitability. The work force has also changed. OD is a long range effort to improve organization's problem solving and renewal processes. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. particularly through more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture. recognition. When these needs are not met. Organizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas. These emergent expert perspectives see the organization as the holistic interplay of a number of systems that impact the process and outputs of the entire organization. a sense of accomplishment. More importantly. Experts in systems thinking. empowerment. There is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with their managers and co-workers. learning. through an ongoing. and organizational learning (to name a few) whose perspective is not steeped in just the behavioural sciences. and problem-solving processes. but a much more multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approach have emerged as OD catalysts. led and supported by top management. . performance declines. They want challenge. fast turn-around time on changes. Organizational Development is a long-term effort. The effective organization must be able to meet today's and tomorrow's challenges. productivity.Question 9 Answer Organizational development is the process through which an organization develops the internal capacity to be the most effective it can be in its mission work and to sustain itself over the long term. often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioural science. new and emerging fields of study have made their presence known. leadership studies. Today's customers demand continually improving quality. rapid product or service delivery. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. to improve an organization's visioning.

Why Pursue OD? Board and staff members are motivated to tackle the hard work of OD only when they are convinced of the connection between achievement of mission and organizational development. In this paper. They must understand the “why” of organizational development. • • • • . They are guided in their OD work by a vision of an effective and well-functioning organization that can better achieve its mission. Raising more resources for the mission work – as organizations strengthened their capacity for evaluation. “Being the best we can be” – by improving the quality of their work through human or technical investments. organizations credited OD work with their very survival. organizations built their credibility and accountability in the eyes of their constituents and supporters. Developing staff and board members so they can improve program results – by creating an environment where people feel valued and seek continual learning and improvement. collaboration and fundraising. they attracted more resources to increase the level and impact of their program work “Walking our talk” – by focusing on the values that are the foundation of the mission work. communication. participants in the MRBF program offer five examples of how OD strengthened each of their organization’s effectiveness at achieving its mission: • Organizational survival – whether improving basic systems or providing space to understand and address critical transitions. OD led organizations to make a commitment to practice internally what they are seeking to accomplish externally. staff and board members increased their energy and effectiveness towards the achievement of mission.

“Implementing best practices in human resources management”.References: Palmer. vol.A multiple perspectives approach’. R & Akin G 2009. 1. Rowland & Hilary 2007. G. New York. Secord. 23. pp. H. Canada. I. 3-4. ‘Managing Organizational Change. Dunford. Akin. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Dunford. published by CCH Canadian Limited. Palmer. Managing Organizational Change – A multiple perspectives approach. 2009. Strategic Direction. McGraw-Hill. New York. 2003. Organizational development: the new buzz word. . I. no. R.

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