Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

Checkpoints.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.. .0.epeat + .. /o$ever. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. 2ress the knot do$n.. . + .1. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. by tying the knot in a retrace. + ..oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. %. Tying the Knot. + .'. b. a.+ .. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.1*. Figure 4-). . leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses..eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.etrace /.. Figure-$ight ..

. + . Figure-eight retrace. ake the $orking end around the anchor point... o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. Checkpoints %. Figure 4-)1. b.'. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. he finished knot is dressed loosely. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.+ . . + . ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. + .7. !ith the $orking end. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. and route the $orking end through the loop.1.0. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. + ...).

It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.'. + . &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.1.%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. reach under the horiAontal anchor. grasp the $orking end. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. palms do$n $ith hands together.0.. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. Tying the Knot.. /old the standing end in the left hand. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. and bring it in$ard. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. %0* End of the Rope. + ... +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. !ith the right hand. + .0. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.* Middle of the Rope. + .. + . he knot is tied. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. a.. /old the loop in the left hand. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.. %. ..'*. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. + . depending on ho$ it is tied. /old rope in both hands..

* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. Checkpoints.. a. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.. It is a middle rope knot. b. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to.1. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.+ .. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.7*.'. Figure 4-)4.. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. ake up the slack from the anchor. 2ress do$n the knot.. !hen tying this knot. !ith the right hand. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. Tying the Knot. . C!o2e hitch. + . %. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. + . 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.

+ . + .+ ...1. (ireman’s knot. and place it over the heel $rap. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. . 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.7. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot.. b. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. + ..5. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. + ... Figure 4-)5. + .). + . palm.8.. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop.. + . and fingertip. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.'. Checkpoints.4.0.

Cake one $rap around the palm.%.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.. . + . %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. It is a middle rope knot. + . a.. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.)*.. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. + . + . !hen dressing the knot do$n. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(..1. Tying the Knot.'.0. the tail and the bight must be together. !ith the $rap thus formed. it lays in$ard.. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.

%0* he tail and bight must be together. Checkpoints.Figure 4-)6. It is a middle rope knot. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.4*.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Directiona! #igure-eight. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . . b. %.

&rom the end %ape"* of the bight. + . spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. ie an overhand knot on a bight. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot..1...4.0.a.7.. + . + . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.). &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. + . Tying the Knot. + . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. forming t$o loops... A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. .. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.. + ..'. + .

T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. Checkpoints.. %o+!ine-on-a. Tying the Knot. b. a. %... + . >sing a doubled rope.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.5.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. .* It is a middle rope knot. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.ight. form an . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.Figure 4-)7.

Checkpoints.7. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.0. !ith the $orking end. 2ress the knot do$n. b. It is a middle of the rope knot. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. + .. Tying the Knot. .'. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.. + . /old the bight $ith the left hand..+ . a. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.1.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. Figure 4-)". %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. + .. %. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.8*.

b. Checkpoints.. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop.. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. .. Figure 4-)'. 2ress the knot tightly.+ ..0. a. form a loop in rope %standing part*. It is a specialty knot.* he loop is the desired siAe. Tying the Knot. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.1. + . 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. %. Figure-eight !oop. + .

0(inch bight..0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart..*. 2ouble the short rope.0.%.. + . + . %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.*: + .. forming a bight. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. + . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.. . =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. Figure 4-. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is ..1. and place it over the long rope..* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.each do$n through the ..1. + . + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. $ith the $orking ends even..0. >sing an arm3s length of rope. . &orm a complete round turn in the rope..*.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.

parallel.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar..7. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.). It is a specialty knot. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. and not t$isted. + . &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. . + .). Figure 4-. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot... . the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. %.'. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.+ . b. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.4.. Checkpoints. + . %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.nsure they are tight. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.

%achman knot.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %.. + . Checkpoints. Figure 4-. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope...1.0. + . b. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner..* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.a. + . %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.. Tying the Knot..

%. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. not crossed. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. + . + . /olding the bight loosely. hen. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. It is a specialty knot.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. b. single coil. bring a bight up through the loop.. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied.. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. Checkpoints.7.* A minimum of four $raps. >sing the standing part.. + .).. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.1... + . he standing portion is on the bottom. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. + . + .he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*.. . Tying the Knot. a. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. he running end is to the back of the body. !ith the running end.. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps..4.'. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. .0. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. tie an overhand around all coils. + .

.. + . Tying the Knot. + ...0. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. Bay the loops to the right. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.. + . !ith the right hand.'. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. .1.Figure 4-.1. + . a.. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. It is a specialty knot.

%0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. a.7. It is a specialty knot. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. Tying the Knot.4. Checkpoints. . Figure 4-. Three-!oop o+!ine. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.+ . %..* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.. b.. &orm a . + ..

.each through the bight and grasp the long. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .:u!e Knot0 .5. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.. standing end of the rope.'.). + . !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. + . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. %. + .0.7. . /old the center of the bight in the right hand.1. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. b. + .. Checkpoints. Figure-eight s!ip knot.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. Figure 4-.0 inches up the rope..+ .

%... Transport knot. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. %1* he bight is a minimum of .1. K!eimhiest Knot .. + . It is simply an overhand slip knot. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. a. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.6. + . Tying the Knot. + .0 inches long.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.0. Figure 4-. Check 9oints. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. b...* here is a single overhand slip knot.

. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.. . + . !ith the ends offset. Tying the Knot.. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . !rap at least four complete turns. + .. a. pass them through the bight %see + .0. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . + ... find the center of the rope and form a bight. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.7. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.'...0 inches. It is a special( purpose knot. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.. easily adjustable. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. + .1. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.*. + .

.. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. Tying the Knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. K!eimhiest knot. a.0.: to .7. .. It is a special(purpose knot. %. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.Figure 4-. + .* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. b.. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. + . Checkpoints. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.0 inches.

%. + . Checkpoints. b... b.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.1: Cinch the knot tightly.. Figure 4-. + .0: <ring the runner back through the bight. a. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. %. + . :unter -itch .: &orm a bight. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. <irth hitch. It is a special(purpose knot. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.'.".* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. Checkpoint.. Tying the Knot. Frost knot.Figure 4-.

/old the loop $ith the left hand. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.'. + . + . %0* he carabiner is locked. /old the rope in both hands.. b.0 inches apart. Bock the locking mechanism. + ..0.. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. Check 9oints. %. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. + . . Tying the Knot. !ith the right hand. palms do$n about .1.he munter hitch. a.. !ith the right hand..* A bight passes through the carabiner. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.

+ . + .1.. thus creating a loop around the $aist. . + .0.. . .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.'.. It usually re#uires a sling rope . ensuring they do not cross. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. Tying the Knot... + .Figure 4-1*.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.*. a. :unter hitch.' feet or longer. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs..

. Figure 4-1). + . uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. b..). -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.appe! seat.+ . %. tightening the seat. &rom rear to front. . Check 9oints. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. -ull up on the ropes.4..7. + . .* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.

he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. . preferably ovals*. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. + . + .. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.0.. Tying the Knot. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. a..

. %. b. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. <uar&e knot. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations.Figure 4-1. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . Check 9oints. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts.* !hen properly dressed. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. Although mountain operations have not changed. rope can only be pulled in one direction.

for training %see Appendi" A*. illness and injury. A =: A +/(. and actions. anchors. ho$ever. &ort <enning. mainly on their troops and logistics or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. >nless other$ise stated.+. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. tactics. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation.A2DC. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain.8:7(7781. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. Inclement $eather. >. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. ice climbing. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. and urban vertical environments. he proponent of this publication is /F . he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. evacuation. both men and $omen are included. $henever the masculine gender is used.). may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience.).<D. glaciers. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. e#uipment. Weather and terrain combine to challenge .).army. Countain Dperations. rock climbing. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. Army Infantry +chool.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. sno$(covered mountains. movement on glaciers. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. and training. 9A 1.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing.

Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. AcclimatiAation. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. glaciers. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. compartments. Spring storms. conditioning. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. sno$fields. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. and $ell(led troops. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. rehearsals. single ridges. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. surprise. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . Df the appro"imately 0. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering.::: kno$n minerals.

he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. d. Cha!k an& 8imestone. and de$. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. c. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. &ace climbing is possible. b.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. conglomerate type stones may be loose. f. granite dries #uickly.ockfall danger is high. Bimestone has pockets. +topping a slide on small. . e. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. . <rassy S!opes. . found in limestone. ne$ sno$. and cracks. it cannot be protected. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. &ace climbing can be found. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. ho$ever.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. After a rain.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. ."cept for calcite. San&stone. S!ate an& <neiss. . Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. <ranite. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. After long. and it is usually difficult to protect. face climbing. a. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold.

his results in an intrusive rock. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . avoid scree $hen ascending. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. =gneous .ocks. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". If possible. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. a. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. . alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. Ta!us. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. but smaller than boulders. Scree. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". he magma may move up$ard. g. !hen the cooling occurs at depth.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree.ock C!assi#ications . $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. h. under pressure. Ascending scree is a tedious task. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. .ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. /o$ever. or. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. and over time.ocks. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. internal heat. %.

Adirondacks. or clusters of segregated minerals.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks.ocks. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. . it is called 6tuff. In plutonic rocks.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. In the Alps. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. Dccasionally. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. %1* Cointing . herefore. and dikes. . $hen a ledge suddenly ends. .and crystalliAing. =orth Cascades.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. Barge %. $hich cut across the strata. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. produce basalt. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. Fuieter eruptions. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures.ocks. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. +ierras. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged.ockies.

* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. only slightly altering the sediments. c. As sediments accumulate. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. but cleavage or foliation.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. Se&imentary .ocks. or oceans. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. %. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. <ecause of this cleavage.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. After sediments are solidified. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. especially in limestone. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. +hale changes to slate or schist. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface.ocks.b. %. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. hese changes may be minimal. In fact. lakes. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. :etamorphic . %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. he Canadian . and limestone to marble. $hich offers . lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement.

A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. a. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes.* Dome :ountains. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. volcanoes. and to pull apart and crack. ocean trenches. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. $hich also provides solid climbing. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. $hich results in fault(block mountains. :ountain Structure. the Dlympics of !ashington. granitic continental crust. . hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. he breakage e"tends . often accompanies up$arp. heaving up fold mountains. .$orld class climbing. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. 9!ate Tectonics. and heavier. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. &aulting. b. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting.ach type of stress produces a typical structure.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. %. and mountain ridge systems. e"posing the central igneous core. =evada. forming fault(block mountain ranges. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash.

!hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. Core often. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. central core is all that remains. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. ectonic forces. %1* Fo!& :ountains. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. the oldest. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . %'* Ao!canic :ountains. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. it is faulted on one side only. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. ho$ever.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. he best kno$n is the 6. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor.

Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. domed. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. the Caucasus region.idge. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. there are folds measured by a rope length. he I2+ classes are: . creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . and have the skills to accomplish the plan. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. . A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. and faulted. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. . and the Cediterranean. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. In addition. Asian arc. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle.ift Valley of . and the . but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. a.

"traordinary difficulty. . Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. /igh physical conditioning. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %."posed positions.5—Very great difficulty. %)* Class 7. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. hree points of contact are necessary. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. . % his is moderate to difficult scrambling.'—Bittle difficulty. and e"perience re#uired.H Class . %7* Class 7. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue. H Class '—<elayed climbing. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary.* Class 7. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule.)—Cedium difficulty."tremely great difficulty. often combined $ith small belay points. $hich may have some e"posure. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling.8—. /ands are necessary to support balance.—/iking trail. %'* Class 7.7—Coderate difficulty. climbing techni#ue.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition.:—. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. . %4* Class 7.4—9reat difficulty. %0* Class 7. his is the simplest form of free climbing.* b. belay and emplace intermediate protection.. %1* Class 7. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up.:(7. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. H Class 1—Climbing.

7. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. .6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area.'—9reater increases of difficulty.. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. %5* Class 7. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. re#uiring more climbing ability.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars.. e"perience..6 or 6L. and energy e"penditure. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6.. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7.6 indicates periods of run(out $here. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. the 6.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. 7. %0* A.. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out.* Classes are further divided into a. c. ground fall $ould occur.asy aid. b.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample.* A:—M&rench(free.—. if a fall $as e"perienced. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling.5J*.(7. d. c.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. %.. %&or e"ample. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple. and d categories starting from 7. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs.' %for e"ample.. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable.:d*.5. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. in a classification of 7.: to 7.

Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. %'* A1—/ard aid. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length.K0 to 0 . %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. %7* A'—+erious aid. V — . /o$ever. II — /alf of a day. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7."treme aid. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing.%1* A0—Coderate aid. If the leader falls. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %4* A)—. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. =o serious fall danger. . but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. ho$ever. such as A1J or A1(.4*. %)* A7—. hese falls.K0 days %usually not less than 7. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. VI — 9reater than 0 days."tremely severe aid. e. III — About three(fourths of a day. .5*. long fall potential does e"ist. All protection is sketchy at best.

III . hard very 7..b.5 VI( severe.* easy %..c 'a.. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe..'..1K.1..7 7.b...b VIII .. 'a severe. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.. sho$s a comparison of these systems.b. able ..f. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.: 7.0 7.' 7..b.* moderate %CD2* . H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup . H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .urope.:d VIIJ .:a VII( .).)a 7.b 0c.c 7b.c 7a.c 7b.8 0: 0..b 0a.) 7.1a 1b.c )a.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.7b 7.7 . 'b hard severe. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.8 VI 7a 7..b.c )a.0.:.c )a. H <raAilian—<raAil uses . 7.:b VII . his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it. 'c 7..b 7b.c VIII .c.b. DDS Class ..8 IIsup .a.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.0.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.'a 1b.'a 1b.a VIII( .c 7b.1 IIIsup .1 7.c 0a.c 7b. hard severe.4 .K.c.c...7b 7.)a 7. hard severe..b. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.* easy %.c ..5 ..)b .:c VII ..7b 7.7b(7c 7.(.a.'a 'a.'. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.

7. and the route might be prone to avalanche.atings.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 . . H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.. easy climb near the road. H I — A short.7. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.. A difficult and involved approach and descent. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day... $ith sustained technical climbing. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance.0b 7.* Commitment . AI %alpine ice*.)K4. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. . H VII — . . and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.)c 4a VIII 0) . $ith little objective haAard. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.ating systems.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.)K4.. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*.7. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. 2ifficult physically and mentally..verything a grade VI has. H V — A long climb in a remote setting.7. -ossibly days to approach the climb. and more of it. all in a remote area. possibly $ith a haAardous descent. $ith objective haAards ever(present.oman numerals. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*.)c 4a 05 .)K4. g.)K4. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards.. his route is subject to objective haAards. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .0a 7. %.0d IL( IL IL ILJ .0c 7.

— A froAen lake or stream bed. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. additional information may be needed about siAe. . location. H . H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. re#uiring agility and creativity. physically and mentally. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations.atings.%0* Technica! . H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. he pitch may be shorter. strenuous pitch. H 7 — A long. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. erratic $eather. !hen planning mountain operations. a. An e"tremely tough pitch. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. but on featureless ice. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. $ith places to rest.

the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. H ?eep dry. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. H 2o not rush.b. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. if possible. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. and calm. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. dry. and amounts of precipitation. types. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. Co2er an& Concea!ment . c. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. H If lost. %. during severe mountain storms. but do not overdress. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. put on dry clothing. stay $arm. H ?eep $arm.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack.

the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. are e"cellent at long ranges. boulders. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency.!hen moving in the mountains. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. /o$ever. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. b. in depth. outcroppings. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. In other areas. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. As in all operations. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. In alpine environments. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. dead space is a problem at short ranges. sleet. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. such as volcanic tuff. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. and fog can limit visibility. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. heavy vegetation. +ome rock types. Conversely. hail.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. like observation. sno$. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. . rain. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. are easily e"cavated. . a. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. /o$ever.

people glance to the sky for other bad signs. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. . a. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. sno$ conditions. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. b. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. If an une"pected $ind strikes. . rainfall. especially in $inter. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. latitude. or a rise in temperature. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. and $eather factors. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke.

he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. At higher altitudes. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. he barometer usually drops 0. In tropical regions. drier air has a reduced molecular content and.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. such as those found in desert regions. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. 2ue to the cold. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. . (eather Characteristics . he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. d. b. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. the thinner. conse#uently. <ecause of this increased dryness.c. a. +ome mountains. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter.

%.::: feet. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. air pressure %barometric pressure*. humidity %moisture content*. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. !ith lo$er air pressure. he higher in altitude. %0* 8o+ 9ressure.:. and if it is being lifted or not. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse.1 millibars %mb*. a. Bo$ pressure. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. b.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. and the earth3s rotation. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. on the other . 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps.80 inches of mercury %hg* or .. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. Associated $ith clear skies. the better the $eather $ill be. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. he higher the pressure. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. oceans. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. Associated $ith bad $eather. land masses.6 his layer reaches as high as ':.* -igh 9ressure. In order to understand this. the lo$er the pressure. ho$ it is being moved.

he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. c. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. c. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. 2uring the $inter season. =ormally. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. a. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction.6 (in& In high mountains. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. !ith increasing $ind strength. or at high altitudes. Above hot surfaces. <ecause of these funneling effects. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth.hand. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. b. dense clouds fill the air. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. >sually. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. Dn a $eather map. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. and sinks to the earth3s surface. . the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit.

hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. g. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause.d. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. . hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. Continental ropical — $arm. dry air mass. Caritime -olar — cold. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. $et air mass. f. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. there are three prevailing $inds: %. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. $et air mass. due to the earth3s rotation. e. dry air mass. has settled to the surface. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. In the =orthern /emisphere. Caritime ropical — $arm.

7 degrees &ahrenheit per . the $armer the air. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. and so on*. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. sno$. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen.. a. b. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer.%. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. $ind meter. and thermometer. clouds are formed..:: percent relative humidity. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. de$. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. fog.:: percent relative humidity*. rain. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. . he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. the more moisture it can hold. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . If the air contains a great deal of $ater. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air.

Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ).arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. b. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. c. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. d. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. . !hen temperatures are cold enough. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction.(0*. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. Fronta! 8i#ting. 6rographic 8i#ting. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point.(. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. and .7:: feet. hey can be classified by height or appearance. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Clouds can be described in many $ays. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. a. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . +ince air masses $ill not mi".7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached.a. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. mid(. it has no$here to go but up.

%. . Stratus C!ou&s. Figure )-1. Cumu!us C!ou&s.Figure )-).(1 and ..* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . 3im ostratus C!ou&s. Figure )-.('*.

!ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation.::: feet . especially if the cloud is more than 1. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist.Figure )-4. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds.

:i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. Figure )-6.thick.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. 7!tocumu!us. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. especially if they are rising over time. . Figure )-5.7:: to 0:. Cold clouds. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &.* b. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . though usually hours a$ay.::: feet thick. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1.()*. 7!tostratus. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds.(7 and . Cid(level clouds %bet$een ).

a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. emperatures are $arm. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. in a blue sky.(4 and &igure . !ith altostratus. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds.(5*. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. at night. produces a ring of light around the moon.%. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. Figure )-7. humidity rises. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. Cirrus. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. c. As the storm approaches. . he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:.

Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. %. shaped like a comma. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. . hey can be nearly straight. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. or seemingly all tangled together."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. %. releasing incredible amounts of energy.::: feet. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. ?no$n for their flat bases and .::: feet. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. As a result. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes.Figure )-". cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. d. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. Cirrostratus. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible.

an artifact of erosion. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. large hail. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts.(8*. >nder favorable conditions. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. . . these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets.::: feet or higher.distinct outlines. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. damaging $inds. ice crystals dominate the composition. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. and tornadoes. 9iven suitable conditions. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. As the air rises. ho$ever. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest.

the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. >pon reaching the mountain top. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. and contrails. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air.Figure )-'. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. hey are orographic clouds. 6ther C!ou& Types. and cools. !ith continued descent.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. %. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. lenticulars. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. Initially. /o$ever. e. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream.(.:*. Dnce the air returns to its original height. stable air encounters a mountain. similar to a 6flying saucer. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. Cumu!onim us. If they gro$ and descend.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. . is lifted up$ard. bad $eather can be e"pected. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . $arming as it descends.

then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*.*.(. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. especially if the sky is . +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. Figure )-)). %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . f. Contrai!s. C!ou& =nterpretation. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon.. 8inticu!ar.Figure )-)*. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather.

Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. cumulus. cirrostratus. c. altostratus. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. cold. (arm Front. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. there . and fog. $ill force the $arm air up. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. nimbostratus %producing rain*. d. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. <ecause $arm air is less dense.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. he four types of fronts are $arm. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. Dccasionally. a. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. it becomes a stationary front. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. 6cc!u&e& Front. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. to the local sky.covered $ith cumulus clouds. and nimbostratus. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. b. Cold air.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. . and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. Stationary Front. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. occluded. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. it is a $arm occlusion. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. cirrostratus. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. Co!& Front. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. and stationary. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. being more dense than $arm air.

7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . Conse#uently. . he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. the temperature of the air drops 7. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. subarctic. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. and heat loss through thermal radiation. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . and precipitation*. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects.::: feet of elevation gain. b. calm typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. and mid(latitudes. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night.. At high altitudes.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. clear. <esides permitting rapid heating. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. the temperature of the air drops 1. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset..::: feet of elevation gain. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice.. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. due to convection currents. his cooler. Temperature =ormally. sno$. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. fog. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. a.

eports from other localities and from any $eather service. but more slo$ly %1. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. the amount of data available. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. or the =ational !eather <ureau. if today $as hot and dry. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. a. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast.* 9ersistence :etho&. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. temperature.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. are also helpful. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. . o be effective.c. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. including >+A&. and barometric pressure $ill all be different.. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. >+=. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. $ind meter. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. herefore. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. . b. thermometer.0 degrees &ahrenheit per .

%'* 7na!og :etho&. this may not al$ays be the case. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. and clouds and precipitation. %0* If no anemometer is available. Assess $ind speed in knots.%0* Tren&s :etho&. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. c. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. bushes. (in& Spee&. tents. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. Ideally. and so forth. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. estimate the speed in knots. such as trees. %. &or e"ample. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. under changing conditions. assess speed to the nearest knot. high( and lo$(pressure centers. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. are blo$ing. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. (in& Direction. b. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. a. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. /o$ever. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. .* If an anemometer is available. . Aisi i!ity in :eters.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map.

7 degrees C " . then estimate to the best of your ability.. If clouds are not touching terrain. . Count the sections $ith cloud cover. .d. degrees &.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. colder temperatures. Cei!ing -eight. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. .* !ith a thermometer. Assess total cloud cover in eighths.77 P 7 degrees C. degrees & Q 10 " .* f. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. total cloud cover is 'K5.77. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. heavy do$npours. =ote if bases are above all terrain. &og. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. %&or e"ample.5 times C plus 10.5 J 10 P '. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. $Bamp!e4 '. g. hail.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon.. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. e. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. 9resent (eather. %. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . Temperature.

* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. 9ressure Tren&. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. %. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Increase in precipitation. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. he closer the isometric lines are. assess the pressure trend. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. as $ell as an estimated temperature. . A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation.%0* !ithout a thermometer. Carked $ind speed increases. Carked increase in humidity. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. Increasing cloud coverage. Changes in obstructions to visibility. i. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. h. !ith a barometer or altimeter. %. Carked cooler temperature changes. 6 ser2e& (eather.

&alling can be caused by carelessness. Ep&ate. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . such as lack of preparation. overe"ertion. tour. rope in. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. c. age. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. $quipment. . /umidity decreases. avalanche run(out Aones. $ind. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. climbing above one3s ability. %i2ouac Site. j. carelessness. man(made %caused by an individual. improper diet. or as a combination %human trigger*. dehydration. Fa!!ing. Increasing barometric pressure. and flooding %especially in gullies*. overestimating ability.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. e#uipment misuse*. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. or other reasons. over(fatigue. a hold breaking a$ay. lightning. a. bad $eather. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. If the possibility of falling e"ists. or e"cessive use. heavy e#uipment. b. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. companions.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. choice of route. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. and poor judgment.

g."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. 72a!anches. . stay hydrated. If ice is in the gully. hanging glaciers and seracs. a. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. %. lightning. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. and so on. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. storms. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. c. b. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year.ock. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. >se a route sketch and march table.efer to paragraph . icefalls. rain. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. acclimatiAe slo$ly.* f. Aisi i!ity. sno$.::: pounds*. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. As this slope increases . Avoid.7:: feet*. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. endurance and concentration is reduced. d. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. darkness.: kilograms %about 0. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. e. <u!!ies.ock#a!!. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. rockfalls. it is best to rope up. Cre2asses. If you must cross these danger areas. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. At high altitudes %especially over ). If you must move under these conditions. &og. +leep $ell. if at all possible. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. . 7!titu&e.

d.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. shallo$ depressions. cracks that guide $ater. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. c.from 07 to 1: degrees. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. . sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. humming of metal objects. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . and rock needles. Above appro"imately 5. b. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. crackling. rock $alls. cracks filled $ith earth. Bike$ise. and a bluish light %+t. %. . caves*. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. hair standing on end. ridges. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. fi"ed $ire installations. violent. A clear. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. isolated trees. shallo$ overhangs.::: feet. Bightning is fre#uent. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. but dehydration is of greater concern. the force #uadruples. .: kilometers apart. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. herefore.* Avoid peaks. as a glacier makes a bend. a. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. haAardous icefalls can be formed. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. e. +eek shelter around dry. Air is dryer at higher altitudes.

especially $hen combined $ith $ind. i. j. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. 2uring and after rain. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity.0 to . $indburn.::(meter rise in altitude. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . If already rappelling. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. If half $ay up the rock face. $hich may bury the trail. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. even if overcast. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. 2rink plenty of fluids. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope.5 inches@ ho$ever.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. and debris being blo$n about. rain. If it is sno$ing. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. . !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. &or each . Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. and sno$. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. g. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*.* . h. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. % able . f. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. the sno$ #uickly melts.

+no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. a.. +lopes as gentle as . S!ope Sta i!ity.* S!ope 7ng!e. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. %. %1* S!ope 7spect. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep.Ta !e )-. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e.7 degrees have avalanched. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. but may occur on concave slopes. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger.

a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. %. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. Dn grassy slopes or scree. c. e"plosions. %'* (eight. Various factors trigger avalanches. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. %0* 9recipitation.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. b. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly.* Temperature. %Dn at least one occasion. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. . At temperatures above freeAing.sunny. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. the potential for avalanche is high. Triggers. heavy e#uipment. .7 centimeters per hour or greater*. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. $arm days. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. +ustained $inds of . About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. %1* (in&. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. %. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. %'* <roun& Co2er.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. Sno+ 9its. -assing helicopters. %7* Ai ration.

then t$ice. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. d. to the ground. place the other foot on the block.utschblock test. Dnce above. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. smooth the face $ith a shovel.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. o isolate the rear of the column. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. Dnce the pit is complete. o conduct the test. If the block is still holding up. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. through all the sno$. =e"t. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. and so on. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. s#uat once. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab.pit across the fall line. %. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. %1* Conduct a .

Although any avalanche can kill you. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. a drop in temperature of . 9rotecti2e :easures. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. %b* As slabs become harder. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. . their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. Dther measures include: . Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. d.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche.: degrees Celsius %.during the $inter sno$ season. +lab release is rapid. settled sno$. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. Barge avalanches of this type. &or normal density. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true.

%1* ake advantage of dense timber. %0* <roup Sa#ety. >se them for lunch and rest stops. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. . Iour pack can act as a flotation device. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. %.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. avoid moving during these periods. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. ridges. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope.oute Se!ection. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. as $ell as protect your spine. -repare to discard e#uipment. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. . 2etach ski runa$ay cords.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. e. -ut your hood on. .%. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. climb to the side of the avalanche path. far from the bottom of slopes. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. If you must traverse. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. and not directly up the center. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. 2eploy avalanche cord. $hich is al$ays the best choice. f.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible.

and the body temperature is lo$ered. If you feel your feet touch the ground. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks.%0* Fracture 8ines. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. their pulse rate declines. %. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. hold your breath. &I9/ &D. If you feel yourself about to pass out. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$.. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. %1* Soun&s. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. shut your mouth. they $ould avoid the avalanche. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface.* 2iscard e#uipment. %)* ry to rela". ID>. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. BI&. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. %1* If your head goes under the sno$.* :ountain 8i2ing . it may be impossible to dig yourself out. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. do not fight it. . Sur2i2a!. g. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. no one can hear you scream. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. you must try your hardest to reach the surface.

and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. shelter considerations. #ormal activities $navigation. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. fire building. communications. or the . 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. &luids lost through respiration. perspiration. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. raining should include: psychological preparation. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration.(4)*. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. /yperventilation and the cool. health haAards. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. locating $ater. Dne #uart of $ater. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. a.

and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. severe cramping may result. -urification must be accomplished. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. e. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. +no$. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. d. . Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. physical activity must be reduced. b. c. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. Conserve $ater for drinking. rain. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. juices. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. ho$ever. mountain streams. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. and a loss of .7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. &ruits. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. If the $ater supply is insufficient. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for .0 #uarts %. If he is hot and the $ater is cold.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. . thirst should be satisfied in increments. springs.e#uivalent.

but other$ise not dangerous. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. defense*.::: feet*. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. . and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. After sundo$n. b. assembly area. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. If possible. f.'. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness.(4)*. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. a. At progressively higher elevations %greater than .drinking $ater."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. !ater that is unfit to drink. precautions must be taken. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. high mountain areas freeAe. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. a $atering party should be employed. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. !ater is scarce above the timberline.

* 9rotein. and legumes also provide amino acids. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. he amino acids. fats. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. fish. Cain sources of fats are meats. and meats. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. cheese. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. %. milk. vegetables. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. resulting from digestion of protein. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. hese food components provide energy. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy.of cold rations. amino acids. eggs. regardless of physical activity.7'(pound man. eggs. and minerals. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. is 5 ounces for a . Dther foods such as cereals. energy. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. metabolic changes. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. Df the total daily caloric intake. and carbohydrates. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. fiber. milk. . butter. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. %0* Fats. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. poultry. or milk proteins. and cheese. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. c. and loss of appetite. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. nuts. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. vitamins. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy.

%'* Aitamins. In the form of glucose.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. $hich are found in cereals. especially if this period is to e"ceed . and fruit. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. a balanced diet is a necessity. depending on the soldier. fruits.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. . vegetables. and meats. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. 2. %. fruits*. vegetables.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. =utritionally. . +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. vegetables. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. and ?. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. . Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . and Ainc. d. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. %7* Cinerals. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. phosphorous.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier .%1* Car ohy&rates. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. vitamin supplements should be considered. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains..: days. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. iron.

and chocolate. cereal bars. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. Carbohydrates. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. and illness. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. fruits.$orks. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. juices. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. and hot chocolate are diuretics. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. fires. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. +ince coffee.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. shortness of breath. . thus releasing heat. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration.. tea. !hen cooking. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. herefore. and cider should also be considered. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. the cooking time may be doubled. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. marked. At higher elevations. candies. %1* . cramps. >se stoves and heat . . are important in maintaining energy levels. %About '."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. /ot beverages of soup. Commanders may consider supplementing C. po$dered milk..::(pound man*. stoves."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. juices.7:: calories for garrison activity. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. and be eaten hot or cold. metal containers.s $ith breakfast bars. o conserve fuel.

hydration. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. nose. %7* Certain drugs. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. and burial sites. If possible. garbage should be burned or deep buried. no trace of a unit should be detected. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. herefore. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. In freeAing $eather. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. perspiration. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. his is especially important in the high mountains. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. !hen operating in areas . ahkios. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. and eyelids. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. 9ersona! -ygiene. %. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. a. alcohol. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. medications. As all missions are tactical. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. and judgment of soldiers. mainly during periods of cold $eather.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper.

In tactical situations. blisters. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. If laundering of clothing is difficult. it can . &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. b. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. In rocky or froAen ground. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. &eet should be $ashed daily. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. Sanitation. $hich may cause blisters. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. dried. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries.6 +ince $aste freeAes. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. !henever changing socks. the soldier in a designated. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired.$here resupply is not possible. cracks. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. and discoloration. If latrines are constructed. but must be #uickly dried. digging latrines is usually difficult. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. and kept as dry and clean as possible.

be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. .'. and training of soldiers. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.*. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. At these altitudes. $here altitude illness is the rule. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-.::: feet. /o$ever. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally.::: feet.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained.::: to . or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. $aste may be covered $ith stones. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. employment of the local population may be advantageous.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. Above 5. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.::: feet and ending at .5.'.::: feet.*. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. Very high altitude is the region from . /ere. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. In rocky areas above the timberline.::: to 5. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. Altitude illness is common here. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. he e"pectation that freshly deployed.4. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7.::: to 5.5.::: feet. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. Areas above . Coderate altitude is from 7. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain .'. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. starting at about 5. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. conditioning.::: to .::: feet %high elevation*. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond .::: feet.

+leep disturbances. . .:. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.::: feet*. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. . he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and .::: feet. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). 2eterioration of memory. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).'.4. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated.'.7:: feet causes severe. +lurred speech. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent. the rate of ascent. b. /eadache.0 to .::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. nutrition and physical activity it is about . Increased irritability in some individuals.apid ascent to .::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. Boss of appetite.5 percent may have severe symptoms.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. a. operational unit. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude.apid ascent to .apid ascent to elevations of . Irregular breathing.0.::: to .

As $ith all military operations. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. a. and enemy situation. >. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. environment.+.+. -riorities of training must be established.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. herefore.unacclimatiAed personnel. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations.. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain.+.

mission. $ith the unit. Additionally. $ater purification supplies. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. time to ac#uire $ater. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*.::: to 0.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. these drugs are diuretics. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. !ater. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. and. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations.::: feet per day. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. and rest must be considered as priorities.* Above 5.. c. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. food. taking an e"tended rest period.::: feet. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. if in a $inter environment. >nits can leapfrog. a unit should ascend at a rate of . +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. .

climbing. developing a sense of insecurity and fear.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. the metabolism becomes more efficient. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. d. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. and special e#uipment loads. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. . he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. his conditions the back and legs. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. f. A different group of muscles are used. he better the physical condition of the soldier. his increases the soldier3s endurance. $hich must be developed and hardened. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. .ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. and calisthenics.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. e. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. the soldier3s . $hile carrying D. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. At the same time.

is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. metabolism. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. strains. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. conditioning. arms. and trench foot*. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. and circulatory support. After acclimatiAation. fractures. frostbite. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. abrasions. lungs. he heart rate.epetitive practice. strains. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. >pon deploying to high elevations. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. to the point of instinctive reaction. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. . . legs. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. contusions and fractures. personnel can still become injured %sprains. abdomen. hypothermia.capacity for e"ertion is increased. back. breathing management. g. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. As $ith any other injuries. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. hese include sprains. . raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills.

So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning.7::. %1* o treat sunburn. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. $ash thoroughly. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. In severe cases chills. . 2ue to rough terrain. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. he . apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling.. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . If blisters do break. and seek medical attention.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. 2o not pop blisters. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. he skin may be $arm to the touch.:: and . Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. %. and headaches may occur.* Contributing factors include fair skin. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. fever. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. Sun urn. a. burning. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. bandage. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. Immediate first aid is given on site.

+. ice. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. %1* o treat sno$blindness. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. -roper sunglasses should provide . Sno+ !in&ness. If still painful. red. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. %. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. .:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. b. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. %Currently.* In an emergency. the >. and $ater. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. an +-& of . Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. %'* o prevent sunburn. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. %&or e"ample. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . Avoid rubbing the eyes. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning.* 2uring sustained activity. Administer pain medication if needed.

All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. and fight in $inter conditions. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. personnel. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. but freeAing temperatures are not. a. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. dehydration. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. dissemination. rest.0. and nutrition. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. and immersion foot. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. . /o$ever. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. b.*. move. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. +imple tasks take longer to perform.

the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. (in& chi!! chart.Figure .-). !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . %'* 7m ient Temperature. c. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. %1* <eographic 6rigin.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. &or e"ample. %0* . %. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates.ace.

6—Dverheating. • • • . Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. %4* Terrain.6. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. %5* C!othing. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. D—2ry. therefore. Avoid overheating.danger Aone or beyond. !et clothing loses insulation value. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and.8. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. in mind. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. %)* Type o# :ission. ?eep dry. he lo$er the $ind chill.D. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. accumulation of perspiration. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries.

. %. . Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. %.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience.1* Concomitant =n>ury. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather.0* Fatigue. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. age is not a significant factor. Individuals must retain their body fluids. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. %. .7* 3utrition.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. %. %. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. %. %. d.* 7ge. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. %.a&ica! Changes in the (eather. $hich in turn can accelerate shock.4* . he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration.%8* :oisture. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. especially in higher elevations. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury.:* Dehy&ration.

Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. Dn cold days.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements.* .%. or evaporation. f. convection. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. %. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. %0* Con&uction."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. . %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. deliberate. -erform emergency first aid. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. and careful. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*.a&iation. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. e. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. conduction. .

%0* Dehy&ration. unconsciousness. g. his condition may digress into incoherence.* Shock. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. Any illness or injury can produce shock. s$eating. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. and e"cessive thirst. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. rapid and faint pulse. fear. . 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. administer $ater. !ind chill is convection cooling. slo$er heart beat.levate the back and head. Clothing that ventilates. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. %b* 'reatment. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. . +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. insulates. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging.%1* Con2ection. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. and loss of blood. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. and possibly death. %'* $2aporation. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. his is usually caused by . restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. shortness of breath. %a* Symptoms. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. o treat shock. pain. or feet. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. cold skin. %. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation.

he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. /o$ever. rapid heartbeat. diAAiness. he is probably dehydrated. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. higher temperature. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. and unconsciousness. Cold causes fre#uent urination. mental sluggishness. At high altitudes. decreased amounts of urine being produced. upset stomach.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. If the stomach is cold. %b* Symptoms. dry mouth. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. the air is dry. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. headache. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. tiredness. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . in fact. hey may. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. fainting. lack of appetite. %a* Contributing +actors. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. o distinguish bet$een them.

administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. Change in $eather. %1* -ypothermia. Allo$ the victim to rest. -oor nutrition. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. /igh $inds. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. In advanced cases. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. . 2iarrhea. %c* 'reatment. Accidental immersion in $ater. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. 2ecreased physical activity. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

::: to 1. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. . if left untreated. given orally can also be effective. • • • . <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation.0: to . $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. >nconsciousness. • • d. /A-. reatment of /A-. is planned for every 1.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. using mannitol could be fatal. $armth. e. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand.. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. hydration. is prevented by good nutrition. may become irreversible and cause death.):*. A rest day. rest. rapid heartbeat %pulse . /A-. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. and death results.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*.• -rogressive shortness of breath. and o"ygen. &urosemide %Basi"*. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-.::: feet of altitude gained. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. are prone to second attacks. $hich is a diuretic.::: to 0. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. If untreated. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. Crackling. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment.

/A-. and /AC. d. /AC. paralysis.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death.apid descent and medical attention. +ymptoms of /AC. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. hallucinations. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. reatment for /AC. . and using a gradual ascent to altitude. Beft untreated. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. coma. . is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. c. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. vomiting. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. decrease in urination. confusion. may occur in e"perienced. inability to concentrate. +upplemental o"ygen. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. is a severe headache. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. is the same as for /A-. $armth. a. headaches. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. convulsions. can cause death.. and lack of coordination. stupor. . immediate descent is mandatory.est. include mild personality changes.. maintaining hydration. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. -revention of /AC. -reventive measures include good eating habits. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. he main symptom of /AC. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death.. and unconsciousness. b. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC.

Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. . H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure.rovided all tactical concerns are met. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. &rom this. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. or the fluid portion of the blood.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. cause increased proteins in the plasma. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. both cerebral and pulmonary. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. . the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. move faster. and /AC. cools down and heats up differently. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. edema. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. . occurs. therefore. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements.

b. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. a lace( up configuration. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. he inner boot provides support. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock.*. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. %. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. as $ell as insulation against the cold. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. c. a. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks.*. /o$ever. Foot+ear Currently. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. he outer . he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots.

at $orst. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. uncomfortable and. socks provide cushioning for the foot. !hen clothing is $orn properly. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. ski bindings.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. he is. the insulation layers. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. As a system. develops hypothermia or frostbite. . . if $orn correctly. $hich protect the soldier from the elements.egardless of climatic conditions. !hen $orn improperly. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. Socks. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. and the outer most garments. remove e"cess moisture. at best. a. %. Figure 1-). Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters.

b. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. %a* In severe $et conditions. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. c. If the user is $earing V< boots. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. In colder environments. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. he primary material in this product is polyester. /o$ever. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. En&er+ear. &or the most part.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. he . these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. . a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. =nsu!ating 8ayers. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended.

d. he . he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. <aiters. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric.Figure 1-. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . as $ell as mud. and stones.C!C+ correctly. t$igs.. e. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. 6uter 8ayers.

. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. Three types o# gaiters. f. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. %.C!C+ and. -an& (ear. $ill need to be locally purchased. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. hook(pile tape. Figure 1-1. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. . $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. and snaps. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed.. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper.ven during the best climatic conditions. in most cases. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock.

as $ell as replacement liners for both. g. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. predominately $ool. -an& +ear. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. man( made fibers are preferred. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . =atural fibers.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. -ea&+ear. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. %. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens.Figure 1-4. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. .

!orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. i. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. . -e!mets. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. his covers the head.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. -e!mets. &or e"treme cold. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . a balaclava can be added. Figure 1-5. !hichever helmet is selected. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. neck. $ye+ear. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. Figure 1-6. h. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket.

&ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. :aintenance o# C!othing. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope.uropean norm %. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains.uropean economy. . cord. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness.uropean norm %C. heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use.urope.=* and C. have been combined to make combined . as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . All mountaineering specific e#uipment. &rance. Community . American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. $ebbing. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. and comprises several commissions. Figure 1-7.=*. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best.urope %C. j. It is based in -aris. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. . and harnesses. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness.

his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord.7( or . abrasion resistance. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths..(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . &or most military applications. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. Kernmant!e construction. and is best used in rope installations.:.opes an& Cor&. %. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope.egardless of the rope chosen.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. . If used for -rusik knots. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. he . A static rope has very little stretch. called slings or runners. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . $hich is. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. (e ing an& S!ings. Its ability to stretch up to .opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. it should be >IAA certified.(mm rope. impact force. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. ... b. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. essentially. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. a standard .* . . and elongation. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration.a. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. Figure 1-".

hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. $hich is stronger.) inch. &or most military applications.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. ' inches.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.) inch.K.)(inch or . !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. and anchors. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber.0 inches.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. . and have less bulk than the tied version. and 0' inches. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. . c. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . -arnesses. . inch. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger.unners are predominately made from either 8K.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. carabiners.uses for these simple pieces are endless. Tie& or se+n runners. %. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. . and . . are usually lighter. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. more durable. the rope. Figure 1-'..

%1* . Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. his type of harness. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either .:*. !hile these harnesses are safer.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. . %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. &itted properly. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. !ith the remaining $ebbing.:*. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed unavailable. %. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(.:*. are more restrictive. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. referred to as a seat harness. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing.

his rope. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. a. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. great care should be . he oval. +teel is still $idely used.. given other options. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. !hen using a carabiner. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. . and the protection attaching him to the mountain. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. the 2(shaped.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. Cara iners.*.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. Figure 1-)*.

.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. the load is .0*. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. %.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. Figure 1-). 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. Figure 1-)).

angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. and angle. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. hardened steel. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. along its minor a"is. hey are described by their thickness. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness.* 1ertical . %1* . $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. vertical cracks. and $ith the gate open. 9itons. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. and length %&igure 1(. $afer. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. . design. Aarious pitons. or other alloys. horiAontal. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. Figure 1-)1.egardless of the type chosen. hese pitons are used in flush. Dn vertical pitons. %.1*. b. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly.itons. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. specifically the locking version. and angles. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. the blade and eye are aligned. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. hey are made of malleable steel.

%4* 3ong . his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner.>. or leather is used to . A safety lanyard of nylon cord. %)* Angle . hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. hese pitons are used in flush.itons. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. c. %1* Wafer . hese pitons are used in shallo$. or flakes. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(.'*. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood.5 centimeters $ide.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. 9iton -ammers.itons. flush cracks. hey are designed to bite into thin. shallo$ cracks. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. %'* 2nife 3lade . metal. . +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. hey are small and fit into thin. $ebbing. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack.(inch s#uare. Dn horiAontal pitons.%0* Horizontal .itons. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset.itons.itons. shallo$ cracks. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. ledges. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%.itons.

Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. . A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. to be used as anchors. Chocks. into the rock. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons.7 centimeters long and $eigh . his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. 9iton hammer. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. Figure 1-)4.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode.7*. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. d. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock.0 to 07 ounces. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons.

Three-point camming &e2ice.)*. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . Figure 1-)6.Figure 1-)5. e. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.4* provide convenient. f. Chocks. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. $hen used in the camming mode. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. Three-9oint Camming De2ice.

Cade from thin metal. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. Chock 9icks. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith.5*. hese are placed #uickly and easily. . g.semi(rigid point of attachment. . Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. they can be purchased or homemade. saving time and effort. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. Figure 1-)7. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads.

Chock picks. and drilling anchor. chips. . %o!ts. h. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. and e"tremely noisy. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. . All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. <ecause of this re#uirement. hese re#uire a hammer. brands. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss.Figure 1-)". <urrs. corrosion. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. bolt driver. e"hausting. $hich is time(consuming. Dnce emplaced.8*. %. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. and moisture. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. dirt.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. and $eights. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. $hich is driven into the rock. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts.

%o!ts an& hangers. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate.Figure 1-)'. . <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. . and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. %e!ay De2ices. i.egardless of the belay device choosen. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. the tuber. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. %.

Figure 1-. Descen&ers. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. one ascender is sufficient. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. 7scen&ers. &or difficult vertical terrain.*. k. Figure 1-. Figure-eights.*. &or lo$er angle movement. j. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*.). Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. . t$o ascenders $ork best. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction.

Figure 1-. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. &or best results. and strong. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. froAen $aterfalls(can . -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided.Figure 1-. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. l. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used.. 9u!!eys. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope.. light$eight. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*.1. 9u!!ey. A pulley should be small. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. glaciers. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. 7scen&ers.

he adAe. direct(aid climbing.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. can have different configurations. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. %. It can be made of fiberglass. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. hollo$ aluminum. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. . and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. =ce 7B. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. belays. anchors. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. %b* he head of the a". a. self(arrest. head %pick and adAe*. is perpendicular to the shaft. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. used for chopping. step cutting. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. therefore safer for mountaineering. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. $hich combines the pick and the$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. probing. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance.

=ce -ammer. c. Crampons.4. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . . and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. . It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. loose ends should be trimmed. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. =ce aB an& ice hammers. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. inch of front point protruding. Figure 1-. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid.b.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs.

he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. is rigid and does not fle". %. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. %0* he rigid crampon.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. as its name implies. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment.Figure 1-. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots.5. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. It is designed to be used $ith soft. fle"ible boots. Crampons. but can be used on less vertical terrain. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic .

Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube.6.. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. =ce Scre+s. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength. . d. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle.mountaineering boots. %.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . • • • ype I is . Figure 1-. =ce scre+s. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. .

A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*.' centimeters. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel.7.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. ho$ever. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. f. If any cracks or bends are noticed. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. =ce 9itons. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. . Figure 1-. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. flanged sides. e. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. and fi"ed cables. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. hey can. hey are available $ith bent faces. the scre$ should be turned in. bends. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. =ce piton.

Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. chips. or slippage is noticed. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. Sno+ Sa+. movement. a. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. g. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. and for cutting . he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$.::: kilograms. $ands*. broken $ire strands. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Figure 1-. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. If bent or cracked. cracks. It can be used in step cutting. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. the picket should be turned in for replacement. and other deformities. and carrying gear. mushrooming ends.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. he picket should be inspected for bends. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. he ends should be filed smooth. for removing froAen obstacles.. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . Sno+ 9icket. bivouacs. broken $ire strands. in shelter construction. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain.". If any cracks.

$arping. 72a!anche rescue equipment. !ands are . and burrs. If any defects are discovered. A file can repair most defects. and deformities. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. the hinge and nuts should be secure. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. security to the shaft. b. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. It can be used for avalanche rescue. (an&s. bends. he handle should be telescopic. c. and number of teams in the climbing party. cracks. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. frays. !ands are used to identify routes. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . rust. fading. number of haAards identified. or removable to be compact $hen not in use.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. Dn folding models. Sno+ Sho2e!. and removing obstacles. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. bends. he flag should be inspected for tears. If the sa$ is beyond repair. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. sno$(bridges. and stability. and missing or dull teeth. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. burrs. and discoloration. step cutting. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. light$eight aluminum alloy. d. If the shovel is beyond repair. it should not be used. bends. crevasses. $eather conditions %and visibility*. shelter construction. folding. to . he blade should be inspected for rust. he handle should be inspected for cracks. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. caches.sno$ stability test pits. and stability. he shovel should be inspected for cracks.. the $ands should be replaced. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. bends. he handle should be inspected for cracks. it should be turned in.

Figure 1-. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. hese are small. %. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. 9acks. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. e. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers.* Avalanche . %. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. 72a!anche rescue equipment.'. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. .robe. %0* . +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe.

Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. g. %. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. kerosene. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. Sto2es. fuel availability. $eights. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. and its reliability. !hite gas. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. Tents. the better it $ill be. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. and materials. factors that should be considered are $eight. !hen choosing a stove. and butane are the common fuels used. he fly protects against . !hen selecting a tent.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. f. and are simple and light$eight. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. more harsh environment. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. %. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack.

he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. h. Ski po!es. j. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. and carrying heavy packs. i. !hen carrying heavy packs. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. sno$shoeing. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. <efore using a ne$ tent. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. connect. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. +ome ski poles are . hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. they create the shape of the tent. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. Skis. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. and become long and rigid. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. Sno+shoes. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small.

Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. !hichever sled is chosen. to the one(person sko$. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. A flashlight can provide light. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . -ea&!amps.:(man arctic tent system. l. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and.* !hen choosing a headlamp. .egardless of the siAe. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. especially $hen hauling fuel. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. S!e&s. %. a component of the . +leds vary greatly in siAe. Figure 1-1*.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. k.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. . it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. on some models.

food procurement material. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. the e"ception being hot. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. . Stan&ar& <ear. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. sunblock and lip protection. or jungle mountain environments. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. sunglasses. fuel. Dbviously. 9ersona! <ear. $orn on the body. Caution4 Cotton clothing. nickel(cadmium. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. polypropylene top. pressure bandage. and $ater procurement material. compass and or altimeter. !hen the light is being packed. b. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. if needed. $histle. $ater. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. s$eater. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. -ocket items should include a knife. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. fire starting material. $quipment 9acking . and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. magaAine pouches. foul $eather shells. notebook $ith pen or pencil. $ith canteens. climbing e#uipment. stoves. desert.conditions. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. a. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. ropes. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. map. first aid kits. food. or lithium batteries.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers.

or s$eater. Bocking carabiner%s*. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. casualty evacuation. Climbing rope. . >tility cord%s*. Carabiners. Climbing rack. one per climbing team. +urvival kit. . Canteen. . these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. Ice a". In the event of an injury. &irst aid kit. rain suit. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. Climbing rope.c.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. one per climbing team. Day 9ack."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. d. 9loves. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . pile top. Crampons. or poncho. =onlocking carabiners. or unplanned bivouac. Climbing rack. he carries a light day pack. one per climbing team. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site.appelKbelay device. one per climbing team. Cold $eather hat or scarf. e. +ling rope or climbing harness. .appelling gloves. &lashlight or headlamp.

Altimeter. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. under$ear.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. . s$eater or fleece jacket. .:: percent of ultraviolet light. f. &or lip protection. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. %7* ()tra Clothing.• • • • +leeping bag. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . and or 6. +ide shields. %. pants. +#uad stove. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team.7 or higher. hat. and licking is best. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. gloves or mittens.S. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. &uel bottle. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains.* 5ap. $ashing. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. injury. blouse. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. boots. %'* ()tra +ood. hey should filter 87 to . or navigational error. %0* Compass. +leeping mat. includes socks. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. The Ten $ssentia!s.

and employing $eapons systems. a broken bone. cutting the $ind. 2ecentraliAed operations."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. &inally. serious sprain. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. and blisters. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. . Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. scissors. $hich is important $hile climbing. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. gauAe pads.%a* . small adhesive bandages. . cleanser. herefore. Ciniature flashlights can be used. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. . /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. sharp tools. ."tra hats or balaclavas. moleskin. $orking around the camp. elastic compression $rap. . %4* +irst aid 2it. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs."tra pair of heavy socks. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. • • • • • . a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. but commercially available headlamps are best. adhesive tape. -ressure dressings. butterfly bandages. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. the mountain environment— steep.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight.

g. A$l and or needles. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer.%5* +ire Starter.:* 2nife. as $ell as for stream crossings. Cord and or $ire. and canned heat all $ork. Dther repair items as needed. -atches. heat tabs. harness. %. Bighters are handy for starting fires. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. /eavy(duty thread.ighter. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. Candles. 2uct tape. %8* 5atches and . a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. .* Water and Water Containers. or pack. +afety pins. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. %. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. %1* 4epair 2it. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. %0* 7ce A). A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes.

c. e. a. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. the load is held high and close to the back. d. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. $ater. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. In most cases. emergency bivouac shelter. %7* Signa!ing De2ices.%'* =nsect . and $ater procurement. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. . rope. among others. and be securely . more compressible items %sleeping bag. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. nearer the shoulder blades.epe!!ent. he ice a". Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. if not carried in hand. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. As much as possible. climbing hard$are. e"tra ammunition* on top. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. b. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. food.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. <y packing the lighter.

ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.fastened. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. o start a mountain coil. If not. and knots later during deployment. he rope may be given a . serious in!ury may occur. . rappelling. bring the hands together forming a loop.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. as stated above. . forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. When climbing. t$ists. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. care and maintenance procedures. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . a. until the rope is completely coiled. . grasp the rope appro"imately . or building various installations. management techni&ues. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. and 0nots.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. meter from the end $ith one hand. 9rasping the rope firmly. and then tied in place. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. . f. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . :ountain Coi!. his is repeated.

slung across the chest. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. >ncoil the last loop and. :ountain coi!. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight.%. doubling it and placing it under the flap. b. using this length of the rope. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*.* Figure 4-1. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. -ull the running end of the bight tight. %utter#!y Coi!. securing the coil.* In finishing the mountain coil. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. . %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil.

. %utter#!y coi!. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils.* Coiling. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. %. and hold the center in one hand. -lace the doubled rope over the head. o start the double butterfly.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. In this configuration . !ith the bight in the left hand.Figure 4-4. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. . .nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding.

%&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope.* Figure 4-5. . Cake three or more $raps. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. .0(inch bight is left.ope. !rap that bight around the coil. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . sling rope.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. c. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. or for storage. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. 2ress it do$n tightly.

e. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. Dnce stacked. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. !hen the rope is needed for use. a. and so on. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. . his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. =e"t.D-. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. feeding it to a lead climber. Thro+ing the . A smooth follo$ through is essential. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. !ith the left hand. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. A slight t$ist of the $rist. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. %. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. hro$ up and out.

b. and hitches is almost endless. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded.. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. back feed. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class.0. he variety of knots. adjustments must be made. /olding one $orking end in each hand. bights. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + . In a strong cross $ind. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*.. up and out to$ard the horiAon.. Class III—middle rope knots. and stack the rope properly as described above. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment.. !ith e"perience and practice..0. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. and Class IV—special knots. + . It is a joining knot. + . Aiming just above the horiAon. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. a. Class II—anchor knots. .. bends.1. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. Anchor. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. he stronger the $ind. Tying the Knot. c.

Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. Tying the Knot. + . Square knot.. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. It is a joining knot. b.. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. ..+ . %. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope.. Figure 4-6.* here are t$o interlocking bights.'. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. a. Checkpoints.

Fisherman’s knot. . %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. b. It is a joining knot.. %1* . standing part of the opposing rope.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails.1. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. Tying the Knot.. + .0. Figure 4-7. a.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long.+ .nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. Checkpoints. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. %.

-ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.+ . + .nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. . %. b. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. + . + . four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* .1... $hich contains the standing part %+ ..* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight..* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. !ith the $orking end of one rope.0. and 0*. Insert the $orking end %+ .... Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. !ith the $orking end of the other rope.. Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot.. Checkpoints.*.-+ .'..

grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end.. .oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. + . Tying the Knot. . Figure-eight en&. Figure 4-'.7.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers.. + . 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight.. + .0. + .. . !ith the other hand.Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. 2ress the knot do$n.'. race the original knot to the standing end... a. + .1..

overhand retrace. Checkpoints... or tape knot.:*. It is also called a ring bend. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot.. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.1. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. + .0.. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. %. + .* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. &eed the other end back through the knot. Tying the Knot.b. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. .. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. a. + .

. Tying the Knot.* here are t$o overhand knots. It is an anchor knot. (ater knot. b.*.. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. %. + .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. one retracing the other. a. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(... %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %0* here is no slack in the knot.Figure 4-)*. Checkpoints.

. b.. Checkpoints. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.'.. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*..oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . + . %. Figure 4-)). and bring it back onto itself.0.+ . + . %o+!ine knot. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + .1..each through the loop and pull up a bight. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. .7. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.

. + .etrace /.. b... 2ress the knot do$n.his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.epeat + .eroute& Figure-$ight0 . %. . . Figure 4-). + . forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.0*. + .oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. Checkpoints....'. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. Tying the Knot. . It is an anchor knot. ..* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.0.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.1.oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor. Figure-$ight . + . distributing the load over the anchor. and one in the front*. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. a.

. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. + . . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop...0. + ...7. !ith the $orking end.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. /o$ever. and route the $orking end through the loop. a. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. . $rap the $orking end around the standing part. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor.. Tying the Knot.'. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.). ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. + .. + . he finished knot is dressed loosely.1. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part..1*. + . by tying the knot in a retrace. + .

* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. %.* Middle of the Rope. palms do$n $ith hands together. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. a. /old rope in both hands. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. Checkpoints %. . he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.'*. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. Tying the Knot.Figure 4-)1... + . depending on ho$ it is tied. b. Figure-eight retrace.

... !ith the right hand. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. and bring it in$ard.. . + . %0* End of the Rope.0. /old the loop in the left hand.. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.'. grasp the $orking end. + . + . <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. /old the standing end in the left hand. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.'. reach under the horiAontal anchor. !ith the right hand.0. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right..+ .. + . + . 2ress do$n the knot. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.1..1. he knot is tied..

. b.).. %. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. palm. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. !hen tying this knot. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. C!o2e hitch.. + . + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. and fingertip. ..Figure 4-)4. Tying the Knot. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.. and place it over the heel $rap.7*.7. + . %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.'. + ..4... ake up the slack from the anchor.0. + .1. Checkpoints. + . + . a. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. It is a middle rope knot. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.

5.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. (ireman’s knot. + . .+ . Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.8.)*. Figure 4-)5. It is a middle rope knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. a. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. %.. Tying the Knot.. Checkpoints. b. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.

the tail and the bight must be together. . tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. !ith the $rap thus formed. it lays in$ard. + .0.1.. Cake one $rap around the palm.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.. !hen dressing the knot do$n.. Directiona! #igure-eight. + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. Figure 4-)6. + . %.. b.'. Checkpoints.+ ..

4. a. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. It is a middle rope knot.1. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard..). ... 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. + ..0. + .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.4*.. ie an overhand knot on a bight. + .'.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.. forming t$o loops. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. + . + . Tying the Knot.. + .%0* he tail and bight must be together.7. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.

Tying the Knot. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.Figure 4-)7. a.5. form an . Checkpoints. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.* It is a middle rope knot. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. b.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip... %o+!ine-on-a. >sing a doubled rope.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. + .ight.. . %.

. /old the bight $ith the left hand. b. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.'. Tying the Knot. %. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. + .. Figure 4-)".. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.7. . Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. !ith the $orking end. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight..8*. a.+ . 2ress the knot do$n.0. Checkpoints. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. + . + . It is a middle of the rope knot.1.

&orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. form a loop in rope %standing part*.1.. + . a. %1* he knot is tightly dressed.. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other... + .+ . Figure-eight !oop. It is a specialty knot. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.0. Tying the Knot. b. 2ress the knot tightly. .* he loop is the desired siAe. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %. Figure 4-)'.. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. Checkpoints.

..*: + . + .1.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.*.1. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.each do$n through the . Figure 4-. and place it over the long rope.0(inch bight. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .0. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.. .. >sing an arm3s length of rope.. forming a bight.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart..* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. $ith the $orking ends even... 2ouble the short rope. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. + . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.*. + .%. . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. + . + .0...

7. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.nsure they are tight. + . b...4. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. + ..). and not t$isted. parallel. %.. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. It is a specialty knot. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. + . the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. .+ .).'. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. . Figure 4-. Checkpoints.

. + ...a. Checkpoints..0.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner..1. + . b. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. %achman knot. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner... &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. + . 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %. Figure 4-. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. Tying the Knot.

%'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. + .nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. /olding the bight loosely.* A minimum of four $raps. a. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself.). %. It is a specialty knot.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*.. + . Checkpoints. hen. + ..4. .. + .. + .. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. + .. Tying the Knot.'. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. . make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.0.. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. he running end is to the back of the body. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. bring a bight up through the loop. tie an overhand around all coils. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.. single coil. !ith the running end. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. >sing the standing part. b. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps..7. he standing portion is on the bottom. + . bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.1. not crossed.

Figure 4-. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope..1.. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. + . + . Tying the Knot. + . .'.. It is a specialty knot.0. !ith the right hand. Bay the loops to the right. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.1. a. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.. + .. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.

Figure 4-. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.4. Checkpoints. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops... Three-!oop o+!ine. It is a specialty knot. %. Tying the Knot.. + ..+ . +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. &orm a .7. a. b. . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.

If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. Checkpoints. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.+ ..* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. Figure 4-. + . %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.). %. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. .each through the bight and grasp the long. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.7.:u!e Knot0 . b.. Figure-eight s!ip knot..0. + .1.5. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .'. standing end of the rope. + . + . t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise..0 inches up the rope.

0 inches long. It is simply an overhand slip knot.6.1. %1* he bight is a minimum of ..* here is a single overhand slip knot. + . Figure 4-. Tying the Knot.. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. a.0.. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. + .he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. b. Check 9oints. K!eimhiest Knot . + .. %. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. Transport knot.

Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. Tying the Knot. a. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. + . .. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.*. pass them through the bight %see + ...0 inches.7. + . !rap at least four complete turns.1. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.. It is a special( purpose knot. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . find the center of the rope and form a bight. !ith the ends offset..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.0. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. + . + . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. + . easily adjustable..'...

Figure 4-.7. Tying the Knot. It is a special(purpose knot.0 inches. . Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. a. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .. + .0. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. %. Checkpoints..* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. + . It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.. K!eimhiest knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.: to . b.

Checkpoints.: &orm a bight.1: Cinch the knot tightly. b.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. a.". %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.Figure 4-. Tying the Knot. <irth hitch. Frost knot. %. + .0: <ring the runner back through the bight.. b. %..'. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. :unter -itch . + . <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Figure 4-. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot... + .* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. Checkpoint. It is a special(purpose knot.

'. Tying the Knot. b. !ith the right hand.* A bight passes through the carabiner.0. + . /old the rope in both hands. + . -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.. %0* he carabiner is locked.. Check 9oints. .. Bock the locking mechanism.. palms do$n about .. %.0 inches apart. + . form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. /old the loop $ith the left hand. !ith the right hand.he munter hitch. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*..1. a. + . place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.

:unter hitch. . a.. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. + .' feet or longer.'. . thus creating a loop around the $aist. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.Figure 4-1*.0. ..appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.*.. + .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.... Tying the Knot. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. It usually re#uires a sling rope .1. ensuring they do not cross. + . + .

<ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. Check 9oints. b..* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.4. ..). + . &rom rear to front. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.appe! seat.+ . uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. -ull up on the ropes. %.7. Figure 4-1). . + .. tightening the seat.

Tying the Knot.. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.. preferably ovals*. a. + .0. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip.. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.. + . %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. . %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.

.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. %. Check 9oints. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point..Figure 4-1. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. b.* !hen properly dressed. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. or the e&uipment . rope can only be pulled in one direction. <uar&e knot. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. it will fail.

+ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. /o$ever. When selecting or constructing anchors. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. rees.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. . /o$ever. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. boulders.*. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof.

and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. Figure 5-. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. In rocky terrain. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. Trees use& as anchors. b. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted.Figure 5-). alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. Chockstones should be checked for strength. a. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. . security. >se padding on soft. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary..

horns. b. hese include blocks. and spikes.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. the projection should be avoided. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. If rock projections are used. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. flakes. tying a rope to it. . and clipping on a carabiner. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction.Figure 5-1. their firmness is important. c.ock 9ro>ections . a. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. . If any of these signs e"ist. Chockstones.

As $ith trees. .ock pro>ections. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. . the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction.Figure 5-4. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch.

the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. %ushes an& shru s. Drape. Figure 5-6. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. and girth. !hichever method is used. . >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. a. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. $rap. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*.Figure 5-5.

!rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. Figure 5-". b. Drape.Figure 5-7. . (rap. (rap.

ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. Figure 5-'.c. . <irth. his re#uires less e#uipment. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. . 7nchoring (ith . ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.:*.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. . <irth.

. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)*. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps.. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. Tension!ess anchor. Figure 5-)). A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. more if necessary. to absorb the tension. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner.*.

&or training planning. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . ice a"es. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. b. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. . and the load to be placed on it. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid.* Barge boulders can be used. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. sno$shoes. and ruck sacks. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. such as skis. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment.:: years. $ould be ideal. . Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. %A hefty timber. In e"tremely hard. such as pitons and bolts. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. chocks. As $ith natural anchors. he"centrics. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. and +BC2s. he sling is attached to the anchor. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. such as a railroad protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. e#uipment. . Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. Although still available.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. a. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. can also be used if necessary.#uipment. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical.

the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. a. 9iton 9!acement. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . !hen this type of rock must be used. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. should be studied. practiced. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. b. as $ith any artificial anchor.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. clear the loose rock. %0* !hile it is being driven.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. dirt. 7&2antages. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. %&igure 7(. %. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. Disa&2antages. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. c. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$.

it $ill not be lost. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. and on the type of rock. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. he piton should not spread the rock. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. because the piton is too long.out of the crack. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. herefore.. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton.1*. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. thereby loosening the emplacement. Clip a carabiner into the loop. Figure 5-). . the firmer the anchor $ill be.

-ero-!oop. ry to be in a secure position before testing. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor.K0 meter from the carabiner.Figure 5-)1.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used.emo2ing 9itons. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. d. . If the sound regains its original pitch.'*. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. and $hen using chocks. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. upon driving it. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. Testing. drive it into another place. e. If the pitch has changed greatly. o test pitons pull up about . then grasp the rope at least . do$n$ard. to each side. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. drive the piton in as far as possible. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. . the emplacement is probably safe. . Eerk vigorously up$ard. there is any #uestion of its soundness. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement.

pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. a. but they must be checked for strength.Figure 5-)4. vectors. provides an e"cellent anchor point. f. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. are reusable. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. 9iton remo2a!. Also. In training areas. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. . Disa&2antages. and straightened may be reused. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . having fallen and $edged in a crack. but comple" in practice. A natural chockstone. 7&2antages.asy to insert and remove. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. <efore use. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. . they may have been driven poorly the first time. b.eusing 9itons. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. +oft iron pitons that have been used. Bight to carry. unless severely damaged. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. removed. >sually easy to retrieve and. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall.

and dirt.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. grass. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. +ome cracks may have loose rock.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. A carabiner often provides enough $eight .7*. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. then select a chock to fit it. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. Figure 5-)5. Chock p!acements. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. $hich may accept pitons. . cord. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. if possible.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. Avoid poor protection. Dften provide only one direction of pull. %. 9!acement. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. Book for a constriction point in the crack. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. c. %0* !hen selecting a chock. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. %1* .

o test it. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. test it to ensure it remains in place. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. d. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. . After seating a chock. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. %a* . %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. use pairs of chocks in opposition. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. Testing.)*. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem.

Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. and release the retractor bar. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. it may rotate and pull out. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. %o!ts . It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. pull the retractor bar back. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. place the device into a crack.Figure 5-)6. S8CD p!acements. a. b.

!hen using bolts.4*. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. /o$ever. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. and runners. c. a. carabiners. and should be tested $ith a hammer. since this permanently $eakens it. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. <olts should be used $ith carriers. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. . .<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. $hich bores the hole. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. . or cracking. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. b. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. flaking.

#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. a. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. . his not only provides greater anchor strength. b. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail.Figure 5-)7. Figure 5-)". his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . It is aimed in the direction of the load. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points.5*. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure.8*.

C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection.Figure 5-)'. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. therefore. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. terrain hazards. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. and the enemy for the length of the climb. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor.

ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. he mentally climbs the route. the climber studies all possible routes.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. . rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. reconnaissance personnel. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit.6 to the top looking for cracks. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. ledges. or 6lines. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. nubbins. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds.*. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. +orward observers. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder.ven before getting on the rock. . Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues.6 . using the hands primarily for balance.trained in the basics of climbing. !hen picking the line. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing.

dry rock. In later lessons. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. /o$ever. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. such as a rock or climbing gear. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the .Terrain Se!ection #or Training . <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. In the training environment. falls from climbers above.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. the boot soles should be dry and clean. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. C7ET=63 . A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. If the soles are $et or damp. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses.

he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. If strained for too long. sho$s a correct climbing stance. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. and body %trunk*. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. lo$ering the heel. Stance or %o&y 9osition. his vibration. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. comfortable stance is essential. or moving on to a more . <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. kno$n as 6. a$ay from the rock. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. right foot.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. left hand. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. and so on. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. and movement. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. left foot. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. help the climber land feet first. %&igure )(. helping to minimiAe fatigue. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. Fi2e %o&y 9arts.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. b. a. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. A rela"ed. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. and reduce the impact of a fall. $eight shift.

%. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock.. Figure 6-).a!ance& o2er oth #eet. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. Correct c!im ing stance. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. the hips and shoulders should be . =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. he hands are used to maintain balance.restful position.* !henever possible. Figure 6-.

In most cases. intermediate holds. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. Dn steep rock. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. Dn lo$(angle slopes. +ometimes. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly.* + . Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location.centered over both feet. he basic steps are $eight. as the climbing progresses. C!im ing Sequence. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. . his is normally done on #uick. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. c. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue.D=. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. creating more stress. Again. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. shift. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. and movement %movement being either the foot. $hen footholds are small. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. or body*. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement.: + . $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. hand. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back.

&D>.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. If both legs are bent.&IV.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height.+ . the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability. %. + .epeat steps . through 1 for remaining foot. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.: + . /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. 2uring this movement. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. .: + .+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance./.

Figure 6-1. . Typica! c!im ing sequence.

Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .Figure 6-1.

/olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. %. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. to rest on. Sa#ety 9recautions . re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. because the legs are much stronger. his type of lifting is inefficient. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. these movements become more critical. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. not the arms. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. even painful. Dther than being uncomfortable.Figure 6-1.

he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. tossing it do$n. If the rock $ill endanger your second. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. . !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. do not do it. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. e. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. a fi"ed rope should be installed. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. immediately shout the $arning 6. follo$ing the same line. If on a lo$(angle climb. +hould a climber fall. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. b. a spotter can be used for safety. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. grasping for any possible hold available. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. c. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. a. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. If conducting a roped climb. >pon hearing the $arning.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. and to reduce the impact of a fall. d. let the rope provide protection. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$.

!hen the rock is $et.&D. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. a. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. b. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. depending on it. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. !hen in doubt. +ometimes.f. sedimentary(type rock.. !hen leading a group of climbers. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. his may simply be a #uick. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. !hen climbing. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. g. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. C!im ing (ith The Feet . <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability.

a. the entire foot cannot be used. Also. %. b.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. he principle of using full sole contact. also applies in climbing.* Maximum Sole Contact. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. forgetting to use the feet properly. . even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. &ailure to climb any route. %b* Dn some large holds. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. In this case. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. . like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. as in mountain $alking. . he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. easy or difficult. In the early learning stages of climbing.* %a* +mooth.

may be used. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. . he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact.* %a* Dn smaller holds. . %0* Edging.Figure 6-4. !henever possible. or toe. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. edging $ith the front of the boot. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. >sually. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. $ell(defined ledges. Again.

%1* Smearing. intermediate holds. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique.%b* . $ith its softer sole. . but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. therefore. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue.* %a* . edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. Figure 6-5. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. the better the edging capability. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. .ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock.ounded.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. he Army mountain boot. . he stiffer the sole.

resisting a do$n$ard pull. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. ball of the foot. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. he toes. hands. +ome positions are more tiring. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. arms. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. like a camming device. restful position. and even more painful on the foot. and so on.Figure 6-6. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. . %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. inside and $ithin reach. pockets. or the entire foot can be used. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. depending on the siAe of the crack. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. such as edges. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. the possibilities are endless. %'* Jamming. than others.

Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. . the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. !hen removing the boot from a crack. Figure 6-7. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. As stated earlier. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. a. +ometimes. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. Dn lo$er(angled rock. our body $eight is on our legs. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. As the individual climbs. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . b. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. +econdly. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. Dur hands grip. $Bamp!es o# >amming. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. Core often though.

and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical.* Push olds. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. and on occasion. the side of the palm. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. Dn smaller holds. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. %. his is fine. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. -ushing side$ays. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. or 6pinching. . this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. the fingers. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever.our balance and footing on the ladder. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. Ideally. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. Df course. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock.

therefore.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. Again. just good techni#ue. or up$ard. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. . also called 6cling holds. creating an unbalanced stance. -ull holds. . and. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. pull holds are often over$orked. side$ays. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds.* %a* Bike push holds. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from.Figure 6-". making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. %0* Pull olds.

here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. in opposition to the pull by the fingers.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. Figure 6-'. creating a stronger hold. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. his helps to hold the finger tips in . Dn small holds. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. =ormally.

Bike foot jams. ape also adds friction .place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. knuckles. %&igure )(. %'* Jam olds. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds.* Figure 6-)*. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. kno$n as a 6ring grip. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. his hand configuration. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. %1* Pinch olds.

sho$s e"amples of jam holds. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. or 6off $idths.6 re#uiring the use of arm. o jam or cam an arm.. from the calf to the thigh. &or off $idths. leg. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. %b* In smaller cracks. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. he leg can be used. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. leg. the principle is the same as for fingers.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. and body jams. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the the hand in jammed position. hands. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. . only the fingers $ill fit. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. is another techni#ue. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. /o$ever. %&igure )(. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. or body into an off $idth. !hen the arm is straightened. and fle"ed to fit the crack. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. .

. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. &rom these fundamentals. As the climber gains e"perience. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. feet. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s.Figure 6-)). numerous combination techni#ues are possible.

o make the move. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. yet #uickly. o prevent an off balance situation. %0* Mantling. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. t$o solid handholds should be used. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength.otating . +till. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing.* Change Step. +ometimes.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. %. before the hands. $here the pull holds become push holds. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon.a. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. Combination possibilities are endless. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. or hop step.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. even on an easy route. +hort of turning back. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. mantling begins $ith pull holds. arms. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. or other body parts tire. %&igure )(. . usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. he change step. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. b.

!ith the foot on the ledge. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. Dnce the arms are locked. . a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. momentarily. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. Dnce balanced over the foot. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot.

forming a bulge or small overhang. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce.1*. %1* !ndercling. also. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. he arms and legs . $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. or body tension. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. applying an up$ard pull.. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard.Figure 6-). :ant!ing sequence.

body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. the climber $ill . $hichever seems to produce the most friction. %'* "ie#ack. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. En&erc!ing. putting the body into an B( shaped position. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. .ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. Figure 6-)1. he climber bends at the $aist. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. more or less.

Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(.'*. rather than muscle. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. Dften. %7* Stemming. Figure 6-)4. 8ie ack on a #ace. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces.7*. or for a rest position. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. or vice versa. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(.likely fall. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. . he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming.

although smearing may $ork best in some instances. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. >sually. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. parallel cracks. kno$n as chimneys. or body as an integral contact point. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack.)*. legs. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. . full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least .Figure 6-)5. Stemming on a #ace. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(.

.Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence.

he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. A slab is a relatively smooth. . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. or a much narro$er crack irotection.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb.4*. if any holds. Chimney sequence /continue&0. face features.Figure 6-)6. . %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. forcing the body against the opposing $all. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . %)* Sla# Techni$ue. %c* . the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. /o$ever.

Dften.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. to increase friction. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. S!a technique. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. Also. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. Dn steeper slab. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. or the . /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. .ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. Figure 6-)7. . 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue.

A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. As the steepness and difficulty increase. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. !hen in doubt. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold.. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. Dn the steepest terrain. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. 0. the climber can face out$ard. !hen in doubt. C7ET=63S . and slips are more likely to occur. use a roped descent. use a roped descent. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. If the handholds are too high. a$ay from the rock. !hatever the case may be. %a* Dn easier terrain. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. he can often turn side$ays. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself.abilities of others to follo$. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements.

as in ascending. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. reducing friction. is usually best on steeper slab. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. facing out$ard or side$ays. &acing the rock. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. %d* Dn steeper slab. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue.5*. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. and a tendency to move too #uickly. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet.planned landing area. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. . he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed.

$here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope.ope Dver the years. may induce further injuries. they offer little support to the climber.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. is highly unlikely in most instances. ropes must be used to proceed. . length.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . . and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. . and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*.. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. .eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. A severe fall.

%. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. such as a prese$n harness. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. -rese$n harness are bulky. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. it is not for a belay anchor. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. specialiAed e#uipment. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. =o assembly is re#uired. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. a. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. including cost. . $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. also. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. Seat -arness. $hen used correctly. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. /o$ever. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope.

such as padding. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. %. S+ami %e!t. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. he s$ami belt is a simple. c. at the chest. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. Dne(inch $ebbing . reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. gear loops. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. or ease of adjustment. than an improvised chest harness. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. a. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first.b. Chest -arness.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope.

!hen the terrain becomes steeper. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. %. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. -D++I<IBI I D& A +.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. any tie(in around the $aist only could .. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area.. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. raditionally. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. !I /D> /. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot.V. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap.8*. b. Figure 6-)'. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. &ABB. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. In a severe fall.$ill provide more comfort.

%. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*.* Bocate the center of the rope. . . seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. $ith the knots to the front. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. like a parachute harness. Dff to one side. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. 9rasping both ends. . and comfortable. $rapping to the outside. and hold it in place on the hip. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. A safe. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region.ven in a relatively short a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. c. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock.

%0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. Appro"imately ) to . . . %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. and drape the sling over the shoulders.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. just as you $ould put on a jacket. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. but remember that $ith $ebbing. he t$ist. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness.*.: feet usually $orks. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. %.Figure 6-. or cross. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. forming t$o loops. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. d.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length.

and comes off the harness in a fall. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. f. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. create a type of full(body harness. 7ttaching the . he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. e. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. the standing part of the rope is then . %. If using a chest harness. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. or incorrectly. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. at the chest. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. in effect.I ICAB BI=?.

C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. Figure 6-)".6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. and possibly the e#uipment available. %. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. %e!ay Techniques . rather than tying the rope to it. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. or third loop formed in the knot. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. If using the three loop bo$line. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. ensure the end.

Dn steep terrain. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. • • • • . +tack the rope properly. the procedure should become 6second nature. >se a $ell braced. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. In some instances. ho$ever. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. if one person falls. and snug. or a 6brake. . Dne person climbs at a time. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions.6 can be applied to halt a fall. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. rope team members can often move at the same time. e"posed terrain. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. for an up$ard pull. . <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. sitting position $henever possible. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. but $ith practice. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. independent. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. .

• he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. there is no belay. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. the rope management procedure is basically the same. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand.BAI D=. • • . a. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. and apply the brake to halt a fall. or run through a friction device. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. guide carabiner %if applicable*. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . otal control means the brake hand is =. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. ho$ever. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. removed from the rope.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <.• .nsure anchor attachments.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device.. aking up rope. b.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the .V.A9. If the brake hand is removed.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing.BAI. !hen giving slack.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<.

%'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. .. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. step . to the front of the brake hand. step '*. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. step 0*.. %. place it behind the back and around the hips. step )*. he other hand is the brake hand.. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. :anaging the rope. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay.. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0. %)* .brake hand remains on the rope at all times. step 1*..*. slide the guide hand out. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0.).. Figure 6-.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended.

and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. re#uiring no special e#uipment. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. and froAen. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. . It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. It is best to sit in a slight depression. using terrain to his advantage. and the amount of load.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. in its various forms. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. he body belay. %o&y %e!ay. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. he leg on the 6guide . $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. !hen perfectly aligned. or fall force. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. a. +ometimes. %. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. especially for beginners. the belay may have to absorb. It is the simplest belay. stiff.

bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. Figure 6-.. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay.. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. Sitting o&y e!ay. . as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load.

1. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. dumping the belayer out of position. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. . If the rope runs too lo$. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle.Figure 6-. If the rope runs too high. rendering the belay useless. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks.

he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. $hich forms an obvious. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. he carabiner must be large enough. is designed for the Cunter hitch. -ut some . useless hitch.Figure 6-. :echanica! %e!ay. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. b. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. &or the most part. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness.* Munter itch. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. %.4. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. As a climbing belay. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. attaching both to the carabiner. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. and of the proper design. /o$ever. or pearabiner. to allo$ this function.

%0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. .5. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. he hand on the rope running to the climber. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. rather than around the belayerUs body. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. to$ards the load. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. Figure 6-. is al$ays the guide hand. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. As a belay device. or load.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. though developed as a rappel device.+ =D change the function of the hands. :unter hitch. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations.

. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness.%a* As a climbing belay. Figure 6-. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device.6. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. Figure-eight &e2ice. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling.ope management is performed as in a body belay. A short. . >nlike the other devices. but have no moving parts. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. %b* As a lo$ering belay.

the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. If the belay is correctly established. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. slotted plate. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. =n&irect %e!ay. the most commonly used. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. An indirect belay. Additionally. b. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. . Direct %e!ay. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. he air traffic controller %A C*. Also. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. if the second falls or $eights the rope. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. a. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . the belayer is not locked into a position.

adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. c. a. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. . sitting stance are preferred. . &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. Dnce the climbing line is picked. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. rela"ed stance. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. and in line $ith the first protection placement. !ith the belay position selected. 7nchor the %e!ay. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors.* . 7im the %e!ay. %. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. If this placement fails under load. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. b. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. the belayer selects his position. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*.

saving the slings for the climb. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. and 6snug6. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. o accomplish this. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. reach back. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. say after a severe fall. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. his is not mandatory. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements.%0* . . but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. 6independent6. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement.

he rope should be stacked on the ground. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. 7ttach the %e!ay. d. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber.ope. Stack the . but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings.7. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. !ith the rope properly stacked. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. and applies the actual . e. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position.Figure 6-. 7nchoring a e!ay. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. %. or on the ledge. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge.* Dn small ledges.

>nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. 6<. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. the anchor attachments. guide carabiner.* he belayer should make one #uick. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. %. final inspection of his belay. %e!ay setup. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. Anchor attachments.BAI D=W6.". and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. Figure 6-. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. If using a body belay. the force.belay techni#ue. if any. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . guide carabiner if applicable. !hen belaying the 6second6. he gives the signal. If the belay is set up correctly. If the climber takes a fall.

bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. e"posed routes. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing.7CT=63 T7K$3 .ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. .side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. or at the top at the anchor.* %$87D$. A solid. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. C8=:%$. :$73=3<. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. Top-.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb.

apply brake. 6+BAC?6 .D-. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.DC?6 -roceed. and again.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. <elayer removes slack and applies brake. <elayer removes brakeKtension. and hold me. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall.6<. the rope $ill be managed as necessary.6 6 !. I am falling. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.S$8F F. 6 A?. If multipitch climbing. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area.6T$CT D6E. ensure climbers belo$ hear.6 . Climber selects a belay position. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.=( I( &IV. . 6 . <elayer takes in rope.=+ID=6 ake all the slack.DC?6 6. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. 9.

Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. 6&IV. or at the back of a ledge. or $hen the climber is around a corner. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. .ope& C!im ing :etho&s . .. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. prepares to climb. Ta !e 6-).=6 Iou have appro"imately . his is the signal for 6<. remaining anchored. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. remains anchored. . . &or a rope tug command. Iou have no more rope. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . Iou have 7 feet of rope left.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. Climber sets up the belay. above an overhang. Iou may remove the belay.6&I&( . !hile a lead climb is in progress. +et up the belay position. a.ope comman&s.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart.BAI6 belay. the most important command is 6<. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. !ith the issue of this command. <elayer removes the belay and. his is especially true in $indy conditions. b.emoves the 6D&& <. I have finished climbing and I am anchored..BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. use only one. -repares to climb.6 +et up the belay.7 feet of rope left. anchoring and putting the second on belay.BAI D=.

giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. a. &or training. rope%s*. b. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. you can easily avoid the climb itself. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. Top-. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. a leader or climber.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection.6 6pro.In military mountaineering. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb.6 6pieces. As he climbs the route.6 and so on.6 6pro placements. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit. .6 6pieces of pro. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. If you can easily access the top of a climb. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.

or other rope installations. c. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. belays. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. a. taking on the role of lead climber. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. ice. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . he belayer simply adjusts his position. b.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads.established for other purposes. +$inging leads. and is responsible for selecting the route. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. or 6leap frogging. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. !hichever techni#ue is chosen.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. such as rappel points.

until the climber tells him other$ise. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. again. $hether by sight or feel. is responsible for belaying the leader.. removing the belay anchor. . the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. !hen the leader is ready. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. 6CBIC<I=96. If he cannot see the climber. %'* !hile belaying. etc. only as a courtesy. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. or 6rope drag6. the belayer signals.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. nut tool. %1* <efore the climb starts. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. %0* he other member of the climbing team. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. to remove any protection that the leader may place. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. >nless told other$ise by the climber. such as a piton hammer. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. %. thus minimiAing friction. he leader then begins climbing. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the"t belay. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. !hen the belay is ready. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. 6<. only as a courtesy. it can be called for. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. he double checks the belay.BAI D=6. he leader can then signal.

6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. +BC2s of re#uired siAe.* he leader $ill assemble. each on a separate carabiner. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. %. Assorted he"entrics. In this situation. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. or 6rack. the command 6 A?. . $ith t$o carabiners on each. . he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness.BAI D=6 is given. d. or the clip. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons.D-. At this position. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. he must also determine ho$ much. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. the leader sets an anchor. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<.%7* As the leader protects the climb. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. &ive to ten standard length runners. !hen the leader has completed the connection. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. and $hat types.BAI6. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. !hen the leader selects a particular route. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. each on a separate carabiner. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <.

. • ."tra carabiners. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. .(inch $ebbing. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. Bong -rusik sling.: feet of . =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*.• • • $o to three double length runners. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. =ut tool. • • . 0: feet of . to some degree.(inch $ebbing. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. . Cordellette. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. $ith t$o carabiners on each.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*."tra carabiners. the necessary e#uipment.

moving past a difficult section. for both the leader and second if either should fall. and <. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. placement of protection. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. during. kno$n as a traverse.e.. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. Dnce an anchor is placed. If the climbing becomes easier. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. or pendulum. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. saving hard$are for difficult sections. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. is re#uired. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. protection should be placed more fre#uently. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement.&D. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. and upon completion of any traverse. If the climbing is difficult. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . 9enerally. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. As the leader begins this type of move. protection can be placed farther apart.* Placing Protection. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. %. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing.

the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. /o$ever. !hen placing protection.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. If the clip is made correctly. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. In addition. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. %a* If the route changes direction. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. in a . clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. C7ET=63 . $hen released. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open.

Figure 6-. rotate the carabiner up$ards . here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations.5: degrees. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners.'. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. C!ipping on to protection. o prevent this possibility. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. =o matter ho$ direct the route. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions.leader fall.

Ese o# s!ings on protection. C7ET=63 . Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. o prevent this. Figure 6-1*. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. or anchor. .ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. inducing a fall. .ope drag can be mistaken for the climber.

As the climber moves above the placements. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. All $ired chocks used for . he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement.*. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. even $hen used 6actively6. ."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. Figure 6-1). it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. or runner. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. . you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction.

rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. . +ome of the larger chocks. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. ry to use the shortest runners possible. %e* . have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper.. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. Figure 6-1. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. therefore. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. &urthermore. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. ensuring they are long enough to function properly.

!hen removing protection. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second .6 he second. rock fall. +harp rocks. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. he second has to issue commands to the leader.f.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. or 6cleaning the pitch6. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. no$ the climber. as a courtesy.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. signal 6CBIC<I=9.BAI D=. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. !hen removing the protection. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position.* h.BAI D=. reply $ith 6CBIC<. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. or seconding. %. $hile the final preparations are taking place. g. &ollo$ing. !hen the second is ready. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. a leader has a variety of responsibilities.6 and the leader can.BAI6 to the belayer. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. he can.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. unless other$ise directed. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. If necessary. again as a courtesy.

Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. +$inging leads. $quipment. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb.egardless of the type of protection used. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. . 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. he belayer simply adjusts his position.BAI. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. If too much slack develops. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. a.=+ID=. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. or 6leap frogging. he should immediately connect to the anchor. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection.D-. the method of aid climbing . Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection.6 he leader removes the belay.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. he can signal 6D&& <. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. taking on the role of lead climber. %. Dnce the second completes the pitch.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.reaches a more secure stance.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . If removing a piton. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. . he should signal 6 A?. Dnce secured.

+ince pitons are multidirectional. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. $ith or $ithout the hanger. bolts can be used for aid climbing. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. /o$ever. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing the same. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. %.* Pitons. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. %0* 'olts. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid.

although in aid climbing. %'* Chocks.0 inches. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. A fifi hook is a small. %5* -scenders. appro"imately every .ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse.* . smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. %4* (ifi ook. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. or steps. %1* S"C%s.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*.or -iders. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. . A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. although in aid climbing. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. %)* Etriers . +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.. . he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. %7* %aisy Chains.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. . At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. split(shaft rivets. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes.

he big difference is the movement up the rock. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. aiders. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. If this happens. the climb continues as follo$s: %.b. you are no$ standing above your support. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . !ith the daisy chains. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. into the steps in the aider. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. Technique. again.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. one at a time. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. &rom this height. %4* . 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider.

use ascenders instead of -rusiks.. repeat this procedure. o prevent this possibility. o make this easier. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. one at a time. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. Clear each knot as you unclip it. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. move the ascenders. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ .may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. the arms need not support much body $eight. 3otes4 . Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. a serious fall could result.* >nlike lead climbing.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. !hen the pitch is completed. !hen adjusted to the correct height. tie in short on the rope every . !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. o ascend the route.:* . this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. above the piece. Secon&ing. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. . o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. %. If the ascender is too high. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. After ascending another 0: feet. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route.

As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. he hook . +BC2s. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. d. and other protection placed easily by hand. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. /o$ever. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. hooks. o make this safer and easier. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. !hile leading an aid traverse. do not tie into the end of the rope. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. 0. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. to get caught as you move up$ard. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. his is in effect a self(belay. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping you ascend. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. possibly resulting in the protection failing. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. %. e.

$o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. hese types of devices due to their passive application.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . a forty foot fall could result. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. If the climb is only one pitch. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. although bolts can be used. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. 9iven one rope. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. &or e"ample: a . A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. a. b. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. $hich involves more difficulties. only t$o are described belo$. protected traverses .::(foot climb $ith a . It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. the methods $ill vary. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. belayed climb. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.::(foot climb $ith a .

!hen number 1 receives 6<. or number 0 climber. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number .* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . !hen the leader completes the pitch. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. or number .. !hen the leader completes this pitch. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. he again sets up a ne$ belay.Us . he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. %. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. he second. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. ascends belayed by number 0.$ill re#uire additional time. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . !hen number . he most e"perienced individual is the leader. and number 1. If using one rope.BAI6 from the leader. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. !hen using t$o ropes.BAI D=. climber.

: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. number 1 performs no belay function. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously.. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. such as the tuber type. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. his $ould save time for a team of three. %d* =ormally. he remains anchored to the rock for security. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. %d* In this method.belay is ready. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. !hen number 1 is not climbing. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed.

and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. However. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. he use of harnesses. but adds to total mission $eight. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. . %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. faster. even rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. 'hey can limit the battlefield and.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. and safer.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. ascenders. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . =nsta!!ation . he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. H )i. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult.

-rusik. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. autoblock*. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. he $ill stack and manage the rope. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope.o install a fi"ed rope. Dnce the anchor is rigged. Figure 7-). he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. If the leader placed protection. . Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. Dther$ise. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed.*. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. Esing a #iBe& rope.

Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope.e!ay. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. .. Esing a se!#. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. FiBe& .Figure 7-. .etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. If not. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.

a. ease of negotiation. =nsta!!ation. he second sets up a standard belay. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. avoids obstacles. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors.Figure 7-1. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. actical considerations are met. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. . Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*.

/e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. and attaches the rope to the anchor. !hen he reaches an anchor point. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. double figure(eight*.ope crossovers should be avoided. 3ote4 .nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. %. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. . .* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. As the leader climbs the route. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. he temporarily anchors the rope. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

o brake. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. /e then pulls the rope from behind. %o&y . b. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. 9loves are $orn. and his back straight to reduce friction. . and runs it around either hip.Figure 7-4. diagonally across the chest. and back over the opposite shoulder. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. -asty rappe!. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. the rope runs to the brake hand. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks.appe! %&igure 4(7*. &rom there. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock.

/asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. %o&y rappe!. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. c.appe! %&igure 4()*. Seat--ip . 0. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. . 3otes4 . /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.Figure 7-5..

repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. his method has minimal friction. Seat-hip rappe!. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. If using a right(hand brake. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. /o$ever. stand to one side of the rope. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. and is fast and safe. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. If a single rope is used. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled .* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed.Figure 7-6. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. %. stand to the right of the rappel rope.

he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. Figure-$ight Descen&er. Figure 7-7. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. &or this reason. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. %. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. d.* o use the figure(eight descender. . -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner.

&ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling.) of an inch in siAe. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. Figure-eight &escen&er. . f. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. e. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate.Figure 7-". 6ther De2ices. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. $Bten&ing the . he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. hese include slots or plates and tubers.appe! De2ice. d. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K.

depends on the techni#ue. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed.e!ay. . /o$ever. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. 6ne-.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about .Figure 7-'.

If t$o carabiners are used. a. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. are al$ays preferred. b. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. If crossing a stream. Dnce across. =atural anchors. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. c. . $iremanUs. such as large trees and solid rock formations. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. If crossing a ravine or gorge.:. the gates $ill be opposing. the s$immer must be belayed across. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. At that time. he anchor should be $aist high. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle.

Figure 7-)*. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope.0*. d. Transport tightening system. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(.. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.*. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. .1*. e.

.Figure 7-)).oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight. Figure 7-). Transport knot . . .

thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank.:. $eb $rap. Dnce across. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. 3ote4 2uring training.Figure 7-)1. Tension!ess anchor knot. a. the far side man anchors the rope. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. b. c. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. .

g. from inside to outside. f. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. . he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. !hen the rope is tight. and is run back to the near side anchor. e. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. Figure 7-)4. transport knot.d. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. F-pu!!ey tightening system. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. here are several methods of accomplishing this. As the rope is pulled tight.

all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress.a. and yrolean traverse. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. . Figure 7-)5. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. :etho& o# Crossing. -referably.)*. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance.7*.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. Comman&o cra+!. attach it to the bridge. %. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. monkey cra$l. If dry crossing is impossible. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. o recover if he falls over. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. he may $ear it over both shoulders. and pull the rucksack across. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame.

. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. Figure 7-)7.Figure 7-)6.appe! seat metho&. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. he rappel seat method is the preferred method.4*. . he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. :onkey cra+!. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. If crossing $ith rucksacks.

Construction. Figure 7-)". hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. ABIC.igging Specia! $quipment. -au!ing !ine. . %0* -"0CE Packs.* Machine /uns. and carabiners. &inally. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. or supplies. .5*. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. %. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. Any special e#uipment. he other end is anchored on the near side. a. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. All the slack is pulled to the near side. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. ammunition. o rig machine guns. A unit +D. such as cre$(served $eapons. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing.b.may dictate the rigging of these items. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. cordage %various siAes*.

.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. :o2ing 8itters. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. %. . %'* A three(man pull team. Dn each side of this carabiner.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. c. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. If the < C chooses the dry method. assembled on the far side. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. :o2ing . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across.ucksacks. . and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness.b. a. he far side remains anchored.

and then pulls the rope across. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. Figure 7-)'. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. ravines. removes the knots. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. inserts a carabiner. b. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. chasms. Suspension tra2erse. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop.%)* Dnce across. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. Site Se!ection . and up or do$n a vertal. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. %.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side.

'(foot sling ropes are needed. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. an A(frame must be used. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. b. c.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. %. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. $o sturdy poles are needed. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. hree to five . It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. a.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. and mark the ape" on both poles. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. leaving about . depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. %0* !ith a sling rope.* . $quipment.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. Construction. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. -osition this knot on . 7-#rames.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed.0 feet long. . he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to .

ensure it is in the same direction as the .* Figure 7-.*.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. Cake the $raps as tight as possible.*. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. .* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*.

%. . . Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. the direction of kick. If the ground is soft.*.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. If more than one sling rope is needed. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. Figure 7-.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. dig the legs in about ) inches. . $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons.). ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. Adjust the A( .un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. 7-#rame sprea&er. %4* If the ground is a hard surface.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. =nsta!!ation Construction. d. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot.

* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*.. .. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. Eoin the ends of a . 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame. not forcing it in a lateral direction.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. Figure 7-. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points.0*.

Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner.Figure 7-. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. 2ue to the constant . Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor.1.

Aertica! hau!ing !ine. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load.4.tension maintained on the belayer.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. or supplies Figure 7-. use a mechanical belay. use a relay man. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . rucksacks. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. . such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. herefore.

he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. a. o maintain the .nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. .* Figure 7-. %+ee &igure 4(07.0(inch bight.5. 2ouble one installation rope.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. and anchor it. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. find the middle.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". if necessary. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. .

b. g. he angle should be . or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. d.0 inches apart. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. belay from the top using the hauling line. f. e. o anchor the A(frame. directional figure(eight. or to. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. $hich is tied to the A(frame. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . c. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . . he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs.

etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. !hen it is no longer needed. terrain. . simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. Theory. . hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. a. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. Consi&erations.. Simp!e . . $eather. the load rubbing against the rock $all. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks.educe e"cessive friction on the system.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. b.h. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. !hen in use. c. pull the other side from belo$. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. load $eight. and availability of anchors. Construction. e#uipment. and the rope condition. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. .

. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed.%. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. place a pulley into the carabiner. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot.* . his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. .

&or greater efficiency. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. >se belays and backup safeties. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.Figure 7-. d. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. a.6. If the t$o pulleys touch. $eather. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. terrain. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. and availability of anchors. Consi&erations. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. F-pu!!ey system. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. e#uipment. . 6ther Factors. load $eight.

b. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner.* Anchor the hauling rope. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. and the rope condition. %. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. Construction. . c.. Figure 7-. E-pu!!ey system. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:.7. %7* Construct a second anchor. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. Theory. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. his is the -C2. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. the load rubbing against the rock $all.

H he terrain. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. produces early fatigue. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. re#uires more rest halts. technical roc0 and ice climbing. pace is adapted to conditions. he mountaineer sets a tempo. rappelling. !hen a moderate pace is set. and results in loss of climbing time. the need for rest halts decreases. and a unit can cover a given . An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. $eather. hen. he more adverse the conditions. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. the slo$er the pace. or number of steps per minute. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. . proper training. empo. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. H In addition to proper techni#ue. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. acclimatiAation.est. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. he trained. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. conditioning. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. pace. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. good nutrition and hydration.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. s0iing or snow shoeing. Coving too fast. rugged terrain. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. even under ideal conditions.

rock. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one.* After each step for$ard. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. If possible. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. and higher elevations. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*.distance in a minimal time. and snack on trail food. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. enabling an easier. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. the soldier pauses briefly. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. hydrate. deeper inhale. sno$fields. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. soldiers lean against a tree. %1* his slo$. <listers and . +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt.7 hours. he soldier e"hales strongly. to .* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. %. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . breathe deeply. supports the $eight. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step.. not muscle. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. %'* After a climb. %. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. steady. If possible.

H -ar& <roun&. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. as the slope steepens. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. to a herringbone step. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. ice a". on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. A ski pole. back injury. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier.. try to s$itchback periodically.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. knee damage. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step.blackened toenails. o turn at the end of each traverse. through thick brush. surface. %. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. in lo$ brush or heather. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. and back pain may follo$. !hile traversing.* !hen ascending. /ard ground is firmly compacted. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. and on scree and talus slopes. $ould be from $alking straight up. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. %. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. and loss of balance. If side hill travel is necessary. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. . animal trails. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. A normal progression.efer to Chapter .

and plants his foot solidly. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. /. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. he soldier performs a basic rest step. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. steps off. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. $hich take half of the boot. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. returning to the in(balance position. he soldier faces out. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. held in the uphill hand.H Sno+ S!opes. simply $alk straight do$n. his is the in(balance position. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. . and $eighting the trail leg. he ice a". he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier.0 Step Kicking. aggressive manner. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints.. and they $ill not be as secure. each one improving the step as he ascends. $hich must be done in a positive.7:: meters in many mountainous areas.

he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. $here the ground is more level.* !hen ascending. brush is both a help and a hindrance. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . trees. and the upper leg is used only for balance. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. %. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. H Thick %rush. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. &or the military mountaineer. !hen traversing. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. In this techni#ue. H <rassy S!opes./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope.

Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. H Scree S!opes. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. o . use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. back straight. After determining that the step is stable. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. !hen $alking in talus.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. and heels dug in. if possible. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. feet pointed do$nhill. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. ascending or descending. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. and then repeats the process. %. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. H Ta!us S!opes. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it.

sno$. and route finding. knees and toes. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. and do not look up. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. compass and identifiable terrain features. digging into the slope $ith hands. grass. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest.prevent rock fall injuries.ockW6 is shouted immediately. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. the $arning. 6. the location of a target objective. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. navigation. he use of the map. . All other basics of mountain $alking apply. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. Backing cover. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. is the foundation of good navigation. elbo$s.

::: feet of elevation. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. 7!timeters. . good judgement and sound tactical instincts. or millibars. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. route planning. a loss of barometric pressure of . his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. millimeters of mercury. usually attached to a cord. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. checking progress and terrain identification.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. <y measuring air pressure.1 inches has occurred. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. %.. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. a. Compasses. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. usually inches of mercury.H . b. and bad $eather should be e"pected. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. $hich are reflected in the altimeter.

or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. and so forth* is reached. longitude and elevation of the individual user. %4* .ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. it can provide position %accurate up to . continuously available radio positioning navigation system. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. global. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. causing them to give poor readings. saddles. his can result in faulty elevation readings. all($eather. <!o a! 9ositioning System.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. c. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. %. . It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. survey monuments. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. he 9-+ is a space(based. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. It can determine the latitude. stream(trail intersections. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate.

If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. %'* +ince the 0. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. or plateaus are better. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. but due . the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. 3a2igation Techniques. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat.idgelines. or altimeter navigation. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. enter their coordinates as $ay points. .(satellite constellation is not yet complete. Dther$ise. summits. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products.%1* 2uring route planning. open valleys. %4* . terrain association. start point and objective. after choosing critical checkpoints. deep valleys. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. Canyons. spurs."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. saddles. d. &or navigation. the better the system performs. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together.

catching features. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. /andrails. checkpoints.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. . orientation. navigational corridors. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. and not a precise point. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively.eckoning. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. %. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. and attack points are all used. bo"ing(in areas. than as a primary navigational aid. he shape. siAe. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. /eavy fog. slope %+D+. elevation. burned(over. glacier. !hen clear cut. . his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. that feature becomes an e"panded the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor.* Dea& .

H !hen the object blends into the background. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. check the . H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. such as sno$. hey aid in orientation. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. $atercourse. H !hen the light is poor.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. or desert. $ater. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. uniform surface. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. but not behind the object being vie$ed. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. open road or track. dusk. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. in resection. and in $eather prediction. such as da$n. H !hen looking do$n a straight. H !hen looking over a smooth. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. in computing rates of ascent or descent.

studying it for climbing routes. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. light conditions %time of day*. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. . A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. !atch the mountain during the approach march.altimeter. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. %. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. cliffs. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. may present themselves. along $ith $eather conditions. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. such as couloirs or gullies. and the physical condition of the team. In addition. gross bedding planes of rock. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. &ault lines. . <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position.ates of travel. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. and crevasse Aones become visible. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. cliff bands. e. sno$fields and glaciers. In this case.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale.

* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. If you must cross one. avalanche danger. sno$ pits. (inter . f. 2uring calm $eather.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. %.oute Se!ection. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. constrain your choice of terrain. 2uring movement. vegetation. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. &or $eaker skiers. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. individual ski abilities. and the siAe of the unit. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. $ater features. and impact on your route choices. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. terrain relief. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. shovel tests. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. g. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. are often steeper. pays off in more efficient travel. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche .

If $eak skiers are in the group. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. If the $eather turns bad. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. ice a". efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. H >se a steady. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines.danger is still present. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. !eather and tactical situation permitting. %4* 2uring ski movements. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. east. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. Avoid north. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. . Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. and so on to get accurate readings. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly.

trails. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. and drifting sno$. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. drastically limit visibility. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. fog. . and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. short hours of daylight. %1* Cagnetic disturbances.h. Careful map reconnaissance.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. %. sno$fall. %'* /andling maps. 9ro !ems. $hiteouts. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. bliAAards. caused by large ore deposits. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. especially above tree line.* In $inter. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. hick vegetation and rough. compasses. . $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. kno$ledge of the enemy . particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. At times.

Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. Along $ith sketch maps. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible.:7:.::: map and should be used $henever possible. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.::: map depicts greater detail than a . :ap . !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. verbal descriptions.econnaissance. pay close attention to the marginal information. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*.::: maps can be used if available. such facilities as ski lifts. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. In addition. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. A . Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. clear cuts.0. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. Civilian .situation. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. cable and tram$ays are often found. Aerial. Areas above tree line.:07.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. even larger scale maps are desirable. terrain analysis of the operational area. %. a. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. obli#ue angle. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. An .:.

$ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. trails.uins. $eather permitting. resupply and medevac. $nemy Situation. %0* Dbstacles. are factored in. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. . barns. roads. but should still be e"pected. bridges. such as rivers and gorges. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. %1* /elicopter support. they have a marked advantage. and plans made to avoid them. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. c. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. impassable torrents.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. e"tractions. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. . b. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. and large open areas above tree line. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains.

he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . good friction@ use of pitons.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. %. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. mountain structure and forms. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. and ground cover. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. including the geology. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l.success. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background.*. %0* .outes through granite rock %long cracks. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. d. Time-Distance Formu!as. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. Enit 7ssessment. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. smooth rock@ bolts. camming units*. . e.

0 to ' kph +kiing . In order to do this. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.* $alking* Dn foot %less than . Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. helicopter support cannot be relied on.. Time-&istance #ormu!as. %0* As able 5(. and clothing for mountain travel.) kph '. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons..::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. actical movements.) to 1. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year.0 kph 0 to 1.. to 7. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. Add one hour for each . his distance plus . should take this into account.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. .::: feet of ascent or 0..K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. indicates.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. basic mountaineering gear.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.0 kph 0 to 1. foot . first measure the map distance. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. $eights in order to obtain accurate. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically.0 kph 1. foot of .) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-).' to . realistic rates of march. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.) to 1.5 to 7.

%'* 8ocation o# $nemy. $idth of trails. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. his includes degree of slopes. avalanche probability. %1* . b. and the likelihood of crevasses. and trails accurately.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. aerial photos. vegetation. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. avalanche probability. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. Consider the follo$ing: %. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. c. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. Se!ect a .* Tra##ica i!ity. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. roads. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations.oute. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. sno$ depth. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. $eather reports.. -lot start and end points. clearings. a. Se!ect a Current :ap.equire& $quipment. sno$ condition reports. . Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. Additionally. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find.

as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers.Capa i!ities o# Enit. >se all available information and plan accordingly. . 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. %4* Checkpoints. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. its width.econnaissance . 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. ake into consideration their present health. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. or deep. When rivers or streams must be crossed. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. depending upon the type of stream. !hen plotting a route on the map. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. speed of the current. an alternate route should be used. . +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. swift.%7* Communications. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. and depth of the water. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams.Contro! 9oints. %)* Con&itions. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly.

the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. Crossigs. a. sno$. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. A distant vie$. or ice melt during the day. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. Figure '-). b. photo. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. perhaps from a ridge. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. or head$aters. the rivers rise. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. As glaciers. depending on the distance from the source.. for e"ample. the closer you are to the source. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. if . the follo$ing considerations should be made: %.econnaissance of the route %map.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. If a dry crossing is unavailable. In a s$amp.*. 2epending upon the time of year.

%7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. above the tree line for e"ample. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. =atural anchors are not a necessity. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. if any. Dnce a log jam is formed. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. ho$ever. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. firm bottom. . A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross.made during the early morning. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. point of the river or stream. %1* Cany mountain streams. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. In some areas. contain sections $ith numerous channels. and thus shallo$est. ho$ever. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend.

if available. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. <oots should be $orn . +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. All pockets are buttoned. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. binoculars. %)* !hen possible. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. H If you must cross on the upstream side. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. tactical situation. b. !rap radios. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. he could easily dro$n. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. papers. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. temperature of the air and $ater*. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. -reparation includes the follo$ing. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. a. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. as in the higher alpine Aones. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. +DI.

the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. d. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. Dn the far side. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. a. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. socks and inner soles should be removed. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . /o$ever. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. e. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. f. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. At protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. c. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely.

/e should take short. b. sturdy tree limb. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. a long ice a". . his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. e. d. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. and if available. o increase balance. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. c. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. If an obstacle is encountered. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. deliberate steps. he staff should be moved first. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip.

stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. &or chain crossing. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current.. . he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*.Figure '-. he line formed faces the far bank. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. a team crossing may be used. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. but $ith the added support of each other.

$sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. and the distance from the near and far anchors. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. Cany times though. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately .ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. Chain metho& #or stream crossing.Figure '-1. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. a. height of the anchors above the $ater. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . . he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. he stream at this point may be impassable. . If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge.

/e should =. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing.. . If this is impossible. should he fail to reach the far bank. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing.V. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine.$ill pendulum back. %. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. then a rope bridge should be installed as such.

or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. rather than straight across the stream. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. and anchored on the near bank.Figure '-4. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. %. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. /ere again. An appropriate knot is tied into the . shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. pulled tight.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline.

Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. $hichever appears easiest. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. Figure '-5. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. %7* >nder most circumstances. . %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks.

recoilless rifles. a. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely.%)* . and so on. Sa#ety . speed of the current. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. b. c. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. f. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. and individual e"perience. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. e. stream bottom configuration. such as mortars.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. A lookout should be posted 7: to . . use a different techni#ue. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. or choose another route. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. d. especially heavier $eapons. $idth of the stream.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings.

seek out the closest and safest spot. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. b. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. In either case. e. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. h. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. a. facing do$nstream. such as a sandbar. . c. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls.g. If the shore is too difficult to reach. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. d. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. 2o not try to fight the current. for assistance or rescue.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. F!at-#ooting in the cra position.degrees.*. descend straight do$n the fall line. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. . bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. . it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. As the slope steepens. and traverse.: and . assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a"..:(. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope.egardless of the techni#ue used. d.:(. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. Figure )*-)*. Dn steep terrain. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. !henever possible. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es.

raverse $ith feet flat. <acking up the slope %crab position*. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. logical progression. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. %0* =ce 7B. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side.* Crampons. e. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. /erringbone step straight up the slope. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. &ront(pointing.Figure )*-)). 3orma! 9rogression. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. .

:(.e. >sing most of these positions. in some cases. and move the hand up the a" shaft. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can.:(. .emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again..1*. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure . f. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately. C!im ing Sequence.0*. Figure )*-). +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . . save the $eight of the crampons altogether. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. Step Cutting.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". C!im ing sequence.

a traverse is also the preferred method. %'* -an&ho!&s. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger.* Sno+. %.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. Dnce the step is formed. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. %0* =ce. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. they should be smaller than footholds. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. steps may be cut straight up the slope. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. If handholds are cut. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. In descending. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. . chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. In ascending. then cut one bet$een those t$o. !hen changing direction. and angled more. =e"t. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting.

he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. g. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. 2uring movement on steep ice. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. a fall %&igure . Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. or arrest. Se!#-7rrest. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. . the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice.:(.'*.Figure )*-)1.

. Se!#-arrest technique.Figure )*-)4.

$hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. stomach on the slope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. stomach on the slope. the climber must first gain control of his body. H /ead upslope. back to the slope. . and feet pointed do$nslope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. and feet pointed do$nslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions.Figure )*-)4. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. and feet pointed upslope. H /ead do$nslope. back to the slope. %. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed upslope. H /ead do$nslope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished.

the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". his could cause the climber to tumble and also.%a* In the first position. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. controlled. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. %b* In the second position. rapid descent. stomach do$n position. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. %c* In the third position. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. could severely injure his ankles and legs. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. %'* !hen a fall occurs. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". 9lissading is similar to skiing.7*.:(. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. %d* In the fourth position. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. stomach on the slope. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. e"cept skis . increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. . If crampons are not $orn.

$hich serves as the rudder. he same balance and control are necessary. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". . he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. and guide for the glissade. and the other hand on the shaft. c. brake. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. Sitting <!issa&e. Squatting <!issa&e. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. pick. as painful injury could result.are not used. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. b. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. Also. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. Sa#ety. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a".

backpacks. or any large items. and ice pitons. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. skis. >sed singularly. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. deadman(type anchors. ice scre$s.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. %. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points.Figure )*-)5. a. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. . flukes. sleds. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs.: inches in length. <!issa&ing techniques. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . =ce 9itons. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes.

he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . are multidirectional. $hen placed correctly. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner.:( . -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . he pair of pitons. !hen an ice piton is removed. or the ice may crack or soften. If it pulls out or appears $eak. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. move to another spot and replace it. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.4*. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles.:(. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. =ce Scre+s.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection.)*. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. Figure )*-)6. making further use difficult. =ce piton pair. c. such as top roping. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded.

If repeated use is necessary for one installation. such as top roping. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to .:: degrees from the lo$er surface. or the ice may crack or soften. must be removed before further use.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. . Figure )*-)7. %. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited.%. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*.

9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. . %.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. pickets. e.:(.5*. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. or other e#uipment for added strength. In ice. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. depending on the strength of the ice. the $idth should not be less than . It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. Figure )*-)". he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor.d.: feet. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. !hen constructed of sno$.

Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. t$o or more anchors should be used. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth.:(. such as a picket or a". it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. should be at a right angle to its length. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket.* !henever possible. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. ski poles. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. skis.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. %&igure . sno$shoes. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. frayed. A similar anchor. %. rappel points. or other fi"ed rope installations.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . . or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. . !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. he direction of pull on long items. also. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect.%.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. f. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole.

:o2ement. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. Tie-=n :etho&. . !hen crevasses are e"pected. a. b. Covement on 9laciers. %+ee paragraph .:(4. the tie(in is modified slightly. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. <y using this . A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. a three(man rope team is recommended. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. all climbers move simultaneously. +hould any member fall. &or climbing on sno$ and ice.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position.e#ualiAed anchor. Figure )*-)'. for more information*.

c. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. %.*. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep.method. %oot-aB e!ay. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock.* %oot-7B %e!ay. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. . 9enerally. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure .:(0:*. called the 6team arrest. Figure )*-. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. Dn steeper slopes.

he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. d. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. ridgelines. %1* :unter -itch. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. H .%0* %o&y %e!ay. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. or cliffs. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. FiBe& . . As the movement continues. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. also. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity.opes. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay.

:(0. . <!acier cross section.* Figure )*-. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. sho$s a cross section of a glacier. and &igure . Characteristics an& De#initions.). his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. %&igure .a.:(00 depicts common glacier features.

Figure )*-. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt.. <!acier #eatures.. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. . Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %.

he firn line can change annually. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. %. %. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. As you approach this area. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. %. %. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice.. . you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. <e cautious. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. .* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones.

Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. %. Dangers an& 6 stac!es.%. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. In $inter. o$ard the end of the summer. $hen visibility is poor.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. %0. and ice avalanches.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. %. %. b.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. %. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. %. icefalls.

1. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. criss(crossed $ith the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses. .:(01*. %. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. Figure )*-.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse.:(0'*. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .

%1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. o locate the positions. If the team members need to assemble in one area. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. If four people are on a team. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. assess the situation. . he simplest and most common . ie in to the bights and the ends.Figure )*-.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier.4. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. use the -rusik to belay each other in. if three people are on a team. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. the remaining members go into team arrest. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other.

:(07*. their security being the team arrest. $hile ideal for rock climbing. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. A roped team of t$o. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. c. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. 9enerally.ope& :o2ement. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. halting the fall.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. . he best combination is a three(man rope team. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. . the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse.

%1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement.5. the rope should be divided into thirds. he remaining 6thirds6 . as for a four(person team. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. %0* .ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness.* . %.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue.Figure )*-. <ecause of this. $hether improvised or premanufactured.

3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. he ends of the ropes are tied together. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. $ith double fishermanUs knots. by itself.ucksack. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. may be e"tremely difficult. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. e. the chance of it failing is much greater. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. attached to the rucksack. forming endless loops or slings. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . if $arm clothing is needed..0(foot ropes. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. Securing the %ackpack. <efore movement. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. /o$ever. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. &or safety reasons. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. or carried over the head and shoulder. !hen . 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. d. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. If necessary.

he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. heavily crevassed portions. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. they only supplement. %. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. %. $hich covers glacier ice. g. =arro$ cracks may be covered.* In the area of the firn line.outes.hanging from the drop cord. the sno$. /o$ever. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. connecting both sides of it. Dpen crevasses are obvious. Crossing Cre2asses. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. . on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. In this Aone. steep terminal or lateral moraines. and icefalls. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. and do not take the place of. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. f. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. large crevasses remain open. . he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. =arro$ cracks can be jumped.

%0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. the team may proceed. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. and may form firmer bridges. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. Sno+ %ri&ges. a crevasse is probably present. but difficult to detect in flat light. and gradually turn into glacier ice. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. In such a situation.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. its detection is difficult. If he is. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. h. . but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. %.

%b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. %1* In crossing crevasses. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . he assumes the belay position. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move.: feet back from the edge. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. =umber t$o belays number three across. 2o not stamp the sno$. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. i. %c* he leader should move for$ard. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. . Dnce the second is across. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last.

the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number .. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. /o$ever. using the -rusik as a self belay. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. % his scenario is for a team of three. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. if the person $as almost across. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. =umber 1 must al$ays be . It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. the rope is al$ays kept taut. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. to anchor the rope. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge.%.

and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse.Us anchor. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. j. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. number . onto the anchor. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. close to number 0. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to .prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. if the middle person should fall through. assumes the role of number 1. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. as a minimum. =ormally. $ould anchor the rope by himself. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse.escue Techniques.. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. Cre2asse . +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . the procedure is the same e"cept that number . and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him.

under the rope and at right angles to the stress. on the edge of the ice. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. clips number 1Us rope to himself. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay.ope. .edge. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. In some situations. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. As the assisting team pulls. =umber .nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. ski pole. ski. If necessary. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. %0* FiBe& . Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. In order to reduce friction. place padding. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. such as an ice a".* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . %. If the fallen climber is not injured. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique.ope Teams. or backpackKrucksack. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues.

%b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. or 6stirrup. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. Dther times. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional .6 of the long sling. %f* he procedure is repeated. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. /o$ever. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. to ascend the rope. %&igure .person in the crevasse. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop.

he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. A pulley can be used here if available. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. 9rusik ascen&ing technique.6 system.6. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. In theory. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope.. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor.:(04*.::(pound load $ith this system. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . % his scenario is for a team of three. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. to the anchor. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . Figure )*-. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . In actual field use. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. and they have decided to install the V rig. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System.

%d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised .Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. . foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. H !ith the 61(to(. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage.6 system.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. he system is no$ ready for another haul.

he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. . =ormally. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. poles. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. a crevasse is present. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. a.7.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope.Figure )*-. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. at least eight feet in length. and so on. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse.

b. terrain. distance to be moved. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. e. $hich keeps tents closer together. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . by 0 feet. ry to find a solid platform. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. 7t is. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. At a minimum. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. the weather. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. Under these conditions. and e)isting installations. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . Dccasionally $hile probing. by . probe again after digging. therefore. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. If a latrine area is needed. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. c. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. tactical situation. d. Air evacuation is preferred: however.* &or block construction. :ountain . probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. In deep soft sno$. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. %. If a dugout latrine is necessary.

medic%. &or a planned rescue. is overall in charge at all times. %.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay.sufficient. and one person only. /o$ever. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. and maintain moderate body $armth. hey are. resume victimUs breathing. physician/s assistant. ho$ever.* Assume command. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. . .evel 7 and . and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. . control serious bleeding.evel 777 supervising.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . . Casualties should be triaged before evacuation.2. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used.nsure that the C. b. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. a. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. Dne person. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. . c. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue.

+peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. environmental haAard. T-$ . continually monitor pulse.$SCE$. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. or a change in $eather. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. . a. vehicle. and terrain at hand. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. hanging glacier. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. should be used for evacuation. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. if available. avalanche run(out Aone.escue 6perations . %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles.If the victim is unconscious. 9!anning . %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. or any other immediate haAard. +peed is less important than correct action. . possibility of falling rocks*. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample.esist the urge for action.

H Are additional personnel. $here. medical. H errain features and location of the casualties. $hat. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. security.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. routine. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. H . H .#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. H actical situation. and evacuation. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. $hen. c. In planning a rescue. treatment. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. priority. H -lan the action. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances.b. tactical immediate*. and the nature of their injuries. he task must be identified. $hy. rescue. d. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %.* After identifying the task. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. and ho$ the situation happened.

anchor points. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. If the victim is airlifted out.* In estimating time available. and the personnel and e#uipment available. ime becomes the critical element. Ca"imum use of secure. and so on*.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. fi"ed lines. blood pressure. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. $arm clothes. !ith all rescue techni#ues. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. lo$ering lines. %c* !hen performing all rescues. Age and physical condition may vary. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. reliable trails or roads is essential. e. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. drugs started. stove. $alking trails. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. ropes. sleeping bags. and stretchers. tents. bivouac sacks. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. pulse rate. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. . ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. the situation. hot food and drinks. and rescue belay points*.

.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . H 9.=6.=6. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. separate stages are taken.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites. H F=. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility.T. H 9.=6. e"treme cold. or gusting $inds. Specia! Training . such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all.=TD T-. .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. H T-=.emove dead personnel. In high altitudes.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.ST7<$4 .emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated.=6.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. available time is drastically reduced.D ST7<$4 .ST ST7<$4 .vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9. a.=TD F6E.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. H F6E.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. . . but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.%1* .elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. H 9. b.

a. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment.. four(hand.* S!ing-. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. 6ne-:an Carries. %. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. the best method of manual transportation is selected. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. he sling(rope carry %&igure .* re#uires a '. pistol belt.(. saddleback. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. t$o(hand. . rough handling.ope Carry. herefore. piggyback. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. before trying to move the $ounded soldier.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. difficult terrain. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. or inade#uate protection from the elements. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. it can be lost through carelessness. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders.

%0* .K0( meter coiled rope. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. Figure ))-). around the casualtyUs thighs. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . and back around to the front of the bearer. S!ing-rope carry. -adding. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. crosses the ends.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. $hen available. .ope Coi! Carry. %f* he rope must be tight.

If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. In this case. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. the bearer carefully stands. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. . %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. If this is not done. pulling the casualty onto his back. b.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg.appe!. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. %u&&y .

A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. across the carrierUs chest. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. he victim straddles the carrier.%. %0* A '. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. across the victimUs back. . from right to left. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. he rope is run diagonally. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. over his left shoulder. from left to right. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder.0(meter sling rope is used. %7* he rope is run diagonally. from right to left. and back under the victimUs left armpit. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*.

hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. If the litter must be carried. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. belayed. easy to carry. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. and then carried again. and then do$n along the other arm. nature of injuries. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. he rope is folded in half. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. and e#uipment available. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. It can be improvised $ith poles. as described above. . nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. and readily available.%. on traverse lines.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. $hich are se$n on one side. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. :anu#acture& 8itters. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. a. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. and then routed up along the handling arm. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units.* he poleless. behind the neck. %. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. depending on the terrain. over the shoulder. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation.

It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. $hich is a potential breaking point. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. .(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. %+ee &C 5(.1.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.5. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. .

cots.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. ladders. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters.6*-). . hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. tent supports. not dragging on the ground.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. jackets. sacks.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . and other similar items.. /o$ever. scoop stretchers. Figure ))-. If possible.. skis. bags. or mattress covers. doors. a large item.(0):(.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards.. these objects should be padded. A litter can be improvised from many different things. +uch objects include boards. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. If a poncho is used. $indo$ shutters. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. shirts.. . b. tarpaulin. and poles.(0*. the hood must be up and under the victim. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. ponchos.0. benches. such as a blanket. %0* If poles cannot be found. %. shelter halves. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area.

. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. make a clove hitch over each bight. little material e"ists to construct litters. centimeters long. empty bo"es. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. Figure ))-1. .ach clove hitch should be about .%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure .. 3ote4 Above the tree line.(1*. sleeping bags. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. . &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time.ope !itter. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter.

%7* -ull up on the rope. . -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. and place a carabiner into the loop. %. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. 2o not remove the belay. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available.escue Systems . >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it.(meter poles. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. After placing the clove hitches over the bights. %e!ay 7ssist. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot.* &irst. a. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. . %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. ake t$o .escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about .7 centimeters.

%0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. %e!ay $scape. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. b.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner.* After a climber has been injured. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. %7* . o improve this system. . he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. %. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. %5* .

rope(edge friction. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage.aising systems.* . he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. . the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. and other variables. . 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. belays. backup safety -rusiks are used to . !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. a. transferring the $eight to the anchor. . %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. $hich must be surmounted. %0* %e!ays. hand $inches.%)* . are often encountered along the evacuation path. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. %.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes.aising System. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. In practice. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations.

%0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. . b. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . % his is the signalman or relay man. %. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed.( '*. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. Descen&ing S!opes. if possible. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. .* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. he litter is prepared as already described.. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. %. c. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage.aising the 8itter. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. taking care not to jar the casualty.safeguard the system.

%0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*.(7*: a. clearance for the casualty along the route.. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. As long as safety principals are follo$ed.Figure ))-4. b. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions.&escen&ing. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . if used. good loading and unloading platforms. many different techni#ues can be used. and anchor points for the A(frame. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. %1* he most direct.

d. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. c. C!i## e2acuation &escent.:1814 Inches . Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. Figure ))-5.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner.

:81) . they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. if a member of your group is in an avalanche. chances of survival are remote. after two hours. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .)0.14 1. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. .robability of survival drops rapidly and. <enera! 9roce&ures .escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent.:105. If any indication of the location of the victim is found. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. . random probing starts in that vicinity. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes... 18.05.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots .14 . A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search..7.1814 .) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .

a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. >sing this and any other information.. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. if enough personnel are available. a.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. b. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. poles. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. If using avalanche beacons. and mark all clues.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. A human body. goggles. ice a"es. gloves. . start the coarse probe at the deposition area. terrain. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. packs. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. hats. usually the toe of the slide. . a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. several factors influence the bodyUs location. . urbulence. make an initial probe search in that area. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. Book for skis. >nless other$ise indicated. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. boots.

9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. and other obstacles act as snares. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. All currently available transceivers are compatible.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . In the case of large and violent avalanches. the greater $ill be his burial depth. • Vegetation.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. Cany models of transceivers are available. Although this type of pole .• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. a. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. • . he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. 9ro e 9o!es. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. Conversely.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. rocks. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. . especially in a high $ind. although they may operate differently in the search mode.

%. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. coarse probing implies a . A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. . hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. the number of personnel per line should be limited.* . Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. b.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. 9ro ing Techniques. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. %0* If no probing poles are available."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope.performs best. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. As evidenced by their names. he only sure check is by digging. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. 9ro ing 8ines. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. %. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. $enty per line is satisfactory. &or the probing operation to be effective. c.

. a . &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. &ine probing is the concluding measure. clear commands are essential for efficient probing.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated. he probers themselves $ork silently.!A..D<.&D.7 inches apart. essentially. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. $ith feet about . although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. $hich almost guarantees finding the body.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. $hile the fine probe has. %.D<.6 6>.::(percent chance of locating the body..2. +trict discipline and firm. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.6 6+ . %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: .-.6 <y using these commands.

.-.& -.2.D<..I9/ -.: inches from the adjacent one. .%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.6 6>. and finally in front of his right foot. the line advances .D<.-.D<.D<. $hich is then moved ahead . .= ..-. -.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe. %b* Dn command...6 6>.. foot.D<.ach man probes in front of his left foot.6 6>.. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.!A. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.6 6+ .ach probe is made . >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.6 6C.D<.&D..6 6. then in the center of his straddled position. . %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B. foot and repeats the probing se#uence.

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