I like trees because they seem more resigned to the way they have to live than other things

do. (Willa Cather, O Pioneers!, 1913)

A pathway encourages public enjoyment of a forest . Photographer: Mr Lob, Creative Commons Our planet’s natural communities are shrinking rapidly. Ecotourism’s impact can be good or bad. A new century of environmental consciousness is dawning. Under the pressures of explosive human population growth, our planet’s natural communities are shriveling rapidly. They are shrinking on all sides because of the expansion of agriculture, urbanization, damming, forest fragmentation, contaminants into water tables, road building, and even more indirect human impacts such as the invasion by exotic species and the distribution of genetic crops.1 In Nepal, ecotourists flock to hike one of the remaining wilderness regions on the planet, but these hikers have stripped the landscape bare of sticks and twigs for fuel and left trash that spoils the experience for future visitors. In the Galapagos, the burgeoning number of visitors strains these sensitive and fragile islands. The impact of these visitors, manifested by disease, fire, and theft, has altered the natural balance of the island ecosystems. In the last decade, approximately 20 of the 230 species of plants face immediate extinction, and another 10 are thought to be extinct.2 In contrast, I have witnessed the salvation of exploited tropical regions by the interests of conservation and the economy of ecotourism working collectively.

What is ecotourism?
Ecotourists learn about natural as well as cultural history. Ecotourism is loosely defined as nature-based tourist experiences, whereby visitors travel to regions for the sole purpose of appreciating their natural beauty. As early as 1965, responsible tourism was defined:3
• • • •

respects local culture optimizes benefits to local people minimizes environmental impacts maximizes visitor satisfaction

The first formal definition, coining the term “ecotourism,” was published in 1987: “traveling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing

and as other signs of human activity become ubiquitous.. Earthwatch) or travel with a naturalist to learn the secrets of a tropical rain forest (e.g. In the case of ecotourism. A challenge arises. Examples include opportunities to work with scientists to collect field data in a remote wilderness (e. proponents of ecotourism believe that humans are part of nature and that their impact is part of the natural process. the requirements of a true ecotourism experience are increasingly difficult to fulfill. it also promotes a conservation ethic that may infuse tourists with stronger pro-environmental attitudes. It is this economic incentive. To compensate for the “invasion” of human disturbance. The objectives of ecotourism are to provide a nature-based. many other definitions have arisen. Trekking on the Inca Trail is much more rigorous than taking a train or bus to Machu Picchu and staying in the lodge. These underlying principles are the pillars that will provide a lasting basis for ecotourism and will also create sound economic support for the conservation of natural resources. perhaps more than the consciousness of human ethics. however. that has given rise to the global expansion of environmentally responsible tourism activities. In a decade. this type of recreation has burgeoned to include many different intensities and levels of experiences. but its recent surge has certainly been due to its economic benefits as developing countries begin to recognize that nature-based tourism offers a means of earning money with relatively little exploitation or extraction of resources. Environmental education serves to provide information about the natural history and culture of a site. ranging from extreme rock climbing to nature journaling at a luxury mountain resort. As forests become logged. environmental education experience for visitors and to manage this in a sustainable fashion. economic success is a matter of limiting supply no matter how much the demand. There are arguments over the natural versus unnatural versions of ecotourism. as streams become polluted.cultural manifestations (both past and present) found in these areas. as different from many other marketed products in our Western economy. when ecotourism becomes successful. Smithsonian Institution travel trips). ecotourism has promoted the educational aspects of the experience. whereas critics of . in the sense that too many tourists destroy the reason for success. ecotourism follows two important principles of sustainability:12 • • to promote conservation of the natural ecosystems to support local economies Limiting visitors will lessen the impact. in other words.6-11 Ecotourism probably had its foundations in the ethics of conservation. A variety of educational experiences is possible.5 There is soft versus hard ecotourism. They provide ultimately competitive reasons for the expansion of ecotourism above and beyond other types of leisure activities. alluding to the physical rigor of the conditions experienced by the visitors. Trips range from soft to hard ecotourism. Types of ecotourism In most cases.” 4.5 Subsequently.g..

Discovery. As politics continue to affect our ability (or lack thereof) to travel. such as staying in the lodge on the rim of the canyon Ecotourism can also be • • mass tourism. an estimated 1. the Grand Canyon can be • • • passive. where environmental sustainability and limiting the number of tourists are the most important measures of success Increasing popularity of ecotourism Organized tours account for over $2 trillion globally. In contrast. Some tour operators hold certificates of authenticity. some events in certain countries may impact tourism negatively. Mass media have also popularized the notion of nature travel. are the true beneficiaries of ecotourism and stand in contrast to some of their neighbors who cannot offer the same reliability of ecotourist experience.ecotourism maintain that people simply should not visit natural areas because they invariably degrade them. and expanding programs are measures of success alternative tourism. such as viewing the canyon active. such as Green Globe (international) or Committed to Green (Europe). they will not only contribute to conservation but also become educated about a new habitat. such as Belize.6 billion people from all cultures and all walks of life participate in different kinds of tourism. Today. regional tourism will be significantly impacted by government policies related to stability. Global impacts on forest conservation The following are three case studies that have assisted forest conservation: • • • aerial tram in Costa Rica canopy walkway in Savai’i. Costs have decreased.13 the number of people who enjoy organized travel has continued to increase. Tourists recognize that if they travel with sensitivity to the environment. country. Exotic countries with stable governments. USA . or culture. This enhances the credibility of an experience for tourists who come to know specific reputable names. Since Thomas Cook began the world’s first travel agency in 1841. such as rafting down the Colorado River exploitive. spending over $2 trillion. ecotourism is growing because of its international appeal. such as the recent bombing in Bali or the reputation of drug trafficking in Colombia. Western Samoa canopy walkway and tower in Florida. especially through television networks such as National Geographic. Some countries have established eco-labels or certification for authentic nature-based tourism. where optimization of income is the most important factor. and Animal Planet and associated magazines or videos. say.3 On a global scale. Ecotourism in.

After the AWCE was built. including one guide. In fact. The aerial tram had its origin in Don Perry’s efforts to devise tree-climbing techniques for scientific investigation. In particular.000 visitors per year.10 According to Perry.14 Costa Rica is losing its forests at an alarming rate. and the United States. a wonderful botanist named Pele. Both the national park service and FUNDECOR. Perry and Williams designed the Rain Forest Aerial Tram. A tram was then developed for ecotourism. Western Samoa Paul Cox. in Costa Rica Many people see Costa Rica as a shining example of conservation.14 At the current rate. The tram proved very profitable. This vehicle can carry scientists from ground level to above the treetops through approximately 22. Perry teamed up with the engineering expert John Williams. researchers need a vehicle for access. Displays at the site educate visitors about the tropical rain forest canopy and its inhabitants. has worked for many decades on the islands of the South Pacific. Canopy walkway in Savai’i.10 An aerial tram was built for scientific research.3 km route through pristine lowland rain forest. but more aerial trams and canopy walkways are now in operation in other countries such as Australia. This site is the first of its type worldwide. lumber harvesters. acknowledge there is not enough money to protect the national parks and their boundaries from encroachment and destruction. In 1983. internationally recognized ethnobotanist. Peru. a nonprofit organization devoted to the conservation of national parks. representing approximately 40. he realized that to study the canopy effectively. Less than 10 percent of Costa Rica’s forests are national parks. which was located closer to San Jose and more suitable for ecotourists. only a few islands of relatively untouched lowland Caribbean rain forest remain. and farmers are stripping the lowlands of rainforest trees.14 the site operated with enough profit to grant local school groups free admission. Twenty-four cars each hold up to six people. Cox spent many years in the village of Falealupo on the island of Savai’i. the system is actually a converted ski lift. and together they created the Automated Web for Canopy Exploration (AWCE) at Rara Avis in Costa Rica. The cars are attached to a cable that rotates around two end stations.000 cubic meters of forest. forests outside of park lands will only last 5 to 10 years in this country that supposedly represents the bastion of conservation in Latin America. Another ecotourism project was begun in Savai’i. Costa Rica has proportionally less rain forest left than many other tropical countries. • • • • It occupies a 1. Approximately 70 people per hour are carried through the canopy. After experiencing the limitations of single-rope techniques. • • • • Banana cultivators. who taught him . but it is neither better nor worse than many countries.The Rain Forest Aerial tram. He befriended the village healer.

• • • Island ecosystems are chance events because the combination of species collects by means of drift. The village was offered a large sum of money in exchange for logging rights to its forest. The villagers depend on the forest for everything: food. smaller construction team. and bird dispersal. We measured and mapped the area to gather all of the pertinent information required to construct the canopy walkway several thousand miles away. The chiefs were not happy about the proposal but they needed to pay for reconstruction after a devastating monsoon. The forest provides all the needs of the village—spiritual. Two research associates and I. In this case. The locals considered selling logging rights. The end result was a walkway that contributes to the economy of the village of Falealupo in a sustainable fashion and ensures the conservation of the forest for future generations. financial liability. who would in turn pay for the privilege of walking in the treetops of Samoa. Scientists offered an alternative: a canopy walkway. Cox and I worked on an ecotourism project that we hope serves as a model for the application of ecotourism to conservation in the South Pacific. Florida offers a 24-hour canopy walkway. In the early 1990s. After many hours of discussion with locals. A loan was obtained. One of the drawbacks to construction in developing countries is that it is impossible to ask for new measurements or to get something checked in the field. The walkway is accessible to the handicapped. joined Cox for a reconnaissance trip to determine the feasibility of an ecotourism walkway in Falealupo. The forests even nurture island ancestors whose spirits are embodied in the flying foxes (Pteropus samoensis) that live and breed within the forest. The island’s forests have supported locals for generations. we needed to estimate carefully all supplies and equipment coming from the United States. biological— and had done so for many generations. The economy was boosted and forest sustainability maintained. Canopy Construction Associates handed the job over to another. it was agreed that an enormous emergent fig would represent the center of all construction. economic. Paul Cox had a novel suggestion for the chiefs: What about developing ecotourism to bring in a cash economy while managing the forest sustainably? He suggested a canopy walkway to attract tourists. medicines. and homes.how Samoans use their local plants as an apothecary. Kevin Jordan and Stephanie Hughes. clothing. Savai’i has unusual diversity for an island ecosystem. who were willing to build a simple platform around the fig tree and take on the risks of weather. wind. from which bridges spanning the forest could be built to adjacent trees. . and lost or damaged equipment. and some generous seed money was provided from Seacology Foundation in the United States. representing Canopy Construction Associates.

More importantly. I worked with a community leadership team to design and raise money for a public canopy walkway. the goal is to connect people to nature in their own back yards. Canopy walkways are just one way to engage people’s interest in these natural areas. The botanical gardens walkway was the inspiration of a local builder. a public canopy walkway and tower. Delegates in wheelchairs cut the ribbon. At Myakka River State Park. Public-private partnerships can work to conserve nature. Michael Walker and Associates.15 Walker carefully built a child-friendly structure according to Americans with Disabilities Act regulations. Sarasota County has continued to purchase and add parcels of environmentally sensitive lands to their system as part of a long-term vision of developing recreation and nature-based tourism in some of these natural lands. Many tears of joy were shed by these wheelchair-bound adults who had always dreamed of climbing a tree. with a stroller. and in Myakka River State Park just outside Sarasota. Over the past five years. but it is destined to become a national model for bringing the public into contact with natural landscapes. . Both of these projects came from public funding and awareness of the importance of bringing people into forests. USA In the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens in Sarasota. they have also gained an appreciation for the beauty and value of forests in our daily lives. or with a walker—can enjoy the treetops. This unique land acquisition scheme. opened in June 2000. so that anyone—in a wheelchair. The Most Beautiful Roof in the World by Kathryn Lasky. is still in its infancy. coupled with innovative public-private partnerships to operate ecotourism activities. The Myakka walkway • • • spans 100 feet and includes a 70-foot tower that rises above the canopy has increased visitorship to the park by 42 percent in three years has become exemplary throughout Florida and beyond. open 24 hours a day to the public. Florida. a handicapped-accessible canopy walkway was constructed in 1998. Walker modeled his construction after the children’s book. Visits to the state forest increased over 40 percent.Canopy walkway and tower in Florida. officially opening the walkway. People from all over the country have learned about forests from the interpretive signage along the walkway.

local community participation and ecotourism site were chosen due to the nature of the ecotourism industry where business and community development is very closely tied together. Awangku Hassanal Bahar Abstract: Sabah.handle. The complexity of the stakeholders' characteristics usually results in various perceptions of success. which are success indicators for local community participation and ecotourism sites based on the perception of stakeholders. it is also suggested that a set up of an integrated development and management among stakeholders. It is also useful in monitoring and evaluating current local community participation activities. many stakeholders are very eager to judge and give judgments of what success entails. is an ecotourism destination that is well known in the international tourism scene. ecotourism has been embraced by all stakeholders in the state since the 1990s. Two sets of indicators are proposed. With high biodiversity and more than 30 distinctive cultures. and to the ecotourism industry by providing a means of evaluating local community participation activities and ecotourism sites. The analysis also shows that there are issues that need to be addressed with regards to these indicators. where nature and culture has been positioned as the two main products.Title: Success of Ecotourism Sites and Local Community Participation in Sabah Author: Pengiran Bagul. The indicators emerged from the analysis are put into perspective by analysing the results with the analysis of plans and policies and case studies.net/10063/890 . While this is emphasising the importance of local community in the ecotourism set up. This will contribute to tourism literature by enhancing the knowledge of ecotourism. both for local community participation success and ecotourism site's success. Both. of local community and ecotourism with the common objective and common operational process. which is valuable to the industry in reviewing their current plans and policies. The thesis sets out to interpret and develop the indicators for success of local community participation and ecotourism sites in Sabah. are seen as successful. After a decade or so. therefore there is a need to establish the measurement or the parameters of these indicators to make it more quantifiable and more meaningful. This thesis employs plans and policy analysis and comparative case study as its methodology. URI: http://hdl. The indicators are quite consistent with those others drawn from the literature review. Malaysian Borneo. The data were then analysed to get the results. Another aspect that the thesis identified is that the strongest indicators are those that were agreed by all stakeholders and the recipients that benefits are both the site and the local community. These indicators are output-based.

It has a coastline of over 1440 km in length. Sabah. Tunku Abdul Rahman Park and Turtle Islands Park. The largest of these areas include the Crocker Range Park. off Kota Kinabalu. Danum Valley. is. orang utan and water birds. These projects did not just study the biology of the animals but also the threats facing them and the steps needed for their conservation. forest covered flood plain along the its longest river. This variety of habitats is rich in wildlife including orang utan. Balambangan Island and the Semporna Islands. In 1979. Kinabalu Park. . when the Fund assisted the National Parks Board (now Sabah Parks) with a survey of Pulau Gaya. The island is now part of the Tunku Abdul Rahman Park that was established in 1974. The surveys studying orang utan. well characterised as a land of rugged topography. hornbill and marine turtle. Danum Valley Protection Forest Reserve. by rugged forested hill and mountain ranges. the Kinabatangan. This led to a number of other joint surveys and expeditions by the two organisations in areas such as the Klias Peninsula. As in the rest of Malaysia. Kulamba Wildlife Reserve and Tawau Hills Park. It is bounded by Sarawak to the south-west and Indonesian Kalimantan to the south. as well as plant life such as the Rafflesia. It covers an area of 73. for example. The State also features an enormous swampy. WWF In Sabah The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Malaysia began conservation work in Sabah almost as soon as the Fund was established in 1972. There are also a number of smaller protected forest areas that are important such as Sepilok. the Sulu Sea to the north-east and the Sulawesi Sea to the south-east. rhinoceros. In addition. in fact. Pulau Sipadan.SABAH CONSERVATION & PRESERVATION OF ENVIRONMENT | Wildlife | Sabah Nature Club | Sabah is situated in the northern part of the island of Borneo. involved estimating populations by counting nests from a helicopter.619 square km and is the second largest state in Malaysia. including Malaysia's only oceanic island. Tabin Wildlife Reserve. Gomantong and the Ulu Dusun forest near Sandakan. so as to collect the necessary information required for the development of wildlife conservation plans in the State. Kulamba and Kinabatangan as key wildlife areas in Sabah. with the South China Sea to the north-west. Because of this rich natural heritage. the State Government has established many conservation areas so that the natural habitats of these species of plants and animals may be protected by law. recommendations were made so as to allow the State to benefit from conservation efforts in ways such as tourism and education. The State has cultivated coastal plains followed. This was subsequently complemented by projects on specific species found in Sabah such as the crocodiles. Conservation Area. WWF Malaysia's initial work in Sabah focused on the preservation of species and the conservation of habitats. pitcher plant and a unique array of wild orchid. proboscis monkey. the various surveys with the Game Branch identified Tabin. WWF Malaysia assisted the Game Branch of the Forest Department in conducting a two-year faunal survey of Sabah. WWF Malaysia's first ever project in Sabah and its first marine project in Malaysia involved studying coral reefs. which is dotted with ox-bow lakes and limestone outcrops and perhaps contains the richest natural freshwater fisheries in Malaysia. These include Pulau Tiga Park. Sabah has over 40 islands. various island parks vital for marine conservation have also been established. In addition. In addition. Together. further inland.

In 1988. "Conservation and development are interdependent. work had already begun on broader studies for the development of conservation areas in Sabah which focused more on land-use planning and conservation policy development. illegal logging. Focusing on wise land-use as the key to conservation and development in Sabah in the 1990s. For example. a conservation strategy for Sabah needs to be based on careful allocation of its two primary natural resources: land and forests." says WWF Malaysia Project Director (Sabah) Dr Junaidi Payne." The Strategy therefore proposes various actions covering land-use. the Strategy calls for the preparation of a series of maps to assist in environmentally-friendly land-use planning. the Sabah Foundation in collaboration with WWF Malaysia organised a scientific expedition to survey the unexplored Maliau Basin in central Sabah. For example. biodiversity. Work by WWF Malaysia and the relevant State agencies continued on identifying protected areas in Sabah and formulating management plans for them. land applications. "To support the long tenn needs of all the sectors in the State. water catchment areas. For example. in this way. in addition to habitat and species conservation.By now. mining. the Strategy calls for the establishment of a variety of protected areas. we can play a catalytic role in helping the State meet both its development and conservation needs. Wild cats and civets may contribute to Sabah's ecological balance WWF Malaysia aims to continue working with the relevant authorities in Sabah on species conservation but these efforts increasingly incorporate management and socio-economic aspects." From WWF Malaysia's own perspective. "Directly and indirectly. Sabah Conservation Strategy In 1990. the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development in Sabah commissioned WWF Malaysia to prepare the Sabah Conservation Strategy. plantation forestry. more emphasis was being placed on studying ways of sustainably using our natural resources. The RMAF flew over 40 scientists and staff out to this remote area by helicopter. coastal development and others. For example. Towards the end of the 1980s. community forests. WWF Malaysia funded the building of a permanent research lodge for researchers in the Tabin Wildlife Reserve in eastern Sabah. This document was submitted to the Sabah State Government and was accepted in principle in 1992. "Environmentally sensitive" areas also need to be identified and reserved. The Reserve is managed jointly by the Sabah Forestry Department and Sabah Wildlife . "We hope that. timber production. The preparation and implementation of these Strategies greatly supports conservation efforts covering the entire country both at State and National levels. Additional surveys were done in Kulamba and Tabin Wildlife Reserves. Environmental Impact Assessments. as well as improved management of resources on a regional basis. land revenue. ecotourism. multiple use management. an aerial survey flown by the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) assessed fire damage in Kulamba Wildlife Reserve. the survey and collection of wild and cultivated citrus fruits of Sabah in 1985 helped to demonstrate the value of nontimber products from the forest. damaged forests. we continue to assist the State Government and its agencies in identifying and addressing key conservation issues." says Dr Payne. this project is a continuation of the conservation strategies we have already developed for nine other State Governments in Malaysia.

although there are also rare resident species such as purple herons and occasionally rare visitors e. Trainee Scientific Officer. WWF Malaysia assisted the Sabah Foundation in studying the feasibility of establishing a schools' nature club scheme in Sabah.K City Bird Sanctuary/ Likas Lagoon. on the ecology of these species and evaluate the influence of habitat modification. "An understanding of the structure and dynamics of these carnivore communities within the forest is important for the management of the Reserve. another environmental education project i currently being undertaken. which has prepared a management plan for the Reserve and views the area as a longterm research site. It is hoped that these sites will be able to link up with other environmentally sensitive wetland areas in Sabah. and to promote wetland awareness by creating an example of a well managed urban wetland sanctuary (the sites are approximately 4 km from the centre of Kota Kinabalu). A project conducted from 1993-1996 in and around the Reserve investigated the ecology of civets and wild cats and its application to forest management. The lagoon environment also provides a resource and refuge for many bird species. The study also investigated the influence of land use. "The terrestrial carnivores in Borneo are a poorly known group of animals. The finding challenges the traditional idea that forest represent sources of pests on plantations.Department (SWD). From this early achievement in focusing on the importance of education in conservation." says WWF Senior Scientific Officer Rajanathan Rajaratuam. The mangroves provide an important breeding ground for night herons a egrets and support a diverse aquati life. Lim Sheh Ping was initially employed on wildlife research in Tabin but subsequently went on to conduct wildlife surveys of Bukau River in the Klias Peninsula in western Sabah. with a membership of 28. moorhens. an area essential for forest protection and the conservation of biological diversity in Sabah. The scheme was subsequently launched in 1988 and the Sabah Nature Club now the largest nongovernment organisation in Malaysia. In a recent survey nearly 80 different species of birds were seen in the K. WWF Malaysia is presently working as the consultant to the Sabah Wildlife Department to compile a Development and Management Plan for K. The . play an important role in forest regeneration after disturbance.g. such as logging and adjacent agriculture.K City Bird Sanctuary (24 ha) and Likas Lagoon (26 ha).g migrating ducks. such as the Kinabatangan Floodplain. The study found evidence that forests represent important refuges and breeding grounds for a variety of predators that feed on rat pests in oil palm plantations. The main focus of the K. developments at Likas Lagoon will be limited to the creation of two birdwatching areas with adjacent carparking. The project also provided training to the SWD personnel and a Sabahan WWF trainee Scientific Officer in wildlife research and management techniques. They may. He also carried out a study of the diet of orang utans in logged forests in the Kinabatangan region.K City Bird Sanctuary will be an environmental education centre linked to a boardwalk circuit and birdwatching hides." adds Rajan. The existence of the lodge will help support the SWD's efforts in promoting long term wildlife research and management in Tabin." Some tropical forest carnivores like the civets are potential seed dispersers. The main aims of the project are to protect these two habitats from further urban development. Some are found in great numbers e. Due to its size (only 26 ha) and linear shape. Education and Scientific Training WWF Malaysia regards education as a key foundation for long-term conservation. therefore.000 and active clubs in 70 schools. The boardwalk circuit will enable visitors to gain a closer view of the unique mangrove habitat and its wildlife. "They are an integral part of the natural biodiversity in tropical forests and often have unique needs. There is a lack of basic information on their ecology and behavior which had hindered the formulation of sound and effective management policies for their conservation and the habitats that they reside in.

animals and their habitats in response to rapid changes in land use in Sabah. These programmes will be developed and refined by the sanctuary staff as an ongoing process. which has recently suffered from the activities of a squatter colony.which is basically an information guide to the environment history. Orang Utan. An output of this program is the production of the book "The Kinabatangan Floodplain . WWF Malaysia ia also currently assisting in other activities such as botanical surveys and environmental education. 1997. tourism and research programmes from the facility.vegetation at both K. it is home to various animal species such as the Proboscis Monkey. speckled with oxbow lakes. Sabah Education and Rural Development Programme The Sabah Education and Rural Development Programme was established by WWF Malaysia with the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development (MTED) to assist various agencies involved in education. Sabah Biodiversity Conservation Project The Sabah Biodiversity Conservation Project is being undertaken to help in the conservation of plants. Junaidi Payne. Dr. National Ecotourism Plan The National Ecotourism Plan is a plan prepared for the Ministry of Culture.K City Bird Sanctuary and Likas Lagoon will be rehabilitated with special emphasis on the former site. WWF Malaysia is providing technical assistance to the authorities in identifying potential protected areas. Source : Sabah And WWF. especially in the Lower Kinabatangan area. natural resource management and rural community development During the programme from 1993 to 1996. hornbills and rare birds such as the Oriental Darter.An Introduction" . . The lower Kinabatangan region in eastern Sabah was identified as a key ecotourism 'hot-spot' in this Plan. while using it as an effective tool for conservation of the natural and cultural heritage of the country. WWF Malaysia was engaged various activities such as environmental education in school developing education resources an holding forums with local communities. Its objective is to assist the Government of Malaysia at Federal and State level in the development of Malaysia's ecotourism potential. including tips on environmentally sensitive travel to the area. Malaysia's largest river floodplain. WWF Malaysia (Sabah). MOCAT and WWF Malaysia are working on extracting the tourism guidelines from this plan to produce booklets for wide distribution in both English and Malay. culture and natural attractions of the Kinabatangan floodplain. Arts and Tourism (MOCAT) by WWF Malaysia. When the environmental education centre is established it is proposed to initiate education.

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