div, grad,
an informal text

h. m. schey

curl,
and all that
on vector calculus third edition

'kA IL.....-_ ~___,1

W· NORTON & COMPANY

New York- London

Copynght © 1997. NY 10110 httpllweb wwnorton com W W Norton & Company. 500 Fifth Avenue. Inc Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Schey. 1973 by W W Norton & Company. 1930Div. Inc All rights reserved Printed in the United States of Amenca The text of this book i~ composed in Times Roman with the display set in Optima Composition by University Graphics. and all that an informal text on vector calculus I H M Schey -3rd ed p cm Includes bibliographical references (pp 160-61 and index I Vector analysis I Title QA433 S28 1996 515' 63-dc20 96-4942 ISBN 0-393-96997-5 (pbk ) W W Norton & Company. H. London WCIA IPU 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890 . Inc. M. Ltd. 1992. (Harry Montz). curl. New York. 10 Coptic Street. grad.

Zusammengestohlen aus Verschiedenem diesem und jenem Ludwig van Beethoven .

.

Contents
Preface
Chapter I
IX

Introduction, Vector Functions, and Electrostatics
I 2 5 9

Introduction Vector Functions Electrostatics Problems

Chapter II Surface Integrals and the

Divergence
Gauss' Law The Unit Normal Vector Definition of Surface Integrals Evaluating Surface Integrals Flux Using Gauss' Law to Find the Field The Divergence The Divergence in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates The Del Notation The Divergence Theorem Two Simple Applications of the Divergence Theorem Problems

11
II 12 17 21 29 32 36 41 43 44 49 52

Chapter III Line Integrals and the Curl
Work and Line Integrals

63
63

Contents

Line Integrals Involving Vector Functions Path Independence The Curl The Curl in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates The Meaning of the Curl Differential Form of the Circulation Law Stokes' Theorem An Application of Stokes' Theorem Stokes' Theorem and Simply Connected Regions Path Independence and the Curl Problems

66
70

75
82 85 90 92 98 100 101 102

Chapter IV The Gradient
Line Integrals and the Gradient Finding the Electrostatic Field Using Laplace's Equation Directional Derivatives and the Gradient Geometric Significance of the Gradient The Gradient in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates Problems

114
114 121 123 130 137 140 143

Solutions to Problems Bibliography Index

156 160 162

Vll1

Preface to the Third Edition
If it ain't broke, don't Anonymous

fix

it

This new edition constitutes a fine-tuning of its predecessor. Several new problems have been added, two other problems awkwardly worded in the earlier editions have been revised, and a diagram has been corrected. The major change involves replacing the operators div, grad, and curl by the appropriate expressions using the V operator, to bring the text into conformity with modem notational practice. I have, however, resisted retitling the book V' , V, V x, and All That. I wish to express my gratitude to Richard Liu, Stephen Nettel, and Sally Seidel for their useful reviews of the previous edition. I take particular pleasure in thanking those of my readers who over the years have been good enough to send me comments, criticisms, and suggestions which have contributed significantly to the quality of the text.

.

Matthew Arnold Introduction In this text the subject of vector calculus is presented in the context of simple electrostatics.Chapter I Introduction. This presentation will therefore show what vector calculus is and at the same time give you an idea of what it's for. which 1 . and Electrostatics One lesson. We follow this procedure for two reasons. Vector Functions. let me learn of thee. Nature. much of vector calculus was invented for use in electromagnetic theory and is ideally suited to it. First. we will soft pedal mathematical rigor. Second. we have a deepseated conviction that mathematics-in any case some mathematics-is best discussed in a context which is not exclusively mathematical. Thus.

you must know something about vectors. This is the thread which runs through. In fact. and multiple (double and triple) integrals. you needn't be put off by our approach. and appeal as much as possible to physical and geometric intuition. It should not be an impediment to anyone. Only the simplest features of electrostatics are involved. and much of our presentation will make use of this quantity. To begin with. we must now say what you do need to know. no very great knowledge of physics is required to read and understand this text. and unifies. An hour's time with any reasonable text on the subject should provide you with all you need to know of it to follow this text.Introduction. In the process. multiplication of vectors by scalars. Vector Functions. partial derivatives. and these are presented in a few pages near the beginning. generally written y = j(x). so that as a bare minimum all you really need do is take our word for the fact that the electric field is an important enough quantity to warrant spending some time and effort in setting up a general method for calculating it. and finally. is a subject of which too many writers and teachers have made heavy weather. the entire discussion is based on a search for a convenient method of finding the electrostatic field given the distribution of electric charges which produce it. we hope you will learn the elements of vector calculus. A function of one variable. Vector Functions One of the most important quantitites we deal with in the study of electricity is the electric field. if you want to learn vector calculus but know little or nothing about electrostatics. however. Having said what you do not need to know. This. our presentation.' Finally. What you should know about it can be listed quickly' definition of vector. and Electrostatics we think is an obstacle to learning this subject on a first exposure to it. we begin our discussion with a brief resume of the function concept. of course. be fluent in elementary calculus. Now. resolution of vectors into components. dot and cross products. Beyond that you should know how to work with functions of several variables. addition and subtraction of vectors. Since the electric field is an example of what we call a vector function. you should. is a rule 2 I Differential equations are used in one section uf this text The section is not essential and may be omitted if the mathematics is too fnghtening .

Vector Functions

which tells us how to associate two numbers x and y; given x, the function tells us how to determine the associated value of y. Thus, for example, if y = I{x) = x2 - 2, then we calculate y by squaring x and then subtracting 2. So, if x = 3, y

=

Y- 2

=

7.

Functions of more than one variable are also rules for associating sets of numbers. For example, a function of three variables designated w = F(x, y, z) tells how to assign a value to w given x, y, and z. It is helpful to view this concept geometrically; taking (x, y, z) to be the Cartesian coordinates of a point in space, the function F(x, y, z) tells us how to associate a number with each point. As an illustration, a function T{x, y, z) might give the temperature at any point (x, y, z) in a room. The functions so far discussed are scalar functions; the result of "plugging" x in I(x) is the scalar y = I{x). The result of "plugging" the three numbers x, y, and z in T{x, y, z) is the temperature, a scalar. The generalization to vector functions is straightforward. A vector function (in three dimensions) is a rule which tells us how to associate a vector with each point (x, y, z). An example is the velocity of a fluid. Designating this function vex, y, z), it specifies the speed of the fluid as well as the direction of flow at the point (x, y, z). In general, a vector function F{x, y, z) specifies a magnitude and a direction at every point (x, y, z) in some region of space. We can picture a vector function as a collection of arrows (Figure I-I), one for each point (x, y, z). z

y

x Figure 1-1

3

The direction of the arrow at any point is the direction specified by the vector function, and its length is proportional to the magnitude of the function. A vector function, like any vector, can be resolved into com-

Introduction, Vector Functions, and Electrostatics
Ie

t

y

J

Figure 1-2 ponents, as in Figure 1-2. Letting i, j, and k be unit vectors along the X-, y-, and z-axes, respectively, we wnte F(x, y, z)
=

iFx(x, y, z)

+ jF/x,

y, z)

+

kF,(x, y, z).

The three quantities Fx, F), and F" which are themselves scalar functions of x, y, and z, are the three Cartesian components of the vector function F(x, y, z) in some coordinate system.' An example of a vector function (in two dimensions for simplicity) is provided by F(x, y)
=

ix

+

jy,

which is illustrated in Figure 1-3. You probably recognize this

x

Figure 1-3
2

4

Some wnters use subscripts to indicate the partial derivative. for example. F, = aFlax. We shall not adopt such notation here. our subscripts will always denote the vector component.

Electrostatics

function as the position vector r. Each arrow in the figure is in the radial direction (that is, directed along a line emanating from the origin) and has a length equal to its distance from the origin.' A second example,

G(x, y)

=V

-iy
2

X

+ jx 2 +Y

'

is shown in Figure 1-4. You should verify for yourself that for this vector function all the arrows are in the tangential direction
y

x

Figure 1-4

(that is, each is tangent to a circle centered at the origin) and all have the same length.

Electrostatics
We shall base our discussion of electrostatics on three experimental facts. The first of these facts is the existence of electric charge itself. There are two kinds of charge, positive and negative, and every material body contains electric charge," although
Note that by convention an arrow is drawn with its tail, not its head, at the point where the vector function is evaluated 4 Purists will point out that neutrons, neutral pi mesons, neutnnos, and the like do not contain charge.
J

5

kilograms. and (c) acts along the line joining them. where the constant Eo. and electric charge in coulombs. Thus. if qo and q are the charges of two particles a distance r apart (Figure 1-5). after the French physicist who discovered it. a vector a length I) pointing from q to qo. In that system length. In this text we'll use rationalized MKS units. With this choice of units K = (l/41TEo). Vector Functions.Introduction. has the value 8. called the permittivity of free space. then the pnnciple of superposition says that the net force exerted on qo by ql and q2 when . If F 1 is the force exerted on q 0 by q 1 when there are no other charges nearby.854 X 10-12 coulombs' per newtonmeters". and Coulomb's law reads (I-I) 6 You should convince yourself that the familiar rule' 'like charges repel. respectively. mass. This law states that the electrostatic force between two charged particles (a) is proportional to the product of their charges. and F 2 is the force exerted on qo by q2 when there are no other charges nearby. then the force on qo due to q is F = K qqo 2 r 0. and seconds. (b) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. A where fi is a unit vector (that is. and K is a constant of proportionality. and time are measured in meters. and Electrostatics Figure 1-5 often the positive and negative charges are present in equal amounts so that there is zero net charge. The second fact is called Coulomb's law. The third and last fact is called the principle of superposition. unlike charges attract" is built into this formula.

. Suppose we have a group of N charges with ql situated at r. . Equation (1-4) says that the field due to a group of charges is the vector sum of the fields each produces alone. A natural extension of these ideas is the following. denoted E(r) and defined by the equation E(r) = F(r)lqo. the electrostatic field is the force per unit charge. the net electrostatic force exerted by those charges on a charge q at a point r is then qE(r). You may be a bit mystified about our bothering to introduce a new vector function. It is the electrostatic field. q2 at r2. You may think of the region of space in the vicinity of a charge or group of charges as "pervaded" by an electrostatic field. % 41TEo r A (1-2) This is the electrostatic field at r due to the charge q.Electrostatics they are both present is the vector sum F I + F 2' This is a deeper statement than it appears at first glance. which differs in an apparently trivial way from the electrostatic force.. We now introduce a vector function of position which will play a leading role in our discussion. the electrostatic field. From Equation (I-I) we have F(r) 1q E(r) = -= -2 u. (l = I. to r. superposition holds for fields as well as forces. . First. or F(r) = qoE(r). From Equation (1-3) we have (1-4) This is the electrostatic field at r = ix + jy + kz produced by the charges q{ at r. N). 2. ••• . It says not merely that electrostatic forces add vectorially (all forces add vectorially). in electrostatics we are interested in the effect that a given set of charges produces on another 7 . There are two major reasons for doing this. but that the force between two charged particles is not modified by the presence of other charged particles. That is. That is. qN at r N' Then the electrostatic force these charges exert on a charge qo situated at r is (1-3) where u{ is the unit vector pointing from r..

that is. The second reason for introducing the electrostatic field is more basic. called Maxwell's equations. for then we can (a) calculate the field due to a given distribution of charges without worrying about the effect these charges have on other charges in the vicinity and (b) calculate the effect a given field has on charges placed in it without worrying about the distribution of charges that produced the field. Equation (1-4) is replaced by . which relate fields (electric and magnetic) to each other and to the charges and currents which produce them. by taking the limit of PI1V as LlV shrinks down about the point (x. electromagnetism is afield theory and the electric field ultimately plays a role and assumes an importance which far transcends its simple elementary definition as "force per unit charge. y. we can define the charge density at the point p(x. z). z) == lim about (x. 8 In much the same way it follows that for a continuous distribution of charges. y. We define the average charge density in Ll Vas _ Pl1v== LlQ LlV· (1-5) (x.). z): LlQ LlV p(x.Introduction." Very often it is convenient to treat a distribution of electric charge as if it were continuous. we proceed as follows. Suppose in some region of space of volume Ll V the total electric charge is LlQ. z). This problem can be conveniently divided into two parts by introducing the electrostatic field. z) dV. y. ). y. z) over the volume V. To do this. Thus. y. It turns out that all classical electromagnetic theory can be codified in terms of four equations. y.z) PI1V. (1-6) The electric charge in some region of volume V can then be expressed as the triple integral of p(x. Vector Functions. Q = I I Iv p(x. and Electrostatics set. denoted Using this.z) lim aOOUI (J. In this book we will be concerned with the first of these.

Problems

E(r)

=

_1_

41TEo

II( Jv

p(r')u(r')

[r - r'12

dV'.

(1-7)

PROBLEMS
I-I Using arrows of the proper magnitude of the following vector functions.
(a) iy (b) (i (c) (d) iy /-2 Using arrows,

and direction,

sketch each

+ jx. + j)/Y2
jy.

(e) jx.

.

(f) (iy (g) iy (h)

ix -

+ jx)/v'X2+7 + jxy i + jy

, (x, y) '" (0, 0).

sketch the electric field of a unit positive charge situated at the origin. [Note. You may simplify the problem by confining your sketch to one of the coordinate planes. Does it matter which plane you choose?]

/-3

(a) Write a formula for a vector function in two dimensions which is in the positive radial direction and whose magnitude is 1. (b) Write a formula for a vector function in two dimensions whose direction makes an angle of 45° with the x-axis and whose magnitude at any point (x, y) is (x + y)2. (c) Write a formula for a vector function in two dimensions whose direction is tangential (in the sense of the example on page 5) and whose magnitude at any point (x, y) is equal to its distance from the ongin (d) Wnte a formula for a vector function in three dimensions which is in the positive radial direction and whose magnitude is 1.

/-4 An object moves in the xy-plane in such a way that its position vector r is given as a function of time t by r = ia cos
wI

+

jb sin

WI,

where a, b, and ware constants. (a) How far is the object from the origin at any time I? (b) Find the object's velocity and acceleration as functions of time. (c) Show that the object moves on the elliptical path

9

/-5 A charge + 1 is situated at the point (1, 0, 0) and a charge - 1 is situated at the point (- 1, 0, 0). Find the electric field of these two charges at an arbitrary point (0, y, 0) on the y-axis.

Introduction, Vector Functions, and Electrostatics

/-6

Instead of using arrows to represent vector functions (as in Problems I-I and 1-2), we sometimes use families of curves called field lines. A curve y = y(x) is a field line of the vector function F(x, y) if at each point (xo' Yo) on the curve, F(xo, Yo) is tangent to the curve (see the figure).
Y

I
Yo)

y=y(x)

~F(XO'YO) (xo.

x (a) Show that the field lines y = y(x) of a vector function
F(x. y) = iF.(x, y)

+

jF,(x,

y)

are solutions of the differential equation
dy = F,(x, y)

dx

F.(x, y)

(b) Determine the field lines of each of the functions of Problem I-I Draw the field lines and compare with the arrow diagrams of Problem I-I

10

Chapter /I

Surface Integrals and the Divergence
Oh. could I jiow like thee. and make thy stream Mv great example . Sir John Denham

Gauss'Law
Since the electrostatic field is so important a quantity in electrostatics, it follows that we need some convenient way to find it, given a set of charges. At first glance it might appear that we solved this problem before we even stated it, for, after all, do not Equations (1-4) and (1-7) provide us with a means of finding E? The answer is, in general, no. Unless there are very few charges in the system and/or they are arranged simply or very symmetrically, the sum in Equation (1-4) and the integral in Equation (1-7) are usually prohibitively difficult-and frequently impossible-to perform. Thus, these two equations provide what is

11

and one of our main reasons for quoting Gauss' law at this point in our narrative is to motivate this discussion. Gauss' law is f( Js E' 0 dS = !J. The Unit Normal Vector One of the factors in the integrand in Gauss' law [Equation (III) I is a quantity designated 0 and called the unit normal vector.Surface Integrals and the Divergence usually only a "formal" solution I to the problem. We say "inevitably" because it is hard to think of any other expression in elementary electricity and magnetism containing the electric field [apart. And if you can contain yourself. since the derivation wouldn't mean much to you until you have read the next few sections. Then you can consult almost any text on electricity and magnetism for the gory details. The integrand of this integral is the dot product of the electric field and the quantity D. We won't stop here to derive Gauss' law. it plays an important role in the evaluation of surface integrals even 12 I The word "formal" in this context is a euphemism for "useless" . The left-hand side of this equation is an example of what is called a surface integral. from Equations (1-4) and (1-7). In the course of this casting about. This quantity is part of the integrand in most if not all of the surface integrals we'll encounter. which we have already rejected]. not a practical one. after which you will be able to derive Gauss' law easily (see Problem 11-27). an important concept in vector calculus and one that is probably new to you. we come inevitably to that remarkable relation known as Gauss' law. and we must cast about for some other way to calculate the field E. We are about to discuss both surface integrals and unit normal vectors in excruciating detail. as we'll see. . furthermore.. don't panic. of course. wait until we've discussed the divergence theorem (pages 4452). which is called a "unit normal vector" and is probably also unfamiliar.. Eo (II-I) If you don't understand this equation.

before discussing surface integrals themselves. a vector N normal to the xyplane is clearly one parallel to the z-axis (Figure II-I). A vector N which is perpendicular to both u and vat P is. Construct two noncollinear vectors u and v tangent to S at some point P. The word "normal" in the present context means.The Unit Normal Vector when it does not appear explicitly. "perpendicular. by definition." Thus. loosely speaking. normal to S at P. the . To give a precise definition of a vector normal to z N y Figure 11-2 13 a surface. Thus. consider an arbitrary surface S as shown in Figure 113. while a N Figure II-I vector normal to a spherical surface must be in the radial direction (Figure 11-2). Now. as we know. we'll dispose of the questions of how this vector function is defined and calculated.

y) y . see Figure 11-4. n=-= A N N u [u X X v vi is a unit vector normal to S at P. For this purpose let's construct a plane through a point P on S and parallel to the xz-plane. one whose length is I) is simple: we just divide N by its magnitude N.Surface Integrals and the Divergence N Figure 11-3 vector product of u and v has precisely this property. we may write N = u X v. To make this a unit vector (that is. . y). We construct the vector u tangent to C at P and having an x-component of arbitrary length 14 . we'll find two vectors u and v whose cross product will yield the required normal vector n. To find an expression for n. This plane intersects the surface S in a curve C. Thus. . ~ 1/ / Figure 11-4 cedure suggested by the above discussion. we consider some surface S given by the equation z = j(x. Following the proz z =/(x. . x II . as shown in Figure II-4. Thus. it is perpendicular to both u and v.

in this expression we use the fact that the slope of u is. and the vector v can -------------. we now construct their cross product. . It intersects S in a curve C'. y x Figure II-6 now be constructed tangent to C' at P with a y-component arbitrary length vy• Arguing as above.The Unit Normal Vector U The z-component of u is (ajliJx)ux. but in this case parallel to the yz-plane (Figure 11-6). u = iux + k G:) z u. the second of our two vectors. the same as that X• z x Figure II-5 of the surface S in the x-direction (see Figure II-5). = [i + G:)] k u. we pass another plane through the point P on S. The result. (11-2) To find v. we have of (11-3) 15 Using the two vectors u and v as given in Equations (11-2) and (11-3). by construction. Thus..

y. The equation of the xy-plane is z = t(x. y) at the point (x. consider the sphere of radius I centered at the origin (Figure Il-2). As a second example. Its upper hemisphere is given by whence 2 The uniqueness of our result [Equation (11-4)] may be questioned on two counts The first of these is a sign ambiguity If 6 is a unit normal vector. apart from sign. as advertised. which as we stated above. indeed unique 16 . is k (see Figure Il.Surface Integrals and the Divergence u X v = [ -i G~). is normal to S at P. then. Let's see how Equation (II-4) provides us with this answer.G. Would we get the same result using two arbitrary tangent vectors? This issue is considered in Problem IV-26. and vy• A couple of examples may be in order here. so is -6 The matter of which sign to use is discussed below. y) = 0. at + k ay (1I-4) This. we divide it by its magnitude to get A n(x.I). where it is shown that 6 as given by Equation (11-4) is. of course. Substituting these in Equation (IJ-4). First a trivial one: What is the unit vector normal to the xy-plane? The answer.) j + kJ up" is a vector. we get fi = krv'1 = k. To make a unit vector of this. whence we have the profound observations aj/ax = ° and aj/ay = 0. at ax - J- .' Note that it is independent of the two arbitrary quantities u. z) on the surface. The second question anses from the fact that the two tangent vectors u and v used in determining 6 are rather special. y. since each is parallel to one of the coordinate planes. Z) = [u X UX vi v -1- . is the unit vector normal to the surface z = ft».

z). we observe that fi • fi = x2 + y2 + Z2 = I. +. as expected. With the matter of the unit normal vector now disposed of.Definition of Surface Integrals x z and af y z ay Using these in Equation (II-4) leads to . + kz JY =ix+jy+kz v'X2 + y2 + Z2 U ' where we have used the equation of the unit sphere x2 + y2 + Z2 = I. Our first step in formu- z=/(x. y) y x 17 Figure II-7 . a vector in the radial direction (see Figure 11-2). we turn to our next task. To show that its length is 1. This quantity is denoted by (11-5) and as you can see. This is. which we designate S (see Figure 11-7). Gauss' law [Equation (11-1)] is expressed in terms of just such an integral. Definition of Surface Integrals We now define the surface integral of the normal component of a vector function F(x. a discussion of surface integrals. y) be the equation of some surface. We'll consider a limited portion of this surface. Let z = f(x. y.

We concentrate our attention on one of these plane faces. F(xi• YI. The resulting quantity.Surface Integrals and the Divergence lating the definition of the surface integral (11-5) is to approximate S by a polyhedron consisting of N plane faces each of which is tangent to S at some point. Figure 11-8 shows how this approxz y Figure II-8 imating polyhedron might look for an octant of a spherical shell. say the lth one (Figure 11-9) Let its area be denoted I1S1 and let Figure II-9 be the coordinates of the point at which the face is tangent to the surface S. the unit vector normal to the lth face. YI' 21) 18 We carry out this same process for each of the N faces of the . 21) • Oi' is then multiplied by the area I1S1 of the face to give (XI. We evaluate the function F at this point and then form its dot product with 0/.

and where possible will use... A closed surface. The surface S over which we integrate a surface integral can be one of two kinds: closed or open. an inside and an outside. . An open surface. it is possible to get from one side of the sheet to the other without going through it. the surface integral is not well-defined until we specify which of the two possible directions of the normal we are to use (see Figure 11-10). for example. the direction must be given as part of the statement of the problem. might tend to zero because its width decreases while its length remains hxed. y. should be written ff~ F(x. you must go through the surface... strictly speaking. z) • fi(x. N N--'I>oo lim '=1 2: F(x" y" z. In the case of an open surface.' Thus. This would not be acceptable Here and elsewhere we must interpret "each /lS. such as a flat piece of paper.) • fit I1S.. this integral. z) dS since both F and fi are in general functions of position. approaches infinity and the area of each face approaches zero.. does not have this property. y.) • fit /15.. In the case of a closed surface.Definition of Surface Integrals approximating faces: polyhedron and then form the sum over all N '=1 2: N F(x" v.. We prefer. the less cluttered notation J J sF· fi dS with the arguments of the functions understood. . However. z. N. (11-6) If we want to cross all the t's and dot all the i's.. The statement "each /lS.. The definition of surface integrals given in Equation (11-6) applies equally well to both closed and open surfaces. and to get from inside to outside.. The surface integral (11-5) is defined as the limit of this sum as the number of faces. divides space into two parts. 0" to mean that all linear dimensions of the lth patch tend to zero 19 . there is a gentlemen's agreement which specifies the direction once. such as a spherical shell..0" is not quite precise The area of a rectangular patch.

y. form the product G(x/. and we wish to determine its total mass. (11-7) where the integrand G(x. in fact.divided by Eo. These are surface integrals of the form f Is G(x. The integral in Gauss' law [Equation (II-I)] is taken over a closed surface.) 6. y. z) dS. says that the surface integral of the normal component of the electric field over a closed surface is equal to the total (net) charge enclosed by the surface. z/) 6. sum over all faces. although basically they are almost the same. Approximating this surface by a polyhedron as above. We go about defining this kind of surface integral much as we did above: we approximate S by a polyhedron. z. Gauss' law can be used to determine the electric field. and 1113) we'll see how. Gauss' law. Below (pages 32-36 and Problems II-II. when the charges are arranged neatly and symmetrically. and then take the limit: f Is G(x. z) dS = lim N-+oo [=1 2: N G(x/. y. we recognize that cr(x/.Surface Integrals and the Divergence Figure 11-10 and-for-all: the normal is chosen so that it points outward from the volume enclosed by the surface. y.. y/. z).S/ is approximately the mass of the . Sometimes we encounter surface integrals which are a little simpler than the kind we've just defined. 11-12. (11-8) 20 As an example of this kind of surface integral.S/. But the thrust of our whole discussion will be to subject Gauss' law to a series of harrowing adventures which eventually transform it into an expression useful for finding E even when we don't have symmetry to help us. suppose we have a surface of negligible thickness with surface density (that is. y/. mass per unit area) rr(x. zt>6. z) is a given scalar function rather than the dot product of two vector functions as in (11-5) and (116). v.S/.

as shown in Figure 11-12. Doing so. and that will be our task here. For simplicity we'll deal with surface integrals of the form (11-7). z) dS over a portion S of the surface z = [ix. Our strategy will be to relate !lSI to the area !lRI of its projection on the xy-plane. Evaluating Surface Integrals Now that we have defined surface integrals. z) • ft. y. z) everywhere by F(x. we go back to the definition of the surface integral [Equation (118)J. we must develop methods to evaluate them.Evaluating Surface Integrals lth face of the polyhedron and that 1=1 2: <T(x N l. which is the projection of S on the xy-plane. y. An example of an even simpler surface integral of this kind is This integral is taken as the definition of the surface area of S. 21 . rather than the slightly more complicated form (11-5). as shown in Figure II-II. To evaluate the integral J Is G(x. where the integrand is a given scalar function. There will be no loss of generality in doing this for all our results can be made to apply to integrals of the form (11-5) just by replacing G(x. will enable us to express the surface integral over S in terms of an ordinary double integral over R. y. as we'll see. YI' zt> !lSI is approximately the mass of the entire surface. Taking the limit lim we get the total mass of the surface. y) (see Figure II-II).

For this reason we need only find the relation between the ~i- .S1 to 6....S1 (like the area of any plane surface) can be approximated to any desired degree of accuracy by a set of rectangles as shown in Figure II-B. . Figure 11-13 22 area of a rectangle and its projection on the xy-plane.RI is not difficult if we recall that 6.c:n~-""l I r ~ I ... Thus.. con- .Surface Integrals and the Divergence Figure II-II z G rI I I ~I I I I I I I I I Y ~ Figure 11-12 Relating 6.

fiok Since the area !lSI can be approximated by such rectangles. have projections of length b I. it's clear that their projections on the xy-plane also have length a. it follows that with arbitrary accuracy 23 . is the unit vector of the z-direction. Thus. and in general. This is easy to do. we have b = b 'Icos 6. of length b. and so ab = -_. 0 ab ab' = -_. we must express b in terms of b I. as always. to relate the area of the rectangle ab to the area of its projection ab I. If we call the lengths of these sides a. Thus.Evaluating Surface Integrals z y x Figure 11-14 sider a rectangle so oriented that one pair of its sides is parallel to the xy-plane (Figure 11-14). ' ab cos 6 If we let fi denote the unit vector normal to our rectangle. band b I are not equal. then we can readily convince ourselves that cos 6 = fi k where k. But the other pair of sides. for if 6 is the angle shown in Figure 11-14.

S1 . z) dS = N_O£) each lim . y. What appears to spoil it is that nasty z in G and 0. z) are the coordinates of a point on S.R. y.)2 ' 24 and so Equation (II-II) becomes . z ). == If R G(x.Rl YI' z. at the expense of making the integral look even fiercer than it already does in Equation (11-10). n[x. y)] k 0 (II-II) The faint of heart can take courage. 6.Surface Integrals and the Divergence where. y. 0 (11-10) where o(x. At this point unit normal vector [Equation v > -Vr.--k 0. y. In fact. a double integral over a region in the xy-plane clearly has no business containing any z's. (11-9) where the statement "each 6.O 1=1 L G(x N l. This is a double integral over R even though it does not quite look like one.RI . But the z-dependence is spurious because (x.) -.J. y)] dx d ~ y. Y. z) is the unit vector normal to the surface S at the point (x.0.· . we can eliminate the apparent z-dependence of the integrand and write If R G[x.. f(x. y). of course. f(X. reduces quickly to something much ing-a fact we will demonstrate by we introduce the expression for the (11-4)].0" has been replaced by the equivalent but now more appropriate "each 6. z) dx d o(x. We find fi k in most cases this integrand simpler and pleasanter lookexample below. and so z = f(x." We are now obviously well on the road to rewriting the surface integral over S as a double integral over R. Y. y.I=+=( I a=!fI::=ax=)72=+=(=afl===a=y=:. z) k Y. 01 is the unit vector normal to the lth plane surface. Hence. y. We can now rewrite the definition of the surface integral [Equation (11-8)] as IIs G(x.

y) = +v'1 - x2 . The projection of S on the xy- x Figure 11-15 plane (that is. The equation of Sis x2 + y2 + Z2 = 1.Y + dx dy. in practice the integral is usually much less ghastly than it appears written out in Equations (11-11) or (1112). R) is the area enclosed by the quarter circle. f(x. y. y. or z = f(x. the surface integral of G(x. the projection of S in the xy-plane.Evaluating Surface Integrals JL G(x. y)] . z) over the surface S has been expressed as a double integral of a messy looking function over the region R.y2 • It follows then that x z and ay z 25 so that . z) dS = JL G[x. You will see this in the example we now give. Let's compute the surface integral where S is the octant of the sphere of radius 1 centered at the origin as shown in Figure 11-15.Jl + G~Y G. As we remarked above. y. (11-12) Thus.

[Suggestion: Convert to polar coordinates: x = r cos 9. and y = r sin 9. But it may happen that a given surface is more conveniently described by an equation of the form y = g(x. The integration is then trivial. fL Z2 dS = fL Z2 ~ dx dy = fL z dx dy. Hence. z) as in Figure II-16(a).Surface Integrals and the Divergence =Z 1 Vx2 + y2 + Z2 =. we get This is an ordinary double integral. If this is so. Substituting for z in terms of x and y. then y 26 Figure 1I-16(a) . and you should verify that its value is -rr/6. y).. in such a situation a surface integral is converted into a double integral over a region in the xy-plane. Z 1 where we have used x2 + y2 + Z2 = 1.] It should be emphasized that the foregoing discussion was based on the assumption that the surface S is described by an equation of the form z = f(x.

z) dS = fLG[h(Y. z). that is.Evaluating Surface Integrals fL G(x. y. To evaluate surface integrals of the form (11-5). if we have a surface described by x = h(y.r (::r + dy dz. then we use fL G(x.Z). z). z) dS = f L G[x. Figure II-16(b) may have several parts. where R in this case is a region in the yz-plane. z1jl + (:!r G~r + dx dz. we find that the square root factor cancels and we get . as in Figure II-16(b). Similarly.y. and it may then be convenient to project different parts on different coordinate planes. a surface r---4--'''~------~Y "" . we merely replace G by F' fi in Equation (11-12) to get 27 If we now use Equation (11-4) to write this out in detail. Finally.z1jl + e. where R is a region in the rz-plane. g(x. y.

This last equation [Equation (II-B)] is enough to make strong men weep. and so 28 ax af = _1 "2". -1. which must be projected onto regions in the . y) = I- x 2: - y. that is. The normal vector fi is chosen so y Figure II-17(a) that it points away from the origin as shown in Figure II-17(a).rz. the triangle reclining gracefully in Figure II-17(a). We have Z = f(x. y)] -af ay + Fz[x. y. z) or x = h(y. as before. z). and we'll project S onto the xy-plane. y)] :~ .jy + kx and S is the portion of the plane x + 2y + 2z = 2 bounded by the coordinate planes.[x. . y. but. z) = iz .and yz-planes. y. suppose we wish to calculate lIs F· fi dS where F(x. in most calculations it quickly reduces to something quite tame. respectively. f(x. f(x. (II-B) We leave it to the reader to write down the analogous formulas when the surface S is given by y = g(x. y.F. y)] } dx dy. For example.f(x.Surface Integrals and the Divergence J Is F· fi dS = JL { -Fx[x.

It is useful in obtaining a geometrical feeling for some aspects . = y y ) ] (- i) + y( -I) + x} dx dy + ~) dx dy.3. = -y. = x. The problem has thus been reduced to the com- x Figure II-17(b) putation of a rather simple double integral. F. The region R over which the integral must be taken is shown in Figure II-17(b).fidS f L {[ .Flux We also have F=z=I---y x x 2' F. and you should carry out the integration yourself (the answer is i)." Thus Gauss' law [Equation (II-I)J states that the flux of the electrostatic field over some closed surface is the enclosed charge divided by Eo. y.(I .~= f L (~ . z) • fi dS (11-14) is sometimes called the "flux ofF. Flux An integral of the type fL 29 F(x. Hence fLF.

and it contains a total mass pv At AS.:_J _~~. The volume containing the material which will (. Figure 11-19 30 flow through AS in time At is now just the volume of the little skewed cylinder shown in the diagram. We ask for the total mass of fluid which crosses an area AS perpendicular to the direction of flow in a time At. But v cos 6 = v • ft. Now let us consider a somewhat more complicated case in which the area AS is not perpendicular to the direction of flow (Figure 11-19).Surface Integrals and the Divergence of vector calculus to understand the significance of the word flux (Latin for "flow") used in this context. The volume is v At AS cos 6. Dividing out the At will give the rate of flow._. the unit vector normal to AS and pointing outward from the skewed cylinder. multiplying by p and dividing by At. we get ._. where 6 is the angle between the velocity vector v and ft. Thus. The volume of this cylinder is Figure 11-18 v At AS. Clearly all the fluid in the cylinder of length v At with the patch AS as base will cross AS in the interval At (Figure II-IS). Rate of ( through AS flOW) = p v AS . So. For this purpose let us consider a fluid of density p moving with velocity v.

~ . we get Rate of ( through S flOW) = f Js( p(x.) are the coordinates of the point on the lth face at which it is tangent to S.)v(x" y" z. z) = p(x. AS." . y. and if there is a net rate of flow in. of course." even when the function F is not the product of a density and a velocity! The reason for stress- . For this reason any integral ofthe form (11-14) is called "the flux of F over the surface S. y. 31 the integral is seen to be formally identical with that in Equation (11-14). Here. and 0. J§'~. o>? Figure 11-20 polyhedron. z)v(x. Approximate the surface by a _'. Finally. If S happens to be a closed surface and there is a net rate of flow out of the volume it encloses. consider a surface S in some region of space containing flowing matter (Figure 11-20). is the unit vector normal to the lth face. z)v(x. y. the rate at which matter flows through the lth face of this polyhedron is approximately p(x" y" z. y. .Flux Rate of ( through AS flOW) = v P > 0 AS. z). then you can convince yourself that this integral will be positive. (x" y" z. the integral will be negative. y. By the above argument. z) • 0 dS. If in this last equation we put F(x.. Summing over all the faces and taking the limit.) • 0..

or directly away from. misnomer though it may be. the electric field is not flowing in the sense in which fluid flows.E(r). there are situations in which Gauss' law can be used to find the field as an example will now show. J Is e" e. At first glance it does not appear to be a very likely candidate because. we find that the only candidate left for providing us with a good general method for calculating the field is Gauss' law. Consider a point charge q placed at the origin of a coordinate system. Despite this. Using Gauss' Law to Find the Field Having rejected the two expressions for E [Equations (1-4) and (1-7)]. Stating this in symbols. to use Gauss' law. Gauss' law becomes e. it does not say' 'E equals something. unlike Equations (1-4) and (1-7). it nonetheless gives a good geometric or physical picture of Gauss' law: The electric field' 'flows" out of a surface enclosing charge. where = r/r is a unit vector in the radial direction. and the "amount" of this "flow" is proportional to the net charge enclosed. for the surface S. and (2) it must have the same magnitude at all points on the surface of a sphere centered at the origin. • fi dS = qlE. we have E = e. we must "disentangle" E from its surroundings." Thus. we now choose a spherical shell of radius r centered at the origin. it is not an explicit expression for E. Warning: This is not to be taken literally.o· If. it says "The flux of E (the surface integral of the normal component of E) equals something. It is merely picturesque language intended to aid us in understanding the physics in Gauss' law. Thus. That is." Rather. it must point directly toward. a little thought will convince you that fi = so that fi • = I and we get J Is 32 E(r) dS = qleo· This integral is trivial to perform if we recognize that r is a con- .Surface Integrals and the Divergence ing this point about flux is that. E(r)e. Symmetry considerations tell us two things about its electric field: (I) It must be in the radial direction (that is. the origin).

The standard procedure for dealing with integrals numerically is to approximate them as sums. suppose we divide the surface S into. a rather obvious thing to do since an integral. after all. We can see from this example how heavily we depend on symmetry when using Gauss' law to obtain the field.o.' The real value of Equation (II-I) is that it can be twisted and beaten into a more useful form. 10 patches. (2) an infinitely long cylindncally symmetric distribution (including the case of an infinitely long uniformly distributed line of charge). suppose we are doing a numerical calculation on a computer and wish to evaluate f f s E • fi dS.o r: in agreement with Equation (1-2).E(r) A q = _ e. Further examples are given in Problem 11-10.Using Gauss' Law to Find the Field stant over the spherical surface S. and 11-13 . What is it about Equation (II-I) that makes it difficult to find E? To answer this question. and (3) an infinite slab of charge (including as a special case an infinite uniformly charged plane). 41TE.: . We then have as an approximation to Equation (II-I) 4 33 Shortcuts like this often make it possible to evaluate surface integrals without using all the paraphernalia we discussed above. This means that E(r) is also a constant on S and we ger' J Is whence E(r) dS = E(r) J Is I dS = 41TrE(r) = qlE. 11-12. The blunt truth is that this form of the law yields the electric field in a grand total of three situations (and combinations thereof): (I) a spherically symmetric distribution of charge (of which the point charge considered above is a special case). Thus. S Examples of these are given in Problems II-II. -::. is the limit of a sum.o r q and E (r) = e. In fact. say. to use Gauss' law in the form given in Equation (II-I) requires even more symmetry and simplicity than Equations (1-4) and (1-7). E(r) = _- 41TE.

= qlEo· Much more accurate! And much more hopeless. 34 . E. too. as. because this is one equation in 100 unknowns. = qlEo.6 We have now isolated the trouble with Equation (II-I): it involves an entire surface and therefore the value of E . the values of E • 0 at every one of the infinitely many points of the surface S. EIO• Furthermore. This turns Gauss' law into one equation in one unknown. To improve the accuracy. and 0. • 0. is the unit normal. There is little or no hope of finding E from this: it is one equation in the 10 unknowns E" E2. it has a heartening "mathematical" ring to it. 0 dS = qlEo. This sounds good.=. which is one equation in infinitely many unknowns. If. somehow. This is fairly obvious since it is merely the statement that the flux through a • The reason Gauss' law yields the expression for the field of a point charge examined above is that symmetry in that case shows the infinitely many unknowns are all equal. of course. How might we arrange this? For simplicity let us surround some point P by a set of concentric spherical shells S. 10 where E. Unfortunately. ••• . through each shell. These unknowns are. • 0. is the value of E.' S2' S3' and so on (Figure 11-21). calculated as described above. as. approaches zero for any point P.Surface Integrals and the Divergence . Even more accurate (and more hopeless) is '00 J Is E . somewhere on the lth patch. we could deal with the' 'flux at a single point" (whatever that may mean!) rather than the flux through a surface. We might then attempt to define the "flux at the point P" as the limiting value approached by the sequence of fluxes calculated this way over smaller and smaller shells centered at P.=1 L E. we might make 100 subdivisions rather than just 10 to get L . it is probably not very accurate. 0 at infinitely many points. perhaps then Gauss' law might yield something tractable. and calculate the flux <1>" <1>2' <1>3' and so on. it does not work because (assuming the charge density is finite everywhere) the sequence of fluxes.

and thereby learn something about the field at that point. we have obviously not obtained what we want. Thus Gauss' law [Equation (II-I)] may be written fL t:.V E • fi dS = p~v a VIEo. For this purpose we note that if p~v denotes the average density of electric charge [Equation 1-5] in some region of volume a v. the proof will suggest how to pull this chestnut out of the fire. It is useful to give a physicist's rough-and-ready proof of the fact that the flux goes to zero as the surface shrinks down to a point. the surface integral is taken s Figure 11-22 over the surface S which encloses the volume a V. (11-15) where.Using Gauss' Law to Find the Field Figure 11-21 surface tends to zero as the surface shrinks to a point. From this expression [Equation (11-15)] we can see the validity of our 35 . and since we get zero at any point no matter what the field there may be. then the total charge in a v is p~v a v. as indicated in Figure 11-22. Since our objective was to find a way to determine the flux at a point. for even though this fact may be obvious.

as we see from Equation (1-6). for that is exactly the type of quantity which appears in Equation (11-16). z). Thus. awkward and unappealing though it may be. z): We shall be interested in the ratio of this integral to the volume enclosed by the surface S as the volume shrinks to zero about some point. then. the flux also tends to zero and the assertion is proved. We tum to this task now. y. and we get lim abou. The Divergence Let us consider the surface integral of some arbitrary vector function F(x. (x. y. but (and this is the point) we can now isolate a quantity which does not vanish as S -+ O. This limit is important enough to warrant a special name and notation. z). y. we get This expression. y. the enclosed volume a v must. z)/Eo· (11-16) This expression is admittedly downright hideous and whether it will be of any practical use whatever depends on our being able to pound the left-hand side into a form which looks and acts at least half-civilized. It is called the divergence ofF and is designated div F. also approach zero. 36 7 This line of reasoning and the conclusion point charges must be altered if the system contains . of course.y. Dividing Equation (11-15) by a v. is nonetheless close to what we are after. the density at (x. even though it still involves an integral of E over an entire surface.1Vapproaches p(x. the average density P. y.' We have not only given a proof. z). Thus.z) ~V J Is E • fi dS = p(x.Surface Integrals and the Divergence assertion: As S -+ 0. For if we now take the limit as S shrinks to zero about some point in a v whose coordinates are (x.

The Divergence div F == lim abou. however.zI _I AV f Js( F· fi dS. however. have different values at different points (x. consider a small rectangular parallelepiped" with edges of length Ax. so to speak. helping to beautify an ugly equation. Let the point at the center ofthe little cuboid have y / ". " 37 . (11-17) This quantity is clearly a scalar. y. t:. and how much it diverges. depends on how much charge there is at that point as represented by the density there." a made-up term that takes less time and space than the sesquipedalian "rectangular parallelepiped. and Az parallel to the coordinate axes (Figure 11-23). Thus the divergence of a vector function is a scalar function of position. Figure 11-23 • Henceforth we'll refer to this as a "cuboid.}. Our next order of business is to find the reasonably simple expression for the divergence of a vector function promised above. z). Furthermore. (II-IS) At this stage. Equation (11-16) can now be written div E = p/Eo. Before turning to this calculation.y S. in general. Whether it has any practical value as well is the matter taken up in the following discussion in which we actually calculate the limit of the ratio of flux to enclosed volume and find that it can be expressed reasonably simply in terms of certain partial derivatives. Ay. (x. we can interpret Equation (II-IS) to mean that the field "diverges" from a point. our fancy new notation has only a cosmetic value. Thus. it will. it's worth mentioning that if we take our new terminology literally.

Surface Integrals and the Divergence coordinates (x. We can therefore calculate this integral approximately as F. z)] leads to = . y. ~y (11-20) Adding together the contributions (11-19) and (11-20)]. one for each cuboid face. We want Now it is clear the unit vector normal to this face and pointing outward from the enclosed volume is i. Since S. the center) must be close together. Hence what our procedure gives us is a good approximation to the value of the integral.tu/2. must have nearly the same value at the two points. as the cuboid shnnks to zero. and F. evaluated at the center of the face S. We calculate the surface integral of F over the surface of the cuboid by regarding the integral as a sum of six terms. Thus. z) ~z. the two points get closer and closer so that in the limit our result [Equation (11-22)] will be exact. (11-19) The same kind of reasoning applied to the opposite face S2 [whose outward normal is -i and whose center is at (x . is equal to the area of S. are (x + tul2. Thus. over S. the point where we should evaluate F. z)." The coordinates of the center of S. y.F. (x . y. multiplied by the area of the face. y. By assumption the cuboid is small (eventually we shall take the limit as it shrinks to zero). since F • i = Fx.. . We begin by considering the face marked S. Furthermore. in the figure. and the point where we do evaluate it (that is. z). multiplied by the function evaluated somewhere on S. y. which tells us that the integral of F.~ . we get of these two faces [Equations 38 • The rationale behind this is as follows: There is a mean value theorem. the above integral is J L. is small. z) dS. Fx(x.

:. we _I av Ii s. Z) ~X .l + _' . z) (x . = <1x-O (x + ~ .and we find in a <1v-o lim _1_ av Ir )s. z).::.+s. (X . Z) ax (11-21) We now must take the limit of this as a v approaches zero.The Divergence = [Fx (X + ~X .. y. y.Fx (x .. y. on the right-hand side of Equation (11-21) we can write lim<1x_o place of lim<1v_o.T' y. to But. . It should come as no surprise that the other two pairs of faces of the cuboid contribute aFJay and aF/az. as v goes to zero. Z) ax r. z) ax lim evaluated at (x. y. Recognizing that have ax ay az = a v. the volume of the cuboid.+s. + . of course. Thus. y.. y. Thus. (X . aF aF ax ay az 39 '0 Note that we have postponed calculating the contnbutions from the other four faces of the cuboid. Z) ax ay az. Z) ] ay az Fx( x + r.~ . y.~ .~X . F 0 0 dS r. Z) . lim _ I <1v-o av Ii s F 0 dS 0 =_ er. so do each of the sides of the cuboid. This last equality follows from the definition of the partial derivative. FoodS Fx (x + T' y.

+~ +-. We have aFx ax Thus. er.Surface Integrals and the Divergence The limit on the left-hand side of this last equation. In all fairness it should be said that Equation (11-23) can in a sense be regarded as a single (differential) equation in three unknowns. that the three components of . and -=y. (Ex. div F = 2x +x +Y = 3x + y. E" E. z) = ix2 + jxy + kyz. its divergence) to a known quantity (the charge density) at that point. Consider the function F(x. . but we'll give an example just for the record. az = p/Eo· (11-23) 40 This equation. ax ay az (11-22) It can be shown that this result is independent of the shape of the volume used to obtain it (see Problem 11-17). we combine Equations (11-18) and (11-22) to get - et. y. Thus we have just demonstrated that div . is the divergence ofF [Equation (11-17)]. Using Equation (11-22) to find the divergence of a vector function is a straightforward matter. as we have already remarked. which is much more general than our derivation of it suggests. We have now arrived at our goal (almost!) for we have related a property of the electrostatic field at a point (that is. It is sometimes called the "differential form" of Gauss' law. er. It turns out. az er.) and for this reason is not often used in this form to find the field. Returning now to the electrostatic field. however. ax + ~ ay + -' aE.F =- or. = 2x ' ~=x ay es. is one of Maxwell's equations and is completely equivalent to Gauss' law [Equation (11-1 )].

y Figure 11-24(a) of F in cylindrical coordinates. and F. in cylindrical coordinates the function F has three components. which you will not be shocked to learn are designated Fr. Equation (11-22) is then merely the form the divergence takes in Cartesian coordinates. For example.. when we develop that relationship. : _-----)F. 2 . While this is certainly acceptable. we shall return to this question of finding a convenient means of calculating E.. In other coordinate systems it looks quite different..The Divergence in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates E can be related to each other very elegantly. [see Figure 11-24(a)]. (r. 6.... we consider the "cylindrical cuboid" shown in Figure 11-24(b) with volume ~ V = r ~r ~9 ~z " f~-----"' ----. The Divergence in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates One often sees Equation (11-22) given as the definition of the divergence of the vector function F..z) y x 41 Figure 11-24(b) .. To obtain the divergence z '" I I F. we much prefer to define the divergence as the limit of flux to volume as stated in Equation (11-16). Fa.

F . marked "1 " is e. we find which in the limit as ~r (and therefore ~ V) approaches becomes zero 42 II Note that in the Cartesian case (Figure Il-23) each face of the cuboid is given by an equation of the form x = constant. or z = constant. F. a = constant. or z = constant In the same way each face of the surface in Figure Il-24(b) is given by an equation of the form r = constant.Surface Integrals and the Divergence and center at the point (r. dS Adding these two results and dividing by the volume ~ V of the cuboid.II The flux ofF through the face while through the face marked "2" it is J 1. y = constant. Z). .J 1. fi dS = .

The Del Notation Arguing in an analogous way for the other four faces (see Problem II-IS). r ar r ae az (11-24) In spherical coordinates where the components of Fare F....l1 : I I I I" 'J.." but as we shall soon see.e F) a + -- I r sin aF . y I Figure 11-25 11-21) leads to the expression .4>.a ax ay ka -.::. = -I -a (rF) + .a V =I-+J-+. and F4> (see Figure 11-25) similar reasoning (see Problem z F. az . ~ F.F.+ _. div F I aFa aF. Fa. There would be little or no reason for introducing it if it served only to provide another way of writing "div. it has considerable usefulness in vector calculus. div F I =- r2 ar - a (r2F) r + -- I r sin -a e ae (sin . Let us define a quantity designated V (read "del") by the following rather peculiar looking equation: 43 . e a<l> (11-25) The Del Notation There is a special notation in terms of which the divergence may be written. we arrive finally at the expression for the divergence in cylindrical coordinates: .

. In subsequent discussions we shall introduce three other quantities (gradient. I -a + J. The Divergence Theorem For the remainder of this chapter we digress from the mainstream of our narrative to discuss a famous theorem which asserts a remarkable connection between surface integrals and volume integrals.) ax ay az . + kFz' we get = V •F . Equations (II-IS) and (11-23) will be written V· E = p/eo' Mathematicians call a symbol like V an operator. With this convention we recognize V • F ("del dot F") as the same as div F.F. and Laplacian) all of which are operators and all of which can be written in terms of V. When we "operate" with V by dotting it into a vector function we get the divergence of that function. curl. = (. (IF x + JF . we shall always use V • F to indicate the divergence..F. and henceforth. + . that is.. Thus. as a partial deriv- a a Now we interpret the "product" ative. It is independent of any physics and is applicable in many different places. + k F. -Fx=-' a ax aFx ax There are similar equations for the two other' 'products" (a/ay)Fv and (a/az)F.Surface Integrals and the Divergence If we take the dot product of V and some vector function F iFx + jF. 44 . to conform with modem notational practice. =- a ax Fx + . as we have just seen. -a + k -a). Although this relation may be suggested by the work we have done in electrostatics. the theorem is a mathematical statement holding under quite general circumstances. ay az of a/ax and F.

consider a closed surface S. Thus. z) through the surface S equals the sum of the fluxes through the surfaces of each of the subvolumes: IfF. The flux 45 Figure 11-27 . We begin our proof by asserting that the flux of an arbitrary vector function F(x. y. We shall not give a mathematically rigorous proof of the divergence theorem.The Divergence Theorem It is called the divergence theorem and sometimes Gauss' theorem (not to be confused with Gauss' law). one of which is shown in Figure 11-26 (drawn as a cube for conven- Figure 11-26 ience). Instead we present here another physicist's rough-andready proof. J '=1 SI fi dS. such a proof is given in many texts in advanced calculus. (11-26) Here S. Let their common face be denoted So. Js fi dS = f IfF. Subdivide the volume V enclosed by S arbitrarily into N subvolumes. To establish Equation (11-26).. is the surface which encloses the subvolume ~ V. consider two adjacent subvolumes (Figure 11-27).

we shall include. the pair of terms oJ J J~oF • oJ dS + J La F • O dS = J La F • OJ dS . Here is a unit vector normal to the face So. We now rewrite Equation (11-26) in the following curious fashion: r J Js F· 0 dS = ± [i. which is J La F· oJ OJ dS. Clearly = -02. Thus. taken together.1 VI d VI' (11-27) 46 This clearly alters nothing since we have just multiplied and divided each term of the sum by d VI' the subvolume enclosed by . This establishes the validity of Equation (11-26).J JStr F· 0 dS] I=J L. and by our usual convention. in forming the sum in Equation (11-26).J La F • OJ dS = O. In fact this sort of cancellation will obviously occur for any subvolume surface which is common to two adjacent subvolumes. among other things. constitute the surface S. it points outward from subvolume I.Surface Integrals and the Divergence through the subvolume marked" I " in Figure 11-27 includes. 2 We see that these terms cancel each other and there is no net contribution to the sum in Equation (11-26) due to the face So. But all subvolume surfaces are common to two adjacent subvolurnes except those which are part of the original ("outer") surface S. a contribution from So. of course. The flux through the sub volume marked "2" also includes a contribution from So: The vector O2 is a unit normal which points outward from subvolume 2. Hence the only terms in the sum in Equation (11-26) which survive come from those subvolume surfaces which.

the divergence of F evaluated at the point about which . as d VI tends to zero the quantity in the square brackets changes. Equation (11-27) becomes f Is lim each F • fi dS =~ (V • F)I d VI' (11-28) Further. for each . we take the limit of the sum in Equation (11-27) as the number of subdivisions tends to infinity and each d VI tends to zero. (11-30) This is the divergence theorem. In Equation (11-27).:l V. We recognize that the limit of the quantity in square brackets in Equation (11-27) is.. in the limit. is shrinking. by definition. In other words. (V • F)/' that is. Thus. That is. The major reason the proof given above is not rigorous is that a triple integral is defined as the limit of a sum of the form 47 where the function g is well-defined. and F) is continuous and . the quantity multiplying the volume element d VI in each term of the sum is not a well-defined function in this sense. rigorous treatment would show that Equation (11-30) is valid if F (that is. again by definition.. In words it says that the flux of a vector function through some closed surface equals the triple integral of the divergence of that function over the volume enclosed by the surface. A careful..The Divergence Theorem the surface SI' We can now imagine partitioning the original volume V into an ever larger number of smaller and smaller subvolumes. however.:l VI very small. it can be identified as the divergence of F only in the limit.. we arrive at our result: f Is F • fi dS = f f Iv V • F dV.1V. this sum is. F" Fy.O Putting together Equations (11-26) through (11-29). the triple integral of V • F over the volume enclosed by S: (11-29) .

there is no contribution to the surface integral from the circular region Rand . Since endless pages of hideous integrals will not serve our purpose. on the hemisphere. where the last equality follows from the fact that the integral is merely the surface area of the unit hemisphere. on R.Surface Integrals and the Divergence differentiable. consisting z R y Figure 11-28 of the hemispherical shell of radius I and the region R of the xyplane enclosed by the unit circle. On the region R we have ft = . y.z.k so that 0 • F = . Now let's illustrate the divergence theorem. Hence. On the hemisphere we have ft = ix + jy + kz. Thus. z) = ix + jy + kz and choose for S the surface shown in Figure 11-28. we'll use a simple example. II 48 F·odS =- II z dx dy = 0 because z = 0 everywhere on R. Let F(x. Thus. and its first derivatives are continuous in V and on S. so that ft • F = x2 + y2 + Z2 = I.

however. ust Two Simple Applications of the Divergence Theorem As one example of the use of the divergence theorem we give an alternative derivation of Equation (II-I 8). Since the surface and volume integrals are equal.Two Simple Applications of the Divergence Theorem J Is F • fi dS = 2'lT. this illustrates Equation (11-30). (11-31 ) Next we apply the divergence theorem to the surface integral in the above equation to get J Is E • fi dS J J Iv V • E dV. In other words. Next we find by a trivial calculation that V • F then that = 3. the analysis of which led us to the divergence theorem itself. It might be that the integrals are equal only over the particular volume of integration V. combining Equations (11-31) and 11-32). It follows J J Jv V • F dV = 3 J J Iv dV = 3 2. and by integrating over a different volume. we would wreck the equality. where we the fact that the volume of the unit hemisphere is 2'lT/3. = 2'lT. this is how easy it would have been if we had known the divergence theorem to begin with! We start with Gauss' law in the form J Is E • fi dS =~ J J Jv p dV. if two volume integrals are equal. this is not true because . we find 49 In general. it is not necessarily true that their integrands are equal. In the present case. = (11-32) Thus.

v .) . t). Suppose that in some region of space "stuff" (matter. electric charge. Let the den- y x Figure 11-29 sity of this stuff at any point (x. t) dV = I I Iv : dV. that is. y. which should look familiar! Another example of the use of the divergence theorem is the following.E = p/eo. y. t) dV and the rate at which it is changing is p(x. anything) is moving (Figure 11-29). z. y. t) and let its velocity be v(x.Surface Integrals and the Divergence Gauss' law holds for any arbitrary volume V. (To be able to move the derivative under the integral sign this way requires that ap/at be continuous. Further. and we cannot upset the equality by changing the volume. suppose this stuff is conserved. But this can be so only if the integrands are equal. we ask: What is the rate at which the amount of stuff in this volume is changing? At any time t the amount of stuff in V is II Iv :t I I Iv 50 p(x. z) and any time t be p(x. it is neither created nor destroyed. z. z. y. Concentrating on some arbitrary volume V in space. y. Hence. z.

finally. This equation states that the amount of stuff in V can change only as a result of stuff flowing across the boundary S. Now. The absence of any such terms is thus an expression of the conservation of the stuff. We find Hence. 2. we can then say 51 -V· (pv). There are two features about this equation that require discussion: 1. terms would have to be included in the equation to reflect that fact. The negative sign must be included because the surface integral as defined is positive for a net flow out of the volume. (11-33) . Arguing as we did above that V is an arbitrary volume. If stuff were being created or destroyed in V.Two Simple Applications of the Divergence Theorem Next we recall from an earlier discussion that the rate at which stuff flows through a surface S is J Is pv· fi dS. We then assert that the rate at which the amount of stuff in V is changing is equal to the rate at which it is flowing through the enclosing surface S. but a net flow out means the amount of stuff in the volume is decreasing. J J Jv : dV =- J J Jv V • (pv) dV. in'equation form this statement reads J J Jv : dV =- J Is pv • fi dS. let us apply the divergence theorem.

1)112. = d + jb kc)/(a2 + b2 + c2)ll2. . where S is the hemisphere z = (1 - z= r + y2 between 52 r . (b) G(x. y. z)dS.x2/a2 x2 + y2. 1/-4 In each of the following use Equation 11-12 to evaluate the surface integral f f. Use each to redenve the expression for the normal to the plane given in Problem 11-2. z) and by x = h(y. 1/-3 Derive expressions for the unit normal vector for surfaces given by y = g(x. (c) Z (d) y2)II2. (a) (b) z= z= 2(Xl x+ y.Surface Integrals and the Divergence Usually we define the current density (11-31) as J = pv and write Equation -+ ap at V· J= o.r . III-21. An equation of this type is referred to as a continuity equation and is. G(x. where S is the portion of the plane x + y + Z = I in the first octant. PROBLEMS 1/-1 Find a unit vector fi normal to each of the following surfaces. z) = (1 . (e) Z = (1 . z) = z.y2/a2)112. Finally. an expression of a conservation law (see Problems III-20. . z). considerations similar to those which led to the continuity equation are involved in the analysis of heat flow. z) = I + 4(r + I)' Z= where S is the portion of the paraboloid 0 and Z = I. and IV-21). (b) Explain in geometnc terms why this expression forfi is independent of the constant d. y. (a) G(x.1)312. y. y. it is a basic equation both in hydrodynamics and diffusion theory. as we have seen. Besides playing an important role in electromagnetic theory. 1/-2 (a) Show that the unit vector normal to the plane ax is given by fi = =:(ia + + by + c.X2)112. (c) G(x. z= = (1 .

z) = jy + k. where S is the portion of the plane x + y + 2z = 2 in the first octant. v. z) = ix + jy + kz. r. z 11-9 An electrostatic field is given by E = A(ix + jy). and S2' its circular base in the xy-plane.x2 - l shell is given by where <To is a constant. y. (a) F(x. 11-6 The distnbution of mass on the hemispherical z= . and h . where S is the portion of the paraboloid above the xy-plane.y2)112. Use Gauss' law to find the total charge enclosed by the surface shown in the figure consisting of Sh the hemisphere z = (R2 - x2 .Problems 11-5 In each of the following use Equation II-J 3 to evaluate the surface integral f f. (b) F(x.x2 . Find an expression the total mass of the shell. Sz and S" the two semicir- 53 cular plane end pieces. z) = ix . y. where A is a constant. F • n dS. where S is the hemisphere z = y' a2 . in terms of <To and R for 11-7 Find the moment of inertia about the z-axis of the hemisphencal shell of Problem 11-6.y2)112 of length h. 11-8 An electrostatic field is given by E = A(iyz + jxz + kxy). Express your results in terms of A.kz. Use Gauss' law to find the total charge enclosed by the surface shown in the figure consisting of S I' the curved portion of the half-cylinder z = (r2 . where A is a constant. and S4' the rectangular portion of the xy-plane.l (c) F(x.

S. z y 54 x . y (b) F = (ix + jy) In (x2 + y2). the three squares each of side b as shown in the figure. S.Surface Integrals and the Divergence lJ-/O It sometimes happens that surface integrals can be evaluated without using the long-winded procedures outlined in the text. Try eval- uating II sF· ii dS for each of the following. think a bit and avoid a lot of work! (a) F = ix + jy + kz. the cylinder (including the top and bottom) of radius R and height h shown in the figure.

where E(x) is an arbitrary scalar function of x. the surface of the cube of side b shown in the figure y 1/-11 (a) Use Gauss' law and symmetry to find the electrostatic field as a function of position for an infinite uniform plane of charge. 1/-12 (a) Use Gauss' law and symmetry to find the electrostatic field 55 as a function of position for an infinite uniform line of charge.Problems (c) F = (ix + jy + kz)e-(X'+y'+<\ S. P ( x) = { 0. whose density is given by Po. S. b. poe-Ix/bl. Let the charge lie along the z-axis and denote the charge per unit length by A (b) Repeat part (a) for an infinite cylinder of charge whose axis . Let the charge lie in the yz-plane and denote the charge per unit area by tr (b) Repeat part (a) for an infinite slab of charge parallel to the yz-plane. (d) F = iE(x). the surface of the sphere of radius R centered at the origin as shown in the figure. where Po and b are constants (c) Repeat part (b) with p(x) = -b Ixl ~ < x < b.

(x. r < b.0). where Po and b are constants. (b) iyz (c) (x. (b) Divide the above result by the volume of the cube and calculate the limit of the quotient as s -+ o. y) "* (0.3j + kz2• (e) (-ixy + jx2)/(X2 + i). r ~ b. y) 1/-15 (a) Calculate ffs F· fi dS for the function in Problem II-14(a) over the surface of a cube of side s whose center is at (xo. (c) Repeat part (a) for Po. Compare your result with the divergence found in Problem 11-14(a) (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b) for the function of Problem II-14(b) and (c). Yo. How must Po and PI be related so that the field will be zero for r > 2b? What is the total charge of this distribution under these circumstances? 1/-/4 Calculate the divergence of each of the following functions using Equation (11-22)· (a) ix2 + jy2 + kz". (c) Repeat part (b) with p(r) = Poe-rib. r < b. b:S r < 2b. p(r) = { PI' 0. 1/-13 (a) Use Gauss' law and symmetry to find the electrostatic field as a function of position for the spherically symmetric charge distribution whose density is given in spherical coordinates by p(r) = {PO' 0. r ~ 2b. ie-x + je-' + ke-'. (g) (h) (-iy ix + jy + kz. (f)k~. + jx)/\/'X2+? . r < b.0). (d) i . zo) and whose faces are parallel to the coordinate planes. 56 .Surface Integrals and the Divergence coincides with the z-axis and whose density is given in cylindrical coordinates by p(r) = {PO' 0. (b) Repeat part (a) for p(r) = poe· rib. "* (0. r ~ b. where Po and b are constants. + jxz + kxy.

j. 6. cos e.Problems 1/-16 (a) Calculate the divergence of the function F(x. and k be unit vectors in Cartesian coordinates e" ea. sin 6 cos <I> + ea cos 6 cos <I> . z) + kh(x. cos 6 sin <I> 6- + ea cos 6.e. Show i = e. z) + jg(x.p sin <1>. Convert your result back to Cartesian coordinates and compare with the answer obtained in Problem II-14(e). As an example of the fact that this result is independent ofthe surface. i= j= k= Show that e. and e. c.p be unit vectors in spherical coordinates. -c/2). and e. y. j= e. z) = if(y. be unit and vectors in cylindrical coordinates. 57 k= ea sin . sin e. sin e.p cos <1>. z) = if(x) + jf(y) + kf( -2z) and show that it is zero at the point (c. 1/-17 In the text we obtained the result by integrating over the surface of a small rectangular parallelepiped. redenve it using the wedge-shaped surface shown in the figure. j. y. using Equation (11-24). 66 ea sin ea cos 6. + (b) Rewrite the function in Problem lI-l4(e) in cylindrical coordinates and compute its divergence. and k be unit vectors in Cartesian coordinates and that e" ea. 1/-19 (a) Let i. z y 1/-18 (a) Let i. (b) Calculate the divergence of G(x. 6 sin <I> + e. y). (c) Repeat part (b) for the function of Problem II-14(f)..

. j. determine fer) vector function whose divergence is zero is said to be solenoidal. and e<j> in terms of i. . a<l> y 1/-22 Consider a vector function of the form F(r) = e. Using so that V • F = O. Next. and k for i. andf(r) is the unit vector in the radial direction. A 58 the results of Problem 11-21.. first use eo = e<j> x e. e . Convert your result back to Cartesian coordinates and compare with the answer obtained in Problem II-14(g). reasoning geoe<j> = -j sin <I> + j cos <1>. 1/-21 Repeat Problem 11-20 to obtain the divergence in spherical coordinates by carrying out the surface integral over the surface of the volume shown in the figure and thereby obtaining the expression I V' F = . e.) v. 1/-20 In cylindrical coordinates the divergence of F is given by (rF. To do this. where r = (x2 e. show that e" eo. is a differentiable scalar function. = (ix + y2 + + jy + kz)lr (2)112.(SIn e F) ae 0 + -- I r sin er. and k.Surface Integrals and the Divergence [Hint: It's easier to express and then solve algebraically the fact that = r/r metrically. calculate (b) Rewrite the function of Problem II-14(g) in spherical coordinates and compute its divergence using Equation (Il-25). Proceeding the same way. Finally.F= -- I a r ar +-r I aFo ae + -' et: . e -.] = (ix + jy + kz)lr.j(r). az In the text (pages 41-42) we derived the first term of this expression. obtain the other two terms. j. (c) Repeat part (b) for the function of Problem Il-14(h).(r2F) r2 ar r a + -z I r sin a.

y x (b) F = r = ix + jy. the surface of the cube of side b shown in the figure. the surface of the quarter cylinder (radius R. r r=ix+jy+kz. S. S. (a) F = ix + jy + kz. the surface of the sphere of radius R centered at the origin as shown in the figure. y x 59 . h y (c) F= e r2.Problems 1/-23 Verify the divergence theorem in each of the following cases. S. height h) shown in the figure err + e_z.

(ii) a right circular cone with height h and base radius R. where B is any magnetic field. and r = ix + jy + kz. [Hint: The calculation is very simple with the cone onented as shown in the figure) (iii) a sphere of radius R. Show that for any closed surface S (b) Determine the flux of a uniform magnetic field B through the curved surface of a right circular cone (radius R. . it is a unit vector normal to the surface S. /1-26 dS = 0. (A uniform field is one which has the same magnitude and direction everywhere. b.Surface Integrals and the Divergence 1/-24 (a) One of Maxwell's equations states that V • B = 0. (b) Use the expression given in (a) to find the volume of: (i) a rectangular parallelepiped with sides a. c. r dS = v./~ ~t L--- --j /1-25 Use the divergence theorem to show that I Lit S.) . height h) oriented so that B is normal to the base of the cone as shown in the figure. 60 where S is a closed surface enclosing a region of volume V. where S is a closed surface and it the unit vector normal to the surface (a) Use the divergence theorem to show that ~ I Lit.

Show that the flux of F through S.Problems y 1/-27 (a) Consider a vector function with the property V' F = 0 everywhere on two closed surfaces S. show V' E = by direct calculation for all r '" O. field of a point charge q situated at r where r2 = x2 + y2 + Z2. [Hint: It is easy to calculate the flux of E over a sphere centered at r = 0. and S2 and in the volume V enclosed by them (see the figure). (b) Given the electrostatic = 0.] 61 (d) How would you extend this proof to cover the case of an arbitrary charge distribution? . equals the flux of F through S2' In calculating the fluxes. (c) Prove Gauss' law for the field of a single point charge given in (b). that 0. choose the direction of the normals as indicated by the arrows in the figure.

and S2' (c) In general. of a sphere of radius R.Surface Integrals and the Divergence 1/-28 (a) Show by direct calculation that the divergence theorem does not hold for F(r. and V the enclosed volume Why does the theorem fail? (b) Venfy by direct calculation that the di vergence theorem does hold for the function F of part (a) when S is the surface S. both centered at the origin. what restriction must be placed on a surface S so that the divergence theorem will hold for the function of part (a)? z 62 . with S the surface of a sphere of radius R centered at the origin. plus the surface S2 of a sphere of radius R2. e. and V is the volume enclosed by S. 4» = "2 ' r e.

Chapter III Line Integrals and the Curl To err from the right path is common to Mankind. Sophocles Work and Line Integrals We remarked above that the differential form of Gauss' law.). The reason is that V • E = p/Eo is (or seems to be) a single differential equation in three unknowns (Ex. nonetheless falls short of providing a convenient way to find E. But there is another feature of electrostatic fields which has not yet played an explicit role in our discussion and which will yield a relationship among the components of E. In the process 63 . E. It will thus provide us with the crucial last step in obtaining a useful way to calculate fields. Ey. Equations (II-IS) and (11-23). although it fulfills our goal of relating a property of the electric field (its divergence) at a point to a known quantity (the charge density) at the same point.

The property of electrostatic fields that we shall now begin to discuss is intimately bound up with the question of work and energy. y/. z) defined everywhere on C. /=. n y/. Now let us subdivide the portion of C between P. z.line Integrals and the Curl of examining this question. in one dimension. . a typical one of which." Let s be the arc length measured along the curve from some arbitrary point on it with s = s. we shall encounter some of the most important topics in vector calculus. z) at (x/. which is any point on the lth subdivision of the curve. by definition. at a point P. Doing this for each of the N segments of C. and form the product f(x/. y/. y. we must now introduce the concept of the line integral. Next. y. z/) Ss. z/) as/. Figure III-I shows an example of such a subdivision for N = 4. the work done is. By this we mean that we put z x Figure III-I an arrow on the curve and say "This is the positive direction. Suppose we have a curve C in three dimensions (Figure III-I) and suppose the curve is directed. say the lth. join successive subdivision points by chords. if a force F(x) acts from x = a to x = b. Now evaluate f(x. To be able to handle more general situations. and P 2 arbitrarily into N sections. and s = S2 at P2• Suppose further that we have a functionf(x. we form the sum 64 L f(x/. Thus.). has length Ss. f F(x) dx. You no doubt recall the elementary definition of work as force times distance.

where C is the straight line from the origin to the point whose coordinates are (l. and z = z(s). y. . If (x. y. In such a situation the line integral can be reduced to an ordinary definite integral: f c f(x. 65 L (x + y) ds = V2 Lv'2 s ds = V2. y. Thus. N y/. Hence. x + y = 2slV2 = V2s. we write x = x(s). z) along the curve Cis the limit of this sum as the number of subdivisions N approaches infinity and the length of each chord approaches zero: Lf(X. To evaluate the line integral. Thus. Usually the most convenient way to specify this path is parametrically in terms of the arc length parameter s. I) (Figure III-2). ~ y(s). the line integral of f(x. z) ds = IS' f[x(s).Work and line Integrals By definition. An example of a line integral will be helpful here. z) ds = lim N_oo 1=1 L f(x/. z(s)) ds. we need to know the path C. then x = slV2 and y = slV2. I) x Figure III-2 of any point P on C and if s is the arc length measured from the origin. z/) Ss. y) are the coordinates (I. y = y(s). For simplicity let us work in two dimensions and evaluate L y (x + y) ds.

we have x = sand y = O. 0) to (l . (x + y) ds = r' Jo (I + s) ds = i- Adding the results for the two segments. The lesson to be learned is this: the value of a line integral can (indeed. the kind of line integral we must deal with here has a feature not yet . and the second along C2• On C. Line Integrals Involving Vector Functions 66 Although the above discussion tells us what a line integral is.Line Integrals and the Curl y (1. 0) J. Thus. we find L (x + y) ds = f C1 (x + y) ds + f C2 (x + y) ds = ~ + i= 2. Along C 2' x = 1 and y = s [note that the arc length on this segment of the path is measured from the point (I. 1) along another path as shown in Figure III-3. and so f~ f (x + y) ds = r' Jo s ds = ~. on C" x + Y = s. Here we break the integration into two parts. usually does) depend on the path of integration. I) x Figure III-3 Let us integrate this same function (x + y) from (0. one along C. It follows then that e.

y. is force times displacement. where it is understood. we must know how to find t. the tangential component. z) We write simply i to avoid complicating the notation. consider some path C in three dimensions (Figure III4). To be able to handle such a line integral. y. Consider an arbitrary curve C (Figure III-5) parametrized by its arc length. and z = z(s).Line Integrals Involving Vector Functions mentioned. y. y = yes). That this needs elaboration becomes clear when we recognize that both force and displacement are vectors. z) • t ds. At another point s + as we have x + ax 67 t is a function of x. that is. At some point s on the curve we have x = xes). You will recall that we introduced our discussion of line integrals with the concept of work. that the integration begins at S = S J and ends at S = S 2' The new feature of this integral is that the integrand is the dot product of two vector functions. and it is to this problem that we now turn. z). Let t denote a unit vector which is tangent to the curve at P. only that one which acts along the curve. Work. y. and z and should really be wntten t(x. of course. I A A . Let us suppose that under the action of a force an object moves y x Figure III-4 on this path from SJ to S2' At any point P on the curve let the force acting be designated f(x. J Then the work done by the force in moving the object from S J to S 2 along the curve C is w = Ie f(x. Thus. The component of f which does work is. in the most elementary sense. by definition.

the chord joining the two points on the curve directed from the first to the second is the vector ar == iax + jay + kaz. and z + az = z(s + as). dy ds + k d. ds ' and we assert that this is t.Line Integrals and the Curl z s+6s y x Figure III-5 = x(s + as). in the limit as ~ 0.z(s). ay as az as Taking the limit of this as as approaches zero yields I-+j-+ . as as ar . To begin with. y + ay = y(s + as). dx ds . It follows then that we can make the identification A t(s) = • 1- dx ds + j- . the vector ar becomes tangent to the curve at s. in the limit the magnitude of this quantity is 1. we see that larl ~ as. where ax = ay az = = x(s y(s z(s + as) . Further. If we now divide this vector by as. Hence. + as) . ax . we get -=I-+j-+k-.x(s).y(s). it's clear that as as ~ 0. 68 If we return now to the expression for work Wand use this . ds . dy ds k d. + as) . Thus.

we have = Ly dx . Thus. it is useful to restore the ds as the following example illustrates. This is a formal expression. to carry out the integration. so there is no contribution to the integral. dy + I. C1• C2• and C3 as shown. we break the path C into three parts.+ ds dZ] kds ds dx + I. on C1• y = 0 and dy = 0. Consider f(x. Similarly. y.x dy. To calculate y f c (f· t) ds x Figure III-6(a) in this case. Since f_ = O. often. the only contribution to the integral over . 69 Now. I- dx ds dy + J.line I ntegrals Involving Vector Functions formula for t. we find W= f = L <Ix C f(x. dz). y. z) = iy - jx and the path shown in Figure III-6(a). on C3 we have x = 0 and dx = O. and again the result is zero. . z)· [.

I :y I I I I x ~I-x~ Figure 1II-6(b) Path Independence In a line integral the path of integration is one of the ingredients which determines the very function we integrate. that the value of the integral can depend on the path 70 .~) - (I . we have y dx .x dY) f( c x=I--~-= ds ds ds. s dx ds 1/V2 and yls = sin 45° = 1/V2 V2 o~ s~ V2. the integral is i v'2 [ ~ ( . It isn't remarkable. Hence. then.line Integrals and the Curl C can come from c 2• Restoring the ds.x)/s = cos 45° = [Figure III-6(b)]. But (l . Thus.~) ~ ] ds =-~ y i v'2 ds = -I.

y Figure III-7 Coulomb force on q is F = _1_ qqo 41TEo . i ds = F.. the value of the integral does not depend on the path! We show how this path independence comes about in the case of the Coulomb force. The z (x.'" '" . Thus. F . the radial vector r is in the radial direction. we have u = rlr = (ix + jy + kz)t" and so F = qqo ix 41TEo + jy + kz . Even more clearly. y.q ii '" ". dy + F.Path Independence of integration. What is remarkable is that. dx + F. dz qqo x dx 41TEo + Y dy + z dz r The trick now is to use the relationship 71 .'" r '" .3 . z) (Figure III-7). . . = (x2 + y2 + t)'12 is the distance between the two charges and u is a unit vector pointing from qo to q. .z)L ". Let a charge qo be fixed at the origin and let another charge q be situated at (x. With this arrangement u is clearly in the radial direction. under some conditions.2 u ' (111-1 ) where. Thus.y.

41TEo r2 Suppose now that the charge q moves from a point P I at a distance r I from the origin to a point P 2 at a distance r 2' over some path C connecting the two points (Figure III-8). we haven't had to specify C in any way whatever. is the Coulomb force on q due to the lth . + F N where F.. but the result. If there are many charges ql' q2' .. .. has been established only for the Coulomb force on q due to a single charge qo [Equation (III-I)].line Integrals and the Curl Taking differentials 2 yields in this equation and dividing by a factor of x dx so that + Y dy + z dz = r dr. of course. Then Figure I1I-8 Notice that to get this result. qN' then the total force on q is FI + F 2 + . we'd get the same answer for any path connecting P I and P 2' This. so far.. proves that the line integral L 72 F' i ds with F given by Equation (III-I) is path-independent. F • i ds = qqo r dr 41TEo r3 = qqo dr .

is merely an application of the superposition principle. whence f c E • i ds is also.) To phrase this result in terms of the field requires one last trivial step: Since F = qE. i ds. 73 . and f c F • ids is independent of path for any central force. you'll see that the fact that the Coulomb force varies inversely as the square of r has nothing whatever to do with the path independence of the line integral. If Ic F· i ds is independent of path. i ds + . F· ids. where. then f c. so is the sum itself. and (2) it acts along the line joining them. (All this.' One further step pertaining to path independence can be taken here. as indicated in Figure III-9. If you examine the foregoing discussion carefully. we go the other way. f c F· i ds = f C F I .Path Independence charge q/. Strange to say. hence. of course. it is this fact that will enable us eventually to convert V • E = p/Eo into a more useful equation. it follows that q f c E • i ds is path-independent. . CI and C2 are two different arbitrary paths connecting the two points P I and P 2 and directed as shown in the figure. The path independence rests solely on two properties of the Coulomb force: (I) It depends only on the distance between the two particles. + f C FN . Any force F with these two properties is called a central force. Hence. Later we'll develop a simple cntenon for identifying such functions. many functions which are not central forces have path-independent line integrals.. F· i ds = f c. we simply change the sign 'Our having illustrated path independence with a central force may give the erroneous impression that only central forces have path-independent line integrals That is certainly not true. Now if instead of integrating along CI from PI to P2. Now the discussion given above shows that each term of this sum is path-independent.

F . then f 74 F· i ds = 0. f -c. where ~ is the standard notation for a line integral around a closed . where" . + C 2" is just the closed loop from as shown in Figure III-10. F· i ds = 0. Thus.Line Integrals and the Curl Figure III-9 of the line integral. P. if f F· ids is independent of Figure III-IO path. to P 2 and back. i ds =- f f c. i ds f But" .+c. that is. F .C 1 -c.C I" merely indicates that the integration is to be carried out along C 1 from P 2 to P I' Thus f or c. F· ids. F· i ds =- -c.

y. We now treat the circulation law in the same spirit and attempt to find the differential form of Equation (III2). then F cannot be an electrostatic F' ids = 0 75 over every closed path. y. In what follows we'll call this the circulation law. z) at a later stage in the development. Thus we have demonstrated that the circulation of the electrostatic field is zero. (I1I-2) The term "circulation" is often given to the path integral around a closed curve of the tangential component of a vector function. z) and asked' 'Could this be an electrostatic field?" we can. we can write f E· i ds = O. z) and specialize to E(x. Let us consider the circulation of F over a small rectangle parallel to the xy-plane. If over even one path. we proceed much as we did in dealing with Gauss' law. Gauss' law is more useful in the differential form [Equations (II-IS) and (11-23)] obtained by considering the ratio of flux to volume for ever decreasing surfaces. then F can (but does not have to) be an electrostatic field. we deal with an arbitrary function F(x. If f f F • ids =t 0 field. in principle. like the circulation law. which. To stress the generality of our analysis and results. Clearly this criterion is not easy to apply since we must be sure the circulation of F is zero over all possible paths. provide an answer. To develop a more useful criterion. y. is an expression involving an integral over the electric field. The Curl If we are gi ven some vector function F (x. with sides Llx and Lly and with the point .The Curl path. It follows that if E is an electrostatic field.

y. (x. CR (right). and CL z (x. we carry out the path integration in a counterclockwise direction looking down at the xy-plane.~ (x. The line integral is broken up into four parts: CB (bottom). CT (top).. z) at the center [Figure III-II(a)]. we'll approximate the integral over each segment by F • ievaluated at the center of the segment. y - i 'z) ax. z) I I I: I I l:1y ___J I I I / I I L II II II -. Y.Line Integrals and the Curl As shown in Figure III-II (b).' i I I" Figure III-II (a) r • x Figure III-ll(b) (left). we have = r.l __ I Y L~ I I >: I k.' Taking C B first. 0. (III-3a) 76 3 Reread footnote 9 of Chapter II and then give an argument approximation in support of this . Since the rectangle is small (eventually we shall take the limit as it shrinks down to zero). multiplied by the length of the segment.

r. z) . (x. (III-5) . dx = = F. y- ¥ ' z) Exactly the same sort of analysis applied to the left and right sides of the rectangle (CL and CR) results in F) 77 =----------------------------~ (x + ~ . y (x. (x . = . (x. y. Fx =- + ¥ ' z) ~y Fx (x. Thus. z)~.~ . z)] ~ ~ ~y. y + ¥ . y + i 'z) . y ~. (III-3b) The negative sign here is required by the fact that and dxlds we find = -lover C.The Curl Over CT we find f CT F· i ds = f CT r.r.z) ~y Fx (x. y- ¥ ' z) (III-4) The factor ~x ~y is clearly the area ~S of the rectangle. Adding Equation (III-3a) and (III-3b). y + i. Fx =- (x. z) y. .[Fx (x.

and second. and they are shown in Figure III-12(a) and (b) along with the result of .. But our result definitely does depend on the special orientation of the path of integration.I2(a) y x: ~z ay _ ~y az 78 Figure III-I2(b) . it would not affect our result (see Problems I1I-2 and IlI-30). we get .v. z) (in which case Ax and Ay ~ 0 as well).Line Integrals and the Curl Adding Equations (III-4) and (III-5) and taking the limit as AS shrinks down about a point (x. If the path were not a rectangle. y.z) (III-6) where rfJ is our semicomical notation meaning the circulation around the little rectangle. You may wonder about the generality and uniqueness of this result since it is obtained using a path of integration which is special in two ways: first. hm 1~ ~ iJF. The choice of orientation made above clearly suggests two others. it is a rectangle.-rijQl------__ Y iWz ax Figure III.7---: I // / I / ~/~~-i-l---lj_-----~ . iJFx -F· t ds = ~ . but a plane curve of arbitrary shape.• AS ax ay ~s~u about t r. it is paral1el to the xy-plane.

Then choose the normal so that it points "up" in the Figure III-13(a) direction shown in the picture.The Curl calculating lim about (x .z) as A for each. points in the direction of the normal [Figure III-13(b)]. for if the nght hand is oriented so that the fingers curl in the direction in which the curve is traced. This convention is sometimes called the nght-hand rule. the thumb. Using the right-hand rule. The convention we use is this: Trace the curve C so that the enclosed area is always to the left [Figure III-13(a»). extended.1 ~ F·tds y. we have the following: ii 79 Figure III-13(b) . Each of these three paths is named in honor of the vector normal to the enclosed area.

z) I A u. usually) given as the definition of the curl. a related one survives' If curl F = 0. f F· t ds. (aFx az az aF. To be precise." which we write curl F. j. and k. ( ax ---<. F • i ds be the circulation of F about some path whose normal is Ii as shown in Figure III-14. we get - aF. aF. have different values for different points (x. in general. . (aF. Then by definition R • curl F = lim ~s~o about (x. . we get back the results given in Equation (IlI-7b). y.) + J. we get - aFx . . az . (III-7a) for a path whose normal IS k.) -ax aF. To this vector we give the name "curl of F. ~ lor a path whose normal IS J. the curl of F is a vector function of position. We shall define the curl as the limit of circulation to area as the area tends to zero.v. Thus. ay - ---<." amusingly enough) was once used for what we now call the curl Though the term has long since dropped out of use.Line Integrals and the Curl Calculating lim~s~o ~ F • i dsl as f or a pat h w h ose norma I · IS I..' Note incidentally that although in our work we always assumed that the area enclosed The word rotation (abbreviated "rot. the function F is said to be irrotational 4 80 . az ax ~ ax -- . ay -- aF. A (III-8) By taking Ii successively equal to i. we get aF ay x . z). but we prefer to regard it as merely the form of the curl in Cartesian coordinates. let ~c. we have cur I F _ 1 -.S c.-aF._- +k aFx) ay • (III-7b) This expression is often (indeed. Since this limit will. It turns out that these three quantities are the Cartesian components of a vector.

in the final stages of this limiting process the enclosed surface is infinitesimally close to a plane. As an example of calculating the curl. 81 .ky2. a determinant cannot contain either vectors or operators. Since the curl is defined in terms of a limit in which the enclosed surface shrinks to zero about some point. Since it is undoubtedly beyond the powers of a mere mortal to remember the expression given above for curl F in Cartesian coordinates [Equation (III-7b)]. We aren't doing any senous damage. z) ixz = + jyz . this need not be the case. consider the vector function F(x. and all our considerations apply. the anguish of remembering the form of curl F in Cartesian coordinates can be replaced by the pain of remembering how to expand a three-by-three determinant. = aFJax]. the result will be identical with the one given in Equation (III-7b).The Curl z y x Figure IJI-14 by the path of integration was a plane. however. Chacun a son gout. because our "determinant" is merely a memory aid. A mathematician would object to this since. . If the three-by-three determinant j a/ax a/ay k a/az is expanded (most conveniently in minors of the first row) and if certain "products" are interpreted as partial derivatives [for example. (a/ax)F. it is fortunate that there is a mnemonic device to fall back on.5 Thus. y. strictly speaking.

. : I I I I Sr I I I I y .. or z = constant Similarly. V X F to indicate the curl. I x .\~ Figure III-JS(a) each segment of each path of inteof the form x = constant. in deriving of each path is of the form r = constant.(J J. y = conthe cylindrical form. You can verify for yourself that curl F = V X F.. which is read "del cross F.y) a/az -y2 = i(-2y + j(x . we proceed as we did above in finding the Cartesian form.Line Integrals and the Curl We have j curl F = k a/ax xz a/ay yz . we shall always use The Curl in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates To obtain the form of V X F in other coordinate systems. e . or z = constant 82 • In deriving the Cartesian form of V x F.0) = -3iy + jx. '. gration (see Figures III-I I and III-12) was stant. As an example." Note that we trace l:. merely modifying the paths of integration appropriately...I ... .0) + k(O .>--6-. each segment = constant. i. You may have noticed that the curl operator can be written in terms of the del notation we introduced earlier. using the path shown in Figure III-15(a) will yield the z-component of V X F in cylindncal coordinates. 1-__ I -_ I .~--_ ." Henceforth.

z). so -I dS f c. Along segment "2" we find ae 83 L. this becomes _ aF. while along segment "3" it is The area enclosed by the path is r dr de. e.+c.The Curl in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates the curve in accordance with the right-hand rule given in the previous section. F· ~ t ds In the limit as dr and de tend to zero. z) (r + ~) de. . Viewing the path from above [as we do in y x Figure IlI-lS(b) Figure III-15(b)]. . the line integral of F(r. z) • i along the f C F· 1 i ds = F r' (r e- de ' 2 z) dr . F· i ds = Fe (r + d. segment of path marked" I" is e. ! r evaluated at the point (r. e.

-1 AS f c. = hm . F· i ds = -Fe (r . F· A t ds = Aa [( r Ar Aa r + 2 Fe Ar) ( r + 2 ' a. Thus. z ) Ar In the limit this becomes (llr)(alar)(rFe) Hence. z) (r .+c. z).1 ~s~o AS f F . a. respectively. r aa 1 er. For completeness we give all three components of V X F in cylindrical . a.. . You are asked to obtain x Figure III-lS(c) 84 these two components yourself in Problem III-8.~) M..and a-components of V x F are shown in Figures III-J5(c) and (d).Line Integrals and the Curl and along segment "4" L.~r . (V x F)z evaluated at (r. Paths for finding the r. t ds A = -1 -a r ar (rFe) .

The Meaning of the Curl The preceding discussion may leave you with the feeling that knowing how to define and calculate the curl of some vector function is a far cry from knowing what it is.r ae az' (V X F) a er._ I st. l:lz y Figure II1-1S(d) coordinates: (V X F) r aF. . t:.The Meaning of the Curl z ~~---tt-. = -I _" . er. " =-- 1 a r ar (rFa) .r I. r ae .. ae The three components of curl F in spherical coordinates (see Problem III-9) are as follows: (V X F) r = -- I r sin I e ae - a (sin e F '" ) Ia r ar (rF I aFa ._ 1 r er.. "<. ._ az ar' (V X F).-- '" ' ) (V X F) '" =-- a r ar (rFa) . The fact that the curl has something to do with a line integral around a closed path 85 .-r sin e acj> . =_ . (V X F) a = -I r sin e acj> - aF.. er...

. / I I I Figure III-16 (indeed.. its velocity at (x. y) is v = = i(dx/dt) w( -iy + j(dy/dt) + jx). y). 7 Thus. A small volume of the water at a point (x. or curling around. Suppose water is flowing in circular paths. = rw[ -i sin wt + j cos wt] This expression gives what is called the velocity field of the water. Your intuition probably tells you that. because the motion is circular. y) at time t has coordinates x = r cos cor.. y = r sin wt. We see that V X v is a vector perpendicular to the This water crude being 7 86 is not a realistic description of water draining from a tub since rotating shears tangentially and its angular velocity will therefore vary with r The description we use here is adequate for our purposes and has the virtue of simple .. . as you can show very easily. By means of a few examples taken from fluid motion. it tells us the velocity of the water at any point (x. _- y X \ \ \ -_ __ .. In fact. this velocity must have a nonzero curl. where 00 is the constant angular velocity of the water (Figure III-I 6).Line Integrals and the Curl I I I I / ~. v X v = 2kw.. the word "curl" itself) may suggest to you that it somehow has to do with things rotating. something like the water draining from a bathtub. This result should seem quite reasonable because it says that curl of the velocity is proportional to the angular velocity of the swirling water. we'll try to make these vague impressions a little clearer. swirling.

z curl II y Figure III-I7(a) If the water were rotating around in the other direction. the curl of v would then be in the negative z-direction [Figure III-17(b)]. Furthermore. the pad- 87 Figure III-I 8 . it would commence spinning because the impinging water would exert a net torque on the paddles (Figure III-I 8).The Meaning of the Curl plane of motion and in the positive z-direction [Figure 1II-17(a)]. If we were to put a small paddle wheel in the water. z y Figure I1I-I7(b) Note that this is consistent with the right-hand rule (see page 79).

Now consider a different velocity field. The velocity at all points is in the positive y-direction. Water with such a velocity field would have a flow pattern as indicated in Figure III-I 9. as a simple calculation shows. the flow is said to be irrotationaJ. namely." tt I' I' i I x tt Figure III-19 'I' tt Our last example is trickier than the two given above and shows that intuition can lead you astray if you're not careful. Let a velocity field be given by As in the previous example. the velocity in this case is everywhere in the y-direction. Compare with footnote 4. it would not spin. Since you see only straight line flow here without any rotational motion. and its magnitude (indicated by the length of the arrows) varies with y. not y (Figure III-20). and as a consequence. and you would be right. where Vo and ~ are constants. 88 8 If V x v = 0. .Line Integrals and the Curl dIe wheel would rotate with its axis pointing in the direction of the curl. Here as in the above example you see no evidence of rotational motion and you might guess that V X v = 0 once again. but now it varies with x. There would be no net torque on a paddle wheel placed anywhere in this flow pattern. you would probably guess that V X v = 0 in this case.

c= ~2 '~2 • A small paddle wheel placed in this flow pattern would spin. Thus.The Meaning of the Curl y x Figure III-20 But as you should show for yourself. even though the water is everywhere moving in the same direction. so that it strikes one of the paddles (P in Figure III-21) p i Figure III-21 with greater velocity than the other (PI). there will be a net torque. In more mathematical terms. the line integral of v • i around a small rectangle (Figure III-22) will be different from zero. for while P' 89 )bonom r v • i ds = ) top r v' i ds = 0. The reason this happens is that the velocity of the water varies with x. V XV 2x = -kv o . .

(x) Ily.s~o fi . A where fi is a unit vector normal to the surface enclosed by C at the point about which the curve shrinks to zero.Line Integrals and the Curl y I t:.y (x.(x + dx) Ily Jlefl ( v' t ds = -v. E • t ds. Thus. E = lim AI t.(x + Ilx). Incidentally.(x) v. * Differential Form of the Circulation Law The curl is defined to be the limit of circulation to area. But if E is an electrostatic field. then 90 fc E· i ds = 0 . V X as ( f. you should try to explain to your own satisfaction why in this example V X v is in the negative (positive) z-direction when x is positive (negative) and why V X v = 0 at x = o. y) x Figure III-22 the contributions from the other two sides are J and nghr v' t ds = V. These do not cancel because v.

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