You are on page 1of 54

2.

Geological prospecting

2.2.1 Photointerpretation, More recent developments, especially in the


remote sensing, exploitation of space and in the dramatic
digital cartography, development of powerful microcomputers, have
integrated mapping had an even more profound effect on the
evolution of the geosciences. Today, orbiting
Introduction spacecraft transmit geographically precise data to
This section describes the important and rapid the user on the ground who can interpret their
impact of space and computer technology, complex spectral content on a laptop computer to
particularly in the last two decades of the 20th map structure, lithology and even mineralogy.
century, on oil and gas exploration and Orbiting satellites map natural hydrocarbon seeps
development, both on and offshore. and variations in the Earth’s gravitational field
In order to explore for and extract hydrocarbons, over the oceans and the satellites of the Global
the most detailed knowledge Positioning System (GPS) provide the means to
of the Earth’s geology, geography and oceanography exactly locate the geologist’s position on the
is essential. The geological evolution of a region ground.
must be known to ascertain whether source rocks
exist buried at a suitable depth to generate Photogeology
hydrocarbons, if the right kind of reservoir rocks Photogeology, the method of geological
are present and whether suitable structures allow mapping through interpreting aerial photographs,
migration and later entrapment developed as a viable and rapid means of
of the hydrocarbons. The surface geography geological mapping during the period between the
and topography is important not only in terms two world wars.
of access for geophysical exploration and then Large format (2525 cm film) cameras were
drilling, but also later for extraction, building developed, capable of taking overlapping stereo-
of pipelines and facilities, etc. Although our pairs of black and white aerial photographs. These
knowledge of most of the Earth’s surface and would be interpreted using a mirror stereoscope
oceans today is fairly mature, much of this is due allowing the geologist to view the terrain in three
to detailed mapping carried out mainly in the dimensions. Large areas of previously poorly
second half of the 20th century using first airborne mapped terrain were surveyed in this way,
and later space techniques. This work continues in particularly by the former colonial powers in
the 21st century with yet more sophisticated Africa and Asia, and also throughout the United
spaceborne systems and universal use of computer States of America. These aerial surveys were
mapping techniques to replace the older printed primarily for topographic mapping purposes
maps and photographs. However in the 19th and (good topographic maps being a prerequisite for
early 20th centuries such regional mapping did not any kind of socio-economic development
exist and until very recently we had better and in remote areas). However, geologists
more consistent digital topographic maps of other soon recognised that different rock types and
planets than we did of our own. lithologies erode in different and quite

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 185


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

characteristic ways in various geographic and Infrared or false-colour photography


climatic environments, so that very detailed and Following the Second World War, aerial
accurate geological maps can be made with a photography reached maturity and most parts of
minimum amount of field checking. Stereoscopic the world were surveyed in this way, although the
or 3D viewing is especially useful in helping the photos and resulting maps were often considered
interpreter recognise different landforms and map secret or classified by national governments for
drainage patterns (which often reflect underlying security reasons. One significant development
rock types), geological bedding, strike and dip, as was the use of camouflage detection or colour
well as fault offsets. In this way the geology of infrared film. This film is sensitive to reflected
many of the main producing oil regions of the infrared radiation just beyond the capability of the
world, such as the Zagros mountains of Iran, the human eye. In this part of the spectrum,
interior basins of North America and the giant vegetation reflects very strongly and there is a
structures of Algeria, were first mapped in detail. very wide range of response between different
Today, as we will see below, photogeology has types of vegetation. This is the reason the film
largely been replaced by satellite image was developed for detecting unnatural false
interpretation and stereo-viewing has been vegetation used for military camouflage, but the
replaced by 3D representation and visualisation result is that subtle variations in natural
techniques of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) vegetation can also be clearly seen in an enhanced
made possible by computer graphics. way and this is often geologically related.
However, the basis of satellite image Different combinations of plant communities
interpretation remains as it was with favour soils derived from different rock types. All
photogeology: careful visual analysis by of this serves to help the photogeologist map
experienced geologists with good field different and varying rock types, especially in
understanding. Another great advantage of regions generally obscured by vegetation and soil
photogeology and particularly later developments cover. A further advantage is that in the near
in satellite imaging, is the wide overview infrared part of the spectrum, penetration of
provided by these techniques relative to working atmospheric haze is improved so that false-colour
on the ground. Not only does this greatly speed photos often appear sharper, especially when
up the task of geological mapping, but it allows acquired from a high altitude. These benefits were
the geologist to make observations outside the later put to good use in the development of
immediate area of interest – for example, source satellite imaging instruments.
rocks often do not outcrop within a basin of
interest, but are actually exposed some distance Radar imaging
away, possibly across political borders. Difficulties remained, however, in high latitude
Furthermore, broad scale structures, which could and tropical and equatorial regions where persistent
be very difficult or impossible to detect close-up cloud cover precluded the acquisition of consistent
on the ground, can be observed. and cloud-free photos. This problem was solved by
Considering they evolved in a pre-computer the development of radar systems since they are
period, aerial photography and photogrammetry capable of imaging the terrain surface through
became a very sophisticated and accurate process cloud cover. These are active systems operating in
for the production of detailed topographic maps. the microwave part of the spectrum, which
Ingenious optical, mechanical and photographic illuminate the ground with an oblique swath and
methods were used to mosaic together then record the reflected radiation to generate an
photographs and remove distortions inherent in image; adjacent overlapping swaths can be viewed
the camera process. These were further stereoscopically. Although such radar images are
developed during the Second World War, when generally more difficult to interpret than
aerial reconnaissance became an extremely conventional photographs due to their oblique
important strategic intelligence tool. illumination angles, they also sometimes enhance
At this time, colour photographic materials topographic and geomorphic features revealing
started to emerge, including infrared films for surprising additional geological detail. In the 1970s,
camouflage detection, and radar technology, before the advent of satellite imagery, many areas
both of which would later prove extremely of the tropics of interest for oil exploration such as
significant for geological reconnaissance in Central and South America, West Africa and
representing major inputs into future space Southeast Asia, were mapped with airborne radar
developments. for geological interpretation.

186 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Remote sensing from space capability of generating DEMs (see below).


The so-called cold war led to the increased Unfortunately the spectral bands on ASTER are
use and awareness of remote aerial intelligence. on the whole more suitable for examining igneous
The subsequent vulnerability of manned high- and metamorphic rocks and minerals than for oil
altitude reconnaissance aircraft stimulated the exploration geology. ASTER, however, has
development of space for strategic purposes. Thus generated considerable geological interest leading
space became the next arena both for exploration towards the two other hyperspectral satellite
and for the acquisition of images of the Earth. sensors, NASA’s Hyperion (launched on EO-1 in
Both the US and URSS developed photo- 2000, 220 spectral bands with 30 m resolution)
reconnaissance satellites in the 1950s and 1960s, and the European Space Agency’s CHRIS
but the results were rarely, if ever, seen by (launched on PROBA in 2002, 18 spectral bands
civilians, although by the late 1960s photographs with 18 m resolution). Because of the small
of the Earth taken by astronauts in the US Apollo
missions had shown how valuable consistent
satellite imagery might be to geoscientists. It was Fig. 1. Comparison
not until 1971 that the US launched ERTS1 (later of Landsat ETM,
renamed Landsat) and consistent, geographically SPOT and Ikonos
data-sets (Yemen).
rectified images started to become available to
researchers worldwide.
Although the initial Landsat images had a
resolution of only 80 m, they were in infrared
false-colour and could be enlarged to 1:250,000
scale, moreover they were available for most of
the world with the exception of cloud covered A. 15 m Landsat ETM
areas. Their availability coincided with, and
contributed to, the developing understanding of
plate tectonics throughout the 1970s and 1980s,
particularly in terms of brittle tectonic features
such as faults and lineaments, which could now
be mapped on a continent-wide scale. In this
respect, offshore satellite gravity (see below) also
made a major contribution. Oil companies rapidly
started to exploit the use of newly available
satellite imagery for regional tectonic studies,
B. 5 m SPOT
basin analysis, seismic planning and even crude
structural target selection. Some remote parts of
the globe which had never been surveyed with
aerial photographs were now mapped for the first
time. The Landsat series have continued to be
developed with 30 m resolution imagery
appearing with the Landsat ETM in 1986,
together with additional middle infrared spectral
bands especially useful for discriminating
different clay minerals and hence improving
geological mapping capability. The last satellite C. 2.5 m SPOT
in the series, Landsat 7, launched in 1999, which
however failed in 2003, provided 15 m ground
resolution and the feasibility of mapping up to
1:50,000 scale (Fig. 1 A).
As a result of this failure, the ASTER imager
(built in Japan but mounted on NASA’s Terra
satellite, launched in 1999) has come to
prominence as a short-term alternative. This is
interesting to the geologist because it offers 15 m
resolution with 14 spectral bands and the D. 1 m Ikonos

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 187


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

image areas of these two sensors and the limited example selecting all areas of a particular rock
coverage available, as well as the unsuitability of type or vegetation cover. However, most
CHRIS’s bands for geology, both satellites remain geologists agree that visual interpretation, using
primarily of research rather than operational the human brain and its amazing capacity to
interest. make optical associations and recall all the
A Landsat follow-on mission is to be planned experience of field training, remains paramount.
by the United States, but most observers believe Thus IP systems contain functionality to
there will be a new programme, possibly with annotate the images with the interpreter’s
international cooperation. The future drivers for mapping, such as bedding traces, structural
such programmes will be primarily concerned symbols and lithological boundaries. IP also
with environmental monitoring, forestry, facilitates the merging of differing data sets, so
agricolture and land-use mapping, but the science that the texture or terrain detail of a satellite
of geology will also be a beneficiary. image can be coloured, for example, with the co-
Although much geological analysis still remains registered elevation data or with an aeromagnetic
to be done with images archived over contour map to make a composite image.
the last 20-30 years, geological interpretation Investigating such comparisons may help the
generally does not necessarily need the most geologist both in his surface interpretation and
up-to-date images. in understanding the relationship of the surface
morphology to the subsurface geology. Finally,
Computer Image Processing and mapping these merges may be displayed in 3D or
The images from Landsat (and most other perspective view to give an additional
imaging satellites) are transmitted to ground as dimension. IP becomes particularly important
electromagnetic signals and so are highly suited when dealing with multiple spectral channels,
for computer manipulation and enhancement. In such as with the ASTER satellite, because it is
the 1970s, low cost digital computers were still only with the help of the computer that the
being developed and the necessary input, mass different combinations of spectral response can
storage and output devices to handle the be analysed to map out the various contributions
complex and large data volumes of satellite of mineral spectra. This will become even more
images were scarce and expensive. critical in the future when interrogating data
This situation started to change dramatically in from the next generation of truly hyperspectral
the late 1980s with the advent of affordable satellites.
microcomputers so that the true value of this Geographical Information System (GIS) on
important source of geological information the other hand, is basically the modern
could finally be realized. Today it is possible for replacement for printed maps with the additional
a geologist to download from the Internet 15 m dimension that all the information is stored
resolution imagery of just about anywhere in the digitally and ordered in relational databases.
world onto his personal computer, merge it with GIS allows the mapmaker to bring together
digital elevation data, render the results in a 3D disparate information to form many different
view and then ‘paint’ his interpretation of the sources and ensure that it is all geographically
geology onto the image and extract that as co-registered, and to present the results with a
geological map for colour printing. Furthermore, high degree of flexibility (Fig. 2). Typically a
he can import and register many kinds of GIS will allow the use of different map
ancillary data such as potential fields (magnetics projections and data and will contain
and gravity), subsurface (seismic and wells) and functionality that allows inter-comparison of the
general information to elaborate and enhance the feature content and links between the different
final interpretation. elements making up the data set. Ultimately,
Image Processing (IP) techniques allow maps can be printed on demand at a wide range
images, and particularly those with multiple of scales and projections with appropriate
spectral bands, to be enhanced and displayed to backdrops of imagery or geophysical data as
best effect to help the interpreter in his work. required. The obvious great advantage of the
The images can be sharpened and filtered in GIS approach is that maps can be continually
various ways and the brightness and contrast updated and revised in terms of content and
adjusted to optimise the interpretability. IP can inter-relationships displayed. The trend is for
also be used in some areas to carry out certain this to be achieved almost exclusively on the
mapping operations semi-automatically, for computer screen rather than with printed media.

188 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

data processing The merging of various types of remote-sensed


and GIS data, e.g. Landsat images with SPOT images or radar
(see below), enables maps to be produced that describe
particular features of the terrain (lithology, structural
lineaments, vegetation, soil moisture) revealed by a
different spectral resolution or sensor (e.g. Radar) or
characterized by high spatial resolution (for example,
obtained with SPOT images). Other information such
data digital integrated cartography as roads, national boundaries, vegetation, buildings,
acquisition can be superimposed on application-specific maps
(morphological, geological, relating to engineering
facilities, etc.). The final geographical database thus
comprises various ‘layers’ (see again Fig. 3).
Using GIS software, cartographic and other data
can be analyzed and integrated to obtain both
topographic maps and also digital thematic maps,
including, for example, morphology, geology,
lithology, stratigraphy and chronostratigraphy,
structure and tectonics, hydrology, slope stability,
Fig. 2. GIS system: production of digital vegetation, wetlands, pollution. Furthermore
and geo-referred thematic maps computer techniques facilitate the overlaying and
and 3D models. intercomparison between these various themes or
layers. GIS systems also allow all the associated
information in the relational database, such as
The technology of IP and GIS is still developing elevation values, names, symbols, rock type,
just as rapidly as the power and ability of structural orientations, geochemical values, to be
microcomputers themselves. IP works on raster data displayed, edited, analysed or updated.
(comprising a matrix or grid of data values such as a Thus modern digital maps are derived from a series
photographic or other image), often with a high of inter-related digital databases, and diverse data such
degree of colour depth (for example, 24 bits in the as well locations, exploration concession boundaries,
case of most satellite data), whereas GIS is seismic lines, oil pipelines, field and reservoir outlines
dominantly oriented around relational databases and can be imported and exported. Increasingly sources of
vector graphics (comprising point values, often these databases are distributed in different locations
linked together making up lines and polygons). At such as with oil companies, geophysical contractors,
the present time these two approaches do not government agencies, and the great power of the
converge or integrate quite as readily as would suit Internet comes into play in searching for data and
the geological user, but this will change as the bringing together the various elements which
technologies mature. Furthermore, there is still a constitute the specific map required for a particular
considerable gap between the specialised processing application.
and display systems used for subsurface data such as Finally the latest techniques in visualization
seismic information and those used in IP and GIS; decrease the need for printed maps and enhance the
however, these can be expected to converge in the way in which data, particularly in 3D such as thematic
near future. maps draped over DEMs, can be viewed. In the past
maps were drawn with pen and ink and, finally,
GIS, integration of thematic maps, lithographically printed in colour; an expensive and
digital databases and three-dimensional models time consuming process. Today, large format colour
Maps and data obtained either on the ground printers connect direct to computers and print out
or with the methodologies and instruments customized maps rapidly on demand. However, printed
described above can be integrated maps are used less and less as geologists and
with one another in a GIS to produce specific geophysicists undertake their analysis on computer
final maps in either 2 or 3D to meet work-stations, many of which have 3D display
the various requirements of oil exploration. capability, either through the use of special viewing
For example, topographic maps can be integrated glasses or with screens which provide direct 3D
with geological maps, aerial photographs rendition to the naked eye. Where geo-scientists need
and satellite images (Fig. 3). to consult together, special 3D ‘visionariums’ or

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 189


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

immersion studios have been developed so that all of low cost micro-satellites have been developed in
participants can see surface and sub-surface models in the UK, and a constellation of five has been
3D and even walk about to discuss the geology in 3D launched specifically for disaster monitoring.
space, with seismic lines shown on the terrain surface Because of the military and security demand, it is
and the seismic sections and exploration wells certain that there will be no shortage of future
projected into the sub-surface! optical data.

VHR and future optical satellites Radar satellites


Other satellites, which have contributed to the Alongside optical satellites, Synthetic Aperture
available database of optical imagery include the Radar (SAR) imaging satellites have also been
French SPOT series, which since 1986 have provided developed. These were designed primarily for
10 m ground resolution and stereo capability observation of the world’s oceans, but have also been
allowing the production of digital elevation models found useful for onshore geological interpretation in
and 3D geological interpretation. SPOT 5, the latest areas of high cloud cover.
in the series, provides 2.5 m resolution (Fig. 1 C) The first consistent global radar coverage came
and a special DEM generating sensor. Most recently from the European Space Agency’s ERS1 satellite
Very High Resolution (VHR) imaging satellites have launched in 1991, followed by ERS2 in 1996.
appeared, which provide a ground resolution of 1 m These were designed to observe the state of the
(Ikonos, since 1999, Fig. 1 D) or 0.65 m (Quickbird, global oceans as an environmental indicator (since
since 2002). Although these satellites are primarily the oceans are the driver of continental
used for military intelligence, their imagery is now meteorological patterns), but knowledge of ocean
generally available for most areas of the world, and conditions is also critical for many aspects of
they can be very useful in the oil exploration field offshore exploration, production and transport of
for mapping terrain access, infrastructure and even hydrocarbons so that there has been an important
production facilites (Fig. 4). However, the small area spin-off for this industry. Furthermore, the radar
covered by each frame (11 km11 km) means that sensor also provides excellent imagery of the land,
images such as SPOT (60 km60 km) or Landsat which can be used both for geological
(185185 km) are generally preferred for pure interpretation and a wide range of environmental
geological mapping (see again Fig. 1). Optical applications (cf. Fig. 5, where the ERS radar
satellites have also been launched by Russia, India, imagery, of the same area covered by the Landsat
Japan and Israel, amongst others, and are used where data, shows a greater amount of continuous
appropriate in geological mapping. A new generation structural detail than available on the optical data.

Fig. 3. Geographical satellite


Information System imaging
(GIS): integrated
cartography. topographic
map

geological
map

40°22'
DEM

40°19'
3°17'

coordinates (geo-referentiation)
3°22'

190 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Fig. 4. Ikonos image showing production installations around Hassi Messaoud (Algeria; NPA Satellite Mapping).

The cloud-free nature of the radar has enabled has a ‘fine’ beam mode with a resolution of 10 m.
faults, linears and anticlines to be mapped over tens Other satellites are planned with 1 m resolution (by
of kilometres). Canada launched a similar, but Radarsat and by Terrasar).
more versatile satellite (Radarsat) in 1995, with the
primary objective of monitoring sea-ice (another Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)
area of environmental concern for offshore Digital Elevation Models are for the geological
exploration and production activities in high interpreter in many respects the modern equivalent
latitudes). Radarsat, with its variable pointing of stereo air photographs, and so are in strong
capability, can also be used to make topographic demand for exploration in remote areas. They can
contour maps through ‘radargrammetry’ and has be used alone for both geomorphologic and
provided some of the first digital elevation models geological interpretation as well as for the
for remote cloud covered areas of the world. assessment of access or logistics. Furthermore they
Whereas ERS and its successor, Envisat, have a can be merged with satellite imagery to produce
ground resolution of around 20 m, Radarsat also data sets which can be computer rendered for 3D

Fig. 5. Comparison
of optical Landsat ETM
and ERS radar data
(Irian Jaya; NPA Satellite
Mapping).

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 191


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

or perspective viewing, including the production of Offshore exploration. Seep detection


simulated fly-throughs. DEMs can be made from and satellite gravity
stereo air photos, digitising existing topographic The uses of satellite techniques are not restricted
maps, stereo satellites images or with radar to onshore regions. An unexpected benefit of radar
interferometry (InSAR), either airborne or satellites to the oil exploration community has been
spaceborne. One such InSAR system, the SRTM the ability to detect traces of oil on the sea surface
(Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) was operated with satellite radar imagery. The presence of small
on a Space Shuttle mission in 2000 and has amounts of oil on the sea surface modifies naturally
produced a high definition (30 m horizontal occurring wavelets or ripples induced by wind on the
spacing, 15 m vertical accuracy) set of data for sea surface, creating ‘slicks’ or areas of calm sea.
most of the world within 60° South and North. At These show up quite clearly on radar images because
present the highest level of definition of SRTM the wavelength of the ripples is very close to that of
data is militarily restricted in most areas outside the radar (5.6 cm). Many of these surface indications
the USA because of its value for logistical derive from pollution effects, but some are the result
navigation, so only data with a 100m horizontal of natural hydrocarbon seepage from the sea floor to
grid is available. the sea surface. Careful study of the ‘slicks’, coupled
Optical satellite systems for DEM generation with analysis of their shape and knowledge of the
include SPOT 5 with a 6-10 m vertical accuracy on prevailing weather, makes it possible to separate
a 20 m horizontal spacing and ASTER with a 30 m pollution from natural seepage with a good degree of
vertical accuracy on a 15 m horizontal spacing confidence (Fig. 7). Thus it has been possible to study
(Fig. 6 shows a 3D false-colour image created from almost all the world’s offshore basins for signs of
the ASTER DEM using three of its spectral bands natural seepage in a consistent way, and this has
(3-2-1, R-G-B), looking north-east up the nose of proved an inexpensive and valuable tool in screening
the fold. The more resistant and cooler central core frontier basins, particularly in deep water, to prioritize
of the fold is a lower Eocene carbonate, surrounded them before companies commit to the much more
by marls and shales). expensive geophysical methods that are necessary for
Airborne systems can provide even higher the next stage in exploration. Not only does this
levels of accuracy, and an airborne interferometric technique indicate whether there is a working
radar system has been used to cover complete hydrocarbon system in the basin or not, but the
territories such as the UK and Indonesia relation of the seepage pattern to the basin
providing a DEM with around 0.5 m vertical architecture may reveal important information about
accuracy. The ultimate level of terrain detail depocentres, source kitchens and migration pathways.
available today is acquired with airborne Lidar Offshore oil exploration geology has benefited
systems capable of producing vertical accuracy from yet another military innovation achieved from
down to a few centimetres. These have been space: the requirement for submarine navigation.
successfully applied to create DEMs for onshore Underwater, beyond the sight of stars or without the
seismic planning in several different types of aid of artificial navigation satellites (e.g. GPS),
terrain including desert sand dunes and coastal submariners required a map of the ocean floor
mangrove swamps. comparable to a topographic map of the land surface.
Charting the world’s oceans in sufficient detail with
conventional means is an operationally and politically
inconceivable task. However, it was clear that either a
map of bathymetry (water depth) or the Earth’s
gravitational field would provide the necessary
navigational aid, and this could be achieved by radar
altimeters measuring the ocean surface height from
orbiting satellites.
One might think the Earth should be a near perfect
spheroid, whose exact shape is known. In practice the
ocean surface does not precisely conform to this, but
has a complex pattern of small undulations induced by
a combination of the local water depth and gravity
field, which is related to the density of the surrounding
Fig. 6. ASTER DEM rocks. By systematically observing the height of the
(Tunisia; NPA Satellite Mapping). ocean geoid from satellites over many hundreds of

192 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Environmental applications
All the aerial, satellite and computer mapping
techniques discussed above clearly have many
important applications in the environmental field, with
the added dimension that monitoring temporal changes
is far more significant in the environmental domain
than it is for geology. Satellites are highly efficient and
cost-effective for repeated imaging and long-term
monitoring. Furthermore, their design is generally
much better adapted to detecting vegetation and soil
changes or mapping coastal ecology, for example, than
it is for geology. With the rapidly growing awareness
of the need for environmental responsibility, we can be
Fig. 7. Satellite image, offshore gravity sure that many projects in sensitive areas will work
interpretation and seepage detection against an environmental baseline developed using
(Oman; NPA Satellite Mapping). historically archived satellite data and will be
monitored with the latest satellites as they become
available. These techniques are also applicable to
orbits and extracting the mean result showing subtle exploration and production facilities, and to pipelines
ocean surface gradients, highly detailed maps and processing plants, where physical security from
revealing ocean bathymetry and offshore gravity can ground movement or incursion is as important as the
be derived. Although these do not replace highly environmental aspects.
accurate swath bathymetry and shipborne gravity The latest developments in satellite radar
surveys carried out later in the exploration process, interferometry (Fig. 8) provide the ability to measure
they nevertheless permit low cost reconnaissance ground movements or relative changes in the Earth’s
surveys in the world’s last remaining frontier offshore surface down to the millimetric level, which is much
basins, especially when coupled with the satellite radar better than we can currently achieve with GPS. As a
offshore seep detection method described above (see consequence, not only may we detect the incipient
again Fig. 7). The first ocean altimeters were US movement of soil creep as a precursor to landslips
military missions such as Geosat launched in the affecting pipes or industrial facilities, but we can
1980s and not declassified until the 1990s, but the measure the ground subsidence above reservoirs as
density of global observations has been greatly they are depleted and monitor the possible
increased by more recent civilian missions such as environmental effects. This may lead to pipelines and
Topex/Poseidon and the altimeters mounted on the two other installations in sensitive or unstable areas being
ERS satellites (which also have created the bulk of the equipped with special reflectors or transponders to
archives of radar imagery of the ocean surface used for facilitate the satellite measurements and monitoring.
oil seep detection). There are also possible applications in the reservoir
engineering field, since this kind of mapping may help
Global Positioning and Communications Systems understand the stochastic response of the reservoirs.
Discussion of the contribution to exploration from
space would be incomplete without mentioning Global The future of the remote sensing instruments
Positioning Satellites and Communication Satellites. and technologies
Handheld or even wristwatch GPS devices capable of Many new Earth observation satellites are planned
pinpointing latitude and longitude to a few metres are for launch, particularly high resolution optical and
now commonplace, but we should not forget that radar imaging systems. There will undoubtedly also be
geologists often had to rely on astronomical more ‘hyperspectral’ imaging satellites with hundreds
observations to be sure of their position in the field, of spectral bands which will greatly improve our
even as recently as the 1970s. Furthermore satellite ability to distinguish and map different rock types,
telephones now allow the field party not only to talk to although vegetation and soil cover will remain a
base and home, whether from onshore or offshore, but problem. We can also expect to see increasingly
also to transmit maps, images, field data, reference detailed digital elevation models of the Earth’s surface
material to and from central archives via the Internet. which will help with geological interpretation,
Of course, once again, we might not have these planning access and environmental protection.
convenient tools were they not developed first for However, hydrocarbon accumulations are
military use. generally found at some depth below the Earth’s

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 193


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Fig. 8. Subsidence
pattern over the Jibal
oil field (Oman),
produced from satellite
radar interferometry:
each colour fringe
represents 28 mm
of subsidence
(Oman; NPA Satellite
Mapping).

surface, yet for the time being the tools we have view remain airborne developments. One area which might
only the surface. Ideally the aim would be to have have some promise is the use of satellite radar
some spaceborne or airborne tool capable of interferometry to detect millimetric changes in Earth
revealing hydrocarbons at depth. This still seems surface elevation with time. As mentioned above,
some way off. We know that hydrocarbons do seep to existing radar satellites are already being used in this
the surface in most if not all basins, but onshore most way to monitor small amounts of subsidence over oil
obvious surface manifestations are already known. and gas fields as they are depleted. The technique is
One significant outcome of the global offshore radar so sensitive (capable of resolving changes down to the
seepage detection method mentioned above is that millimetric level) it might provide clues to subsurface
offshore, seepage patterns are much more widespread reservoirs and their likely contents (oil or gas) by
and pervasive than we might expect from onshore pinpointing differential surface changes with Earth
evidence alone, as – onshore – it is clear we are not tide state. Environmental satellites are already
seeing the full picture because of the intervening compared with medical technology as providing a
mask of overburden, soil and vegetation. The more ‘health-check on planet Earth’. In geological terms
subtle effects, such as gas seepage, are still extremely we can expect that future space missions will provide
difficult to detect even with painstaking methods on both spectroscopic and tomographic analysis of the
the ground, let alone from the air or space. Even well Earth’s surface, all contributing to our knowledge of
exposed rocks strongly altered by the long term the sub-surface where oil and gas still lie hidden. A
effects of seeping gaseous hydrocarbons have proved futuristic vision perhaps, but not so far-fetched
extremely difficult to distinguish with existing considering the leap we have already made from hill
spectral or thermal sensors. We should expect to see top visual observation to the space age of the early
some progress in this area as more sophisticated 21st century.
satellites, particularly hyperspectral, are put into
operation, but it should be borne in mind that the
main applications for such satellite are unlikely to be Bibliography
oil exploration alone. In terms of remote mapping of
the subsurface (i.e. non seismic) we could expect that Berger Z. (1994) Satellite hydrocarbon exploration. Interpretation
and integration techniques, Berlin-New York, Springer.
there will be improvements in the sensitivity and
Bernhardsen T. (2002) Geographic Information Systems. An
capability of airborne techniques such as magnetics introduction, Chichester, John Wiley.
and gravity, but these are unlikely to be achieved Drury S.A. (1987) Image interpretation in geology, London,
from the altitude of orbiting satellites and so will Allen & Unwin.

194 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Foster N.H., Beaumont E.A. (edited by) (1992) Photogeol- observing platforms and sensors; v.II (1998) Principles
ogy and photogeomorphology, Tulsa (OK), American and applications of imaging radar; v.III (1999) Remote
Association of Petroleum Geologists. sensing for the Earth sciences.
Foster N.H., Beaumont E.A. (edited by) (1992) Remote Wolf P.R., Devitt B.A. (2000) Elements of photogrammetry
sensing, Tulsa (OK), American Association of Petroleum with applications in GIS, Boston (MA), McGraw-Hill.
Geologists.
Maune D. (edited by) (2001) Digital elevation model Nigel Press
technologies and applications, Bethesda (MD), American
Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. NPA Group
Prost G. (2001) Remote sensing for geologists, New York, Edenbridge, Kent, United Kingdom
Taylor & Francis.
Ryerson R.A. (editor in chief) (1997- ) Manual of remote
Mattia Sella
sensing, Bethesda (MD), American Society for Eni - Divisione E&P
Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; v.I (1997) Earth San Donato Milanese, Milano, Italy

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 195


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

2.2.2 Geological surveying exploration of the subsurface structures in the Po


Valley.
Geological surveying is the earliest investigation The main aim of a geological survey is to produce
method in oil exploration. It was first used in the mid a map which shows the distribution of outcropping
19th century when researchers began to realize that the rocks (geological map). Geological maps are generally
presence of reservoirs was linked to the geometry of plotted on existing topographic bases; if no
the rocks (traps) and their lithological characteristics, topographic base exists for the area in question, one
and that at times it was possible to find the evidence of will have to be produced ad hoc. This is presently done
deep geometries in outcrops. Most areas with these using remote surveying methods (satellite images,
characteristics have now been fully explored, even if aerophotogrammetry, etc.).
mapping structural lineaments on a large scale from Outcropping rocks, identified mainly on the basis
satellite images is still useful for regional studies. of their lithologic characteristics by means of
Geological surveying is now performed chiefly to surveying techniques (Low, 1957; Lahee, 1961;
support geophysical surveys, especially for exploration Cremonini, 1973; Damiani, 1984), are shown on the
in areas where only indirect data (seismology, geological map.
gravimetry, etc.) are available.
In this type of survey, geological data are The concept of formation
systematically collected to obtain information about A formation is a geological body whose lithologic
the geological features of a given area. The results of characteristics observable on the field, which are not
observations on the ground must be supplemented necessarily uniform, allow for its identification and
with stratigraphic, structural, petrographic, characterization. Rocks with sedimentary origin are
sedimentologic and palaeontologic analyses, which particularly important in hydrocarbon exploration. The
allow for synthetic charts and diagrams to be produced lithology of a sedimentary body is the result of the
(geological maps and sections, stratigraphic columns sedimentation environment, therefore the geologist’s
and drawings) in order to trace the rocks present in the task is to study the correspondence between
area in question, their surface distribution and their sedimentation environments, their vertical evolution
spatial relationships. and their lateral changes.
Geological surveying is fundamental to The stratigraphic position of a formation is of
hydrocarbon geology because it defines the fundamental importance: rocks with the same
stratigraphy of the region and therefore the presence lithologic and sedimentologic characteristics but of a
of potential source rocks, reservoir rocks and sealing different age are attributed to different formations;
rocks, as well as the structural configuration of the coeval rocks with different lithology, formed within
area to explore. Since most structures containing different sedimentary environments, are also attributed
hydrocarbons are buried and cannot be observed to different formations.
from ground level, geological surveying can be There are numerous criteria which distinguish one
performed in areas close to the hydrocarbon formation from another. Lithology may differ even
exploration zone when there are similarities within the same formation: some formations have
(lithologic, stratigraphic, structural, etc.) between fairly uniform lithology (such as the Dolomia
buried and outcropping rocks. Information obtained Principale), while others have two alternating
from the geological survey must then be extrapolated lithologies (e.g. the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation).
to the exploration area. For example, potential Other distinctive criteria include: bedding
reservoir rocks, which contain hydrocarbon characteristics, which may be massive (e.g. Dolomia
reservoirs in the Po Valley, and the relative sealing dello Sciliar in reef environment) or more complex
rocks, outcrop extensively in the Alps. Geological (like the Dolomia Principale in shelf environment as
surveying, carried out along the Alpine chain by mentioned above); colour (Scaglia Rossa, which is
generations of geologists, has provided a full picture different from Scaglia Cinerea); sedimentologic
of the stratigraphic sequence widely used for deep characteristics (the Arenarie di Serravalle are much

196 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

more cemented than the Sabbie di Asti); age (the last In the case of stratigraphic contact, the surface
two formations date to the Miocene and Pliocene separating the two formations is represented by a line
respectively). At times age may not be identifiable which indicates the intersection of said surface with
directly on the field studying macrofossils, but only by the topographic surface: if the layers are horizontal,
means of micro-palaeontologic lab examination. Some the line runs horizontally, that is, parallel to the
of the formations mentioned above were named contour lines; if the layers dip in an opposite
adopting lithological criteria, using the name of the direction to that of the slope, the line follows the
location where the formation has its best contour lines, rounding their curvature; if the layers
characterisation. It is in this location that the formation dip in the same direction as that of the slope, but with
is generally described in lithologic, sedimentologic reduced inclination compared to that of the slope, the
and palaeontologic terms, measuring its thickness, and line accentuates the curvature of the contour lines. If
interpreting the environment and vertical and lateral the lines dip in the same direction as that of the
variations. slope, but with greater inclination to that of the slope,
Hydrocarbon exploration can reach formations the line curves in the opposite direction to the
which do not outcrop or which in any case can be countour lines. Finally, in vertical formations the
assessed more effectively in the subsurface; many line is straight and follows the strike of the
formations have recently been identified and formations. Palaeontologic data (mainly
described during hydrocarbon exploration. In many macrofossils), sedimentologic data (such as the
cases a formation is known better in the subsurface, bottom marks of the formations which allow the
when it has been drilled by wells during exploration direction of provenance of clastic sediments to be
activities, rather than from its outcrops. Moreover, a determined), petrographic, structural and
formation is often not as deformed in the subsurface geochemical data can also be collected on the field.
so it can be defined better; as an example, the Frio Finally the data collected are processed; this step,
Formation in the Oligocene rocks of Texas (Galloway which either follows or alternates with field work, is
et al., 1982), or the Cellino Formation in lower essential for an exhaustive geological survey. A
Pliocene rocks of central Italy (Casnedi, 1983) can be geological survey can be completed with delimitation
considered. of the formations when their contact on the field
cannot be observed due to vegetable cover or
Geological maps inaccessibility. Stratimetric data are used to trace or
A geological map is the output of a systematic complete boundary lines because they allow
process generally involving different steps. interpolation and extrapolation of the relative
Firstly, a preliminary study is carried out with orientation of the formations, bearing in mind, as
quick surveys throughout the studied area; a geologist already mentioned, the trend of the beddings compared
can identify the main outcropping formations and their to the dip of the slope. A network of interpretative
stratigraphic relationships. geological sections provides useful indications to
The area is then mapped in increasing detail. check the precision of the field survey.
During this stage the geologist obtains more During this stage the nature of the tectonic surfaces
information about the formations present in the area, surveyed on the field is interpreted: if the sequence is
identifies units inside them in more detail stratigraphically normal and the erosion phenomena
(formations can be divided into members) and have acted above all on raised areas, a fault will cause
establishes the relative stratigraphic relationships, the older formations to outcrop on the raised side.
i.e. superposition or lateral transition if the Correct tracing of the fault surfaces will allow the dip
formations are coeval. At the same time stratimetric of the fault plane, to be identified, therefore
data are collected (strike, dip and inclination of the distinguishing between tension faults, where the
formations); these data are used when establishing lowered side coincides with the dip of the fault plane
the formation superposition relationships and the and compression faults, where the opposite situation
structural setting of the area. The map must indicate, occurs. Fold phenomena, if not directly identified in
as accurately as possible, the boundary between the field (as in the case of large scale folds) can also
formations when they are in contact. When the be reconstructed during the map production stage: in
boundary lines are traced, it is important to specify an anticlinal fold the bedding planes dip away from the
whether the contact between the two formations is fold axis and in most cases older rocks outcrop along
stratigraphic, corresponding to a normal the core of the fold, normally corresponding to the
chronological sequence or if it is tectonic, caused by axis. A fold where the opposite situation occurs is
a deformation (fault), which displaces the rocks in an called synclinal. Fold geometries are also determined
irregular manner. by analysing the geological map, especially if

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 197


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Fig. 1. Block diagram towards axis


of a folded region of depression
with undulating fold axes
(elevation or culmination
axis of elevation
axes and depression axes);
1-6, strata in age sequence
(Jaroszewski, 1984). axis of depression

6
5
4
3
2
towards axis
of elevation 1

accompanied by the relative block diagram (Fig. 1): an Thematic maps


anticlinal fold can have zones where folding is more Geological cartography can provide thematic
pronounced (structural culmination) or less products, which refer to specific aspects of scientific
pronounced (structural depression); the same occurs interest or of application to hydrocarbon exploration.
for synclinal folds. Structural culminations are a The maps used in hydrocarbon exploration, which
favourable site for hydrocarbon accumulation (see include surface and subsurface data, for three-
Chapter 1.3). dimensional evaluation of rock bodies, are:
Finally, petrographic and sedimentologic studies structural maps, isopach maps, isolith maps,
are performed in the laboratory to obtain the lithofacies maps, palaeogeographic maps and
chemical-mineralogical compositions palinspastic maps.
of the formations; sedimentologic studies are carried There are two types of structural maps: those
out at the same time to define the environment in representing outcropping areas of the major structural
which sedimentation took place and to define the units (for example, the structural map of the Alps,
texture of the sediments (size, shape and which indicate the outcropping cartography of
arrangement of the constituent elements). These Helvetides, Pennides, Austrides, etc.) and those with
studies are useful in hydrocarbon exploration as they greater detail and of higher hydrocarbon interest which
are informative of the petrophysical characteristics indicate the structure of each formation in the
of potential reservoir rocks and mainly of their subsurface by means of contours. These more detailed
porosity. Palaeontologic analyses are of utmost maps are used to represent the structure of a reservoir
importance: while a macrofossil can be identified rock, allowing hydrocarbon-bearing areas to be
directly in the field, the study of microfossils identified in the structurally higher parts of the
and their associations, the cornerstone reservoir rocks.
of stratigraphy, is carried out on thin sections Isopach maps represent the distribution of the
and residue of appropriately chosen washed samples thickness of a given formation using isolines; if it is
using a microscope. Geochemical analyses reservoir rock, the map gives information about the
can be performed on samples of source rock volume of the reservoir.
(for oil-source rock correlation studies) or on oil In formations with different lithologies, isolith
and gas samples when surface shows occur. maps represent the thickness of a single lithotype by
A well-planned geological survey is based on the means of isolines; each isoline indicates a given
collaboration of surveyors, working in the field or in thickness of the lithotype in question; in hydrocarbon
the office studying the data collected, and analysts exploration this is generally the porous-permeable
such as petrographers, above all sedimentary fraction (e.g. in an interbedded sand and shale
petrographers, and micropalaeontologists, working in formation only the thickness of the sand that can
the laboratory. contain hydrocarbons is indicated).

198 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Lithofacies maps represent the lithofacies of (georeferencing, electronic compasses, digital


formations for a given chronological interval, models of the ground, stereophotogrammetry,
highlighting porous-permeable lithofacies, satellite images, etc.) allow digital databases to be
supplementing surface data with data obtained from created in order to supplement cartographic products
drilling. This lithofacies map provides a picture of (often three-dimensional) with the relative lithologic,
potential reservoir areas. Superposing on it the structural, petrographic data, etc.
lithofacies map of the chronologically higher interval
helps identifying areas where impervious lithofacies,
which may represent seals (sealing rock), overlie 2.2.3 Petrography
those with porous-permeable lithofacies (potential
reservoir rock); this stratigraphic requirement is Petrography is the study of the genetic processes of
necessary for the presence of hydrocarbons in the rocks, their structure and composition. Since, with
reservoirs. rare exceptions, hydrocarbons are closely linked to
Palaeogeographic maps represent the geography sedimentary rocks in terms of origin, migration and
of a region in the reference period and therefore the accumulation, only the petrography of sedimentary
distribution and altitude of emerged areas, coastlines rocks (Pettijohn, 1957; Bosellini et al., 1989; Blatt,
and submerged areas, with the depth of the sea in the 1992; Tucker, 2001), and in particular their nature,
period in question. These maps are used in composition and classification, will be discussed.
hydrocarbon exploration to identify stratigraphic In the oil industry, quantitative analyses and
traps (see Chapter 1.3). petrographic studies are carried out using optical and
Palinspastic maps indicate the original position of electronic microscopy, diffractometry and X-ray
formations, before subsequent dislocations modified fluorescence allow to determine the composition of the
the primary relationships. constituent parts of rocks, identify autigenous
Traditional tools such as compasses and elements (cements) formed during the burial of the
altimeters can be supplemented with more modern rocks, highlight dissolution phenomena of given
instruments such as GPS (Global Positioning constituents, reconstruct the succession of the
System) for direct georeferencing of points surveyed cementation-dissolution events affecting the sediment
– using a network of geostationary satellites – and to determine its present structure and, finally, through
electronic compasses with digital memory, which image analysis, specify the geometric characteristics
allow immediate storage of measured data. These of the porous component of the sediment.
instruments facilitate data entry in digital form. Petrographic studies are carried out on samples
Particular features of the ground (morphology, of rocks obtained from well cores and outcrops and
rock fracturing) can be acquired by means of on drilling cuttings (small fragments of rock
stereophotogrammetry in which three dimensional produced by the bit and carried to the surface along
photographs of significant outcrops such as quarries, with the drilling mud). The data are then entered in
rock walls and landslides are reconstructed. the sedimentologic and geological model of the
Cartography produced directly on the field can also basin to predict the quality, in terms of reservoir
be supplemented with information obtained from characteristic (porosity and permeability), of the
remote measuring (aerophotogrammetry, satellite sedimentary rocks also in zones where no drilling
images, etc.). is being carried out.
The data can be processed using GIS (Geographic Important information is obtained which, along
Information System), a system developed to manage, with other data, is used to assess whether an
handle and analyse spatial data (digital numerical exploration well should be drilled or a programme
cartography); thus data for which the geographic prepared to develop the reservoirs identified.
coordinates (latitude, longitude and, when available,
altitude) are known or can be calculated are used. Frequency of sedimentary rocks
DEM (Digital Elevation Model) processing, Endogenic processes are responsible for the
where mapped data correspond to the average origin of the magmatic rocks while sedimentary
elevation of the ground at that point, is important in rocks originate from exogenous processes.
cartography. Models can be obtained from remotely Consequently, the frequency of the latter increases
measured images or by digitalising existing gradually approaching the Earth’s surface. While
topographic maps. the Earth’s crust contains less than 5% of
Thematic maps (topographic, geological, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks of
morphological, structural, etc.) produced with the aid sedimentary genesis, most (around 75%)
of the methods and tools described above outcropping rocks are of sedimentary origin.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 199


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

The main reason for the abundance of control-factors groups families examples
outcropping sedimentary rocks is chemical
instability, or metastability, of magmatic rocks in the epiclastic sandstones
presence of atmosphere. Indeed, rocks and minerals granular
are in equilibrium only in the physical-chemical
conditions in which they are formed. The formation hydrodynamic
processes allochemical limestones
temperatures and pressures of magmatic rocks are
much higher than those measured on the Earth’s
surface. Moreover, the deep environments in which

sedimentary rocks and main control-factors


they form contain smaller quantities of oxygen, precipitate salt
crystalline
water, carbon dioxide and organic material,
substances which enrich the sedimentary rocks
chemical
through oxidation, hydration, hydrolysis and processes diagenetic dolomite
salification processes.

Classification of sedimentary rocks


There are two main classification criteria: the secretional reefs
biogenic
first is based on the genesis of the rocks, the other on
their chemical-mineralogical composition. The two
biochemical
criteria often relate to the same types of rock, secretion fixed stromatolites
because the genesis of a sediment affects its
composition.
Genetic criterion. The original rock, exposed to
the action of atmospheric agents, is degraded through inorganic soils
residual
physical processes (disaggregation) and chemical
processes (alteration). Most disaggregation products chemical and/or
physical weathering
(clasts) are removed and transported (in suspension organic coal
or by rolling) by water courses and the wind, giving
rise to epiclastic rocks made up of particles which
sediment through settling; other particulate or Fig. 2. General chart of sedimentary rocks
granular rocks include pyroclastic rocks, of volcanic based on their genetic-textural characteristics
origin, and allochemical rocks such as oolitic (Bosellini et al., 1989).
limestone and limestone formed by fossil fragments.
Chemical alteration creates products generally
transported in solution in meteoric water which The terrigenous components comprise particles
sediment through precipitation, following generated by the disaggregation and fragmentation of
evaporation or variation of chemical equilibriums, to existing rocks, eroded and transported individually in
form crystalline rocks of sedimentary origin. These the sedimentation basin. Alteration takes place over
rocks should not be mistaken for those of time, modifying the chemical-mineralogical
metamorphic origin. After sedimentation, diagenesis composition of the rock (Fig. 4). The most important
of the limestone, which takes place upon ionic terrigenous rocks are quartz (35-50%), feldspars
exchange with the sea water, can give rise to the (5-15%), clay minerals (25-35%), micas and heavy
formation of dolomites. minerals (less than 1%), fragments of rocks
The part of rock not removed after degradation or and chert (5-25%).
decomposition remains in situ and forms the residual The allochemical components consist of particles
rocks. The action of living organisms forms formed through chemical precipitation or organic
organogenous or bioconstructed rocks consisting secretion directly in the sedimentation basin where
entirely of skeletons or fragments of shells of they can move and accumulate.
animals or vegetables (reefs formed mainly of corals Orthochemical components are chemical
and algae) or by carbonatic fixation by vegetables precipitates formed in the sedimentation basin, such
(stromatolites) (Fig. 2). as evaporites, or products of solutions circulating
Compositional criterion. The main components within the same sediment, such as cement.
of sedimentary rocks are terrigenous rocks, Genetic criteria (sandstone), compositional
allochems and orthochems (Bosellini et al., criteria (carbonate rocks) or both (shale) are used to
1989, Fig. 3). describe the different sedimentary rocks.

200 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

terrigenous T. Terrigenous rocks - example: many argillites,


sandstones and conglomerates.
They form the 65-75% of the sedimentary rocks;
the main part falls in the dark area.

Ai. Impure allochemical rocks - example:


very fossiliferous clays, sandy limestones, marls.
T They form the 10-15% of the sedimentary rocks.

Oi. Impure orthochemical rocks - example:


50% 50% clayey gypsum.
They form the 2-5% of the sedimentary rocks.

A. Allochemical rocks - example: oolitic


Ai Oi and fossiliferous limestones.
They form the 8-15% of the sedimentary rocks.
10% 10% O. Orthochemical rocks - example: salt, anhydrite,
A 10% O chert. They form the 2-8% of the sedimentary rocks.
allochemical orthochemical

Fig. 3. Triangular diagram to classify sedimentary rocks on the basis of their three main components
(Bosellini et al., 1989).
casnedi2_f3

sequences with thicknesses of up to several


kilometres form in the turbidite fans. Shales mainly
comprise clay minerals, originating from hydrolysis
quartz
of silicates with quartz and feldspars prevailing in the
silts. They are extremely porous but impervious and
clays
feldspars are therefore an excellent sealing rock but do not
offer accumulation possibilities as a reservoir rock.
% of minerals

When subject to overburden and pressure in general


ferromagnesian they are compressed, losing their porosity, and are
minerals called argillites (or pelites or lutites).
Sandstones include all detrital rocks consisting of
particles with a diameter of more than 62 mm; when
the sandstones are not compact they are called sands.
If the particles are more than 2 mm, sandstones are
weathering intensity classified as conglomerate (gravel if not coherent,
breccia if consisting of elements with angular edges).
Fig. 4. Variation in the mineralogical
composition of a sand of granite origin subject
Their composition depends on the rocks they originate
to gradual alteration in a temperate climate from: quartz and feldspars, especially acid ones,
(Bosellini et al., 1989). dominate and are the most stable minerals. Alteration
processes tend to transform less stable minerals, such
as amphiboles, pyroxenes, olivine and, in general, the
Types of sedimentary rocks more basic ones which are therefore less frequent.
The main types of sedimentary rocks are: shale Sandstone is called mature when the chemical
(60%), sand, sandstone, gravel and conglomerates alteration has acted over a long period of time and
(20%), carbonate rocks such as limestone and with greater intensity both in the area of origin and
dolomites (15%); along with these there are, in much during transport. In parallel, physical agents such as
smaller percentages, evaporites, particularly halite and transport have an effect: rolling has an abrasive effect
sulphates. and tends to smooth the edges, rounding the particles.
Shales are formed by particles with a diameter of After sedimentation, the most important diagenetic
less than 4 mm; alongside silts, with dimensions of process is cementation through precipitation, due to
between 4 and 62 mm. For this reason, these particles solutions circulating in the rock pores. Cementation is
can be easily kept in suspension also by very weak decisive in calculating porosity values.
currents. Larger accumulations of shale are found on Sandstones are classified on the basis of the
the continental shelves or, interbedded with dimensions of the particles or as a function of their
sandstone, at the foot of continental slopes where mineralogical composition. Distinction according to

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 201


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

dimensions uses a geometric scale: from 116 mm mineral, dolomite, has the formula CaMg(CO3)2.
(62.5 mm) to 18 mm, very fine sand (or sandstone); Scientific interest for carbonate rocks is accentuated
from 18 to 14 mm fine sand; from 14 to 12 mm by their fossil content: indeed, it is above all through
medium sand; from 12 to 1 mm coarse sand; from palaeontologic study of remains contained in
1 to 2 mm very coarse sand. The same classification is carbonate rocks that the history of the Earth and its
used for rocks with larger grain-size such as biological evolution has been traced.
conglomerates. Classification based on mineralogical Along with their link to the biological world,
composition is more complex: instead of the complex carbonate rocks are different from other sedimentary
classical terminology, with numerous terms to rocks because they deposit in situ, without the
represent the various types of sandstone, the significant contribution of transport processes (except
classification method introduced at the beginning of for the case already mentioned of clastic carbonate
the 20th century by Amadeus William Grabau is rocks), because of their premature diagenesis and their
preferred, where rocks are defined with a composition which is often mono-mineral. Indeed its
compositional prefix and dimensional suffix (Grabau, constituent minerals are calcium carbonate (in the
1913). Of the sandstones, siliceous arenites, for forms of calcite and aragonite, often determined by a
example, have a silicate composition and suffix different crystalline status of the shells of the
deriving from the Latin arena “sand” and are organisms) or dolomite, originating from secondary
differentiated from calcarenites, dolarenites, processes following sedimentation; carbonate may on
gypsumarenites, etc. rare occasions be iron (siderite) or magnesium
This terminology can be extended to all detrital or (magnesite). Clay minerals are fairly frequent; their
clastic rocks, from the finest (for example siliceous presence gives rise to typical mixed rocks like marl-
lutites, from the Latin lutum “mud”) to the coarsest limestone and marl.
(for example siliceous rudites, from the Latin rudus Carbonate rocks are more complex to classify
“pebble”). Despite the fact that their genesis is than clastic rocks because not only their
different from that of carbonate rocks with chemical or mineralogical composition, but also their textural
organogenous origin, clastic rocks with carbonate and diagenetic characteristics, which best
composition (such as calcarenites) are generally characterize the type of rock, have to be taken into
described together with the latter, giving more consideration. The most widely adopted
importance to their composition than their genesis. classifications (Bosellini, 1991) are those proposed
Carbonate rocks originate from direct chemical by R.L. Folk in 1959 (Fig. 5) and the one developed
precipitation of CaCO3 or through fixation by by R.J. Dunham in 1962 (Fig. 6). Folk’s classification
organisms with carbonate shell or skeleton. The is based on textural components: allochems, i.e. the
formation of limestone is often followed, due to ionic various constituent particles; the matrix, comprising
exchange with salt water containing magnesium, by carbonate mud (micrite); the cement, formed by
their transformation into dolomites whose constituent sparry calcite or sparite. Dunham’s classification is

Fig. 5. Classification
main allochemicals other categories
of carbonate rocks
according fossils ooids peloids intraclasts
and bioclasts
to the terminology micrite
proposed by Folk (1959), with vugs
biomicrite oomicrite pelmicrite intramicrite (dismicrite)
based on textural
matrix > 2/3

components (fenestra, birdseye)


(Bosellini et al., 1989).
micrite
cement

biosparite oosparite pelsparite intrasparite biolitite


cement > 2/3

202 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Fig. 6. Classification of
carbonate rocks according depositional texture: recognizable not recognizable
to the terminology
proposed by Dunham
primary constituents (grains) not bound during deposition
(1962), based primary
on depositional texture constituents
mud present (grains < 30 µ m) mud absent bound during
(Bosellini et al., 1989). deposition
mud-supported texture grain-supported texture

grains < 10% grains > 10%

mudstone wackestone packstone grainstone boundstone crystalline


carbonates

more widely used and is based on the original particularly important; these have been related to the
depositional texture in relation to its hydrodynamic drying up stages of the sea, following the closure of
significance. This introduces the distinction between the Strait of Gibraltar.
particles without mud, deposited in a high energy Sedimentary rocks also include siliceous deposits
environment (reef), and mud supported particles, of biogenic origin, produced by the accumulation of
deposited in a relatively calm environment (lagoon). organisms with siliceous skeleton (sponge spicules,
The terms already described (calcarenite, etc.) can diatoms, radiolaria) and of diagenetic origin (chert
also be used for carbonate rocks of clastic origin. In nodules, lenses and beds), often present in the
carbonate rocks, porosity and permeability carbonate sequences; iron-manganese, phosphate and
characteristics relate mainly to secondary processes, coal deposits are also frequent. In hydrocarbon
particularly dolomitization. geology, anoxic sediments resulting from the
Rocks with evaporitic origin, less frequent than the sedimentation of organic matter in a reducing
others, play an important role in the oil industry environment are also important: for further
because they are impervious and can be typical sealing information about these sediments, closely linked to
rocks. They take their name from their origin, linked to hydrocarbon source rocks, see Chapter 1.2.
evaporation processes, particularly active in hot, arid
climates. Being highly soluble, these rocks can be
dissolved easily by meteoric water. 2.2.4 Principles of stratigraphy
Evaporation of salt water in a closed system causes and sedimentology
the gradual precipitation of salts in reverse order to
their solubility. The first to precipitate is calcium Stratigraphy
carbonate, whose poor solubility gives rise to the Stratigraphy studies the chronological sequence of
formation of carbonate rocks; these can also form with events influencing the Earth’s history, determining the
poor evaporation (precipitation is linked to the release space and time relationships of the rocks. Closely
of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere). The deposition related to sedimentation, stratigraphy also analyses
of calcium sulphate, in the form of anhydrite at high other phenomena such as magmatism, metamorphism,
temperatures, or gypsum and halite, with a much deformations, climatic variations and changes in the
higher salt concentration, follows. The last minerals to distribution of seas and emerged lands.
form, in smaller quantities due to their low As most of the chronological attributions are due to
concentration in salt water, are magnesium sulphate the study of fossils and the biological evolution of
and potassium chloride (silvite). sedimentary rocks, stratigraphy offers valid support to
Evaporation often does not take place in a closed palaeontology and sedimentology. Methods for
system: occasional contributions of salt water can defining the chronology of a stratigraphic sequence
cause innumerable repetitions and interbeddings. In are based on relative and absolute criteria.
the Mediterranean and surrounding areas for example, Relative chronology. The concept of sequence is a
the Upper Miocene evaporite sequences are relative criterion, linked to vertical, and therefore

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 203


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Fig. 7. The Grand Canyon


sedimentary sequence
of Colorado shows a
succession of formations
from the Precambrian
to the Tertiary
for a chronological
interval of more than
600 million years
(by courtesy of RIT,
New York).

time-related relationships of the stratigraphic units. chronological scale (chronostratigraphy), valid at a


The basic principle of relative chronology is the global level, which represents the basis for the history
principle of sedimentary superposition which assumes of the Earth.
that increasingly recent units progress from bottom up, Chronostratigraphy allows rock layers to be dated
except in a few, easily recognisable cases of intensely and relative time relationships to be established. The
deformed or overturned sequences. The most geochronological unit refers exclusively to the time
spectacular example of application of the sedimentary interval in which a certain sequence of rocks
superposition principle can be seen in the Grand deposited; in the chronostratigraphic unit geological
Canyon in Colorado (Fig. 7), where the formations time is represented by the same sequence.
outcrop in regular succession from the Precambrian to Chronostratigraphic units therefore offer a
the Tertiary for a time interval of more than representation of the Earth’s history: in decreasing
600 million years. This principle is confirmed by hierarchical order eras, periods, epochs and ages
palaeontology, which identifies increasingly evolved depending on their importance and relative duration
fossils in the vertical succession. (see the data offered by the International Commission
The second principle is that of correlation, where on Stratigraphy; Hedberg, 1976); geochronological
the chronological equivalence between units of units on the other hand only provide the time
different stratigraphic sequences is identified. This can numerical datum.
be established by comparing the lithological Other correlations are based on palaeomagnetism:
characteristics of the sequences (lithostratigraphy) and ferromagnetic minerals, if placed in a magnetic field,
distinguishing the various units (formations) and sub- are magnetised and remain so during cooling; this
units (members). Oil exploration has combined fixes the characteristics of the magnetic field at the
surface lithological analysis on the Earth’s surface moment of crystallisation of said minerals. As the
with subsurface analysis: with electric and radioactive characteristics of the magnetic field vary over time,
logs of formations in boreholes it is possible to make their determination on oriented samples allows
correlations based on similarities between their magnetostratigraphy evaluations.
characteristics; in the same way, seismic surveys have Unconformities. The Earth’s surface is subject to
allowed sections to be traced which can be interpreted erosion due to the action of atmospheric agents: the
using stratigraphy (seismostratigraphy), with the continual movement of materials from the continents
possibility of reconstructing the geometry of to the oceans leads to the peneplanation of the surface
sedimentary bodies. A unit generally has a limited at the end of an orogenetic cycle until the invasion of
horizontal development because its lithology changes the sea in the previously emerged area (transgression)
with changes in the sedimentation environment; the triggers the next cycle. The products of erosion,
palaeontologic criterion (biostratigraphy) which allows deposited in a submarine environment, can give rise to
comparisons even between one continent and another a continual succession of stratigraphic units without
is preferred for wide-ranging correlations. This interruptions in sedimentation. In other cases, events
criterion has resulted in the definition of a generally linked to deformation stages, lead to an

204 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

interruption of sedimentation, shown by the lack of encountered in the subsurface, source and reservoir
corresponding units, often well documented by rocks in particular, in time and space. It also provides
palaeontology (sedimentary-chronological hiatus). The information for other studies such as correlations
most common case is that of the rise of one part of the between wells, interpretation of seismic data, basin
sequence with ensuing emersion (regression). During modelling and reservoir characterisation.
this stage, sedimentation can continue into the Micropalaeontology (the study of microfossils) is
continental environment but more often a partial or used to date sediments drilled and identify their
total dismantling and denudation process takes place original sedimentation environment; these micro-
due to the erosion agents. organisms are very small and so can be identified even
Subsequent transgression can give rise to new in small quantities of sediment or fragments of rocks
sedimentation and superposition of horizontal (e.g. cuttings). Microfossils are studied in different
formations on deformed ones (unconformity). Cases types of samples (washed samples, thin sections, etc.)
of stratigraphic unconformities are varied. using an optical microscope; the sequence is dated and
Oscillations in the level of the sea have above all the stratigraphic column of the well is reconstructed
affected the continental margins, giving rise to with the age and names of the stratigraphic units
variations in the coastline, with ensuing different drilled.
palaeogeography. The causes of these oscillations can Stratigraphy is also applied during drilling because
be global (eustatism) such as the increase in the position reached by the bit can be established by
temperature which leads to the melting of glaciers or identifying the formations drilled on the basis of the
local, such as volcanism or the deformation of the lithology and microfossils present, thus allowing
Earth’s crust. Eustatic variation curves have been subsequent operations to be planned more efficiently
reconstructed at a global level (Vail et al., 1977); these and above all giving a more precise forecast of the
are of major interest in the geology of hydrocarbons as times needed to reach the reservoir rock.
a lowering of the sea level (low-stand) activates Stratigraphy is therefore a very useful tool when
erosion phenomena and progradation into the sea of drilling directional wells. Finally, in-depth knowledge
sedimentary bodies where hydrocarbons can of formations being drilled allows direction variations
accumulate. to be set in order to intercept and follow the
Absolute chronology. While the principles of hydrocarbon-bearing formations.
relative chronology derive from direct study on the
field, those of absolute chronology are based on the Sedimentology
decay of radioactive elements present in the rocks. Sedimentology studies the nature and composition
Each radioactive element transforms, emitting of present and past sediments (sedimentary rocks) to
radiation, into one or more non-radioactive elements; identify their origin, the environment in which they are
i.e. stable elements. The time needed for a certain formed, their transport and depositing processes and
quantity of radioactive element to decay to half other processes which modify and transform the
(half-life) is constant for each isotope. Measuring this sedimentary accumulations (Ricci Lucchi, 1978;
time gives the absolute age of the rock. Thorium and Reineck e Singh, 1980; Selley, 1988; Zimmerle,
uranium decay (to lead and helium respectively) 1995).
measurements are used to date very old rocks; the Transport, deposition and sedimentation processes
transformation of thorium 232 into lead 208 has a and subsequent transformations affect porosity and
half-life of 2⋅ 1010 years. Measuring the ratio between permeability, the main parameters for hydrocarbon
common lead (204Pb) and radiogenic lead, i.e. accumulation.
originating from the decay of thorium and uranium In the oil industry this discipline is used mainly to
(206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) allows absolute age to be determine the areal distribution and geometry of rocks
determined. Uranium rich minerals such as that may constitute source rocks, migration paths,
pitchblende were used for the first datings; it was reservoirs, sealing rocks, facies variations and
noticed immediately that the rocks were much older therefore potential traps.
than the estimates, based on sedimentation rate, made At a regional basin scale, information obtained
previously. from wells already drilled and information from
Other old dating methods use the decay of surface geological surveys is important. Well data
rubidium, which transforms into strontium (half-life of give spatially limited information, while
91010 years) and potassium, which transforms into reconstruction of the sedimentary structures visible
calcium and argon. in outcrops allows geological-sedimentary models to
In the oil sector stratigraphy is fundamental be created and used as reference for interpretation of
because it classifies sedimentary sequences similar situations in the subsurface. At the smaller

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 205


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

reservoir scale, sedimentology allows detailed study Deformations of sedimentary rocks (Maltman,
of how the reservoir facies are distributed, providing 1994) are interesting for hydrocarbon geology; when
information which improves knowledge of the the rocks are subject to forces they undergo a strain
reservoir. and provide a stress which depends on their physical
state and geometrical shape. An incoherent cement
can therefore assume a particular strain state in
2.2.5 Tectonics and structural response to a light force with a limited stress, while
geology a lithified sediment will require a more intense
force, with major stress, to assume the same
Tectonics and structural geology study the movements strain state.
which have deformed and modelled the Earth’s crust. The first force acting on a sediment is gravity,
Movement can take place through the simple which, depending on the compressibility of the
transport of a rock body from one place to another or, sediment, produces a compaction strain associated
more commonly, through a deformation which breaks with a vertical stress, both increasing with depth
the rock or changes its shape and dimensions. according to a relationship which links geostatic load
Tectonics studies the history of these movements and to density and depth.
deformations from a regional to a global scale while Tangential forces determine different
structural geology ranges from a regional scale to deformations depending on the physical state of the
microscopic deformations (Boccaletti and Tortorici, sedimentary rock, its elasticity, homogeneity,
1987; Twiss and Moores, 1997). intensity with which the force acts as a function of
In the oil industry, tectonics is used to study time and pressure and temperature conditions. A first
deformations which have characterised the geological distinction is made between brittle deformations and
evolution of a sedimentary basin and which may have ductile deformations. The former occur in compact
contributed to creating favourable conditions for the rocks (limestone and sandstones), which react with
accumulation of hydrocarbons. fractures and faults, the latter occur on plastic and
Structural geology is used in more restricted areas incoherent rocks (shale and sands) which deform
to establish trap formation processes and times. With through folding.
structural geology studies it is possible to define the If the force acts with low intensity but over long
current configuration, reconstruct the progressive periods of time, a compact rock can deform
evolution of the deformations over time (cinematic plastically; in the same way, high temperatures and
synthesis) and establish the relationships existing pressures favour plastic deformations (for example,
between the forces applied and the resulting folds in limestone and compact sandstone). On the
deformations (dynamic synthesis). This discipline also contrary, high intensity forces over short periods of
studies the fracturing processes which may, in time can produce brittle deformations in plastic
carbonate rocks for example, have led to favourable rocks (e.g. fractures and faults in shales). An
petrophysical conditions for the formation of influential factor is the homogeneity of the
reservoirs. sedimentary sequence: limestone and sandstone

conjugate fault orientations

antithetic
faults main fault
half-grabens main fault
horst synthetic horst
faults half-grabens
detachment
fault graben
detachment
fault

listric
fault listric
fault

Fig. 8. System of direct faults normally characterised by a main fault associated with secondary faults
and by low angle detachment faults (Twiss and Moores, 1997).
casnedi2_f08

206 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Fig. 9. Diagram thrust fault trace klippe


of an overthrust nappe thrust fault trace
(allochthon) in compression
style which overlies
the autochthon sequence allochthon
with thrust fault.
autochthon
The autochthon sequence
is exposed in a tectonic
window and a klippe window
represents the most external
allochthon sequence,
separated from the nappe
by erosion thrust fault
(Twiss and Moores, 1997).

incur almost always brittle deformations if they are deformations. The data obtained can be on all scales:
in massive bedding; if they interbed with shale, as in for example, well samples and logs provide
turbidite sequences, the entire sequence will tend to information at a scale of a few mm to just over 1 m,
deform plastically in folds even with short bend while data obtained from seismics or satellite images
radius. are obviously on a larger scale, from some tens of m to
The deformation style is fundamental in several km. Three-dimensional geological-structural
hydrocarbon geology, as is the sealing rock/structural models can be reconstructed when a full set of data is
trap system (see Chapter 1.3). There are many cases of available.
deformations with faults, of tensional (direct faults,
Fig. 8) and compressional (reverse faults) origin,
whose most evident effect is the nappe structure which References
characterises the mountain ranges (Fig. 9), in particular
the Alpine chain (Fig. 10). Fold phenomena also result Blatt H. (1992) Sedimentary petrology, New York, W.H.
in structural traps which can be identified by the Freeman.
morphology of the folds, in particular of their axial Boccaletti M., Tortorici L. (1987) Appunti di geologia
strutturale, Bologna, Patron.
culminations (Fig. 1).
Bosellini A. (1991) Introduzione allo studio delle rocce
Other techniques provide all the information needed to carbonatiche, Ferrara, Bovolenta.
define fractured systems and reconstruct the structural Bosellini A. et al. (1989) Rocce e successioni sedimentarie,
Torino, UTET.
48° Casnedi R. (1983) Hydrocarbon-bearing submarine fan
Helvetic Dent Blanche system of Cellino formation, Central Italy, «American
and Ultrahelvetic klippe Association of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 67,
nappes Austroalpine nappes
Tauern window 359-370.
Cremonini G. (1973) Rilevamento geologico, Bologna,
Giura
Southern Alps Pitagora.
46°
Damiani A.V. (1984) Geologia sul terreno e rilevamento
geologico, Bologna, Grasso.
Pennine nappes Dunham R.J. (1962) Classification of carbonate rocks
according to depositional texture, «American Association
Apennines of Petroleum Geologists. Memoir», 1, 108-121.
44° Adriatic Sea Folk R.L. (1959) Practical petrographic classification of
Ligurian Sea limestones, «American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
6° 8° 10° 12° 14° Bulletin», 43, 1-38.
Galloway W.E. et al. (1982) Frio formation of Texas Gulf
Fig. 10. Structural map of the Alps coastal plain. Depositional systems, structural framework,
with the distribution of the main formations. and hydrocarbon distribution, «American Association of
The Austroalpine nappes overlie the Pennides Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 66, 649-688.
– outcropping in two tectonic windows Grabau A.W. (1913) Principles of stratigraphy, New York,
(Engadina and Tauri) – which in turn overlie Seiler.
the Helvetides. Outside the chain the folded Hedberg H.D. (editor) (1976) International stratigraphic guide.
autochthon Giura sequence A guide to stratigraphic classification, terminology and
(Twiss and Moores, 1997). procedure, New York, John Wiley.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 207


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Jaroszewski W. (1984) Fault and fold tectonics, Chichester, Twiss R.J., Moores E.M. (1997) Structural geology, New York,
Hellis Horwood. W.H. Freeman.
Lahee F.H. (1961) Field geology, New York-London, McGraw- Vail P.R. et al. (1977) Relative change of sea level from coastal
Hill. onlap and global cycles of relative changes of sea level,
Low J.W. (1957) Geologic field methods, New York, Harper in: Payton C.E. (edited by) Seismic stratigraphy. Applications
& Brothers. to hydrocarbon exploration, «American Association of
Maltman A. (edited by) (1994) The geological deformation Petroleum Geologists. Memoir», 26, 63-98.
of sediments, London, Chapman & Hall. Zimmerle W. (1995) Petroleum sedimentology, Dordrecht-
Pettijohn F.J. (1957) Sedimentary rocks, New York, Harper Boston-London, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
& Brothers.
Reineck H.E., Singh I.B. (1980) Depositional sedimentary Raffaele Casnedi
environments, New York, Springer. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra
Ricci Lucchi F. (1973-1978) Sedimentologia, Bologna, Università degli Studi di Pavia
Cooperativa Libraria Universitaria, 3v. Pavia, Italy
Selley R.C. (1988) Applied sedimentology, London, Academic
Press. Mattia Sella
Tucker M.E. (2001) Sedimentary petrology. An introduction Eni - Divisione E&P
to the origin of sedimentary rocks, Cambridge, Blackwell. San Donato Milanese, Milano, Italy

208 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

2.2.6 Subsurface geology using the gas interpretation, to determine the presence
of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Introduction
Subsurface geology is the study of drilled Cuttings
geological formations and the fluids they may The cutting size depends on the type of bit used,
contain (gas, oil, and/or water). Such studies take i.e. the longer the bit teeth, the bigger the cuttings. For
place on a rig site, where the oil company geologist example, Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC)
supervises the work done by a service company bits scratch the formation, making very small cuttings
specialist (a mud logger or a diagraphist). In the which are quite difficult to analyse. Once at the
geology laboratory unit on the rig site, the geologist surface, the mud goes from the flowline to the shale
studies the cuttings available for the entire drilled shakers where the cuttings are separated from the mud.
length of the well, the cores which are taken from A container or board may be placed under the shale
places of interest and the sidewall cores which are shaker in order to recover part of the cuttings which
taken after drilling in important zones where no will be collected and analysed by the geologist or the
cores were taken before. A gas detector and a gas mud logger (Fig. 1).
chromatograph linked to a mud degasser provide Large-sized cuttings (more than 5 mm), called
information about the output of gas from the mud cavings, fall from the hole wall and are not drilled
stream. Gas detection is extremely important for from the bottom by the bit. Caving is a sign of well
security reasons and in order to determine the type instability and can create major problems, from stuck
of hydrocarbons in potential reservoirs. Other pipes to collapse of the well.
information regarding drilling parameters and mud Air drilling, also known as dusting the hole,
characteristics, such as density, resistivity and produces very fine cuttings, and a large quantity of
temperature, are sent to the laboratory from sensors sample must be taken in order to recover some useful
situated on the drilling rig. cuttings from the dust.
The above information allows the geologist to Mud loss in a well is another potential source of
establish an interpreted lithology column of the well, difficulty, as part of the cuttings are either lost or
to make correlations with neighbouring wells and, arrive late with respect to their theoretical lag time.

Fig. 1. Cuttings
under microscope
(courtesy of Geoservices
S.A.).

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 209


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

The addition of lost circulation materials to the mud, consideration the transit time of the gas from the
and the difficulty in eliminating them, makes analysis degasser to the gas detector.
more complicated.
Sampling
Lag time Different types of samples are taken by the
The time it takes the mud flow to carry the diagraphist and sent to clients for further analysis:
cuttings from the bottom of the well to the surface • Unwashed wet: 500 cm3 of raw samples
is known as the lag time. The general lag time (straight from the shale shaker) in a closed
formula is: plastic bag.
• Washed wet: 150 cm3 of washed samples in a
lag time (min)  well annular volume (l) / mud
sealed plastic bag.
flow rate (l//min)
• Washed and dried: 20 cm3 of washed samples
The annular volume is computed from: which have been oven dried, and stored in sealed
paper bags.
annular volume  open hole/s volume  casing
• Geochemical: 750 cm3 of raw samples, stored
internal volume  linear internal volume  riser
in a can and then covered with a bactericide
internal volume (for floating rigs)  external
solution; this type of sample is used for
volume of the drill string
geochemical studies.
The flow rate is given by: A spot sample is a small quantity of cuttings
taken for analysis only. Spot samples are taken at
flow rate  pump stroke volume  pump
the end of the circulation before a trip or when any
efficiency  number of pump strokes per minute
drastic variation in the rate of penetration indicates
It may also be useful to know how many pump a lithological variation.
strokes are needed to get the mud flow up from the
bottom: General analysis procedure
According to the geological program, the mud
lag strokes  annular volume / (pump stroke
logger will take a sample of cuttings at a given rate
volume  pump efficiency)
(e.g. every 5 m). For example, if the bit is drilling at
In deep offshore drilling a booster pump is a depth of 1,000 m at 12.00, knowing the lag time
sometimes needed to increase the mud velocity in (e.g. 45 min) the mud logger will take a sample on
the large diameter riser. When this is the case, the the shale shaker at 12.45. It should be noted that
time required for the mud to go from the bit to the what is recovered corresponds to the entire interval
wellhead and from the wellhead to the surface must from 995 m to 1,000 m.
be calculated separately and then added together. Back in the mud-logging unit, the first thing that
A problem arises from the fact that the lag time needs to be done is to check for fluorescence which
depends on the open hole diameter that is, in theory, may indicate oil staining: with this goal a small
the same as the bit diameter. In reality, however, amount of cuttings is viewed under an ultraviolet
caving may increase the hole volume quite a lot lamp called a fluoroscope.
making the calculated lag time less than the actual To obtain an accurate analysis, a constant
lag time. volume of cuttings must be washed through three
There are several techniques for checking the sieves (of 5 mm, 0.25 mm, and 0.063 mm), as
accuracy of the lag time. Originally, this was done shown in Fig. 2. With water based mud, the samples
by pouring red-dyed rice into the pipe at the are washed with water; with oil based mud, they are
surface, and letting the rice be carried to the bottom washed with diesel or oil from the mud, then the
by the mudflow and then back to the surface. samples are rinsed with detergent. A constant
Measuring the time it took for the rice to arrive on volume of samples is important when drilling soft
the shale shaker gave an accurate value of the so- clay; the argillaceous material is very small and will
called short cycle, which is the lag time plus the go through the 0.063 mm sieve, getting completely
time that the mud takes to go from the surface to washed out. The remaining part will be
the bottom inside the drill string. predominantly sand and its volume will be measured
Nowadays, it is common to use calcium carbide in a graduated tube in order to determine the relative
(which creates acetylene when in contact with percentages of sand and clay.
water), or propane to avoid nozzle plugging. These The coarse part remaining in the upper sieve is
gases are then monitored by the gas detector. With considered to be caving. The part remaining in the
this technique, it is imperative to take into two lower sieves is observed under a microscope

210 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

hydrochloric acid; b) a solution of 10% nitric acid;


c) barium chloride; d ) silver nitrate; e) alizarin dye
sieve 2 (or 5) mm and phenolphthalein.

cavings ? Calcimetry
raw sample
Calcimetry is a used to measure the calcium
sieve 0.25 mm carbonate content of a rock, thus allowing the
quantitative determination of limestone and
washing dolomite. The method consists of treating a standard
sieve weight of finely crushed sample with hydrochloric
0.063 mm acid and measuring the volume of carbon dioxide
produced by chemical reactions such as:

washing
drying CaCO32HCl→CaCl2CO2H2O
Recording the speed of reaction provides
information on the presence of the substances
mentioned above, especially that of dolomite. A
quick reaction (less than 1 min) indicates limestone,
whereas a slow reaction is characteristic of
dolomite. In the case of dolomitic limestone, the
curve is divided in two parts: the first is related to
the reaction of limestone (up to 1 min); the second
fluoroscope reference to the reaction of dolomite (from 1 min to the end
microscope sample set of the process). Observation of the residue can also
provide interesting information as it gives an
indication of the presence of sand, clay or accessory
minerals present in the carbonates.
Quantitative calcimetry also allows clay-
carbonate combinations to be taken into account:
a) a calcareous shale contains from 10 to 35%
carbonates; b) a marl ranges from 35 to 65%;
c) a shaley limestone from 65 to 90%; d) a pure
unwashed geochemical calcimetry washed and limestone contains more than 90% carbonates.
wet shale density dried
Shale density
Fig. 2. The sampling procedure. It is also possible to measure shale density in
order to predict overpressures due to shale under
compaction. Normally, compaction increases with
and the different types of rocks are described. depth, and formation water is expelled as porosity
Several chemical tests are available to help with decreases. In some cases, however, the water cannot
rock determination. It is also important to be eliminated in time and it remains trapped in the
determine the percentages of the different types of sediment. Water elimination from shale depends on
lithology. The samples taken correspond to a depth three factors: the very low clay vertical
interval from 1 to 10 m and, in the case of rhythmic permeability; the sedimentation and burial rates (if
deposition, will contain different rock types. the sedimentation rate is very high, the shale is
buried very deep before the water has time to
Cutting analysis kit escape and so remains trapped in the sediment, e.g.
The materials needed to analyse cuttings are: in deltaic areas); the drainage efficiency (sand
a) tweezers to handle the cuttings; b) a teasing layers act as a drain and help water elimination, for
needle to test the hardness; c) a porcelain spot example, a shale which contains less than 15% sand
tray used to perform the chemical tests; will experience a lack of drainage). The excess of
d ) a binocular microscope to observe the wet water provokes a decrease in the density of the
cuttings; e) a calcimeter to determine the quantity shale. When the shale density is plotted against
of calcium carbonate and dolomite. The chemicals depth, an inversion in the density trend shows the
used for the tests are: a) a solution of 10% top of the zone which is under-compacted.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 211


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

The principle of the shale density measurement Halite (salt) has little or no reaction with acid,
is to divide the weight of a shale cutting in the air is transparent and white to pink in colour,
by the weight in the air minus the weight of the dissolves in water, has a salty taste and reacts
cutting immerged in water. positively to a silver nitrate test. Lignite is a black
and fibrous rock which reacts positively to the
Preparation and use of the most common nitric acid test. A shale is a firm cutting which
analytical solutions exhibits little or no reaction with acid, is easily
10% nitric acid is used to differentiate coal and scratched and breakable with a needle, and gives a
lignite due to the fact that, in acid, lignite produces negative result to any chemical test. As for the
a brownish solution. 10% hydrochloric acid is used hard rocks, a strong reaction to acid and a calcium
to detect calcium carbonate and dolomite. In carbonate content greater than 65% is
contact with acid, calcium carbonate reacts quickly characteristic of limestone. Dolomite gives rise to
producing an effervescence due to carbon dioxide a significant reaction which starts after some time.
emission, whereas dolomite has a slower reaction. Furthermore an alizarin dye test will differentiate
Sulphates (present in gypsum and anhydrite) are dolomite crystals in a dolomitic limestone. A weak
detected using a barium chloride solution which is reaction with acid but with a lot of very fine
prepared by dissolving 61 g of this salt in 1,000 cm3 residue is indicative of marl.
of distilled water. In this solution sulphates produce A very hard rock that cannot be scratched with a
a milky precipitate. needle, but scratches glass is a chert (called flint if
The presence of halite is determined using a it is black; while green or red cherts are jasper or
silver nitrate solution. In such a solution halite gives radiolarites). A siliceous limestone will react with
rise to a milky precipitate in which turns black if hydrochloric acid. Occasionally, some igneous
exposed to light. rocks, e.g. basalt, may be drilled.
To highlight the dolomite crystals in a dolomitic A lot of grains cemented together may be
limestone it is necessary to use a solution of alizarin interpreted in different ways: if it is possible to
red dye which is made with 1g alizarin red visually separate the grains, and if there is loose
dissolved in 998 cm3 distilled water and 2 cm3 sand present in the sample, it is sandstone. After a
concentrated hydrochloric acid. The alizarin dye casing cementation, the cement looks like
will stain limestone red but will not affect dolomite. sandstone in the samples, but can be identified by
The presence of industrial cement can be testing with phenolphthalein. However, if the grains
revealed using a phenolphthalein solution made interlock and are randomly arranged with a lot of
with 1 g of phenolphthalein powder in 50 cm3 of mica, we have granite or another plutonic rock.
methyl or ethyl alcohol. Such a solution is used
after a casing cementation in order to determine the Making thin sections
quantity of cement in the samples. The Thin sections are made in order to diagnose the
phenolphthalein works by staining the industrial rock type (especially useful for carbonates), to
cement red. provide qualitative information concerning pore
size and interconnection and to aid in the
Cutting analysis identification of microfossils. Such sections can be
The first step in cutting analysis involves using performed on cuttings or on core fragments.
a needle to assess whether a rock is soft, firm or There are two methods of making thin sections:
hard. A soft and sticky white rock which dissolves the conventional method, where the samples are
completely in acid is chalk; when the sample does glued directly to a glass slide; while in the second
not chemically react with acid it is clay; while a method the samples (not coherent or very fragile)
small reaction indicates marl which has been are placed in a moulded matrix made from a
defined by quantitative calcimetry to contain 35 to transparent resin. The first method is best used
65% calcium carbonate. when the rocks are coherent and not very fragile
Loose grains are defined as sand, but may also and the cuttings are ground on a glass plate covered
be interpreted as sandstone that has been crushed with grit abrasive powders until they become
by the drilling bit. If the sample shows little or no transparent and they can be observed with a
reaction with acid, can be easily scratched with a microscope.
nail, is transparent and white to pink in colour and
gives a positive barium chloride test, it is gypsum or Hydrocarbon detection
anhydrite. Furthermore, gypsum is more fragile and Oils are fluorescent under an ultraviolet lamp.
lighter than anhydrite. Natural oils have a dull ‘dirty’ fluorescent colour

212 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

percentage, rate of penetration, gas shows, gamma


rays and so on).
A standard masterlog contains the following
columns (from left to right): a) the date; b) the rate
of penetration curve, electrical logs data (gamma ray,
resistivity), depth, bit characteristics, trip
indications, casing diameter and shoe depth; c) the
percentages of the cuttings; d ) direct and cut
fluorescence of the cuttings; e) the total gas curve;
f ) all of the gases detected after chromatography
(from methane to pentane); g) lithology
interpretation; h) mud data; i) the geological
description and deviation surveys.

The interpretation of the lithological column


Fig. 3. Oil direct fluorescence The creation of an interpretative lithology column
(Geoservices S.A.). is done with the help of different sources of
information: first of all, the percentages and
descriptions of the cuttings. These percentages
(Fig. 3), while artificial oils and greases have a bright, represent a drilled interval (1 m if drilling is slow but
‘flashy’ colour. It is important to distinguish between may be up to 10 m at the beginning of the well or in
the two because grease from the drill string may be the case of a fast rate of penetration) and so they may
present in the cuttings and must not be mistaken for a contain several lithologies mixed together. The
hydrocarbon manifestation. presence of gas shows will help to determine where
A ‘cut fluorescence’ test is performed on a dried the porous/permeable levels are (generally
sample: some drops of solvent are poured on the sandstones or fractured limestones). Variations in the
cuttings and then placed under an ultraviolet lamp. rate of penetration are helpful to situate the tops and
This test will eliminate the risk of interpreting mineral bottoms of layers of different hardness or drillability.
fluorescence (e.g. calcite and fluorite are fluorescent) The calcimetry curve indicates levels of carbonates
as oil fluorescence (Fig. 4). Dead oils and asphalts have (limestone, dolomite and marls). The presence of salt
no direct fluorescence but show a strong cut is indicated by a decrease in mud resistivity. Other
fluorescence. useful indications are given by gamma ray and
resistivity logs when electrical Logging While
Sample description Drilling (LWD) is available. Gamma rays show shale
The sample is always described in a standard way: levels, and resistivity can detect different types of
rock name, colour, hardness and fissility, elements or
grains. The description of this last item depends on the
type of rock. For example, for carbonates, the grain
nature and size are reported, while for clastic rocks,
the description is more complete and includes grain
size, roundness, sphericity and sorting. The description
continues with the type, nature and crystallization of
the cement or the matrix; accessory minerals (pyrite,
calcite, quartz, and so on); fossils; visual porosity
estimation; and hydrocarbon indications: visual
(stains, bleeding), direct fluorescence (extent,
intensity, colour), cut fluorescence (rate, intensity,
colour). Other features may be added at the end of the
description.

The masterlog or mud log


The masterlog is the final document containing
all of the data regarding the well. An interpreted
lithology column on the masterlog is created with Fig. 4. Oil cut fluorescence
the help of all available information (cutting (Geoservices S.A.).

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 213


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

fluids (high for fresh water and hydrocarbons, low a special gun run with a wire line. The mini core
for salt water). barrels are shot with explosives that penetrate the
formation. As the core barrels are linked to the gun
Cores by a wire, pulling the gun out brings up all of the
The analysis of the cuttings is limited as it is very cores.
difficult to find macroscopic elements to evaluate. Sidewall cores are taken at the discretion of the
These can be studied on a core, that is, on a cylinder of well-site geologist, usually after the completion of
rock drilled with an annular drilling bit (the cylinder is drilling in a given phase. Numerous sidewall ‘shots’
trapped in a core barrel situated above the bit). Two are made, with the aim of scanning the zone of interest
types of core can be taken: for lithology studies or to (reservoir or other critical zone).
know the reservoir characteristics. The lithology core To prevent loss of recovered fluids, the cores are
will give information on sedimentary structures, placed in glass storage jars immediately after recovery.
fractures, macrofossils, inclination and thickness of On the rig site, sidewall core examination is therefore
the stratification, granulometry in conglomerates, etc. limited to a visual description only, with no
A core taken in a reservoir allows for the evaluation of microscopic examination.
its porosity, its permeability, and the extent of its oil
and water saturation. Drilling mud
The minimum core analysis performed at the well An analysis of the drilling mud is also a rich source
site includes a physical examination of the core of information. A decrease in the resistivity of the mud
surface, the taking of chips for lithological coming out from the well can indicate the presence of
description, and testing for the presence of salt which can have two origins: drilling of salt layers
hydrocarbons (under normal and UV light). If the or salt water produced by a high pressure formation. If
core is sleeved, samples can only be taken from the the salt is in thin layers, it may dissolve completely in
extremities of each section. At the end, the well site water-based mud and will not be possible to detect in
geologist compiles a core description log based on the cuttings. Variations of the mud density will allow
this examination. these various types of salt origin to be distinguished:
If the core is unsleeved, it is possible to observe the addition of water to mud will decrease its density.
the brightness and colour of the fluorescence. This density decrease is also valid for any type of fluid
Furthermore, the entire core should be described in invasion, like gas or oil.
detail in the following way: the appearance, the
lithology features of the strata and the sedimentary Gases
structures. A small sample is taken every time
there is a noticeable change (facies, lithology, Hydrocarbons
hardness, apparent porosity, granulometry and The most important hydrocarbons detected are
colour). If the lithology is uniform, a sample is alkanes or paraffins. Methane to pentane are detected
taken every metre. with standard equipment, but the use of mass
If detailed analysis of the core itself is to be made spectrometers associated with a degasser/heater allows
off-location, the core must be packaged as soon as the detection of the alkanes from methane to octane
possible after taking samples. Once the packaging is and of the aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene). All
complete, further analysis is done on the samples: a) these substances are highly flammable and potentially
study under a binocular microscope; b) calcimetry dangerous in case of eruption.
analysis; c) cut fluorescence test; d ) creation of thin Depending on the gas-oil ratio in the reservoir, we
sections. Once the analysis is complete, a core can define several types of gas: a dry gas contains less
description report is compiled, with the following than 1.3 l of condensable liquids per 100 m3 of gas; a
information: a) cored depth interval and recovery wet gas has more than 4 l of condensable liquids per
percentage (most of the time, part of the core is lost in 100 m3 of gas. In an undersaturated pool, the gas is
the hole when the core barrel is pulled out); b) dissolved in oil. A saturated pool has a gas cap called
sampling depths; c) lithology description; d ) free gas which occupies the upper part of the pool. It
calcimetry results; e) qualitative fluorescence (direct should be noted that gas may also be dissolved in
and cut). water. Lastly, hydrocarbons can be contained within
frozen water cages as clathrates (hydrocarbon
Sidewall cores hydrates) which look like snow and are stable at high
Sidewall cores are useful in order to obtain pressure and low temperature. Clathrates have been
information after a well or a portion of a well has found in certain sediments in Alaska and Siberia but
been drilled without any coring. They are taken with also in deep sea drilling projects.

214 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Other gases Recycled gas is a gas that has not been eliminated
A gas containing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is called by surface equipment and that is pumped back in the
sour gas. Hydrogen sulphide smells like rotten eggs at hole. The heavier the gas, the more difficult is its
low concentrations, but at high concentrations the extraction from the mud. With a degasser located in
smell diminishes. It is extremely toxic and lethal from the suction pit, it is possible to evaluate and remove
levels of 500 ppm in the atmosphere. It is also the recycled gas from the liberated gas. In that case, it
flammable and very corrosive to metal (the drill string is necessary to know the mud long cycle time, which
becomes black and breaks easily). A hydrogen is the time it takes for the mud to complete a complete
sulphide eruption is considered to be the worst hazard cycle from/to the suction pit.
on a rig. We call trip gas a gas produced by swabbing
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is not flammable, but its during the trip. As the gas migrates during the trip
high solubility in water provokes a significant volume time, the trip gas may arrive earlier than the lag time
expansion and when it arrives at surface can cause (especially if the trip is long).
eruptions. Swabbing during the pipe connection produces a
Hydrogen (H2) is very flammable but its presence pipe connection gas which should arrive after a certain
in a well is often due to the action of metal against lag time. If the this gas arrives late with respect to the
metal or to electrolytic reactions between metal and lag time, it is an indication of caving.
mud products.
Helium (He) is an inert gas created in the form of Practical data acquisition
alpha radiation by the disintegration of radioactive
elements found in the Earth’s crust; this gas then Detection
travels through the lithosphere in the fractures of The degasser is an important part of the gas
rocks. analysis chain. It is situated on the shale shaker box or
on the flow line and extracts, in solution form, a part
Gas evaluation of the gas from the mud, which is then mixed with air
A gas that reaches the surface may exist in a in the degassing chamber. A standard degasser consists
different phase in the reservoir, depending on the of a degassing chamber immerged in the mud flow: a
reservoir temperature and pressure, the hydrocarbon ‘T’ shape agitator rotates and removes the gas from the
composition, the amount of gas dissolved in the oil mud, a gas line starts from the top of the chamber and
and water and the reservoir type (saturated or is connected to a vacuum pump in the gas detector
unsaturated). During its trip to the surface, the gas situated in the geology unit (Fig. 5). The problem with
volume will increase with the decrease of pressure. this instrument is that the gas percentage reading
This expansion follows the equation: depends on the variations of the mud level in the
degassing chamber. To eliminate this problem, a
VS(VRZSTSPR)  (ZRTRPS)
constant level degasser can be used. The basic
where PR represents the gas pressure in the reservoir principle is the same, but the degassing chamber does
(kPa), PS the gas pressure at the surface (kPa), TR the not need to be immersed in the flow because a pump
gas temperature in the reservoir (K), TS the gas transports the mud, through a suction probe, from the
temperature at the surface (K), VR the gas volume in flow line to the degassing chamber. It is important to
the reservoir (m3), VS the gas volume at the surface position the suction probe close to the bell nipple to
(m3), ZR the gas compressibility factor in the avoid the spontaneous degassing of the mud during its
reservoir, and ZS the gas compressibility factor at the travel in the flow line. The gas detector gives the
surface. percentage of gas in the air/gas mixture. The most
Liberated gas is the gas contained in the pores of common gas detection system is the Flame Ionization
the drilled volume of rock, as a result its quantity Detection (FID).
depends on the rock porosity. The volume of liberated The combustion of hydrocarbon gas with a
gas increases with the formation permeability and hydrogen flame will produce positively charged
porosity, the hole diameter and the bit rate of carbon-hydrogen ions which can be collected by a
penetration. cathode. Subsequently, an electrometer counts
The produced gas occurs when the formation gas these ions. The whole process is equivalent to a
pressure is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the carbon counter. The burning of one molecule of
mud column. In that case, the gas flows from the methane (CH4, called C1) will produce one ion, i.e.
formation into the hole and provokes a kick will show a value of 1 on the carbon counter. For
(i.e. the sudden flow of a fluid into a well) or worse, ethane, C2H6 (called C2), the counter will register a
a blow-out. value of 2 for 1 burnt molecule, and so on for other

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 215


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

rubber hose the degasser and the detector vacuum pump. A


8 mm I.D. to mud logging unit manifold allows one tube to be closed and the other to
check valve be opened. The closed tube contains a gas sample and
cylindrical can be removed, the open tube is filled by the gas flow.
tank decanting tube This system avoids the interruption of the gas flow to
the detector.
float
Gas normalisation
tubular The Corrected Gas Index (CGI) represents a
mounting normalized gas percentage corrected for variations of
arms
rubber hose flow rate, Rate Of Penetration (ROP) and bit diameter.
12 mm I.D. The CGI is given by the formula:
motor
CGI  (gas-in-air  flow rate  ROP) / hole
gasair outlet metric volume
air inlet
where CGI is expressed in decimal percentage, gas-in-
connection
rotor coupling plate
air in decimal percentage, flow rate in m3min, ROP in
box
minm, and hole volume in m3m.
mud outlet The volumetric normalization tries to give the
degassing chamber
relation between the gas values actually read to a
standard set of drilling conditions for the same depth:
recommended
rotor blade mud level Gn[GaRn(Dn)2Qa] / [Ra(Da)2Qn]
where Gn represents the normalized gas in
Fig. 5. Standard degasser. percentage, Ga the actual gas percentage read by the
total gas detector, Rn the normal rate of penetration
in this type of formation in fth or mh (the usual
gases with a number of carbon atoms greater than 2 rate of penetration in productive zones is 20 to 30
(C3, C4, etc.). Therefore, the total gas detection mh), Dn the normal bore hole diameter in inches
based on the counting of carbons in a mixture of (the usual diameter, where productive zones exist, is
gases is made in terms of a methane equivalent 8.5 by default), Qa the actual flow rate in galmin or
(methane being considered the base unit, as it has 1 lmin, Ra the actual rate of penetration in fth or mh,
carbon atom only). This detection is continuous Da the actual bore hole diameter in inches, Qn the
and gives a good idea of the gas percentage normal flow rate in galmin or lmin (the usual flow
variations, which is of great importance for the rate when a productive zone is drilled, is 900-1,000
purposes of security. l/min).
A quantitative result of the different gas
percentages can be obtained using chromatography, Gas saturation
which consists of a separation of the gases in a column The Surface Potential Index (SPI) represents the
filled with a material that will adsorb the gases with a volume of gas recovered at the surface per m3 of rock
strength relative to their molecular weight. As a result drilled (this index requires knowledge of the
methane will spend less time in the column than percentage of gas in the mud). The SPI is given by the
ethane and so on. The gases will leave this column one formula:
by one and in this way they can be burnt and measured
in the FID. The entire process of chromatography takes SPI  (gas-in-mudflow rateROP) /
3 min. This type of detection can show few ppm of (100hole volume)
gas, but only allows the detection of the alkanes
(methane to pentane). where SPI is dimensionless, gas-in-mud is given in
Replacing the FID by a mass spectrometer will decimal percentage, flow rate in m3min, ROP in
allow faster analysis, a higher precision (from 1 ppm) minm, and hole volume in m3m.
and a larger range of analysable gases (alkanes from The Calculated Gas Saturation (CGS) represents
methane to octane, aromatics, carbon dioxide, helium, the volume of gas per m3 of rock drilled rock under
hydrogen sulphide, and so on). bottomhole conditions of temperature and pressure:
Gas sampling is performed by using two metal
cylinders connected parallel to the gas line, between CGS(100SPIPaZTu) / (PuTa )

216 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

where CGS is given in percentage, Pa (the surface If the fluid has not been biodegraded, several
pressure) in kg/cm2, Z (the gas compressibility) is authors consider that a ratio of C1C2 ranging from 2
taken from a Katz diagram, Tu (the formation to 15 indicates an oil-bearing zone, while a ratio from
temperature) is given in K, Pu (the formation pressure) 15 to 65 indicates a gas rich zone. The lower the C1C2
in kg/cm2, and Ta (the surface temperature) is 288 K. ratio, the richer the gas (or the lower the oil gravity). A
C1C2 ratio less than 2 or greater than 65 is indicative
Gas ratios of non-productive zones.
Gas ratio analysis has many applications
including: a) determination of the fluid origin
(thermogenic or biogenic); b) possible mixing or Bibliography
diffusion in the reservoir; c) alteration processes
(biodegradation, water washing, etc.); d ) fluid Breviere J. et al. (2002) Gas chromatography. Mass
contacts; e) independent diagnostic about pay zone spectrometry (GCMS). A new wellsite tool for continuous
C1-C8 gas measurement in drilling mud. Including original
locations (fresh water context, thin beds, presence of gas extractor and gas line concepts. First results and
tight zones); f) marker identification for geosteering, potential, in: Transactions of the Society of Petrophysicists
connectivity study; g) cap rock efficiency; h) criteria and Well Log Analysts annual logging symposium, Oiso
for reservoir fluid sampling; i) origins of (Japan), 2-5 June, 2002.
compositional changes, and so on. Kandel D. et al. (2000) Improved integrated reservoir
Comparing the gas ratios of different wells interpretation using the Gas While Drilling (GWD) data,
in: Proceedings of the Society of Petroleum Engineers
provides a good correlation tool. Many gas ratios are annual technical conference and exhibition, Dallas (TX),
available for this type of analysis, for example, 1-4 October, SPE 65176.
light/heavy, C1C3, and isomer ratios. The iC4nC4,
iC5nC5 ratios allow the detection of biodegradation, Jean-Claude Dereuder
caused by bacteria which preferentially attack normal Geoservices S.A.
alkanes. Le Blanc Mesnil, France

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 217


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

2.2.7 Applied geochemistry


The assessment of hydrocarbon source rocks begins in
the field or well-site where samples are collected
(outcrop samples). Outcrop samples should be
selected with care in order to correctly identify the
geological horizon and location, and to avoid highly
weathered rock samples. Generally, avoiding sloughed
shale samples and chipping or coring deeply into an
outcrop will minimize oxidative effects of weathering
(Clayton and Swetland, 1978). Oxidation is
documented by chemical analysis and by visual
kerogen assessment.
Archived sample cuttings or core samples are
suitable for geochemical analyses, although coals may
suffer some oxidation. Though many of the lightest
hydrocarbons will be lost during storage, depending
on lithology and storage conditions, the kerogen is
protected in the rock matrix and good results can be
obtained from archived samples.

Surface seepages
and petroleum exploration
A
The study of the geochemical characteristics of
hydrocarbons that occur in surface shows is of primary
importance, especially in virgin areas or areas little
investigated in exploration, in order to make
inferences regarding the petroleum.
Large-scale deposits of asphaltic rocks are often an
expression of palaeo-accumulations, affected by
erosion, while the fractured facies along a fault, with
invasive asphalt, are an indication of ancient migration
or dismigration pathways (Fig. 1). Bituminous
impregnations are frequent also in palaeo-pathways,
i.e., permeable rocky levels that facilitate the
migration of hydrocarbons from the source rock to the
reservoir rock (Fig. 2). Sources in which oil and gas are B
present bear witness to on-going dismigrations, which
take place for various reasons (fractured cover, faults, Fig. 1. A, bitumen/asphalt percolating along fractures
surface occurrence of a permeable level linked with in the limestone Lettomanoppello (Abruzzo).
the reservoir, etc.). In the Pescara valley there are some imposing
Emissions of gaseous hydrocarbons are very lenses of asphaltic rocks, with mineralizations
concentrated along faults and associated fractures.
common, but are evident only in particular The exploiting of asphaltic limestones started in 1869.
environmental conditions, e.g., through the presence of B, from the same locality, a thin section
water or mud springs, where bubbling can be of calcareous rock with its pores impregnated
observed, or when, due to occasional ignition, the with bitumen (Eni).

218 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

for example, an ordinary funnel to convey the gases


into a small, inverted, glass test-tube.
At the end of the 18th century, Alessandro Volta
was one of the first people in history to have studied
ways of sampling, and postulated some interesting
hypotheses regarding the origin “of the inflammable
native marsh air” (only a few years later identified as
methane), sampled in a number of locations in the
Verbano-Lariano area. A famous sampling was made
on 3 November 1776 in the presence of numerous
witnesses, in a canebrake near Angera (Fig. 4). The
Fig. 2. Quartz crystal (9 mm) with a fluid inclusion publication in 1777 of the Lettere del Signor Don
macroscopically visible (consisting of water, Alessandro Volta sull’aria infiammabile nativa delle
oil with a mobile gas bubble and solid bituminous paludi (“Letters of Signor Don Alessandro Volta on
residues), collected in 1991 in Valle di S. Lucano the inflammable native air of the marshes”) is
(Dolomites) in a cavity of a dolomitic layer. regarded, at an international level, as an original
The dolomitic layer is interbedded in a Middle
Triassic source rock and represents a palaeo-pathway.
manifesto of the biogenic origin of methane.
The fluids that impregnated the rock pores were A curious natural phenomenon linked with
entrapped by the crystal during its growth phases occurrences of gaseous hydrocarbons is known as
(collection P. Scotti, photo Eni). ‘mud volcanoes’ (Fig. 5). These occur when gas

Fig. 3. Natural gas shows feeding persistent tongues Fig. 4. The etching forming the heading
of flame (Baku, Azerbaijan) (Eni). of Alessandro Volta’s First Letter
to padre Carlo Giuseppe Campi,
depicting the sampling of inflammable native
marsh air (methane) carried out
natural emissions feed long, persistent tongues of fire
on 3 November 1776 on the shore of Lake
(Fig. 3). Gaseous hydrocarbons consist exclusively or Maggiore near Angera.
predominantly of methane. Gas of biogenic origin
(generated by bacterial degradation of organic matter
at a low temperature) always consists of pure methane.
The presence of other hydrocarbons (ethane, propane,
butane), in addition to methane, suggests a
thermogenic origin of the gas (thermal degradation of
the kerogen and/or secondary cracking of the liquid
hydrocarbons). The possibility of finding more or less
pure methane in cases of high thermal maturity also
exists, in which case an isotopic analysis of the carbon
enables it to be easily distinguished from biogenic
methane. Fig. 5. Mud volcano at Guturdag
Sampling gases from surface macro-occurrences (Baku area, Azerbaijan).
can be completed with very simple techniques, using, The mudflow just erupted can be observed (Eni).

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 219


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

migration, as a rule guided by cleavage or fault


planes, takes place in unconsolidated, water-saturated
shaley/silty sediments. Mud outbursts create cone-
like shapes and there are frequent violent episodes of
an explosive character, in which strong gaseous
emissions cause powerful flames. The cones usually
measure just a few metres in height, such as those in
the Emilian Apennines, well-described since the 18th
century by naturalists such as Antonio Vallisneri and
Lazzaro Spallanzani, but some, such as those in the
Baku area in Azerbaijan, reach heights of several tens
of metres. The Baku area, with its mud volcanoes and
all the accompanying phenomena (oil fountains,
explosions and ignitions of methane gas) is the most
famous petroleum locality in history and has been
Fig. 6. Water, oil and gas spring
visited the most and described in detail by travellers,
at Tramutola (Val d’Agri, Basilicata).
naturalists and petroleum geologists. Suffice it to In the stream immediately below the spring
recall the ancient Temple of Zoroaster (the temple of there are clear slicks of dense oil,
everlasting fire), the references to ‘oil fountains’ in while at the side an asphalt concretion
Marco Polo’s Milione (second half of the 13th is visible (Eni).
century), the old hand-dug oil wells (documented
already in the 16th century), and the first modern oil
well (drilled close to Baku in 1848, 11 years before Occurrences are very often the expression of oil
the more celebrated well of Colonel Drake in dismigrations from generally small, shallow oil
Pennsylvania). deposits. These lead, in a given petroleum area, to a
For oils/bitumens, in the absence of alternatives first cycle of exploration, often limited in time and in
such as biodegradation, a more precise quantities of oil that are recovered. It is only with the
characterization of the source rock can often be perfecting of new prospecting approaches that an area
reconstructed, as opposed to gases, for which analyses can be continuously reassessed, perhaps in the long
as a rule offer only indications on the type of run leading to further cycles of exploration.
generative aspect (biogenetic or thermogenetic) and The historical water and oil spring at Tramutola in
the degree thereof. Samples of bitumens/asphalts must Val d’Agri, Basilicata (Fig. 6), for example, originated
be selected among those least altered, care being taken from seeping of oil and gas at the surface from a
to preserve them either in glass containers or wrapped modest, shallow accumulation exploited in the ’30s of
in aluminium film. By means of gas-chromatographic, the last century, due to the fact that seal was
isotopic and mass spectrometric analyses, it is possible inadequate. This accumulation was, in turn, the result
to infer the lithofacies, the depositional environment, of a dismigration from a deeper accumulation. A
the type of organic matter and the approximate age of second cycle of exploration, which began in the ’80s
the source rock. aimed at the underlying reservoir, that was better
By correctly framing the various types of sealed, led to the discovery of the largest onshore oil
oils/bitumens, their areal distribution, and the deposit in western Europe. The oil appearing at the
frequency and amount of shows, it is possible to surface was thus an indication of a naphthogenic
deduce the importance of a given naphthogenic event. process identifying an active petroleum system of
By analysing the free hydrocarbons extractable from primary importance.
potential naphthogenic levels, it is then possible to In the course of the last ten years, methodologies
obtain an exhaustive oil/source-rock correlation. have been developed to detect and interpret the
Surface occurrences of oils and asphalts have leanest traces of hydrocarbons reaching the surface
aroused man’s curiosity since antiquity and it is from even a very deep accumulation. Through
needless to recall their countless uses here. The first geochemical analysis of these traces of
exploitations took place simply to make use of the hydrocarbons, it is possible to plot positive anomalies
product that emerged naturally, or with the technique on the basis of comparisons with structural maps of
of large-diameter hand-dug wells. Industrial deep horizons. Sampling is carried out by collecting
exploitation with small-diameter drilled wells, in the cores of the soil (or seabed sediments) or with the
various parts of the world, has always started from direct capture (only on land) of hydrocarbons by
areas that had rich natural shows at the surface. means of adsorbent modules left embedded in the

220 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

ground for a few days. This methodology can best be In addition, various processes must occur in a
applied in areas with known deposits. A calibration complementary time frame for a petroleum trap to be
can, in fact, be made of the characteristics of the charged with hydrocarbons, e.g., a trap must be
traces of hydrocarbons detectable at the surface on present during hydrocarbon generation and
the vertical of hydrocarbon-bearing wells (oil-like expulsion, as otherwise the hydrocarbons will be lost
signal), and one on the vertical of barren wells, to or non-commercially stored.
also obtain a background signal or value determined If rock samples are available from well samples
by the mixture of signals extraneous to the type of or outcrops, they are a good starting point for
the oil in the deposits. Subsequently, through determination of potential source rocks. However, oil
appropriate statistical treatment of the data, a value samples are also an excellent starting point for
can be attributed to each sampling point in areas not inference of source rock types using geochemical
explored by wells, indicating the likelihood of inversion (Bissada et al., 1993). Geochemical
belonging to the oil-like category (signalling a inversion is a technique whereby oil geochemistry is
possible deep accumulation) or to the background, used to make inferences about the source of the oil,
barren category. e.g., its thermal maturity, lithofacies, and
An indirect method of exploration, depositional environment. This directs the
hyperspectrometry, uses a spectrometer mounted in exploration geologist or geochemist to begin a search
an aeroplane. The spectrometer analyses a large for source rocks of a particular lithofacies and
number of bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, perhaps even suggests the age of the source rock. In
and the study is based on the analysis of the addition, oil asphaltenes provide an excellent
chemical/biological changes induced in the soils analogue for source rock organic matter and can be
and in the vegetation by hydrocarbons. This used both to assess what products are formed at
methodology is applied primarily to identify oil- various levels of thermal maturity, and generation
polluted areas, facilitating environmental rates.
restoration operations. In the experimental phase it In searching for effective source rocks in a basin,
is applied in frontier exploration areas, for which there are often many avenues of information ranging
only limited, hard to access geological data are from published data, available well samples and
usually available to pinpoint possible natural sample repositories. In general the search for a
occurrences of hydrocarbons on land, indicative of a source rock of particular oil leads to an investigation
possible active petroleum system in that of all prospective source rock intervals. This may
sedimentary basin. range from evaluation of outcrop samples or well
Offshore, the presence of hydrocarbon samples to inferences based on the lithofacies and
occurrences can be identified by using remote- geological age derived from oil geochemistry. Thus,
sensing instruments (e.g., satellite radar or airborne a prospective source rock refers to a rock unit that
laser). Comparative studies of images carried out at has not been fully characterized by geochemical
successive times enable any anomalies generated by means and may or may not be a source depending on
pollution (e.g., oilspills from tankers) to be the results of detailed analyses and correlation to
distinguished from those originating from natural known oil or gas pools. On the other hand, once there
hydrocarbon shows. is correlation of a source rock to known oil or gas
pools, it is called an effective source rock (Magoon
Source rocks: a component and Dow, 1994). Finally, if a source rock is analysed,
of petroleum systems but is immature, i.e., has not been sufficiently
converted to commercial quantities of hydrocarbons,
Petroleum systems studies are undertaken in it is referred to as a potential source rock (Magoon
order to understand where oil and gas may be found and Dow, 1994). Whether a potential source rock is
and produced. The term petroleum in this context is an effective source rock depends on whether it is
used to refer to oil and gas generated from source buried to greater depths or exposed to higher
rocks. The basic theory behind petroleum system temperatures elsewhere in a basin or area and then
studies is that only when all the components and proved by correlation to oils to be an effective
processes are present and complementarily timed source. Certain geochemical characteristics of oils or
will commercial amounts of hydrocarbons be the geological model corresponding to the
discovered. The components include: source rock, depositional history can be used to hypothesize what
migration pathway, trap, seal, and overburden. The the source rock may be.
processes include generation, expulsion, migration, The objectives of identifying and characterizing a
oil cracking, alteration, and mixing of different oils. source rock are: a) to identify the source of oil and

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 221


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

gas; b) to determine its capacity to generate and TOC provides an indication of the quantity of carbon
expel hydrocarbons; c) to identify the type of available to form oil and gas.
products generated; d) to identify thermal maturity Minimum values for TOC that could result in a
for determination of oil and gas fairways; and e) to commercial accumulation are often discussed in the
determine its rate of decomposition (kinetics) to literature. Organic richness can be stated in terms of
accurately assess the timing of hydrocarbon averages such as Baker (1962) where:
generation. Source rock data is then used to • Values lower than 1.00% are below average; they
determine the likelihood of hydrocarbon charge in a are less likely to correspond to hydrocarbon
given prospect or region. The ultimate goal of source source rock interval.
rock appraisal is to high-grade prospects for drilling • Values greater than 1.00% are above average:
and production. One point is certain: if any of the they are more likely to correspond to hydrocarbon
elements or processes of the petroleum system are source rock interval.
missing or not properly timed, there will be no Others use more quantitative terms (Peters,
commercial hydrocarbon charge in a trap. 1986), or define richness in terms of whether a
source rock is a shale or a carbonate containing
Analytical program to evaluate organic matter (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Jones (1984)
source rocks showed that shale and carbonate source essentially
must have the same minimum amount of organic
Sampling matter to yield commercial amounts of hydrocarbons.
Well-site cuttings samples are generally taken at In addition, when cuttings are analysed TOC values
3 to 10 m intervals and good sample identification are often lower than on core samples, due to dilution
including lag correction are very important as cores depending on the extent of mixing with organic lean
are seldom taken of shales particularly for source horizons overlying the source rock.
rock evaluation. Samples should not be high-graded However, it must be noted that not all carbon
in any way at this point in the sampling process. contained in a source rock can be converted to
Generally, gray to black shales or other darker rock hydrocarbons due to lack of hydrogen. Highly oil-
chips are often prospective source rock samples. prone kerogens have atomic hydrogen-to-carbon
Approximately 30 g of sample are recommended, (H/C) ratios of about 1.5. As organic matter
although a quantity equivalent to about 160 g is matures, oil and gas are generated and the reactive
preferred. In some cases as little as 1-5 g of rock is carbon content decreases with a concomitant
all that is needed for screening analyses, but there is increase in inert carbon due to hydrogen depletion
a dependency on carbon yields and the type and (Fig. 7), resulting in a condensed, hydrogen-poor
number of analyses. carbon structure. This material has no commercial
For optimal detection of Light Hydrocarbons hydrocarbon potential due to its low hydrogen
(LHs), samples must be either frozen or kept wet, content. When the generated hydrocarbons are
and, if wet, lightly dried. Espitalie et al. (1985) expelled from the source rock, TOC decreases due
found optimum LHs yields when fresh cuttings to the loss of carbon associated with expelled
samples were dried for 20 minutes. Light hydrocarbons (see again Fig. 7).
hydrocarbons can be detected using thermal Estimation of original TOC values in mature
extraction high resolution gas chromatography source rocks is important for predicting the amount of
(Jarvie and Walker, 1998; Odden et al., 1998) or oil or gas that could be generated from a source rock.
using a special light hydrocarbon extraction At high thermal maturities, the TOC value of Type II
technique (Jarvie, unpublished data). Collection of kerogens (oil prone, marine algal) will be reduced by
samples in gas impermeable headspace jars or Iso- 30-50%. Type I kerogens (oil prone, lacustrine algal)
Jars (Coleman et al., 2004) is highly recommended. will have a 30-80% reduction in TOC, whereas Type
Such a collection technique provides a well- III kerogens (gas prone, terrestrial) will have a
preserved and protected sample of sufficient reduction of less than 30%. This means that typically
quantity for any analysis that may ultimately be less than half of the TOC content of an immature
needed. In any case, a bactericide should be added source rock is converted to hydrocarbons at high
to the headspace container to prevent bacterial maturity, so minimum TOC values for ‘commercial’
activity on hydrocarbons. source rocks is likely closer to 2.00%.

Total Organic Carbon Rock-Eval analysis


The initial analysis for source rock evaluation is TOC is complemented by bulk thermal extraction
the determination of its Total Organic Carbon (TOC). and pyrolysis data (often referred to as Rock-Eval,

222 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

total organic matter

other
compounds
original total organic carbon containing
organic carbon

present-day total organic carbon

carbon lost as expelled carbon inert


oil, gas and carbon in indigenous live carbon in kerogen carbon
dioxide oil and gas

inert
S1 S2 (Tmax at peak S2 yield) carbon

Fig. 7. Model of total organic matter in a sediment sample.

Espitalie et al., 1977) or SR Analyser (Jarvie et al., One of the most useful chemical parameters for
1996) data. In this type of analysis a small aliquot an initial assessment of kerogen type is the Hydrogen
(25-100 mg) of rock sample is heated to sub- Index (HI). Jones (1984) provided guidelines for
pyrolysis temperatures (<350°C) distilling volatile interpretation of HI data in terms of depositional
hydrocarbons followed by pyrolysis (cracking) of environment and likely product type (Table 1). It
organic matter by programmed heating to high should be noted that kerogen typing by HI values is
temperature (550-900°C) (Fig. 8). Detection is not infallible. For example, HI is often used to type
accomplished by a flame ionization detector (FID), kerogens as lacustrine (HI values >700), but this is
which provides a response corresponding to the not strictly true as many lacustrine rocks can have HI
carbon content. This provides an indication of the values less than 700, e.g., various units in the Green
free oil content (S1) and the remaining generation River oil shale, or in the Cacheuta Formation
potential (S2). The temperature (Tmax) at which the (Argentina).
maximum evolution of pyrolysis hydrocarbons HI is only an indication of the present-day
occurs is recorded and is related to the thermal potential in mature source rocks. Its original potential
maturity of the sample (if only kerogen is present). will have been reduced depending on the level of
Some instruments also record the yield of carbon thermal maturation. Computation of original HI
dioxide, which by definition is organic, at values is also important in volumetric calculations
temperatures below carbonate decomposition. and once the original TOC value is calculated, the
However, inorganic carbon dioxide will contaminate
this yield particularly from surface weathering or
oxidation. S4
Combined TOC and Rock-Eval/SR Analyser data
Tmax
provide an indication of: a) the total quantity of
temperature S2 600°C
organic carbon available for the formation of trace S3
hydrocarbons (wt.% TOC); b) the present-day (non isothermal
petroleum potential of a source rock (remaining at 25°C/min)
potential hydrocarbon yield, S2 yield in mg S1
hydrocarbon/g rock); c) the present-day kerogen type
yield

(oil or gas proneness, Hydrogen Index or


S2/TOC·100); d) the thermal maturity of the source 300°C
rock (Tmax in °C); and e) oil shows and potential
reservoir intervals (normalized oil content in mg
S1/TOC·100).
These data are referred to as present-day since all
parameters are affected by thermal maturation. Thus, time (min)
interpretive schemes must use these values in the
context of the maturity of the source rock. Fig. 8. Rock-Eval pyrogram.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 223


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Table 1. Table for assessing source rocks by HI values


(Jones, 1984)

kerogen hydrogen oxigen H/C organic depositional internal principal


type index index ratio matter environment structure products
I 700-1,000+ 10-40 1.4 Algal; Anoxic (saline); Finely laminated Oil
Amorphus; Lacustrine;
Rare terrestrial Rare marine
II 350-700 20-60 1.2-1.4 Algal; Amorphus; Anoxic; Marine Laminated; Oil
Common Well bedded
terrestrial
II/III 200-350 40-80 1-1.2 Mixed marine; Variable; Poorly bedded Mixed
Terrestrial Deltaic oil/gas
III 50-200 50-150 0.7-1.0 Terrestrial; Mildly oxic; Poorly bedded; Gas
Mostly vitrinite; Shelfs/Slope; Bioturbated
Fegraded algal Coals
IV <50 20-200 0.4-0.7 Highly oxidized; Highly oxic; Massive; Dry gas
Reworked Anywhere Bioturbated

original HI value is determinated or approximated as Tmax between 430 and 459°C. At high thermal
follows: maturities, Tmax can become erratic due to the low
TOCoTOCp kerogen yields where a distinct pyrolysis peak is often
11111 S2 not readily discernable. In addition, care must also be
0.083 p
HIo 111111333333 exercised as some oil prone kerogens will often have
TOCo·100
suppressed Tmax values due to impregnation of solid
where o  original and p  present-day. hydrocarbons in the rock matrix.
Original HI values are useful in computation of
the extent of transformation of kerogen to Amounts of oil and gas generated
hydrocarbons. One formula for computed kerogen A common question in petroleum exploration is
Transformation Ratios (TR) is (Espitalie et al., the likelihood of hydrocarbon charge from a given
1985): source rock in a reservoir. One of the assessments
HIoHIp of a source rock must include the volume of oil or
TR11132 gas that it could generate. A volumetric assessment
HIo
methodology was developed by Schmoker (1994)
or a modified version of the above provided by Pelet that allows computation of the mass of oil and gas
(1985): generated from a source rock if the original TOC,
1,200(HIoHIp) original HI, present-day HI, rock density, and
TR11111132 source rock thickness and areal extent are known or
HIo(1,200HIp)
can be estimated. Schmoker’s methodology yields
Tmax is a chemical indication of thermal maturity, very high volumes of oil and gas. However,
and as such, will vary with kerogen type. It is modifications to his approach can provide more
generally not a reliable maturity indicator for realistic answers. For example, the TOC value must
lacustrine or other kerogens having a uniform only be the reactive organic carbon content, not the
composition. Tmax can be related to vitrinite entire TOC. The extent of conversion to gas must
reflectance for Type III and some Type II kerogens by also account for insufficient hydrogen to
a simple equation (Jarvie et al., 2001): hydrogenate all carbon even in the reactive carbon.
Further, some oil and gas are often expelled from
Ro0.0180 (Tmax)7.16
the source rock into other reservoirs. Also not all
where Ro is the percent vitrinite reflectance in oil. oil and gas can be recovered. With these limitations
This formula can be used only when the source in mind, the Schmoker approach provides a relative
rock maturity is not particularly high, and keeps within comparison of the volumetric yields that can be
the early to late oil maturity range, corresponding to obtained from various source rocks.

224 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Vitrinite reflectance, Thermal Alteration Index, gradients in a well. Often, maturation profiles will
and visual kerogen assessments show a linear profile through non-source and
Percent vitrinite reflectance in oil (Ro) coaly intervals, and then have lower readings in
is another indication of the maximum source rocks. This is referred to as suppression.
temperature exposure of a rock, i.e., its thermal Suppression of reflectance is caused by the
maturity. It is derived from a visual presence of or the mis-identification of
examination of either isolated organic matter hydrocarbons closely associated with kerogen. Lo
(kerogen) or whole rock sample, mounted (1993) devised a means of correcting suppressed
in a non-fluorescing medium. Its source rock reflectance values based on hydrogen
utilization is derived from the seminal work of indices. Landis and Castaño (1995) also published
Rogers (1860), who first recognized that a calibration curve and regression for correcting
coal was a geothermometer. White (1915) the reflectance of solid bitumen, thereby rendering
rediscovered the work of Rogers and related those readings useful in source rock maturation
coalification processes to the occurrence of oil assessments.
and gas in the Appalachian Basin (USA). Visual kerogen assessments also aid kerogen
An excellent historical account of this is type assessments based on the distribution
provided in Burgess (1977). Vitrinite reflectance of various organic macerals that are either
measurements rely on the expertise of the oil or gas-prone. Typical descriptions will include
microscopist to accurately identify vitrinite amorphous, herbaceous, vitrinite, and inertinite
particles derived from woody biomass that are populations, but depending on the microscopist,
indigenous to the rock. Sometimes due to the percentages of specific macerals will be
presence of bitumen, solid hydrocarbons, recycled included such as liptinite, alginite, cutinite,
OM (Organic Matter), and inertinitic particles, sporinite, etc. These petrographic data are
identification of indigenous populations invaluable in aiding both the assessment of kerogen
of vitrinite is not obvious and certainly type and selected chemical parameters such as HI
can be subjective (Fig. 9). and Tmax. For example, the presence of primarily
The microscopist will also use the color inertinitic macerals will often yield a very high Tmax
of palynomorphs or spores – techniques referred value (500°C and higher).
to as Thermal Alteration (TAI) or Spore
Coloration Indices (SCI) – to aid the assessment
40
of thermal maturity. These techniques help
35
guide the selection of indigenous vitrinite
30
in isolated kerogen as do chemical
frequency

25
measurements (e.g., Tmax) when available.
20
It is somewhat easier to discern indigenous
15
vitrinite in whole rock mounts as they are identified 10
by their bedding planes within the rock matrix.
5
In a whole rock mount, the number of actual 0
vitrinite reflectance measurements will typically
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0

number 20 or fewer readings, whereas kerogen A


vitrinite reflectance in oil (Ro)
isolates may give upwards of 50 readings.
It is essential to note that the number of readings 40
is less important than the accuracy of determining 35 solid bitumen
the indigenous population of vitrinite 30 cavings (coal)
indigenous vitrinite particles
frequency

particles, although a minimum of 10-20 25


readings is desirable. 20 recycled vitrinite particles
Source rock samples are seldom the best 15 inertinite
samples for vitrinite reflectance measurements 10
as oil-prone source rocks often only have 5
limited amounts of vitrinite and are often 0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0

suppressed. It is often useful to obtain samples B


of overlying and underlying horizons vitrinite reflectance in oil (Ro)
(especially any coaly intervals) and Fig. 9. Vitrinite reflectance histograms:
project maturity through the source interval. A, total population of readings;
This also allows calculation of paleo-geothermal B, determination of the indigenous population.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 225


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Solvent extraction
The ultimate test of an effective source rock is Table 2. Gas-Oil Generation Index
correlation to an oil sample. Correlation of source
rocks to oils is initiated by solvent extraction of the GOGI Value Interpretation
rocks removing free oil and bitumen from the rock
<0.35 Oil prone
matrix. Source rock samples in the oil generation 0.35-0.50 Mixed oil-gas
window are needed for correlation to oils as >0.50 Gas prone
immature rocks do not have similar characteristics
as crude oils and overmature samples will only
yield biomarker depleted extracts due to extensive and associated data provides an invaluable means
cracking of these compounds. For further analytical of analysing a source rock at different levels
procedures for preparation of source rock extracts, of maturation and determining the changes
see below. in the yield and distribution of products.
It is used on biodegraded oils or seeps to obtain
Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography a reasonable fingerprint of the original
A simple technique to evaluate source rocks generated oil. Data analysis ranges from
for their oil or gas potential is Pyrolysis-Gas assessment of the gas and oil generation yields
Chromatography (Py-GC). Extracted rock samples to pristane-to-phytane ratios and paraffin yield and
or kerogens are pyrolyzed and the pyrolysis distribution profiles.
effluent flows through a gas chromatograph.
Detection of the separated compounds yields a Rate of organic matter decomposition (kinetics)
distribution of doublets consisting of alkenes and Kinetic parameters describe the rate at which
alkanes as well as intermediate peaks of various organic matter decomposes into hydrocarbons under
chemical classes (aromatics, thiophenes, phenols, a given thermal history. As organic matter
etc.). Using the ratio of total gas yield (sum decomposes, the most labile bonds break first,
of C1-C4 hydrocarbons) to total gas plus oil yield followed by more refractory bonds. A variety of
provides an indication of the oil or gas proneness reactions occur during kerogen formation processes
of the organic matter. Various gas to oil ratios have (diagenesis) and hydrocarbon generation
been utilized and are referred to by a variety of (catagenesis). Decomposition reactions are
names, such as GOGI (Gas Oil Generation Index, influenced by the chemical composition and
BP; see Table 2). structure of organic matter (Claxton et al., 1994).
Other interpretive schemes have used ternary The rates of decomposition of various source rocks
distributions of C1-C5, C6-C14, and C15+ are shown as calculated transformation ratios versus
hydrocarbons (Horsfield, 1990) as well as other temperature in Fig. 10 (Jarvie et al., 1996). This
compounds (Larter, 1990), and multivariate illustrates that the position of the oil window is
approaches using specific compounds identified by variable, i.e., at the same level of vitrinite
Principal Component Analysis (PCA; John reflectance or thermal maturity, source rocks may be
Zumberge, personal communication). converted to hydrocarbons at different rates. The
position of the gas window is also highly variable
MicroScale Sealed Vessel pyrolysis depending on the source rock and the primary
A technique used to generate hydrocarbons products formed during decomposition of its organic
in a laboratory setting is the MicroScale Sealed matter.
Vessel (MSSV) approach (Horsfield et al., 1989). Compositional kinetic schemes describe
This approach employs micro-sized pyrex more than the rate of kerogen to hydrocarbon
or quartz tubes (40 µ l) that are sealed reaction rates, as they describe the formation of
after adding small amounts of isolated specific hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane,
source rock organic matter (1-2 mg) or oil propane, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons
asphaltene and filling the dead space with and non-hydrocarbons (Espitalie et al., 1988;
quartz beads. Subsequently, the MSSV Jarvie et al., 1998). Source rock samples as well as
tubes are heated under either isothermal or oil/seep asphaltenes can be used for kinetic
nonisothermal conditions and yield a Gas measurements.
Chromatographic (GC) fingerprint of
the generated compounds that is comparable Additional source rock evaluation techniques
to a crude oil generated by natural maturation Source rocks may be characterized by a variety
under geological conditions. This fingerprint of other useful techniques. Elemental analysis was

226 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

calculated kerogen conversion (%)


Fig. 10. Rates of organic 0 2.0
matter decomposition

calculated vitrinite reflectance


10 1.8
determined on a variety 20 1.6
Monterey kg-4 (Type II-ons)
of source rocks. 30 Monterey kg-16 (Type II-S)
1.4
40 Kimmeridge (Type II)
1.2 Woodford (Type II)
50

(Ro)
1.0 Green River (Type I)
60
70 0.8 Indiana coal (Type III)
80 0.6 Ro
90 0.4
100 0.2
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
temperature (°C)

commonly performed in the past (van Krevelen, Oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock
1961), but this has largely been replaced by HI and correlations
Oxygen Index (OI) values typically plotted in
modified van Krevelen plots (Espitalie et al., 1977). Background
Elemental analysis of isolated kerogens, however, The correlation of crude oils to one another and to
provides a more accurate assessment of kerogen type source rock extracts provides invaluable information
and maturation pathways. This technique is in on the petroleum systems that are functional in a field
disfavour due to kerogen isolation procedures that or basin. Exploration geologists use this information to
are often chemically and environmentally rank prospects for hydrocarbon charge, identify
problematic and the cost of analysis. potential fairways for oil and gas production, including
Mud Gas Isotopic Logging (MGIL; Ellis the likelihood of extending existing producing trends
et al., 2003) and desorbed (headspace) or identifying new ones. In addition, development
gas are also techniques that can be used geologists and engineers use detailed oil fingerprinting
to evaluate potential source rocks as a source analyses to assess reservoir continuity, the extent of
or even reservoir of gas. For example, if a source commingling of production, enhanced oil recovery,
rock is penetrated during drilling, its gas and even well plumbing. This latter work can be
composition and carbon isotopic values completed without shutting in a well and losing
can be related to test or production gases. production.
Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a more One of the most important functions of organic
recent tool that examines paleo-fluids geochemistry is to identify the specific source rock of
trapped in the rock matrix. This analysis requires an oil to aid in identifying additional prospects for oil
a thoroughly cleaned rock sample to avoid and gas. This requires correlation of oil to source rock
any contamination from indigenous or extracts. However, the source rock is not always
non-indigenous oil. The FIS technique is fast available for analysis and, in this case, the source rock
and inexpensive and provides an abundant must be hypothesized or inferred from oil
amount of molecular information on both geochemistry.
hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons. These Correlation techniques include bulk properties and
data have been used to delineate and characterize detailed geochemical analyses. Bulk properties include
pay zones (Hadley et al., 1997; Hall et al., 1997). physico-chemical properties such as API (American
Hydrous Pyrolysis (HP) is a laboratory Petroleum Institute) gravity (specific gravity) and
maturation technique that has been widely used to chemical measurements such as sulphur and acid
generate oils from source rocks (e.g., Lewan, 1985). contents. Detailed geochemical assessments provide
It is also used for kinetic determinations (Hunt et al., molecular level details essential to distinguish oils that
1991; Lewan and Ruble, 2002; Lewan and Jarvie, may be similar based on bulk properties. In addition,
2003). geochemical inversion can be used to infer the
characteristics of the likely source rock for the oil
(Bissada et al., 1993).
Bulk oil properties and analyses are useful for the
initial typing of oils. For example, the U.S. Bureau of
Mines typed Permian Basin oils using strictly atomic
ratios of sulphur, nitrogen, and carbon (Jones and
Smith, 1965). Bulk chemical and physical properties

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 227


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

include also sulphur content (wt. %), nickel and


vanadium contents and LC (Liquid Chromatography)

n-C15
fractonation yields.

yield

n-C7
Molecular properties
Gas Chromatography (GC) is a technique used to

n-C40
fingerprint oils. A GC fingerprint is basically a
histogram of the yield and distribution of compounds
that are separated and detected by the GC/detector A retention time
system. A fingerprint of a crude oil is shown in
Fig. 11 A with a histogram of the normal paraffin yield
and distribution in Fig. 11 B.

n-C15
One of the simplest and widely used correlation
parameters is the ratio of two isoprenoid biomarkers,

yield
pristane and phytane (Illich, 1983). A high phytane
content is indicative of highly reducing (anoxic)
depositional environment typical of carbonate source

n-C40
rocks. High pristane content indicates increasing
oxicity or relatively lower hydrogen concentration in B retention time
the depositional environment. Interpretative Fig. 11. A GC fingerprint:
guidelines are shown for pristane-to-phytane (Pr/Ph) A, binary output from the GC itself;
ratio (Hughes et al., 1995) in Table 3. These ratios B, histogram showing the yield
should be used with caution at high levels of thermal and distribution of normal paraffins.
maturation as phytane decomposes before pristane
and the Pr/Ph ratio will be higher as a result of
phytane depletion. The ratio of these isoprenoids to primary compounds in condensates generated from
n-alkanes is also utilized as they provide information source rocks during late catagenesis. This becomes an
on maturation and biodegradation of an oil as well as important correlation parameter during this generation
the source rock (Connan and Cassou, 1980). A plot stage as sterane and terpane biomarkers are depleted
of Pr/n-C17 versus Ph/n-C18 is commonly used to or absent due to cracking. Halpern (1995) devised
group oils and rock extracts both by type and extent polar plots that used C7 LHs for both oil correlation
of maturation. and oil transformation. Moreover, it has been shown
Other parameters from GC analysis used for that analyses of light hydrocarbons have application in
correlation purposes are the overall paraffin oil-to-source rock correlation studies because the
envelope, which varies by source type and maturity, lighter (C5-C8) fraction of source rocks often can be
the ratio of n-C17 to n-C27, which is used as an evaluated through thermal extraction (Jarvie and
indicator of waxiness (i.e., source material related), Walker, 1998; Odden et al., 1998) or special extraction
and the Carbon Preference Index (CPI), which is techniques. It has further been shown that lithofacies
used as a very general assessment of source predictions may be possible from light hydrocarbon
lithofacies and thermal maturity. At low maturity data.
there is often odd carbon preference; in carbonates Normalized paraffin distributions and slope factors
there is often an even carbon preference. These data are especially useful to assess GC fingerprints for
are used as a complementary interpretive tool to
pristane/phytane ratios and with biomarker and
carbon isotope results. Table 3. Pristane-to-phytane (Pr/Ph)
The Light Hydrocarbons (LHs) are increasingly ratio intrpretation
being used for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlation.
Benchmark studies (Thompson, 1983; Mango, 1990, Pr/Ph Description
1992; Mango et al., 1994; Bement et al., 1994; <1.00 highly reducing,
Halpern, 1995; Ten Haven, 1996; Jarvie, 2001) have carbonate to marl lithofacies,
some lacustrine
shown that LHs carry useful information regarding
genetic associations, alteration, and thermal maturity 1.00-3.00 moderatly reducing, marl to shale lithofacies
some lacustrine
of oils. Inclusion of LH data is essential for petroleum
>3.00 moderately oxidizing,
systems studies, otherwise mixing and alteration of fluvial-deltaic lithofacies, coals
oils can easily be overlooked. LHs constitute the

228 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

1.4
oil with primary charge only
demonstrated that terrestrially sourced oils can be
normalized values

1.2
1.0 oil with secondary charge distinguished from marine sourced oils by cross
0.8 plotting saturate vs. aromatic hydrocarbons. More
0.6 recently high resolution geochemical techniques have
0.4
0.2 been utilized to measure carbon isotopic ratios of
0.0 individual hydrocarbons including biomarker
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
normal alkane carbon number (n-4 through n-42) compounds such as terpanes and steranes
Fig. 12. Normalized paraffin profiles
(Mello et al., 2003; Moldowan et al., 2004).
in unaltered oil, and an oil with a secondary
charges of light hydrocarbons Carbon isotopic values of biomarkers
in an oil from Lybia. A technique for measuring the carbon isotopic
values of specific alkanes, isoprenoids, hopanes (also
called terpanes), and steranes enables typing oils that
alteration or mixing. The lightest paraffins will always have very similar source contributions based on
be reduced in ‘dead’ oil samples (atmospheric oil standard geochemical techniques. For example, Late
samples that have lost most of their solution gas) and Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic oils from the Middle
this will result in a decline in the paraffin profile East and the Gulf of Mexico have been clearly
below about C6. However, secondary charges of light distinguished by this approach (Moldowan et al.,
oil will alter this profile and a marked change in the 2004).
profile will be evident in the lightest hydrocarbons For detailed information on analytical techniques
(Fig. 12). and instruments the reader is referred to Peters and
Moldowan, 1993 and Peters et al., 2005.
Correlation using biomarker ratios
Biological markers (biomarkers) are
molecular fossils that link oils to their original

C30H
biological progenitor. For oils that are not severely 180,000
biodegraded a large number of biomarker compounds
or their diagnostic fragment ions are available 150,000
relative yield

for correlating oils or rock extracts. One of the 120,000


simplest approaches is pattern recognition between

C29H
different sets of ion chromatograms. For example, 90,000

C31HS
C32HR C31HS
C23tri

it is easy to distinguish the differences between


60,000
C25tri (S+R)

Gam C31HR
norH C29Ts
terpane 191 m/z ion chromatograms

C33HS
C21tri

C34HS
more.
C28tri

(GC-MS, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry)


C29tri

C35HR
C26tri

C35HS
C24tet
C20tri

C22tri

30,000
Tm
C19tri

Ts

in carbonate versus shale source rocks (Fig. 13).


One of the strengths of biomarkers is their A 40 50 60 70
resistance to biodegradation. A scale for ranking retention time
levels of biodegradation was developed by
Peters and Moldowan (1993) ranging from 1
C30H

90,000
(light biodegradation) to 10 (severe biodegradation).
C29H

When reporting biodegradation of crude oils, 80,000


these scales are generally referred to based 70,000
relative yield

on the extent of depletion as determined 60,000


C31HRC31HS
more.30-nor-29-homohopane

C32HRC32HS

from the measured data. 50,000


C23tri

Various compounds and compound classes as well


C33HRC33HS

40,000
C35HS

as a multitude of ratios are used to characterize oil and


C25tri (S+R)

30,000
C34HS

C35HR
norH C29Ts
Tm

source rock extracts (Peters and Moldowan, 1993;


C34HR
Gam
C22tri

20,000
C21tri

Ts
C24tet
C26tri

Peters et al., 2005).


C20tri
C19tri

10,000

Carbon isotopes B 40 50 60 70
Carbon isotopes are generally measured on the retention time
whole oil or fractions of the oil such as the saturate Fig. 13. Terpane ion GC-MS chromatogram (191 m/z)
and aromatic fractions. The ratio of carbon-13 to of oils from the Permian Basin, USA:
carbon-12 (13C/12C, relative to a standard) can be used A, a carbonate-sourced oil;
to differentiate certain oils. For example, Sofer (1984) B, a shale-sourced oil.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 229


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Maturity assessment of oils f ) deasphalting; g) thermal chemical sulfate reduction


(TSR); h) oil cracking, or any combination of these
Biomarker ratios are commonly used for processes.
assessment of the maturity of oil samples. Common
ratios include Ts/Tm (where Ts is C27 18- Water washing and biodegradation
trisnorhopane and Tm is C27 17- trisnorhopane), Water washing is the emplacement of water
ratios between R and S stereoisomers in hopanes or through a hydrocarbon pool. Water washing has two
steranes, and TAS (triaromatic sterane) ratios. potential impacts on crude oils: it will selectively
Methylphenanthrenes have also been used for oil dissolve more water- soluble, light aromatic
maturity assessments and have been quite precise hydrocarbons. If fresh water, bacteria may be
with some petroleum systems particularly introduced to the petroleum pool and biodegradation
terrestrially sourced oils. could occur. A case study of water washing in Nevada
In addition LHs, can be used to predict thermal crude oils was shown by Palmer (1984).
maturity as shown by Schaeffer and Littke (1988) Biodegradation is a process whereby certain
who demonstrated a change in the concentration of bacteria metabolize crude oil in a systematic fashion.
dimethylcyclopentanes relative to vitrinite Biodegradation proceeds by consumption of the
reflectance. simplest and lightest molecules to the more complex
A calculated temperature of expulsion (CTemp, and heavier molecules. Thus, biodegradation decreases
in °C) was derived from the work of Frank D. the API gravity and increases the viscosity of oils in a
Mango and others at Shell’s Bellaire Research systematic fashion.
Center (Bement et al., 1994; Mango, 1997) and is Oils may be biodegraded to varying extents.
computed as: Various levels of biodegradation were summarized by
Peters and Moldowan (1993) in a scale ranging from 1
 
2.4DMP
CTemp (°C)14015 ln 11113 (least degraded) to 10 (severely degraded).
2.3DMP Generally, biodegradation is slowed and eliminated
where DMP is dimethylpentane. when a reservoir is above temperatures of about 80°C.
Since the LHs increase with increasing thermal However, changes in the burial history of sediment can
maturation, they can be used to predict Gas-to-Oil often bring a deeper, once hotter reservoir into a cooler
Ratios (GORs ) on pristine (unaltered) oil samples zone where bacteria become active, prior to
such as US Williston Basin (Mango and Jarvie, subsequent reburial, and vice versa.
2001). Their equation utilizes C6 and C7 isoalkanes
such that: Evaporative fractionation
Any fractionation process involves a change in the
ln GOR(1.33 ln 2MP)(2.81 ln 3MP)
composition of gas and oil. The lightest hydrocarbon,
(3.19 ln 2MH)(0.875 ln 3MH)7.2
methane, has the highest fugacity, which describes its
where MP is methylpenatane and MH is ability to expand and migrate through sediments.
methylhexane. However, when gas exsolves from a liquid hydrocarbon
Specific field and basin calibration may be pool, light alkanes are selectively dissolved in the gas
required, however. and the residual oil is enriched in light aromatic
hydrocarbons. This process was described and
Alteration of crude oils experimentally detailed by Thompson. Thompson’s
aromaticity/paraffinicity plot is an integral part of any
Petroleum source rocks and reservoired oils are in crude oil assessment (Fig. 14). Evaporative
a dynamic environment that is constantly changing fractionation also means that there are two pools of
through time. For example, an initial charge of low hydrocarbons often suggesting a deeper oil pool.
maturity oil can be supplemented by secondary
charges of higher maturity oil from the same source or Deasphalting
from other source rocks that have reached the oil When crude oils have a secondary charge of non-
expulsion stage. Thus, a single oil reservoir can have hydrocarbon gas, hydrocarbon gases, or condensate, it
multiple inputs, although this has often gone is possible that the asphaltenes will precipitate out of
unrecognized. the oil forming a tar mat. This process has been shown
Further, alteration processes complicate the to occur in the Western Canada Basin by Milner et al.
assessment of oils. These processes may include: (1977) and is a common occurence in petroleum
a) mixing; b) biodegradation; c) evaporative systems where various episodes of vertical migration
fractionation; d ) gas washing; e) water washing; have occurred.

230 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Thermochemical sulphate reduction analyses may be required, but mixes can often be
High concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) discerned by detailed interpretation of LHs expecially
gas in reservoir gases are derived from slope factors (i.e., parameters which take into account
Thermochemical Sulphate Reduction (TSR; Orr, the n-alkane distribution slope in the chromatogram),
1974). In TSR, H2S is essentially formed by the plus middle range hydrocarbons, and biomarkers. Thus
reduction of sulphate, leading to elemental sulphur. all oil studies should include an assessment of the
Sulphur subsequently reacts with hydrocarbons to possibility of oil mixing.
form H2S and CO2 resulting in low quality oil
accumulations. As a consequence of this reaction, the Interpretation of geochemical parameters
d13C (isotopic fraction of 13C) of CO2 is comparable to Basic guidelines for interpretation of geochemical
that of the oil, whereas the d34S of H2S is comparable parameters discussed in this paper are detailed in
to that of the sulphate. Table 4.
Carbonate-evaporite reservoir sequences tend to
have high H2S concentrations (Le Tran, 1972). Such Geochemical characterization
reservoirs have H2S concentrations ranging from 6 to of natural gas
98% of the total gas deposits. In these sequences there
is the possibility of high sulphate concentrations from Natural gas is the gaseous part of petroleum and
the evaporites and low concentration of iron in the consists of a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons such as
carbonates that would otherwise bind H2S as pyrite as methane, ethane, propane, butanes and pentanes.
would occur in shales. Gaseous hydrocarbons can be formed through
different generation mechanisms. Among the main
Oil cracking genetic processes are biogenic formation (by
Oils will decompose much like kerogen into less methanogenous bacteria, at a low temperature) and
complex and lighter hydrocarbons, while also forming thermogenic formation. By means of geochemical
a refractory carbonaceous residue at higher analysis it is possible to determine the origin of
temperatures. Cracking of resins and asphaltene gaseous accumulations or surface gaseous
fractions of crude oils will occur between 100-150°C occurrences, and to obtain information on the presence
comparable to temperatures required for kerogen of an effective petroleum system (Mattavelli et al.,
decomposition to hydrocarbons. However, a 1983; Schoell, 1983, 1988; Faber, 1987; Rice, 1993).
temperature exceeding 145°C is required for the onset Thanks to recent technological developments, it is
of paraffinic fractions of oil cracking to gas. This latter today possible to geochemically characterize even
decomposition can be modeled with the kinetic minute quantities of gas found dissolved in drilling
parameters of Waples (2000).
Diamondoid analysis has been shown to be an
toluene-to-heptane ratio (aromaticity index)

effective approach for assessing oil cracking (Mello et 5.00


al., 2003; Moldowan et al., 2004). While extended 4.50
hopanes and steranes are cracked to lighter 4.00
hydrocarbons at higher temperatures, diamondoids are 3.50
very stable. Thus, a ratio of less stable to more stable 3.00
compounds will provide an indication of oil cracking. 2.50
This technique is important since biomarker maturity 2.00
parameters cease to be useful above about 0.90% 1.50
vitrinite reflectance.
1.00
0.50
Mixing of oils
0.00
Pristine crude oils in reservoirs may be mixed with 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00
lighter hydrocarbons derived from the same source heptane-to-methylcyclohexane ratio (paraffinicity index)
rock at higher thermal maturity or from oil or gas from carbonate-sourced oils
other source rocks. Mixing has proven to be a difficult shale-sourced oils
process to discern except in the most obvious cases terrestrial-sourced oils
ordivician-sourced oils
such as a condensate charge emplaced into a
fractionated oils
biodegraded oil. Typical oil correlations have relied water-washed oils
primarily on the middle to high molecular weight
hydrocarbons derived from GC and GC-MS analyses Fig. 14. Thompson’s aromaticity vs.
and carbon isotopes of fractions of oils. A full range of paraffinicity plot.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 231


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Table 4. Guidelines for interpretation of TOC, Rock-Eval, vitrinite reflectance data


and gas, oil and condensate

Description Values Interpretation References


I. Rock analyses
TOC (wt. %) <1.00 Below average Baker, 1962
>1.00 Above average
Hydrogen Index (HI) (mg HC/g TOC) 0-50 Type IV dry gas prone Espitalie et al., 1977
50-200 Type III gas prone (usu. terretrial)
200-350 Mixed Type II/III mixed oil/gas
350-700 Type II oil prone (usu. marine)
700-1,000 Type I oil prone (usu. lacustrine)
Tmax (°C) <430 Immature Espitalie et al., 1985
430-439 Early oil window
440-450 Peak oil window
451-459 Late oil window
460-475 Wet gas window
>475 Dry gas window
Tmax Ro Ro0.0180(Tmax)7.16
Vitrinite Reflectance in oil (Ro) 0.20-0.55 Immature Dow e O’Connor, 1982
0.55-0.74 Early oil window
0.75-0.94 Peak oil window
0.95-1.09 Late oil window
1.10-1.39 Wet gas window
>1.40 Dry gas window
II. Gas, condensate and oil interpretative guidelines
A. Gases
Carbon isotopes ca.60 Biogenico gas Schoell, 1983
55 to 60 Mixed gas
<55 Thermogenic gas

B. Condensates and oils


Organofacies and lithofaces indicators
Carbonate lithofaces indicators
Pristane / Phytane <1.00 Didyk et al., 1978
Dibenzothiophene / Phenanthrene >1.00 Hughes et al., 1995
C35 homohopanes High abundance
Diasteranes vs. steranes Diasteranes low
C24 tetracyclic / C26 tricyclic terpanes >1.00
Marine shales
Pristane / Phytane 1.00-3.00
C29 / C30 hopanes C29<<C30
C35 / C34 hopanes <1.00
Diasteranes vs. regular steranes Diasteranes abundant
Terrestrial / Coaly Source
Pristane / Phytane >3.00
Presence of oleananes and lupanes Ekweozor et al., 1979
C19 and C20 dominant in tricyclic terpanes
High abundance of wax
Diasteranes High
C27 C28 and C29 steranes C29>>C27, C28
C31 hopanes Very high
C24 tetracyclic / C26 tricyclic terpanes >1.00
Lacustrine source
4-methylsteranes Abundant
Diasteranes vs. regular steranes High diasteranes
Thermal Maturity
Light hydrocarbon analyses
CTemp14015[ln(2.4DMP/2.3DMP)] 95-150 ° C Mango, 1997
Biomarker analysis
C29 aaa sterane 20S/(20S20R) 0.00 to 0.55 Seifert and Moldowan, 1986
Extended hopanes C32 22S/(22S22R) 0.00 to 0.62 Ensminger et al., 1977
C27 hopanes Ts/(TsTm) 0 to 1.00 Seifert and Moldowan, 1978
C20C21/(C26C29) triaromatic steranes Relative
C28TA/(C29Ma+C28TA) (tri- and mono-aromatic steroides) 0 to 1.00
MPI1.5(3MP2MP)/(P9MP1MP) 0.6-1.5 Oil window

232 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Fig. 15. Geochemical combustion interface mass-spectrometer


characterization
of natural gas by means oxidation ion
standard source magnet
of chemical and isotopic CO2
analysis. oven + CvO sample
gas- C1 C2 C3 C4 CO2
chromatograph + O2 CO2
12C 16O 16O 44
13C 16O 16O + 12C 16O 17O 45
12C 16O 18O 46

muds during the drilling of a well (headspace sand and clay: continental type organic matter (type III
sampling). kerogen, derived from terrestrial organic matter, upper
The analytical methodologies used are gas- plants and wood fragments) is degraded, under anoxic
chromatography (to determine the chemical conditions, by methanogenic bacteria and the gas thus
composition of the gases) and analysis of stable formed is almost always lost due to the lack of any
isotopes. Isotopes are atoms containing the same effective seal. Where favourable conditions exist
number of protons but a different number of neutrons. (contribution of continental organic matter, high rate
Isotopes are divided into two categories: radioactive of sedimentation and formation of adequate cover) gas
and stable. Radioactive isotopes disintegrate accumulations may be formed that can also be
spontaneously to form atoms of other elements with commercially interesting.
the emission of radiations which, in some cases, may The elements characterizing biogenic gas are:
be dangerous. Stable isotopes, on the other hand, have • Chemical composition: biogenic gas is chemically
a stable nucleus and therefore do not pose any very dry (i.e., almost exclusively methane with
radiogenic risks (see schematic diagram of the traces of ethane or in any case with a content of
analytical set-up in Fig. 15). The isotopic upper homologues of less than 0.1% apart from
characterization of hydrocarbons is carried out by the minute quantities of CO2 and N2); thermogenic gas
analysis of the stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen (which under particular conditions can also be dry)
(although the latter is used only in special cases). As can instead contain appreciable concentrations of
stated above, natural gas is formed through two main upper homologous compounds (ethane, propane,
mechanisms: the biogenic process and the butane, pentane, etc.), namely condensable
thermogenic process. In actual fact all hydrocarbon compounds. Hence the term wet and the parameter
accumulations are of biogenic origin as they derive Gas Wetness, defined as a ratio and expressed as a
from the decomposition of organic matter, but in this percentage. It is the sum of the hydrocarbons
context the term biogenic is used to indicate a (excluding methane) divided by the sum of all the
particular mechanism of natural gas formation at low hydrocarbons comprising the gas:

11111111221313 ·100
temperature. An alternative term to biogenic gas is
(C C iC ...C )
2 3 4 n
bacterial gas.
(C C C iC … C )
1 2 3 4 n

Biogenic gas • The isotopic content of carbon (isotopic ratio


Biogenic gas as a natural energy resource 13C/12C): biogenic gas is isotopically well

represents, on a worldwide scale, about 20% of the characterized, having carbon isotopic value
available hydrocarbon resources (Rice, 1993). The (d13C) of between –110 and –60‰. During the
mechanism of generating gas by bacteria takes place at transformation of the organic matter into gas,
great depths, under anoxic conditions (absence of bacteria tend to prefer using light carbon (12C)
oxygen) and at relatively low temperatures (lower than rather than heavy carbon (13C), so that the methane
70°C) on immature organic matter. For the formation formed has a negative carbon isotopic ratio (d13C)
of commercial accumulations of biogenic gas, (in this regard it should be observed that
however, particular geological conditions are required, the isotopic values of the carbon in hydrocarbons,
favouring the preservation of these accumulations both gaseous and liquid, are always negative).
(early entrapment systems, formation of efficient • The isotopic composition of hydrogen (isotopic
cover and high rates of sedimentation). ratio between deuterium and hydrogen or D/H)
The majority of biogenic gas accumulations are reflects exactly the same scheme so that biogenic
contained in depositional sequences of alternating gases are always leaner in deuterium compared

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 233


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

with thermogenic gases (isotopic range dD complex molecules (e.g., C6 and higher) crack when
between –250 and –170 ‰). subjected to high temperatures and form simpler
In Italy, a good example of biogenic gas molecules. The ultimate consequence of this
accumulations is provided by the numerous reservoirs mechanism of thermal degradation is the formation of
located at relatively shallow depth (below 2,000 m) a gas consisting mainly of methane. This gas is
onshore in the Po Valley, and also by the deposits in chemically similar to biogenic gas but can easily be
the nearby Ravenna offshore (formations constituted distinguished from by its higher content of 13C (d13C
by alternating Pliocene sand and clay, Mattavelli et al., methane between 30 and 27‰) and deuterium.
1983). The biogenic gas of the Po Valley, with very In the presence of low maturity organic matter,
negative d13C values (usually between –70 and thermogenic gas could be mistaken for a biogenic gas
–76‰), is found in reservoirs located both at shallow (low 13C/12C ratio and minor presence of higher
and very great depths (one offshore well has produced homologues). However isotopic analysis of ethane and
biogenic gas at a depth of approximately 4,500 m and propane can be used to determine the genetic origin of
is the deepest occurrence of biogenic gas mentioned in the gas.
literature).
The isotopic trend with depth in gas wells in the Po Characterization of non-hydrocarbon compounds
Valley shows that it is possible to find both types of Non-hydrocarbon gases that can be associated with
gas (biogenic and thermogenic as well as the two natural gas are commonly carbon dioxide, nitrogen
mixed, or mixed gas). Mixed gas is usually found in and hydrogen sulphide. The presence of these
reservoirs of Messinian age whereas Mesozoic compounds is a negative element in the economic
reservoirs contain only thermogenic gases. Particular assessment of the find as it reduces their commercial
geological conditions can, however, favour the value (the energy content of the gas being lower).
migration of deep thermogenic gases into shallower Their presence requires investments in plants and
reservoirs without there being any modifications in the equipment needed to remove and dispose of these
isotopic signal of the gas. gases. They also poses technical (corrosion of
materials) and safety problems.
Thermogenic gas Carbon dioxide (CO2 ). Discovery of CO2 is not
Thermogenic gas is formed from kerogen or from very frequent, but its presence can seriously affect the
oil and, as a result of heating during deposition, can economics of a find. Examples of CO2 accumulations
be generated by the thermal cracking of the organic are provided by the Pannonico Basin, by the Cooper-
matter (kerogen) into both gaseous and liquid Eromanga Basin (Australia), by the South China Sea
hydrocarbons (primary thermogenic gas or field, and by the Palino-Candela field (southern Italy).
oil-associated gas) and by the thermal cracking According to statistics drawn up by Thrasher and
of an oil at a high temperature into gas (secondary Fleet (1995) the likelihood of finding CO2 greater than
thermogenic gas). 20% is 1:100, but, when encountered, the average of
Thermogenic gas, which is generated at higher these finds have a CO2 content close to 50%. This
temperatures (80-150°C), is generally much richer in indicates that the likelihood of finding carbon dioxide
the higher homologues compared to biogenic gas. The is not very great, but that when it does occur, the CO2
isotopic value of methane carbon (d13C) is related to levels are so high that they make the discovery of the
the level of maturity of the sediments that have accumulation an uneconomic proposition unless the
generated it, and falls between 60 and 20‰, while resource in question can be exploited on the site, with
the isotopic values of hydrogen varies between 200 appropriate strategies (electrical power stations
and 80‰. operating on lean-gas).
To distinguish a primary thermogenic gas from a Among the various mechanisms of CO2 formation,
secondary thermogenic gas (ultramature, i.e., formed the most important ones are: a) CO2 derived organically
at higher temperatures, 150-200°C and more), the (one mechanism is the breakdown of organic matter
quantity of higher homologues is taken into during diagenesis and catagenesis);
consideration. Generally a primary thermogenic gas is b) bacterial breakdown of oil (T<70°C); c) CO2
characterized by high percentages of higher produced by volcanic activity and by intrusive magmatic
homologues (Gas Wetness up to 50-60%, e.g., in the bodies; d) as the product of the thermochemical
Val d’Agri wells in Basilicata), whereas a secondary reduction of sulphates (TSR) with hydrocarbons.
thermogenic gas has a very low Gas Wetness Nitrogen (N2 ). At present little is known about the
parameter (even less than 0.2%) isotopic chemistry of nitrogen in oil basins and this
These characteristics can be attributed to the could be due to the fact that accumulations are often
thermal cracking of liquid compounds: heavy, the result of a mixing of gases formed through various

234 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

genetic mechanisms. By studying particular cases in zones, and transformation ratios to assess the best
which the origin of the nitrogen was due to a single prospects for oil or gas. Mature source rock extracts
mechanism, it has been possible to establish with provide samples for correlation to oil samples to
sufficient accuracy the fields of variation of the determine whether it is an effective source rock, i.e.,
isotopic datum of nitrogen according to the the source of oil or gas. Multiple samples of a single
mechanisms responsible for its formation. Large source rock are needed in this evaluation as slight
accumulations of nitrogen have been discovered in variations in organofacies will often alter biomarker
many oil basis, such as Great Valley, California characteristics.
(Jenden et al., 1988), the Volga-Ural Basin, the Mid- Oil correlations and oil-to-source rock correlations
European Basin (Jenden et al., 1988; Kroos et al., rely on bulk and detailed chemical analyses. Bulk
1995), and the Yinggehai Basin, just to mention a few. techniques include sulphur, nickel, vanadium,
Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S). H2S because of its elemental compositions, and fractionation yields as
dangerous nature poses many problems from the well as API gravity of crude oils. Detailed chemical
standpoint of safety (it can be detected by scent at analyses include GC fingerprinting, biomarkers, and
levels of a few parts per million, but beyond 30 ppm carbon isotopes as well as new techniques such as
the nerve centres of the olfactory system can no longer carbon isotopic values of biomarker compounds and
perceive it and it is at this level that the danger exists). diamondoid ratios to assess oil cracking.
Bringing oil discoveries into production when H2S is Oil analysis must include an assessment of oil
present involves far higher costs due to the problems alteration, whether from secondary charges (mixing),
associated with the corrosion of the materials used in biodegradation, evaporative fractionation, water
production facilities and with its disposal. In nature, washing, thermochemical sulfate reduction, or
H2S accumulations occur that can be as high as 98% deasphalting. The geological setting and chemistry of
of the total gas yield. oils can be very dynamic and changes due to various
The hydrogen sulphide (H2S) can be originated processes must be accounted for in crude oil
bacterially or inorganically. In its bacterial origin, the assessments.
sulphate dissolved in the waters is reduced to H2S. The ultimate goal of any petroleum systems study
However, this mechanism cannot yield levels of H2S is to aid the identification of the best prospects for
greater than 5%. Another limit to bacterial formation future oil and gas production including those that may
of H2S is temperature, which must be lower than 80°C. have been overlooked in the past. This may include
With regard to its inorganic origin, two assessments that aid the understanding of oil quality as
mechanisms can be distinguished: well as reservoir compartmentalization.
• Thermal decomposition of kerogen: H2S is formed
during the various phases of the diagenesis of the
organic matter. This mechanism is usually present References
in carbonate rocks, whereas in clays the presence
of iron acts as a natural limiting factor Baker D.R. (1962) Organic geochemistry of Cherokee Group
(precipitation of pyrite, FeS2). in southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma,
• Thermochemical reduction of the sulphate (TSR): «American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin»,
46, 1621-1642.
this is a thermochemical reaction that occurs at
Bement W.O. et al. (1994) The temperature of oil generation
temperatures of at least 120°C between hydrocarbons as defined with a C7 chemistry maturity parameter (2,4-
and evaporites. This mechanism is the one that DMP/2,3-DMP ratio), in: Geological aspects of petroleum
accounts for the highest concentrations of H2S. systems. Proceedings of the 1st Joint American Association
of Petroleum Geologists/Asociación Mexicana de Geólogos
Petróleos research conference, Mexico City, 2-6 October.
Conclusion
Bissada K.K. et al. (1993) Geochemical inversion. A modern
approach to inferring source-rock identity from
Source rock evaluation proceeds along a pathway characteristics of accumulated oil and gas, «Energy
whereby a sequence of analytical tests is implemented Exploration and Exploitation», 11, 295-328.
to determine the source potential and possible Burgess J.D. (1977) Text of a panel discussion following the
correlation to known oil or gas pools. The analytical symposium on organic matter alteration as related to oil
scheme must provide means to determine the potential and gas generation, held in October 29, 1975, preceding
of the rock for hydrocarbons, what type of the 7th annual meeting of American Association of
Stratigraphic Palynologists, Houston, Texas, «Palynology»,
hydrocarbons would be formed (gas vs. oil), its 1, 33-39.
thermal maturity (immature, oil, or gas zone), and its Claxton M.J. et al. (1994) Molecular modelling of bond
rate of decomposition (kinetics). These data are used energies in potential kerogen sub-units, in: Advances in
to map organofacies, generation potentials, maturity organic geochemistry 1993. Proceedings of the 16th

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 235


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

International meeting on organic geochemistry, Stavanger Horsfield B. et al. (1989) The micro-scale simulation of
(Norway), 20-24 September 1993, 198-201. maturation. Outline of a new technique and its potential
Clayton J.L., Swetland P.J. (1978) Subaerial weathering applications, «Geologische Rundschau», 78, 361-374.
of sedimentary organic matter, «Geochimica et Hughes W.B. et al. (1995) The ratios of dibenzothiophene and
Cosmochimica Acta», 42, 305-312. pristane to phytane as indicators of depositional environment
Coleman D.D. et al. (2004) Advances in the collection and and lithology of petroleum source rocks, «Geochimica et
isotopic analysis of mud gases, in: Proceedings of the Cosmochimica Acta», 59, 3581-3598.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists national Hunt J.M. et al. (1991) Modeling oil generation with time-
convention, Dallas (TX), 18-21 April, «AAPG. Bulletin», temperature index graphs based on the Arrhenius equation,
88, 13 (supplement). «American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin»,
Connan J., Cassou A.M. (1980) Properties of gases and 75, 795-807.
petroleum liquids derived from terrestrial kerogen at various Illich H.A. (1983) Pristane, phytane and lower molecular
maturation levels, «Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta», weight isoprenoid distributions in oils, «American
44, 1-23. Association of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 67, 385-
Didyk B.M. et al. (1978) Organic geochemical indicators of 393.
paleoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation, «Nature», Jarvie D.M. (2001) Williston basin petroleum systems.
272, 216-222. Inferences from oil geochemistry and geology, «The
Dow W.G., O’Connor D.I. (1982) Kerogen maturity and type Mountain Geologist», 38, 19-41.
by reflected light microscopy applied to petroleum Jarvie D.M., Walker P.R. (1998) Correlation of oils and
exploration, in: Staplin F.L. et al., How to assess maturation source rocks in the Williston basin using classical correlation
and paleotemperatures, Tulsa (OK), Society of Economic tools and thermal extraction high resolution C7 gas
Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 133-157. chromatography, in: Advances in organic geochemistry
Ekweozor C.M. et al. (1979) Preliminary organic geochemical 1997. Proceedings of the 18th International meeting on
studies of samples from the Niger Delta (Nigeria), organic geochemistry, Maastricht, 22-26 September 1997.
«Chemical Geology», 27, 29-37. Jarvie D.M. et al. (1996) Automated thermal extraction and
Ellis L. et al. (2003) Mud Gas Isotope Logging (MGIL). A pyrolysis total petroleum hydrocarbon and kinetic analysis
new field technique for exploration and production, «Oil using the SR analyzer, in: Proceedings of the 47th Pittsburgh
& Gas Journal», May, 32-41. Conference and exposition on analytical chemistry and
Ensminger A. et al. (1977) Evolution of polycyclic alkanes applied spectroscopy, Chicago (Illinois), March, paper 785.
under the effect of burial (Early Toarcian shales, Paris Jarvie D.M. et al. (1998) Trapping and resolving light
basin), in: Advances in organic geochemistry 1975. Actas hydrocarbon gases and higher molecular weight liquid
del 7o Congreso internacional de geoquímica orgánica, hydrocarbons for calculation of oil and gas generation
Madrid, 16-19 September 1975, 45-52. kinetics, in: Proceedings of the 49th Pittsburgh Conference
Espitalie J. et al. (1977) Source rock characterization method and exposition on analytical chemistry and applied
for petroleum exploration, in: Proceedings of the annual spectroscopy, New Orleans (LA), 1-5 March, paper 1826P.
Offshore technology conference, Houston, (TX), 2-5 May, Jarvie D.M. et al. (2001) Oil and shale gas from the Barnett
paper 2935, 439-444. Shale, Fort Worth basin, Texas, in: Proceedings of the
Espitalie J. et al. (1985) Geochemical logging, in: Voorhees American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual
K.J. (edited by) Analytical pyrolysis. Techniques and meeting, Denver (CO), 3-6 June, «American Association
applications, London, Butterworth, 276-304. of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 85, A100.
Espitalie J. et al. (1988) Primary cracking of kerogens. Jenden P.D. et al. (1988) Origin of nitrogen rich natural gases
Experimenting and modeling C1, C2-C5, C6-C15, and C15+ in California Great Valley. Evidence from helium, carbon
classes of hydrocarbons formed, in: Advances in organic and nitrogen isotope ratios, «Geochimica et Cosmochimica
geochemistry 1987. Proceedings of the 13th International Acta», 52, 851-861.
meeting on organic geochemistry, Venice (Italy), 21-25 Jones R.W. (1984) Comparison of carbonate and shale source
September 1987, 893-899. rocks, in: J. Palacas (edited by) Petroleum geochemistry
Faber E. (1987) Zur isotopengeochemie gasformiger Kohlen and source rock potential of carbonate rocks, Tulsa (OK),
wasserstoffe, «Erdol Erdgas Kohle», 103, 210-218. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 163-180.
Hadley S.W. et al. (1997) Hydrocarbon pay delineation and Jones T.S., Smith H.M. (1965) Relationships of oil composition
product characterization with fluid inclusions. Examples and stratigraphy in the Permian basin of West Texas and
from East Coast Canada and Western Canada sedimentary New Mexico, in: Fluids in surface environments. A
basin, «InSite. Canadian Well Logging Society Newsletter», symposium. Transactions of the annual meeting of the
v.1, 3, 2-4. Southwestern federation of geological societies and
Hall D.L. et al. (1997) Using fluid inclusions to explore for Southwestern regional meeting of the American Association
oil and gas, «Hart’s Petroleum Engineer International», of Petroleum Geologists, Midland (TX), 30 January-
11, 29-34. 1 February 1964, 101-224.
Halpern H.I. (1995) Development and applications of light- Krevelen D.W. van (1961) Coal. Typology, chemistry,
hydrocarbon-based star diagrams, «American Association physics, constitution, Amsterdam, Elsevier.
of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 79, 801-815. Kroos B.M. et al. (1995) Generation of nitrogen and methane
Horsfield B. (1990) Practical criteria for classifying kerogens. from sedimentary organic matter. Implications on the
Some observations from pyrolysis-gas chromatography, dynamics of natural gas accumulations, «Chemical
«Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta», 53, 891-901. Geology», 126, 291-318.

236 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS


GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING

Landis C.R., Castaño J.R. (1995) Maturation and bulk provinces. Proceedings of the American Association of
chemical properties of a suite of solid hydrocarbons, Petroleum Geologists international conference and exhibition,
«Organic Geochemistry», 22, 137-149. 24-27 October, Cancun, Program Book Abstracts, A52.
Larter S.R. (1985) Integrated kerogen typing in the recognition Odden W. et al. (1998) Application of light hydrocarbons (C4-
and quantitative assessment of petroleum source rocks, in: C13 ) to oil/source rock correlations. A study of the light
Petroleum geochemistry in exploration of the Norwegian hydrocarbon compositions of source rocks and test fluids
Shelf. Proceedings of the Norwegian Petroleum Society from offshore Mid-Norway, «Organic Geochemistry», 28,
conference, Stavanger (Norway), 22-24 October 1984, 823-847.
269-286. Orr W.L. (1974) Changes in sulfur content and isotopic ratios
Le Tran K. (1972) Geochemical study of hydrogen sulfide of sulfur during petroleum maturation. Study of Big Horn
absorbed in sediments, in: Advances in organic geochemistry basin Paleozoic oils. Part 1, «American Association of
1971. Proceedings of the International meeting on organic Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 58, 2295-2318.
geochemistry, Hannover, 7-10 September 1971, 717-726. Palmer S.E. (1984) Hydrocarbon source potential of organic
Lewan M.D. (1985) Evaluation of petroleum generation facies of the lacustrine Elko Formation (Eocene/Oligocene),
by hydrous pyrolysis experimentation, «Philosophical Northeast Nevada, in: Woodward J. et al. (edited by)
Transactions of the Royal Society of London», 315, Hydrocarbon source rocks of the greater Rocky Mountain
123-134. region, Denver (CO), Rocky Mountain Association of
Lewan M.D., Ruble T.E. (2002) Comparison of petroleum Geologists, 491-511.
generation kinetics by isothermal hydrous and non- Pelet R. (1985) Évaluation quantitative des produits
isothermal open-system pyrolysis, in: Advances in organic formés lors de l’évolution géochimique de la matière
geochemistry 2001. Proceedings of the 20th International organique, «Revue de l’Institut Français du Pétrole»,
meeting on organic geochemistry, Nancy, 10-14 September 40, 551-562.
2001, 1457-1475.
Peters K.E. (1986) Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source
Lewan M.D., Jarvie D.M. (2003) Correlation between oil rock using programmed pyrolysis, «American Association
generation kinetics by open-system compositional pyrolysis of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 70, 318-329.
and hydrous pyrolysis, in: Advances in organic geochemistry
2003. Proceedings of the 21st International meeting on Peters K.E., Moldowan J.M. (1993) The biomarker guide.
organic geochemistry, Krakow, 8-12 September. Interpreting molecular fossils in petroleum and ancient
sediments, Englewood Cliffs (NJ), Prentice Hall.
Lo H.B. (1993) Correction criteria for the suppression of
vitrinite reflectance in hydrogen-rich kerogens. Preliminary Peters K.E. et al. (2005) The biomarker guide, Cambridge,
guidelines, «Organic Geochemistry», 20, 653-657. Cambridge University Press, 2v.
Magoon L.B., Dow W.G. (1994) The petroleum system, in: Rice D.D. (1993) Biogenic gas. Controls, habitats, and resource
Magoon L.B., Dow W.G. (edited by) The petroleum system. potential, in: Howell D.G. (editor) The future of energy
From source to trap, Tulsa (OK), American Association of gases, Washington (D.C.), United States Government
Petroleum Geologists, 3-24. Printing Office.
Mango F.D. (1990) The origin of light hydrocarbons in petroleum. Rogers H.D. (1860) On the distribution and probably origin
A kinetic test of the steady-state catalytic hypothesis, of the petroleum or rock oil of Pennsylvania, New York, and
«Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta», 54, 1315-1323. Ohio, in: Proceedings of the Philosophical Society, Glasgow,
Mango F.D. (1992) Transition metal catalysis in the generation v. IV, 2, 355-359.
of petroleum. A genetic anomaly in Ordovician oils, Schaefer R.G., Littke R. (1988) Maturity-related
«Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta», 56, 3851-3854. compositional changes in the low-molecular-weight
Mango F.D. (1997) The light hydrocarbons in petroleum. A hydrocarbon fraction of Toarcian shales, in: Advances in
critical review, «Organic Geochemistry», 26, 417-440. organic geochemistry 1987. Proceedings of the 13th
Mango F.D., Jarvie D.M. (2002) GOR prediction from oil International meeting on organic geochemistry, Venice
composition, in: Advances in organic geochemistry 2001. (Italy), 21-25 September 1987, 887-892.
Proceedings of the 20th International meeting on organic Schmoker J.W. (1994) Volumetric calculation of hydrocarbons
geochemistry, Nancy, 10-14 September 2001, 406-407. generated, in: Magoon L.B., Dow W.G. (edited by)
Mango F.D. et al. (1994) Role of transition-metal catalysis in The petroleum system. From source to trap, Tulsa (OK),
the formation of natural gas, «Nature», 368, 536-538. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 323-
326.
Mattavelli L. et al. (1983) Geochemistry and habitat of
natural gases in Po basin, Northern Italy, «American Schoell M. (1983) Genetic characterization of natural gases,
Association of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin», 67, 2239- «American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Bulletin»,
2254. 67, 2225-2238.
Mello M.R. et al. (2003) High resolution geochemistry Schoell M. (1988) Multiple origins of methane in the Earth,
technology (HRGT) and geochemical 3-D modeling applied «Chemical Geology», 71, 1-10.
to the petroleum system approach, in: Proceedings of the Seifert W.K., Moldowan J.M. (1978) Applications of steranes,
American Association of Petroleum Geologists annual terpanes, and monoaromatics to the maturation, migration,
meeting, Salt Lake City (UT), 11-13 May. and source of crude oils, «Geochimica et Cosmochimica
Milner C.W.D. et al. (1977) Petroleum transformations Acta», 42, 77-95.
in reservoirs, «Journal of Geochemical Exploration», 7, Seifert W.K., Moldowan J.M. (1986) Use of biological
101-153. markers in petroleum exploration, in: Johns R.B. (edited
Moldowan J.M. et al. (2004) High resolution geochemical by) Methods in geochemistry and geophysics, Amsterdam-
technology can redirect exploration, in: Mature petroleum Oxford, Elsevier, v. XXIV, 261-290.

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 237


PETROLEUM EXPLORATION

Sofer Z. (1984) Stable carbon isotope compositions of crude Volta A. (1777) Lettere del signor don Alessandro Volta patrizio
oils. Application to source depositional environments and comasco e decurione sull’aria infiammabile nativa delle
petroleum alteration, «American Association of Petroleum paludi, Milano, Marelli.
Geologists. Bulletin», 68, 31-49. Waples D.W. (2000) The kinetics of in-reservoir oil destruction
Ten Haven H.L. (1996) Applications and limitations of and gas formation. Constraints from experimental and
Mango’s light hydrocarbon parameters in petroleum empirical data, and from thermodynamics, «Organic
correlation studies, «Organic Geochemistry», 24, 957- Geochemistry», 31, 553-575.
976. White D. (1915) Some relations in origin between coal and
Thompson K.F.M. (1983) Classification and thermal history petroleum, «Journal of the Washington Academy of
of petroleum based on light hydrocarbons, «Geochimica Sciences», 5, 189-212.
et Cosmochimica Acta», 47, 303-316.
Thrasher J., Fleet A. J. (1995) Predicting the risk of carbon
Daniel M. Jarvie, Hossein Alimi,
dioxide ‘pollution’ in petroleum reservoirs, in: Organic
Chunqing Jiang, Fausto Mosca,
geochemistry. Developments and applications to energy, Richard Drozd
climate, environment and human history. Selected papers Humble Geochemical Services
from the 17th International meeting on organic geochemistry, Humble, Texas, USA
Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain), 4-8 September, 1086-
1088. Paolo Scotti, Teodoro Ricchiuto
Tissot B.P., Welte D.H. (1984) Petroleum formation and Eni - Divisione E&P
occurrence, Berlin, Springer. San Donato Milanese, Milano, Italy

238 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS