2nd Continental  Congress 

 WORDS OF WISDOM FROM YOUR CRISIS DIRECTOR  
 Dear
delegates,
 
 I
 wish
 you
 a
 warm
 welcome
 to
 Marianopolis
 College
 and
 the
MariMUN
conference
of
2011!
I
hope
that
you
are
all
looking
 forward
 to
 an
 exciting
 and
 intense
 Model
 United
 Nations
 experience
 at
 MariMUN
 2011.
 For
 this
 crisis
 committee,
 we
 have
 chosen
to
begin
this
committee
in
the
year
1775,
at
the
beginning
 of
the
Second
Continental
Congress.
Research
and
debate
of
this
 topic
 will
 be
 a
 great
 add‐on
 to
 whatever
 knowledge
 you
 already
 have
on
the
subject.
Numerous
issues
are
at
hand,
but
it
will
be
up
 to
 you
 delegates
 to
 determine
 the
 future
 of
 the
 American
 colonies;
the
very
colonies
you
love
and
represent.

 
 Before
 continuing,
 a
 few
 introductions
 are
 in
 order.
 My
 name
is
Hamid
Sadr
and
I
will
be
your
crisis
director.
I
was
born
in
 Iran,
 and
 I
 am
 presently
 a
 second
 year
 science
 student
 at
 Marianopolis.
 In
 addition
 to
 Model
 UN,
 I
 teach
 snowboarding
 during
the
winter
and
I’m
a
lifeguard
during
the
summer.
Working
 by
 my
 side
 are
 your
 knowledgeable,
 and
 helpful
 assistant
 crisis
 director,
Abhinav
Gupta,
and
chair,
Daniel
Stysis.
Being
a
Selwyn
 House
 graduate
 and
 now
 a
 second
 year
 Marianopolis
 student,
 Abhinav
has
been
participating
in
MUN
conferences
for
numerous
 years.
 His
 physique,
 presence
 and
 attitude
 make
 him
 someone
 you
cannot
miss
–
both
in
and
out
of
committee.
Daniel
Stysis
is
a
 Marianopolis
alumnus,
now
studying
at
McGill
University
majoring
 in
Honors
Political
Science
while
doing
2
minors
in
Economics
and
 Psychology.
 Daniel’s
 dedication
 and
 passion
 when
 it
 comes
 to
 MUN
 make
 him
 an
 exceptional
 addition
 to
 the
 team
 and
 we
 are
 grateful
that
he
has
returned
to
Marianopolis
once
again
to
lend
a
 hand
in
this
once
in
a
lifetime
experience.

  


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


      DAIS 

       


 
 HAMID SADR  Crisis Director      ABHINAV GUPTA  Assistant Crisis Director      DANIEL STYSIS  John Hancock, Chair      FELICIA MAZZARELLO  Vice‐Chair      DEENA SMITH  Ambassador  
   

DA‐EUN KIM  Ambassador       DEVANGI PATEL  Crisis Staff        



 >> Cont. page 2  


MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com


1



All
three
of
us
have
either
learnt
the
beauty
of
Model
UN
or
further
developed
that
already
existing
 enthusiasm
at
Marianopolis,
and
we
hope
that
it
will
be
no
different
for
you
at
this
year’s
MariMUN
 conference.
Whether
a
first
time
“MUNer”
or
an
experienced
delegate,
you
are
in
for
an
interesting
 adventure.
I
recommend
that
all
delegates
read
the
background
guide
in
its
entirety,
as
it
give
you
a
 basic
understanding
of
the
issue
and
the
focus
of
this
committee.
However,
do
not
leave
the
 background
guide
as
your
only
source
of
information:
again,
this
document
will
only
cover
the
basics
 of
the
Second
Continental
Congress.
Further
research
will
also
allow
you
to
understand
how
the
issues
 at
hand
affect
your
character
in
a
unique
way.
And
finally,
do
not
forget
that
this
is
a
crisis
committee
 and
that
things
do
not
necessarily
have
to
follow
the
path
of
history.
It
all
depends
on
you.
 
 I
hope
you
guys
are
as
ecstatic
for
MariMUN
2011
as
I
am!
Good
luck
with
your
preparation,
and
I
hope
 to
see
you
all
in
February!
 
 
 Yours
truly,
 
 Seyed Hamid Sadr Ghayeni  Crisis
Director



WHAT DO I NEED TO PREPARE BEFORE MARIMUN ? 

>
You
will
have
to
write
a position paper
that
must
be
sent
to
 secretary.marimun@hotmail.com
by February 20th
at
the
latest.

 This
text
should
be
a
basic
description
of
your
character’s
point
of
view
 on
the
issue
of
whether
independence
from
Britain
is
the
best
solution
to
 help
the
13
colonies.
Keep
in
mind
that
you
are
not
only
a
character,
but
 also
a
representative
of
a
colony.

 The
length
of
the
text
is
up
to
you:
you
can
write
a
paragraph
or
a
page,
 depending
on
how
much
you
feel
you
need
to
explain.

 >
Researching
your
position
paper
will
help
you
understand
your
character
and
 your
colony’s
perspective.
The
research
does
not
have
to
be
extremely
in‐ depth
or
time
consuming;
once
you
feel
like
you
have
a
good
understanding
of
 who
you
will
be
representing
and
you
have
written
your
position
paper,
you
are
 ready.
 


 


MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com


2



 A
letter
from



John
Hancock


 Colonial Delegates,  
 Ever
 since
 our
 forefathers
 departed
 for
 the
 New
 World,
 it
 seems
 that
 our
 birthright  as  Englishmen
 has
 been
 lost.
 The
 fruits
 of
 the
 Glorious  Revolution
 of
 1688
 have
 established
 a
 constitutional
 monarchy
 in
 England,
 yet
 these
 same
 privileges
 have
 not
 spilled
 over
 into
 the
 British
 colonies,
 economically
 and
 militarily
 dependent
 and
 politically
 subordinate
 to
 the
 mother‐country.1
 We
remain
unrepresented
in
the
British
House
of
Commons
and
subject
to
the
monarch's
prerogative
 through
imperial
officers.
 
 However,
 over
 a
 century
 and
 a
 half,
 a
 mix
 of
 issues
 of
 practicality,
 commercial  conflict  of  interest,
 puritan
 mentality,
 and
 the
 philosophical
 contributions
 of
 the
 Enlightenment
 built
 up
 internal
 pressure
 for
 greater
 colonial
 self‐government.
 The
 child,
 in
 the
 imperial
 parent‐child
 relationship,
 is
 approaching
 maturity
 after
 years
 of
 rebellious
 teenage
 years.
 Protests
 and
 riots
 –
 a
 which
 were
 limited
 to
 the
 destruction
 of
 private
 property
 or
 tarring
 and
 feathering
 of
 customs
 officers2–
 intermittently
 erupted
 in
 the
 colonies
 in
 response
 to
 harsh
 imperial
 policies.
 For
 instance,
 unjust
prosecution
of
imperial
officers,
forceful
military
recruitment,
and
a
repressive
anti‐smuggling
 measures
were
seldom
passively
accepted
by
the
colonial
demos.3
To
the
detriment
of
a
distant
and
 misunderstanding
 British
 authority,
 colonial  legislatures
 having
 been
 gaining
 legitimacy
 and
 demanding
constitutional recognition.

   >> CONT. next page DEFINITIONS  Glorious Revolution:

The
overthrow
of
King
James
II,
the
end
of
monarchical
absolutism
in
 England,
the
establishment
of
parliamentary
democracy,
the
introduction
of
the
first
ever
Bill
of
 Rights,
and
the
political
alienation
of
Roman
Catholics,
distrusted
by
true
Protestants.
 Constitutional Monarchy:
The
Monarch’s
power
is
constrained
by
a
Constitution,
an
elected
and
 representative
legislature,
and
strictly
ceremonial
roles.
 Puritan mentality:
Pure
Christian
(protestant),
in
contrast
to
the
Catholics
 Enlightenment:
an
intellectual
movement
of
the
18th
century,
which
stresses
the
primacy
of
 human
reason
in
legitimacy
and
authority.  Colonial legislatures:
our
local
elected
assemblies
rivaling
the
legitimacy
of
Parliament
in
London.
 Constitutional Recognition:
a
hoped
for
end
to
our
colonial
legislature’s
subordination
to
the
King
 and
the
distant
Parliament.


MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com



 

 
 
 


3



  

The
end
of
the
Seven Years War
with
the
Treaty of Paris
in
1763
marks
the
catalyzing
dent
in
 the
divergence
of
the
imperial
and
our
colonial
mentalities.
On
one
hand,
Britain
became
imperially
 conscious.
As
Britain
emerged
triumphant,
it
acquired
a
sense
of
mission,
and
the
British
Parliament
 usurped
 the
 renewed
 assertiveness,
 as
 evident
 in
 the
 Declaratory  Act  of  1766.4
 With
 a
 depleted
 treasury
 and
 new
 administrative
 units
 across
 the
 three
 oceans,
 revenue
 was
 necessary.
 It
 was
 only
 self‐evident
that
the
secured
colonies,
of
yet
greater
strategic
importance,
would
share
in
the
cost
of
 the
imperial
debt.5
On
the
other
hand,
the
older
colonies
of
the
eastern
seaboard
saw
an
opportunity
 for
 less
 dependence.
 With
 the
 expulsion
 of
 the
 French
 from
 Canada
 and
 the
 inner
 possessions
 between
the
Appalachians
and
the
Mississippi
and
the
Spanish
from
Florida,
the
older
colonies
were
 no
 longer
 dependent
 on
 the
 mother‐country
 for
 defense
 and,
 despite
 the
 royally
 guaranteed
 Indian
 reserve
west
of
the
Appalachians,
westward
expansion
became
a
possibility.6
Around
the
same
time,
 the
seaboard
colonies
were
hitting
a
recession.7
As
a
result
of
the
Sugar
Act
and
the
Currency
Act
of
 1764,
 trade  deficit
 with
 the
 mother‐country
 was
 growing;
 it
 became
 increasingly
 harder
 to
 compensate
 for
 it
 through
 the
 profitable,
 yet
 illegal,
 trade
 with
 the
 enemy's
 colonies.8
 In
 short,
 the
 victory
of
1763
reinforced
the
opposition
of
the
interests
of
the
colonies
and
the
mother‐country.
 
 In
 a
 context
 of
 divergent
 self‐perceptions
 and
 interest,
 it
 is
 unsurprising
 that
 imperial
 policy
 failed.
 Instead
of
reestablishing
the
colonials'
right
and
privileges
as
Englishmen
and
entrenching
the
colonial
 system
in
the
constitution,
the
unrepresentative
Parliament
tried
act
after
act
to
secure
revenue
from
 the
 colonies.
 The
 Stamp  Act
 of
 1765,
 the
 Townshends  Act
 of
 1768,
 the
 Tea  Act
 of
 1773,
 and
 the
 Coercive Acts
of
1774
outline
not
only
the
uncompromising
assertiveness
and
uncreative9
policy
of
the
 British
 Parliament
 to
 unilaterally
 introduce
 taxes
 and
 customs
 duties,
 but
 equally
 the
 institutionalization
of
the
colonial
opposition.
   >> CONT. next page
 DEFINITIONS  Seven Years War (1756 – 1763):
global
colonial
war
between
Britain,
France,
and
Spain
which
 Spain
and
France
out
of
Continental
North
America.
 Treaty of Paris (1763):
concession
of
French
and
Spanish
North
American
possession
to
Britain
as
a
 result
of
British
triumph.
 Declaratory Act of 1766:
Parliament's
authority
is
the
same
in
America
as
in
Britain
and
asserts
 Parliament's
authority
to
make
binding
laws
on
the
American
colonies.
 Trade deficit:
paying
more
for
imports
than
receiving
for
export,
losing
currency.
 Stamp Act of 1765:
a
direct
tax
imposed
by
the
Parliament
specifically
on
the
colonies
of
British
 America.
The
act
required
that
many
printed
materials
in
the
colonies
be
produced
on
stamped
 paper
produced
in
London
and
carrying
an
approved
imperial
revenue
stamp.
 Townshends Act of 1768:

a
series
of
laws
introducing
taxes
in
the
colonies
in
order
to
pay
for
the
 salaries
of
imperial
officers
(judges
and
governors)
as
to
separate
them
from
their
accountability
to
 colonial
assemblies.
These
lead
to
the
brave
resistance
of
the
people
of
Boston,
the
military
 occupation
of
Boston
in
1768
and
the
Boston
Massacre
of
1770.

 Tea Act of 1773:
a
law
guaranteeing
the
monopoly
of
the
East
India
Company
over
tea
trade
in
all
 British
colonies.

 
 Coercive Acts of 1774
(Intolerable
Acts):
a
series
of
acts
which
constitute
the
Parliament’s
effort
to
 

 punish
the
colonies
for
the
Boston
Tea
Party
and
which
lead
to
the
First
Continental
Congress,
an
 MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com
 4
 effort
to
organize
resistance
to
these
punishing

acts.

 



 Sons of Liberty:
the
first
ever
organized
response
to
the

 
 Parliament’s
oppressive
Stamp
Act.
   
 First Continental Congress (1774):
a
convention
of
12
colonies

 
 coordinating
their
resistance
to
the
Coercive
Acts.
 
   
 Plan of the Union:
moderate
plan
for
resistance,
rejected
in
the

 
 First
Continental
Congress.
 
   
 Declaration of Resolves:
outlined
colonial
objections
to
the

 
 Intolerable
Acts,
listed
a
colonial
bill
of
rights,
organized
a
boycott
 
 of
British
good,
and
provided
a
detailed
list
of
grievances,

 
 published
as
addresses
to
the
people
of
Great
Britain,
the
new

 
 colony
of
Quebec,
the
American
colonies,
and,
as
a
petition,
to
his
 
 
Majesty
King
George
III.
 
 
 
 
 
 With
the
Stamp
Act,
the
association
of
the
Sons of Liberty
and
Correspondence
Committees
 were
 born
 in
 order
 to
 coordinate
 trans‐colonial
 resistance
 and
 intimidation
 of
 customs
 officers;
 however,
 after
 the
 prompt
 repeal
 of
 the
 Act,
 the
 association
 disbanded.10
 Later,
 in
 response
 to
 the
 Townshends
Act,
the
non‐importation
agreement
necessitated
more
organization
as
stores
had
to
be
 inspected
 and
 citizens
 shamed
 into
 participating
 in
 the
 boycott
 of
 listed
 goods.9
 Following
 the
 Tea
 Act,
colonial
resistance
materialized
into
direct
action,
and
the
Boston
Tea
Party,
which
represented
a
 loss
with
£15,000
to
the
East
India
Company,11
ensued.
This
destruction
of
large
amounts
of
property
 resulted
in
a
strict
and
harsh
reprisal
by
the
Parliament,
corrupted
by
the
lobbying
efforts
of
the
East
 India
 Company
 and
 ignorant
 of
 us,
 its
 abandoned
 North
 American
 subjects.
 The
 Coercive  Acts
 brought
on
the
institutional
culmination
of
our
efforts.
It
is
in
response
to
these
tyrannical
measures
 that
twelve
sister
colonies
convened
in
the
First Continental Congress
in
1774
year
of
our
Lord,
and
 the
institution
of
our
Continental
awareness
was
born.
 
 United
in
a
determination
to
show
a
combined
authority
to
Great
Britain,
twelve
colonies
met
 in
Carpenter's
Hall
in
Philadelphia
to
discuss
solutions
to
an
escalating
crisis
with
our
mother‐country.
 In
light
of
the
recent
nature
of
these
events
in
the
First
Continental
Congress,
you
must
be
versed
in
 the
 divisions,
 interests,
 debate,
 and
 accomplishments
 achieved
 therein.
 First
 of
 all,
 the
 moderate
 approach,
 the
 Plan  of  the  Union
 proposed
 by
 Joseph
 Galloway
 of
 Pennsylvania,
 was
 discarded.12
 Second,
the
Declaration of Resolves,
a
summary
of
abuses,
grievances,
and
principles,
was
addressed
 to
the
inhabitants
of
the
twelve colonies
themselves,
the
inhabitants
of
the
Province of Quebec,
the
 people
 of
 the
 Great
 Britain,
 and,
 most
 importantly,
 as
 a
 petition
 to
 his
 Majesty
 King
 George  III.13
 Third,
 a
 halt
 of
 trade
 with
 Britain,
 an
 Association
 of
 non‐importation,
 non‐consumption,
 and
 non‐ exportation,
was
agreed
by
a
compact
of
colonies
and
began
on
December
1,
1774
year
of
our
Lord.14
 Finally,
the
delegates
provided
for
a
Second
Continental
Congress
to
meet
on
May
10th,
1775
year
of
 our
Lord,
and
sent
letters
to
other
potentially
like‐minded
colonies
in
North
America.
 >> CONT. next page
 
 


MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com


5



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 It
is
to
this
Second Continental Congress
which
you
are
hereby
honorably
invited
to
attend.
 There
are
great
controversial
matters
at
hand.
First,
a
response
to
the
first
petition
is
on
its
way
back
 from
Britain,
and
our
allegiances
to
the
mother‐country,
its
governmental
institution,
and
the
king
are
 uncertain.
Second,
as
of
April
19
1775
year
of
our
Lord,
violent
clashes
at
Lexington and Concord
risk
 escalating
 into
 more
 open
 hostilities,
 especially
 as
 improvised
 militia
 armies
 are
 rising
 across
 Massachusetts
with
the
intention
of
resisting
General Gage's
inconspicuous
maneuvers.
For
instance,
 popular
 rumor
 has
 it
 that
 Ethan
 Allen
 and
 the
 Green
 Mountain
 Boys
 are
 heading
 toward
 the
 British
 held
Fort
Ticonderoga.
Third,
as
of
the
Lord Dunmore's War
of
1774
year
of
our
Lord,
the
agreements
 separating
the
seaboard
colonies
and
the
Indian
reserves
in
the
interior
have
been
breaking
down.15
 The
 Iroquois,
 the
 Delawares,
 the
 Shawnees,
 and
 the
 Cherokees
 are
 yet
 undecided
 whether
 their
 interests
best
lie
with
the
colonies
or
England;
nevertheless,
colonial
expansion,
land
speculation,
and
 influx
of
frontiersmen
are
of
great
concern
to
these
peoples.
Four,
the
colonies
are
maturing
societies,
 but
they
are
lacking
in
military
training,
supplies,
and
naval
power;
could
the
diplomatic
art
of
colonial
 leaders
play
off
European rivalries to
their
advantage?
Finally,
how
far
are
the
colonies
willing
to
take
 their
struggle
with
their
mother‐country?
Is
independent
statehood
feasible
or
will
it
constitute
such
a
 violation
of
nature's
laws
that
the
colonies
will
descend
into
an
apocalyptic
nightmare
that
will
forever
 crush
the
struggle
for
equal
rights
of
life,
liberty,
and
the
pursuit
of
happiness?
How
are
we
to
regain
 our
lost
rights
and
privileges
as
citizens
constitutionally
protected
against
tyranny?
 
 
 Looking
forward
to
constructive
and
informed
deliberations,

 



 President
of
the
Second
Continental
Congress
 
 














































 
 


MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com


6



 References:
   1.
Greene,
P.
Jack.
Peripheries and the Center: Constitutional Development in the   Extended Polities of the British Empire and the United States, 1607 – 1788. Athens,
Georgia:
The
 University
of
Georgia
Press,
1986.
Print.
  2.
Maier,
Pauline.
From Resistance To Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the   Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1756 – 1776..
New
York:
Alfred
A.
Knopf,
1972.
 Print.


 3.
Maier,
Pauline.
From Resistance To Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the   Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1756 – 1776..
New
York:
Alfred
A.
Knopf,
1972.
 Print.


 4.
Osgood,
Herbert.
“The
American
Revolution.”
Causes and Consequences of the   American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
1966.
65
‐
77.
 5.
Gipson,
H.
Lawrence.
“The
American
Revolution
as
an
Aftermath
of
the
Great
War

 for
the
Empire,
1754
–
1763.”
Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
 Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
1966.
87
–
102.
 6.
Gipson,
H.
Lawrence.
“The
American
Revolution
as
an
Aftermath
of
the
Great
War

 for
the
Empire,
1754
–
1763.”
Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
 Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
1966.
87
–
102.
 7.
Hacker,
M.
Louis.
“The
First
American
Revolution.”
Causes and Consequences of the   American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
1966.
 114
–
142.
 8.
Hacker,
M.
Louis.
“The
First
American
Revolution.”
Causes and Consequences of the   American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
1966.
 114
–
142.
 9.
Andrews,
M.
Charles.
“The
American
Revolution:
An
Interpretation.”
Causes and   Consequences of the American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
 1966.
77
–
87.
 10.
Maier,
Pauline.
From Resistance To Revolution: Colonial Radicals and the   Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1756 – 1776..
New
York:
Alfred
A.
Knopf,
1972.
 Print.


 11.
Schlesinger,
M.
Arthur.
“The
American
Revolution
Reconsidered.”
Causes and   Consequences of the American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
 1966.
103
–
114.

 12.
Schlesinger,
M.
Arthur.
“The
American
Revolution
Reconsidered.”
Causes and   Consequences of the American Revolution. Ed. Esmond
Wright.
Chicago:
Quandrangle
Books.
 1966.
103
–
114.

 13.
Kindig,
Thomas.
Revolutionary War Timeline.
Independence
Hall
Association.
July

 4th,
1995.
Web.
Dec.
29th
2010.

 14.
Kindig,
Thomas.
Revolutionary War Timeline.
Independence
Hall
Association.
July

 4th,
1995.
Web.
Dec.
29th
2010.
 15.
Washburn,
E.
Wilcomb.
Indians and the American Revolution.   Americanrevolution.org.
Web.
Dec.
29th
2010.

 
 


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2011

 
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7



 A
letter
to
John
Hancock
from


Paul
Revere


 Mr. Hancock,  As you read this, I am in Boston watching and warning the actions of the Regular troops. I have learned  much about them and their positions and I wanted to share this information with the colonial delegates. I  know that you will be present at the meeting at the Pennsylvania State House; therefore I have sent you  this message by safe courier in the hopes that it will be of some help to you and your fellow delegates.  Colonial Delegates,
 
 In
response
to
the
destruction
of
the
East India Company’s
tea
in
Boston Harbor
following
the
 Tea
Act
of
1773,
Parliament
passed
the
Intolerable
Acts
and
the
Quebec
Act.
The
latter
expands
the
 territory
of
the
Province of Quebec
to
include
some
of
our territories.
In
fact,
the
Grand Ohio  Company
owned
some
of
the
aforementioned
lands.i
With
indecision
amongst
Indians,
I
do
not
know
 if
they
are
planning
further
expansion.
 
 On
the
same
notes
with
the
behavior
of
Bostonians
continuing
this
way,
rumor
had
itii
that
 General
Thomas
Gage
had
orders
to
raid
the
magazine
at
Charlestown
and
return
its
powder
to
 Castle William
on
Castle Island.iii
Rumors
also
had
it
that
Regular troops
were
mobilizing
to
be
 prepared
for
action
the
following
morning.iv
However
all
parties
including
Gage,
Brattle,
and
Phips
had
 denied
such
rumors
in
Boston
papers;
more
Regular
troops
arrived
in
Boston.v
Militias,
principally
 Green Mountain Boys,
formed
specialized
groups
of
Minutemen
and
arrived
in
Boston
as
well.

 >> CONT.  
 DEFINITIONS  East India Company:
English
Joint‐stock
company
 Act of Quebec of 1774:
act
of
the
Parliament
of
Great
Britain
which
expanded
the
territory
of
the
 Province
of
Quebec
to
include
territory
coveted
by
the
thirteen
colonies

 Magazine:
location
where
weaponry
and
ammunition
are
stored
 Regular troops:
a
nation’s
permanent
armed
forces,
which
remain
under
arms
even
in
times
of
 peace
 Militia:
military
force
composed
of
civilians
 Green
Mountain
Boys:
militia
from
New
Hampshire
and
New
York,
lead
by
Ethan
Allen
as
of
the
 176os

 Minutemen:
militia
that
could
be
deployed
rapidly;
one
of
the
most
highly
trained
and
important
 forces
in
the
colonies’
squabbles
with
Great
Britain

 8



 



MARIMUN
2011




secretary.marimun@hotmail.com



   
 Fort Ticonderoga
:
18th
century
French
fort
under

 
 American
control,
in
the
strategically
important
region
 
 where
Lake
George
meets
Lake
Champlain


>
 
   
 Lord Dunmore
:
Governor
of
Virginia
who
declared

 
 war
on
the
Shawnee
and
Mingo
Indian
nations
 
   
 Virginia
:
wealthiest
of
the
thirteen
colonies
 

 
 
 
 
 The
Regular
troops
were
concentrating
around
Lexington and Concord,
and
colonial
militias
 met
them
there.
More
magazines
I
am
happy
to
report
that
we
have
given
the
Regular
troops
heavy
 losses.
Ethan
Allen
did,
in
fact,
lead
the
remaining
Green
Mountain
Boys
to
Fort Ticonderoga.vi
I
have
 not
seen
or
heard
of
any
Regular
troops
departing
for
Fort
Ticonderoga
so
far,
however
I
know
that
it
 is
highly
valuable
strategically.vii
I
do
not
know
if
there
are
any
more
magazines
there,
but
I
do
know
 that
Lord
Dunmore
raided
another
magazine
in
the
Colony of Virginia.viii
 
 With
the
aid
of
sources
at
Parliament,
I
was
fortunately
able
to
deliver
the
message
of
the
 influx
of
Regular
troops
to
Mr.
Adams
and
Mr.
Hancock,
and
thankfully,
they
safely
fled
before
conflict
 began.ix
Additionally,
I
received
further
information
that
Regular
troops
were
ordered
to
arrest
both
 Mr.
Adams
and
Mr.
Hancock.x
 
 Thus,
I
believe
that
the
Regulars
are
sending
more
troops,
and
the
colonial
delegates
should
 not
believe
Parliament
if
they
state
otherwise.
Also,
I
warn
all
colonial
delegates
to
be
careful
after
 what
Mr.
Adams
and
our
company
went
through
to
escape
Boston.
 
 
 With you through the night, 


   P.S. I included a map I collected to help you plan around the aforementioned events.
     
 


MARIMUN
2011

 
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9



  
Courtesy
of
the
Library
of
Congress.


BOSTON 

    References:

i


Procter,
James,
Alfred.
The Ohio Company: Its Inner History.
Pittsburgh:
University
of
Pittsburgh
 Press,
1959.
 ii 
Richmond,
Robert
P.
(1971).
Powder Alarm 1774.
Princeton:
Auerbach.
 iii 
Ibid.
 iv 
Ibid.
 v 
Fischer,
David
Hackett
(1994).
Paul Revere's Ride.
New
York:
Oxford
University
Press.
 vi 
Smith,
Justin
Harvey
(1907).
Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony: Canada, and the American  Revolution, Volume 1.
New
York:
G.P.
Putnam's
Sons.
 vii 
Randall,
Willard
Sterne
(1990).
Benedict Arnold: Patriot and Traitor.
New
York:
William
Morrow.
 viii 
Selby,
John
E;
Higginbotham,
Don
(2007).
The Revolution in Virginia, 1775–1783.
Williamsburg,
VA:
 Colonial
Williamsburg.
 ix 
Tourtellot,
Arthur
B
(1959).
Lexington and Concord.
New
York:
Norton.
 x 
Ibid.  
 
 


MARIMUN
2011

 
secretary.marimun@hotmail.com


10



 What
happened
at
the


1st
Continental
Congress


 

CARPENTER’S HALL, OCTOBER 26, 1774.  Brief
record
of
events
of
the
first
meeting
of
colonial
delegates
in
congress
  Delegates
agree
to
Mr. Franklin’s proposal
to
meet
after
Parliament
closed
the
Port
of
Boston
 in
response
to
the
destruction
of
the
East
India
Company’s
tea
in
Boston
Harbor
  Georgia
did
not
send
any
delegates
because
they
did
not
want
to
worsen
their
conflict with  Regular soldiers
on
their
borders
  The
delegates
from
Pennsylvania
and
New
York
argue
for
attempting
to
seek
resolution with  Parliament
  All
delegates
agree
upon
more
rights
for
colonies
  Delegates
argue
about
whether
or
not
this
should
be
by
way
of
the
principle of Parity –
 repeated
dialogue
including
taxation without representation –
or
by
severing ties
with
both
 Parliament
and
Congress
in
fear
of
losing
any
degrees
of
freedom
colonies
currently
possessed
  Delegate
from
Pennsylvania
Joseph Galloway
proposes
his plan of Union
that
would
establish
 an
American
Parliament
that
would
work
with
the
British
Parliament.
Additionally,
each
 parliament
would
have
veto power
over
each
other’s
proposals   Galloway’s
plan
of
Union
is
not
received
with
any
degree
of
consensus   Paul Revere
enters
with
numerous statements from Massachusetts
political figures
that
call
 for
more
confrontational
action
upon
their
treatment
by
Parliament   These
statements
further
divide
the
delegates in
their
positions   Congress
begins
to
lean
toward
these
statements,
becoming
known
as
the
Suffolk Resolvesi   Congress
adopts
Virginian
delegates’
proposal
for
Continental Association,
establishing
non‐ importation,
non‐exportation,
and
non‐consumption
policies   Policies
shall
be
enacted
by
committees
of
political
figures
in
each
area of
the
colonies
present   They
would
be
enacted
by
publishing
all
information
about
merchants
who
do
not
follow
the
 policies
and
marking
them
as
enemies,
removing
any
contraband
in se,
and
persuade
buyers
to
 become
savers   Congress
drafts
a
statement
of
American
colonies’
grievances
addressed
to
King George III
in
 order
to
emphasize
that
American colonies remain loyal to the King, however do not do so  to Parliament
if
these
grievances
are
not
addressed   The
document
is
drafted
and
radical
elements
are
left
unedited
(including,
most
importantly,
 trade control shifting to American colonies),
and
becomes
known
as
the
Declaration of  Rights of Grievances   Congress
moves
to
resume
the
session
in
the
following
Spring
upon
the
response
to
the
 aforementioned
document.


Sources:
Kindig,
Thomas
E.
"First
Continental
Congress."
Ushistory.org.
Independence
Hall
Association,
04
July
1995.
Web.
 15
Jan.
2011.
<http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/congress.htm>.
;
"First
Continental
Congress."
United States  History.
Online
Highways.
Web.
15
Jan.
2011.
<http://www.u‐s‐history.com/pages/h650.html>.



 


MARIMUN
2011

 
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11



 What
you
will
be
discussing
at
the


2nd
Continental
 Congress


The Problem    • Inhabitants
of
the
British
colonies
have
been
mistreated
by
their
mother
country,
Britain,
for
 generations.

 • The
North
American
colonies
feel
that
they
are
merely
a
source
of
income
for
the
English;
they
 are
not
represented
in
Parliament
and
do
not
feel
that
their
natural
rights
as
human
beings
are
 being
respected.
For
example
they
are
treated
unjustly
by
imperial
officers
and
are
forced
to
 enroll
in
a
military
that
many
do
not
believe
has
their
interest
in
mind.

 • North
American
colonists
have
been
moved
to
express
their
frustration
with
England.
 Unfortunately,
doing
any
radical
action
on
the
part
of
the
colonies
is
difficult
because
they
are
 economically
and
militarily
dependant
on
Britain.

 • Nevertheless,
they
have
begun
to
speak
up
and
demand
that
their
voices
be
heard
by
the
 distant
government
of
England.

 • For
this,
the
American
colonies
have
been
labeled
as
rebels
by
his
majesty,
the
King
George
III
 himself.
 • The
Americans
have
begun
to
feel
that
this
is
a
fight
not
just
for
representation
in
government,
 but
for
freedom.
However,
in
such
a
fight,
bloodshed
will
be
inevitable.

  


 


MARIMUN
2011

 
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12
 



 Discussion points    • A
petition
has
been
sent
to
England
and
the
response
is
on
its
way
back
to
America.

 • With
all
the
turmoil
in
the
thirteen
colonies’
relationship
with
their
mother
country,
a
lot
of
talk
 and
discussion
of
independence
has
arisen;
most
of
this
occurs
behind
closed
doors
out
of
fear
 of
treason
from
loyalists
to
the
Crown.

 • Many
of
the
colonies
believe
that
diplomatic
means,
as
opposed
to
full‐fledged
warfare,
 provides
a
greater
chance
of
success
in
achieving
independence
–
if
independence
is
the
 solution
at
all.
They
understand
that
they
have
barely
enough
money
to
fund
their
army;
one
 must
consider
the
high
costs
of
housing,
food,
arms,
and
training.
Delegates
must
not
take
 lightly
the
threat
of
the
mighty
English
army.
Diplomatic
negotiations
will
most
likely
end
in
 fewer
casualties,
but
will
the
privileges
of
citizenship
ever
be
granted
to
them
if
they
wish
to
 stay
under
the
wing
of
the
mother
country?

 • What’s
more,
many
believe
that
a
friendly
relationship
with
England
could
prove
itself
 advantageous
in
the
future,
since
England
is
one
of
the
worlds’
most
powerful
nations.

 • At
the
moment,
there
is
already
blood
being
splattered
at
Lexington,
and
something
should
be
 done
to
both
minimize
the
casualties
and
to
help
the
fellow
colonists.

 • Furthermore,
the
Indian
American
community
is
neither
on
the
British
or
American
side
of
this
 debate.
If
things
were
to
turn
into
widespread
battle,
Indian
American
support
would
be
of
 great
use
to
the
Americans
if
they
fought
side
by
side
them
and
of
great
disadvantage
if
the
 English
were
to
gain
their
trust
and
friendship.


 • Finally,
if
further
violence
were
to
occur,
could
European
rivals
of
England
be
used
against
the
 mother
country?
   
























































Photo credits for this background guide
:
 
 Map
of
Boston
Area:
Library
of
Congress
 The
Patriot:
http://images.hollywood.com/site/ledger_patriot.jpg
 Join
or
Die
poster
:
 http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_xHxPbqohqSc/Se9DgKdDzdI/AAAAAAAAB34/9raFUyuc4mI/s400/join+or+die+news‐ antique+com.jpg
 Fort
Ticonderoga:
http://www.berggreen.org/travel/blog_pictures/fort_ticonderoga_1.jpg
 Continental
Army
:
http://www.history.army.mil/images/artphoto/pripos/amsoldier/3/1775.jpg
 “Declaration
of
Independence”
by
John
Trumbull
:
 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Declaration_independence.jpg/600px‐ Declaration_independence.jpg



 


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