Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.+ .epeat + . Figure 4-).0... %.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. + .. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. Checkpoints. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.'. .1*.etrace /. 2ress the knot do$n. + . /o$ever.... >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. Figure-$ight . .. Tying the Knot. b. .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. by tying the knot in a retrace.1.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. + . a..oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.

ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.7.'. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. b..* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.). ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. .0.. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. . + .+ . Checkpoints %. Figure-eight retrace. !ith the $orking end.. Figure 4-)1. + . forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. ake the $orking end around the anchor point.. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.1. and route the $orking end through the loop.. + . + . he finished knot is dressed loosely.

... -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.1. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.. !ith the right hand. /old the loop in the left hand. + ..'*. grasp the $orking end. + . depending on ho$ it is tied. reach under the horiAontal anchor. . +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. /old rope in both hands. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.0. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. + .0. Tying the Knot. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. palms do$n $ith hands together.'. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.. /old the standing end in the left hand. he knot is tied. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. %. a.. + . + . and bring it in$ard..%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.* Middle of the Rope. %0* End of the Rope.

. + . (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. It is a middle rope knot. !hen tying this knot. Checkpoints.+ .. b. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. !ith the right hand. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. + . Figure 4-)4.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar.'..7*. ake up the slack from the anchor. . 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. 2ress do$n the knot. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. Tying the Knot.1.. %. a.. C!o2e hitch. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.

=ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. and fingertip. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. . + .0.'. + .. Figure 4-)5. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.1.5.8. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. + ....7. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.4. Checkpoints. b. (ireman’s knot. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. and place it over the heel $rap. palm. + . + .+ ..).. + . +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop...

the tail and the bight must be together. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. . + ..)*.%. !hen dressing the knot do$n..0. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm..'. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. Tying the Knot. It is a middle rope knot. + .* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. it lays in$ard. + .. + . Cake one $rap around the palm. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. a. !ith the $rap thus formed. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.1.

%'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. Checkpoints. It is a middle rope knot. .* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Directiona! #igure-eight.Figure 4-)6. %. b. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .4*. %0* he tail and bight must be together. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.

).7.'. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. + . Tying the Knot... 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + .. forming t$o loops. ie an overhand knot on a bight. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. + . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. + .. + . ..1. + .. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.a... spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.0.4. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight..

Figure 4-)7.* It is a middle rope knot.5. b. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. Tying the Knot.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left... Checkpoints. %o+!ine-on-a. . %. form an . a. + . >sing a doubled rope.. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.ight.

%. /old the bight $ith the left hand. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. b.7. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.1.. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.+ . T+o-!oop #igure-eight.. Checkpoints. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. a.0. 2ress the knot do$n. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. + . also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.8*. Figure 4-)". + . It is a middle of the rope knot. + .. !ith the $orking end. Tying the Knot.. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. .'.

0. + . 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. %.. form a loop in rope %standing part*. + . &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.. It is a specialty knot. Tying the Knot. !ith the bight as the $orking end. . %1* he knot is tightly dressed.1. Figure 4-)'.* he loop is the desired siAe. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. Figure-eight !oop. b. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. a.. Checkpoints.. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. 2ress the knot tightly.+ .

+ .*.. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. >sing an arm3s length of rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.*: + .. and place it over the long rope. .0.*..0.. 2ouble the short rope.1.. + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension... + . + . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. Figure 4-.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik..%.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope..0(inch bight. + .1. . forming a bight. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .each do$n through the . $ith the $orking ends even.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.

.). here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. %. and not t$isted. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.nsure they are tight..). the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.. b. + . %0* he locking bar faces the climber.'. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. . + . It is a specialty knot. Figure 4-. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.. + .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.4. Checkpoints.7.+ . $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. parallel.

%0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.1. Checkpoints. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender... make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.a. %. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.0. + .. b. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-.. + .* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. %achman knot. + ..

* A minimum of four $raps.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.7. + .. %.1... It is a specialty knot.. + . he running end is to the back of the body. + . + ..he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. !ith the running end.. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. + . a.4. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. /olding the bight loosely. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. Tying the Knot. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. bring a bight up through the loop. not crossed. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. >sing the standing part. + . . hen. single coil.'. Checkpoints. b.. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. he standing portion is on the bottom. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder..0. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. tie an overhand around all coils. . $ith a bight held in place by a loop. + .).

.. Tying the Knot.. + . a. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.. + .Figure 4-. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.1. + . It is a specialty knot. . Bay the loops to the right.0. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.. + .1.. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. !ith the right hand. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.'.

+afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. Tying the Knot..+ ..0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %. + . Figure 4-. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. a.. Checkpoints. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. . It is a specialty knot.7. &orm a . Three-!oop o+!ine. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. b. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts..4.

+ .. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. %. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.7. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.). -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. b. Checkpoints.5.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.1. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot..'. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . + .. + . Figure 4-.. + .0 inches up the rope.each through the bight and grasp the long.. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. + . %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. . standing end of the rope. Figure-eight s!ip knot.:u!e Knot0 .0. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.

a. K!eimhiest Knot . +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.. Transport knot. + . b. + . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. %1* he bight is a minimum of .0 inches long. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.. Tying the Knot. + .* here is a single overhand slip knot.6.. Figure 4-.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. %.1.0.. It is simply an overhand slip knot. Check 9oints.

It is a special( purpose knot. . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .. find the center of the rope and form a bight.. + . + . 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. easily adjustable.1. !rap at least four complete turns.0 inches. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . Tying the Knot. + . + .. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.*.0...'.7. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. pass them through the bight %see + . + . 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. !ith the ends offset.. a...

7.: to ... It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly...0 inches. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. Checkpoints. + . Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . Tying the Knot. + . b. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.0. a. It is a special(purpose knot. %. K!eimhiest knot.Figure 4-. . %0* All $raps are tight and touching.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull.

1: Cinch the knot tightly. + ...Figure 4-. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. %. b. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.: &orm a bight.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. + .0: <ring the runner back through the bight. %. Frost knot. It is a special(purpose knot..". %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. Tying the Knot. Checkpoint. Figure 4-.. + .'. :unter -itch .* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. Checkpoints. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. b. a. <irth hitch.

%0* he carabiner is locked.. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. Bock the locking mechanism. !ith the right hand. + . Tying the Knot.he munter hitch.. . + . palms do$n about .. /old the loop $ith the left hand.0. /old the rope in both hands. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.1. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop..0 inches apart. !ith the right hand. %. Check 9oints. + .'. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. a. b.* A bight passes through the carabiner.. + .

. :unter hitch...' feet or longer. Tying the Knot. + .. .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. + .0. a. + . + .'. .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. It usually re#uires a sling rope . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight..Figure 4-1*. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. thus creating a loop around the $aist.1.*. ensuring they do not cross.

%. tightening the seat. b. + . ..7.appe! seat. Check 9oints.. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.4. &rom rear to front.). .+ . Figure 4-1).. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. -ull up on the ropes. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. + .* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.

a. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. preferably ovals*. + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. Tying the Knot. + .0. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. . <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs.

soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once .Figure 4-1. <uar&e knot. Check 9oints. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. %. b. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. rope can only be pulled in one direction.* !hen properly dressed. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore.. Although mountain operations have not changed.

both men and $omen are included. $henever the masculine gender is used.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. anchors. -ersonnel using &C 1(84.).8:7(7781.A2DC. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. &ort <enning. glaciers. ho$ever. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts.<D. Army Infantry +chool. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. for training %see Appendi" A*. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. movement on glaciers. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. A =: A +/(. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. 9A 1. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective.+. e#uipment. illness and injury. >nless other$ise stated. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. >. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . Assault Climber@ or Bevel III.). hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. tactics. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. ice climbing. and urban vertical environments.). and training. sno$(covered mountains. evacuation. Countain Dperations.army.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. Inclement $eather. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. he proponent of this publication is /F . and actions. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. rock climbing.

Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. Df the appro"imately 0. rehearsals. AcclimatiAation. glaciers. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. Spring storms. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole .::: kno$n minerals. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. surprise. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. compartments.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. sno$fields. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. single ridges. and $ell(led troops. conditioning. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men.

After long. ho$ever. f. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. . . and cracks. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. a. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. Bimestone has pockets. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. . <ranite.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. d. .ockfall danger is high. conglomerate type stones may be loose. Cha!k an& 8imestone. After a rain. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. it cannot be protected."cept for calcite. .outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. found in limestone. face climbing.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. e. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. &ace climbing can be found. &ace climbing is possible. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. +topping a slide on small. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. San&stone. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. S!ate an& <neiss. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. b. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. ne$ sno$. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. granite dries #uickly. and it is usually difficult to protect. <rassy S!opes. and de$. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. c. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks.

<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. under pressure. Ascending scree is a tedious task. internal heat. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. h. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. avoid scree $hen ascending. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. . =gneous . but smaller than boulders. his results in an intrusive rock. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". %. and over time. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. a.ocks. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. /o$ever. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". . friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. Scree. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. or. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . Ta!us. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. he magma may move up$ard.ocks. g. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. If possible.ock C!assi#ications . !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals.

$here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. In plutonic rocks."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. or clusters of segregated minerals. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. it is called 6tuff.ocks. $hich cut across the strata. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. Adirondacks. herefore. . =orth Cascades. . the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. In the Alps. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . Dccasionally. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. and dikes. Fuieter eruptions.and crystalliAing. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. +ierras. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. Barge %.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. %1* Cointing .6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe.ocks. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. produce basalt. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. .ockies. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill.

+edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. After sediments are solidified. but cleavage or foliation. Se&imentary . sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. %. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. and limestone to marble. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. In fact.ocks. c. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. only slightly altering the sediments. $hich offers . he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. or oceans. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. <ecause of this cleavage. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. especially in limestone. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. :etamorphic . in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. hese changes may be minimal. %.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. lakes.b. he Canadian .ocks. +hale changes to slate or schist. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. As sediments accumulate.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding.

&aulting. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. . $hich results in fault(block mountains. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. and mountain ridge systems. e"posing the central igneous core. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. $hich also provides solid climbing. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. 9!ate Tectonics.$orld class climbing. volcanoes. ocean trenches. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. %. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. b. :ountain Structure. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle.* Dome :ountains. heaving up fold mountains. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. he breakage e"tends . =evada. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. a. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. the Dlympics of !ashington. .ach type of stress produces a typical structure. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. often accompanies up$arp. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. and to pull apart and crack. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. granitic continental crust. and heavier. forming fault(block mountain ranges.

his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . 9eologists call folds geosynclines. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. it is faulted on one side only. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . %1* Fo!& :ountains. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. Core often. the oldest. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. he best kno$n is the 6. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. ho$ever. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. central core is all that remains. ectonic forces.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion.

Asian arc. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. and the . In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold.do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. and the Cediterranean. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes.ift Valley of .ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores.idge. and faulted. domed. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. . Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. In addition. he I2+ classes are: . +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. the Caucasus region. . a. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. there are folds measured by a rope length.

H Class '—<elayed climbing.* b.H Class .7—Coderate difficulty.4—9reat difficulty. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue."tremely great difficulty.5—Very great difficulty. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. . his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. H Class 1—Climbing. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. %0* Class 7. %)* Class 7.* Class 7. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. %1* Class 7. %4* Class 7. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %.8—. belay and emplace intermediate protection. . hree points of contact are necessary.'—Bittle difficulty.:(7. /ands are necessary to support balance.—/iking trail.* H Class 7—&ree climbing.. . %7* Class 7. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection.:—. his is the simplest form of free climbing. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. $hich may have some e"posure. /igh physical conditioning. often combined $ith small belay points.)—Cedium difficulty."traordinary difficulty. and e"perience re#uired. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure."posed positions. %'* Class 7.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. climbing techni#ue.

5.. the 6. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. re#uiring more climbing ability. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. 7. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling.. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. if a fall $as e"perienced.5J*.—. . e"perience.6 indicates periods of run(out $here. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb.' %for e"ample. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area...* Classes are further divided into a. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.: to 7.:d*. %. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. c. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out.'—9reater increases of difficulty.* A:—M&rench(free.asy aid.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. b. %0* A. 7. and d categories starting from 7.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. in a classification of 7. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple. ground fall $ould occur.6 or 6L. and energy e"penditure.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6. %5* Class 7.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. d. %&or e"ample.(7. c....

$ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. . his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. hese falls. such as A1J or A1(.K0 to 0 . his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. VI — 9reater than 0 days. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. =o serious fall danger. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. %4* A)—. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. e. III — About three(fourths of a day. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. %7* A'—+erious aid. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. If the leader falls. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. ho$ever.4*. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. All protection is sketchy at best.K0 days %usually not less than 7. ."treme aid.5*. long fall potential does e"ist. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route.%1* A0—Coderate aid. %)* A7—. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard."tremely severe aid. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. /o$ever. V — . II — /alf of a day. %'* A1—/ard aid.

c VIII ..b 7b..4 . 7.8 VI 7a 7....' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .0.(.'.. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.:c VII .8 0: 0. DDS Class .... sho$s a comparison of these systems.1 7.0 7. 'c 7..urope. hard very 7.b 0c.* easy %.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.b 0a.. III .* moderate %CD2* .1a 1b. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .c. hard severe.c )a.K..5 VI( severe.'a 1b.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.a VIII( .c 7b.c. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.' 7.b.c )a.'a 'a..c 7b. hard severe. 'a severe. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.:.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.b..c.b.0.'a 1b. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.:a VII( .).:b VII .'.c 0a.7b 7.) 7.)a 7.7 7.8 IIsup .7b 7.c )a. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.a. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.5 .1K. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs... able .)a 7.7b(7c 7...b VIII .7 .1.c 7b.b..: 7.f. H <raAilian—<raAil uses .b.c 7a.b.c 'a.)b . 'b hard severe.a.b.c .7b 7.1 IIIsup ..:d VIIJ ..c 7b.* easy %..

H VII — . all in a remote area. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. $ith little objective haAard. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards.0a 7.)K4.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .. H I — A short. $ith objective haAards ever(present.)K4. easy climb near the road. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.7. -ossibly days to approach the climb.)K4. ..e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. and the route might be prone to avalanche.7. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). 2ifficult physically and mentally.. .. $ith sustained technical climbing.)c 4a 05 .7. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. %. g. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent.oman numerals.0d IL( IL IL ILJ . his route is subject to objective haAards.7.verything a grade VI has.ating systems. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. and more of it.)K4. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.0c 7.)c 4a VIII 0) . possibly $ith a haAardous descent. A difficult and involved approach and descent.* Commitment .atings. AI %alpine ice*. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in . Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. H V — A long climb in a remote setting.0b 7. . H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation...

and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. additional information may be needed about siAe. — A froAen lake or stream bed. !hen planning mountain operations. location. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. erratic $eather. he pitch may be shorter. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. but on featureless ice. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. H .%0* Technica! . H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. physically and mentally. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. re#uiring agility and creativity. H 7 — A long.atings. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. An e"tremely tough pitch. . $ith places to rest. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. strenuous pitch. a.

and amounts of precipitation. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms.b. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. dry. but do not overdress. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. types. H ?eep dry. during severe mountain storms. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. H ?eep $arm. H 2o not rush. if possible. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. H If lost. c. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. put on dry clothing. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. %. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. stay $arm. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. and calm. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. he logistical problem is important@ therefore.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. Co2er an& Concea!ment .

Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. sleet. are easily e"cavated. outcroppings. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. such as volcanic tuff. hail. +ome rock types. heavy vegetation. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. Conversely. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. are e"cellent at long ranges. a. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. in depth. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. . he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. . dead space is a problem at short ranges. and fog can limit visibility. sno$. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. like observation. As in all operations. In other areas. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection.!hen moving in the mountains. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. /o$ever. rain. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. boulders. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. /o$ever. In alpine environments. b.

he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. latitude. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. a.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. . If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. or a rise in temperature. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. and $eather factors. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. rainfall. . he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. especially in $inter.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. If an une"pected $ind strikes. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. b. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. sno$ conditions. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations.

<ecause of this increased dryness. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. conse#uently. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. 2ue to the cold. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. a. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. d. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. the thinner. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. +ome mountains. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. b. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. such as those found in desert regions. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. At higher altitudes. (eather Characteristics .c. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. he barometer usually drops 0.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. . /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. In tropical regions.

land masses. and if it is being lifted or not. the better the $eather $ill be. ho$ it is being moved. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. on the other .he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. the lo$er the pressure. %. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. he higher in altitude. humidity %moisture content*. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. a. oceans. Bo$ pressure. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps..::: feet. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. Associated $ith clear skies.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. Associated $ith bad $eather. b.* -igh 9ressure. and the earth3s rotation. he higher the pressure.1 millibars %mb*. !ith lo$er air pressure. !eather is a result of an atmosphere.:. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. air pressure %barometric pressure*. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . In order to understand this. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. %0* 8o+ 9ressure.

his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more.hand. . air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. dense clouds fill the air.6 (in& In high mountains. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. 2uring the $inter season. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. c. and sinks to the earth3s surface. or at high altitudes. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. Dn a $eather map. a. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. =ormally. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. <ecause of these funneling effects. c. b. !ith increasing $ind strength. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. Above hot surfaces. >sually. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface.

$o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. e.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. . has settled to the surface. there are three prevailing $inds: %. dry air mass. f. due to the earth3s rotation. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. dry air mass. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. In the =orthern /emisphere. Caritime -olar — cold. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. $et air mass. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds.d. Caritime ropical — $arm. but do not necessarily affect the $eather.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. $et air mass. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. Continental ropical — $arm. g. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions.

If the air contains a great deal of $ater. and thermometer.%. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit.0 degrees &ahrenheit per .7 degrees &ahrenheit per . +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0.:: percent relative humidity*. and so on*. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. de$. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. the more moisture it can hold. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. a. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. the $armer the air. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point... sno$.:: percent relative humidity. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. fog. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. . %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. b. rain. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. $ind meter.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. clouds are formed.

Clouds can be described in many $ays.(0*. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the .a. 6rographic 8i#ting. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass.7:: feet. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). Cyc!onic 8i#ting. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. !hen temperatures are cold enough.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. it has no$here to go but up. and . hey can be classified by height or appearance.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. +ince air masses $ill not mi". d. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. Fronta! 8i#ting. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. c. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. a. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. . mid(.(. b. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point.

3im ostratus C!ou&s.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . Stratus C!ou&s. Cumu!us C!ou&s..(1 and . Figure )-1. .Figure )-). %.('*. Figure )-.

<ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. especially if the cloud is more than 1. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation.::: feet . altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist.Figure )-4. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation.

Figure )-5. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures .* b. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ).7:: to 0:. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. 7!tostratus. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms.(7 and .()*. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. .::: feet thick. though usually hours a$ay. Figure )-6.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto.thick. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. Cold clouds. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. 7!tocumu!us. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. especially if they are rising over time.

%. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. c. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. .(5*. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . humidity rises.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds.(4 and &igure . becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. in a blue sky. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. Cirrus. As the storm approaches. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. Figure )-7. produces a ring of light around the moon. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. and $inds become southerly or south easterly.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. at night. !ith altostratus. emperatures are $arm. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or.

ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. shaped like a comma.Figure )-". the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible.::: feet.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. releasing incredible amounts of energy.::: feet. %. %. . Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. As a result. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. Cirrostratus. ?no$n for their flat bases and . cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. hey can be nearly straight. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. d. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. or seemingly all tangled together.

$ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line.distinct outlines. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud.::: feet or higher. ice crystals dominate the composition. >nder favorable conditions. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. 9iven suitable conditions. As the air rises. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. . . Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$.(8*. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . large hail. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. damaging $inds. an artifact of erosion. ho$ever. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. and tornadoes. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.

it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. and cools. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. lenticulars. similar to a 6flying saucer. !ith continued descent. If they gro$ and descend. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. Initially. stable air encounters a mountain.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. $arming as it descends. Cumu!onim us. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. is lifted up$ard.:*. Dnce the air returns to its original height. %.Figure )-'. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. 6ther C!ou& Types. bad $eather can be e"pected. /o$ever. .(. e. hey are orographic clouds. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. and contrails. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. >pon reaching the mountain top. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure .

*.. especially if the sky is . Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. C!ou& =nterpretation. 8inticu!ar. Contrai!s.(. Figure )-)). f. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate.Figure )-)*. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location.

cirrostratus. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. and fog. cirrostratus. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. 6cc!u&e& Front. <ecause $arm air is less dense. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. cumulus. $ill force the $arm air up. he four types of fronts are $arm. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. a. Co!& Front.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. and nimbostratus. c. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. to the local sky. d. and stationary. being more dense than $arm air. it is a $arm occlusion. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. it becomes a stationary front. altostratus. nimbostratus %producing rain*. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. b. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. occluded. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. cold. Cold air. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. Stationary Front. . there . !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. Dccasionally.covered $ith cumulus clouds. (arm Front.

::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. clear. At high altitudes. b. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects.::: feet of elevation gain. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. a. Conse#uently. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. the temperature of the air drops 1. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. subarctic. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. sno$. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every .. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. his cooler. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. calm mornings.::: feet of elevation gain. fog. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. the temperature of the air drops 7. <esides permitting rapid heating..7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . and heat loss through thermal radiation. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. Temperature =ormally. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness.. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. and mid(latitudes. . Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. and precipitation*. due to convection currents. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds.

a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. a. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. herefore.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . including >+A&. o be effective. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. . $ind meter. b. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. temperature. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases.* 9ersistence :etho&.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. the amount of data available.. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. >+=. are also helpful.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. thermometer. but more slo$ly %1.c. if today $as hot and dry. or the =ational !eather <ureau. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. .

his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. %'* 7na!og :etho&. c. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. Assess $ind speed in knots. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. /o$ever. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. tents. (in& Spee&. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. . under changing conditions. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. and clouds and precipitation. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. %0* If no anemometer is available. a. Ideally.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. such as trees. estimate the speed in knots. b. bushes. &or e"ample. high( and lo$(pressure centers.%0* Tren&s :etho&. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. assess speed to the nearest knot. %. and so forth. are blo$ing. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. (in& Direction. . Aisi i!ity in :eters. this may not al$ays be the case.* If an anemometer is available. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing.

d. $Bamp!e4 '. &og.. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*.. hail. %. . 7 degrees C " . 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. heavy do$npours. Count the sections $ith cloud cover.5 J 10 P '. degrees &. . o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. Temperature. %&or e"ample. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. e. If clouds are not touching terrain. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. g. Assess total cloud cover in eighths. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. degrees & Q 10 " .77 P 7 degrees C.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain.* f.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. colder temperatures. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.* !ith a thermometer. Cei!ing -eight. . !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots.5 times C plus 10. then estimate to the best of your ability. total cloud cover is 'K5.77. 9resent (eather. =ote if bases are above all terrain.

=ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. Carked increase in humidity. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Changes in obstructions to visibility. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. %.%0* !ithout a thermometer. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. he closer the isometric lines are. h. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. Increase in precipitation. . as $ell as an estimated temperature. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. Carked cooler temperature changes. Increasing cloud coverage. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. i. Carked $ind speed increases. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. !ith a barometer or altimeter. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. 9ressure Tren&. %.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. assess the pressure trend. 6 ser2e& (eather.

<ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. dehydration. overestimating ability. Increasing barometric pressure. heavy e#uipment. e#uipment misuse*. such as lack of preparation. age. companions. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. carelessness. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . and flooding %especially in gullies*. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. $quipment. If the possibility of falling e"ists. .opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. overe"ertion. and poor judgment. Fa!!ing. or e"cessive use. rope in. man(made %caused by an individual. or other reasons. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. c. a hold breaking a$ay. a. over(fatigue. climbing above one3s ability. %i2ouac Site. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. &alling can be caused by carelessness. /umidity decreases. j. choice of route. Ep&ate. lightning. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. avalanche run(out Aones. bad $eather. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. or as a combination %human trigger*. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. tour. b. $ind. improper diet. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*.

72a!anches. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. If you must cross these danger areas. stay hydrated. rockfalls. If you must move under these conditions. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. If ice is in the gully. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. acclimatiAe slo$ly.::: pounds*. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. endurance and concentration is reduced. darkness. sno$. 7!titu&e. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample.efer to paragraph . g. hanging glaciers and seracs. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. it is best to rope up. e. .* f.ock. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. d. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous.: kilograms %about 0. +leep $ell. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. if at all possible. lightning.7:: feet*. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. storms. <u!!ies. a. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. and so on. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. Avoid. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. . rain. >se a route sketch and march table. &og. b. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. Cre2asses. icefalls. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. At high altitudes %especially over ). and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. Aisi i!ity. As this slope increases .ock#a!!. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. c. %.

+eek shelter around dry. . clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. isolated trees.* Avoid peaks."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. . !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. but dehydration is of greater concern. herefore.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. rock $alls. Bike$ise. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. . cracks filled $ith earth. Above appro"imately 5. and a bluish light %+t. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . a. cracks that guide $ater. humming of metal objects. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. A clear. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. hair standing on end. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. b. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. shallo$ overhangs. d. c. the force #uadruples. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. and rock needles. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. %.: kilometers apart. caves*. haAardous icefalls can be formed. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. as a glacier makes a bend. crackling. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. ridges.from 07 to 1: degrees. violent.::: feet. fi"ed $ire installations. Bightning is fre#uent. shallo$ depressions. e.

If it is sno$ing."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. . secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope.0 to . and sno$. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects.::(meter rise in altitude. g. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. i. and debris being blo$n about. 2rink plenty of fluids.5 inches@ ho$ever. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. $hich may bury the trail. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. $indburn. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . % able . 2uring and after rain. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. h. &or each . $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. even if overcast. If already rappelling. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. the sno$ #uickly melts. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. rain. j.* . If half $ay up the rock face. f.

+lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. +lopes as gentle as . %. S!ope Sta i!ity. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter.Ta !e )-. but may occur on concave slopes. a. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . %1* S!ope 7spect.* S!ope 7ng!e.7 degrees have avalanched. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e.. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees.

and earth tremors have triggered avalanches.sunny.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. $arm days. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. heavy e#uipment. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. especially if temperatures rise #uickly.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. %Dn at least one occasion.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. Triggers. Various factors trigger avalanches. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. Sno+ 9its. %.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. c. %0* 9recipitation. %7* Ai ration. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. %'* <roun& Co2er. %1* (in&. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. %'* (eight. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. +ustained $inds of . 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . At temperatures above freeAing.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. the potential for avalanche is high. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. . b.* Temperature. %. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. e"plosions. Dn grassy slopes or scree. . -assing helicopters. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important.

%0* Conduct a shovel shear test. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. If the block is still holding up. o isolate the rear of the column. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel.utschblock test. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. %1* Conduct a . ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. place the other foot on the block. s#uat once. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. o conduct the test.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. then t$ice. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. Dnce the pit is complete.pit across the fall line. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. smooth the face $ith a shovel. =e"t. %. and so on. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . Dnce above. d. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. to the ground. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. through all the sno$.

during the $inter sno$ season. %b* As slabs become harder. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. &or normal density. . they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. settled sno$. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. a drop in temperature of . he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. d. 9rotecti2e :easures. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. Dther measures include: . %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing.: degrees Celsius %. +lab release is rapid. Although any avalanche can kill you. Barge avalanches of this type. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches.

Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. as $ell as protect your spine.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. . pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. -repare to discard e#uipment. climb to the side of the avalanche path. $hich is al$ays the best choice. far from the bottom of slopes. -ut your hood on. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. . +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley.%. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. %0* <roup Sa#ety. . Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. f. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. ridges. avoid moving during these periods. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. %. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer.oute Se!ection. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. %1* ake advantage of dense timber.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. 2eploy avalanche cord. and not directly up the center. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. %. e. If you must traverse. >se them for lunch and rest stops.

#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. %1* If your head goes under the sno$.* :ountain 8i2ing . shut your mouth. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. BI&. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. g. hold your breath. no one can hear you scream. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. and the body temperature is lo$ered. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche.%0* Fracture 8ines. do not fight it. %)* ry to rela". ID>. %1* Soun&s. &I9/ &D. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. . !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. If you feel your feet touch the ground. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. their pulse rate declines. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. If you feel yourself about to pass out..* 2iscard e#uipment. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. Sur2i2a!. %. they $ould avoid the avalanche. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface.

fire building. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. Dne #uart of $ater. a. /yperventilation and the cool. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. &luids lost through respiration. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. locating $ater. raining should include: psychological preparation. shelter considerations. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0.(4)*. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. #ormal activities $navigation. communications. health haAards. perspiration. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. or the . preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence.

hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. -urification must be accomplished.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. springs. e. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. +no$. ho$ever. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. . should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. rain. juices. c. b. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. and a loss of . d. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. If the $ater supply is insufficient. thirst should be satisfied in increments. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. &ruits.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution.e#uivalent. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for .0 #uarts %. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. severe cramping may result. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. mountain streams. Conserve $ater for drinking.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. physical activity must be reduced. . If he is hot and the $ater is cold. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears.

"ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. assembly area. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. a.drinking $ater. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. !ater that is unfit to drink. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. but other$ise not dangerous.::: feet*. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. f. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . may be used for other purposes such as bathing. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. . If possible. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. !ater is scarce above the timberline.'. a $atering party should be employed. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. high mountain areas freeAe. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. precautions must be taken. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. defense*. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body.(4)*. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . After sundo$n. b. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation.

of cold rations. Dther foods such as cereals. resulting from digestion of protein. Df the total daily caloric intake. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy.* 9rotein. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. and loss of appetite. butter. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. poultry. milk. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. he amino acids. cheese. and carbohydrates. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. fats. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. nuts. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. vitamins. is 5 ounces for a . &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. or milk proteins. fish. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. . eggs. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. eggs. %0* Fats. and meats. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. c. and cheese. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. %. energy. vegetables. milk.7'(pound man. amino acids. metabolic changes. Cain sources of fats are meats. and minerals. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. fiber. and legumes also provide amino acids. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. hese food components provide energy. regardless of physical activity.

vegetables. %'* Aitamins. a balanced diet is a necessity. and fruit. and ?. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest.%1* Car ohy&rates. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. and meats. $hich are found in cereals. . and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. vegetables. fruits*. =utritionally. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins.: days.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. . %7* Cinerals. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment..e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. In the form of glucose. and Ainc. %. fruits. depending on the soldier. phosphorous. . iron. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. vitamin supplements should be considered. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . vegetables. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. especially if this period is to e"ceed . d. 2.

%'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. fruits.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. shortness of breath. marked. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. tea.::(pound man*. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. cereal bars. %About '.. . %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. juices. fires. /ot beverages of soup. juices.7:: calories for garrison activity. and be eaten hot or cold. >se stoves and heat . the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. Commanders may consider supplementing C.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. and cider should also be considered. !hen cooking.s $ith breakfast bars. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. +ince coffee. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. thus releasing heat. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. herefore. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind.$orks. At higher elevations. and chocolate. and illness. Carbohydrates. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. the cooking time may be doubled. o conserve fuel. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. are important in maintaining energy levels."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. po$dered milk. candies. and hot chocolate are diuretics. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. %1* . Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. cramps. the metabolism may not provide enough heat."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. . stoves. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a .. metal containers.

and as reinforcement to discipline and morale.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. %7* Certain drugs. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. medications. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. his is especially important in the high mountains. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. perspiration. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. and eyelids. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. and burial sites. garbage should be burned or deep buried. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. hydration. If possible. no trace of a unit should be detected. In freeAing $eather. ahkios. a. mainly during periods of cold $eather. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. and judgment of soldiers. As all missions are tactical. %. herefore. !hen operating in areas . alcohol. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. nose. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. 9ersona! -ygiene. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks.

it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. If laundering of clothing is difficult. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. dried. Sanitation. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. b. digging latrines is usually difficult.6 +ince $aste freeAes. it can . do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. and discoloration. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. In rocky or froAen ground. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. the soldier in a designated. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. !henever changing socks. and kept as dry and clean as possible. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. cracks. blisters. In tactical situations. but must be #uickly dried.$here resupply is not possible. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. If latrines are constructed. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. &eet should be $ashed daily. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. $hich may cause blisters.

*. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. .ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations.::: feet and ending at . conditioning. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC.::: to 5. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic.4. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures.::: feet. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes.::: feet. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed.::: feet %high elevation*. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.::: feet. At these altitudes. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. Altitude illness is common here.*.::: feet. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . In rocky areas above the timberline. $aste may be covered $ith stones. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. Above 5. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. starting at about 5. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary.'.'. employment of the local population may be advantageous.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained.::: to 5. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes.be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. Areas above . Very high altitude is the region from .::: to .5.'.::: to . and training of soldiers.5. Coderate altitude is from 7.::: feet. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. /o$ever.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . $here altitude illness is the rule. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. /ere.

. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.5 percent may have severe symptoms.apid ascent to .4. .::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms.::: feet*. nutrition and physical activity it is about .:. a. +leep disturbances.::: feet.apid ascent to . 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).::: to . b.7:: feet causes severe. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. operational unit. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . the rate of ascent. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel.0 to . Increased irritability in some individuals. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations.0. 2eterioration of memory.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . /eadache.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). . only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. Boss of appetite. Irregular breathing. +lurred speech.'.'.apid ascent to elevations of . 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration.

or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations.+.::: feet for at least 0' hours*.+. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. As $ith all military operations. -riorities of training must be established. environment. >. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations.. herefore.+. a. and enemy situation. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment.unacclimatiAed personnel. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • .

he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. !ater. $ith the unit. >nits can leapfrog. time to ac#uire $ater. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater.::: feet per day. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*.::: feet. taking an e"tended rest period.::: to 0.* Above 5. and. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. c. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. Additionally. $ater purification supplies.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations.. these drugs are diuretics. food. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. if in a $inter environment. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. . and rest must be considered as priorities. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. a unit should ascend at a rate of . mission. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+.

-roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. climbing. d. he better the physical condition of the soldier. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. the metabolism becomes more efficient. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. $hile carrying D. . the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. and calisthenics. A different group of muscles are used. his increases the soldier3s endurance. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. At the same time.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. f. the soldier3s . raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. his conditions the back and legs. and special e#uipment loads. . and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. $hich must be developed and hardened. e. developing a sense of insecurity and fear.

conditioning. frostbite.capacity for e"ertion is increased. >pon deploying to high elevations. . to the point of instinctive reaction. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation.epetitive practice. and circulatory support. breathing management. fractures. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. personnel can still become injured %sprains. hese include sprains. .vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. After acclimatiAation. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. and trench foot*. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. strains. contusions and fractures. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. abdomen. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. hypothermia. abrasions. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. strains. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. metabolism. As $ith any other injuries. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. . Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. legs. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. he heart rate. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. arms. g. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. back. lungs.

Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. and headaches may occur. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. %1* o treat sunburn. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. burning. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation..:: and . Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. a. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light.* Contributing factors include fair skin. Sun urn.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. %. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. 2ue to rough terrain. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. fever. he skin may be $arm to the touch. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling.7::. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. bandage. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. he . . and seek medical attention. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. 2o not pop blisters. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. If blisters do break. Immediate first aid is given on site. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . $ash thoroughly. In severe cases chills.

and $ater. -roper sunglasses should provide .* In an emergency. red.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$.* 2uring sustained activity.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. %1* o treat sno$blindness. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. Sno+ !in&ness.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. the >. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. %Currently. ice. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. %. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. b. %'* o prevent sunburn. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. . Avoid rubbing the eyes. Administer pain medication if needed. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation.+. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . %&or e"ample. If still painful. an +-& of .

Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur.0.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. dissemination. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . +oldiers must be prepared to survive. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. b. . rest. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. and immersion foot. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. dehydration. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. but freeAing temperatures are not. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate.*. a. and nutrition. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. and fight in $inter conditions. personnel. move. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. +imple tasks take longer to perform. /o$ever.

&or e"ample. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. c. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. %0* .-).ace. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. %1* <eographic 6rigin. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries.Figure . (in& chi!! chart. %. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. %'* 7m ient Temperature. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased .

8.6. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. • • • . Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. %5* C!othing. %4* Terrain. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. !et clothing loses insulation value.D. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. therefore. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. ?eep dry. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. in mind. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. 6—Dverheating. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. Avoid overheating. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. %)* Type o# :ission.danger Aone or beyond. D—2ry. he lo$er the $ind chill. accumulation of perspiration.

a&ica! Changes in the (eather. . %. %. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. especially in higher elevations.0* Fatigue. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. Individuals must retain their body fluids. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. . In cold $eather the human body needs special care. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival.:* Dehy&ration.%8* :oisture. %. %. d.1* Concomitant =n>ury.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity..'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience.4* . $hich in turn can accelerate shock. %. %."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. %. %. age is not a significant factor.* 7ge.7* 3utrition.

<ody heat may be lost through radiation.* . %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. %0* Con&uction. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. deliberate."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. .a&iation. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. %. -erform emergency first aid. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. and careful. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. Dn cold days. conduction. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. e. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. f. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$.%. . Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. convection.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. or evaporation. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur.

cold skin. . pain. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. !ind chill is convection cooling. rapid and faint pulse. Any illness or injury can produce shock. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. his is usually caused by . ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. %0* Dehy&ration. his condition may digress into incoherence. administer $ater. shortness of breath. %a* Symptoms.levate the back and head. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation.%1* Con2ection. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. %.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. unconsciousness. and loss of blood. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. Clothing that ventilates. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. insulates. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. %'* $2aporation. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss.* Shock. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. . or feet. g. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. s$eating. %b* 'reatment. slo$er heart beat. fear. o treat shock. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. and e"cessive thirst. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. and possibly death.

this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . rapid heartbeat. o distinguish bet$een them. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. lack of appetite. upset stomach. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. and unconsciousness. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. Cold causes fre#uent urination. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. diAAiness. mental sluggishness. dry mouth. he is probably dehydrated. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. /o$ever. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. If the stomach is cold. in fact. %a* Contributing +actors. headache. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. higher temperature. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. hey may. the air is dry. fainting. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. At high altitudes. %b* Symptoms. tiredness. decreased amounts of urine being produced. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food.

/ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. %a* Contributing +actors. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. -oor nutrition. Allo$ the victim to rest. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. Change in $eather. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. /igh $inds. . ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. Accidental immersion in $ater.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. %c* 'reatment. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. In advanced cases. 2iarrhea. %1* -ypothermia. 2ecreased physical activity.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

is prevented by good nutrition. rapid heartbeat %pulse . Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. e. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-.::: feet of altitude gained. /A-.• -rogressive shortness of breath.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. Crackling. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. given orally can also be effective. and o"ygen..::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. are prone to second attacks. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. • • • . If untreated. using mannitol could be fatal. $hich is a diuretic. A rest day. /A-. is planned for every 1. &urosemide %Basi"*. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. reatment of /A-.::: to 1.::: to 0.0: to . may become irreversible and cause death. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. hydration. $armth. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. >nconsciousness.):*. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. if left untreated. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. and death results. • • d. rest. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. .

he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. confusion. convulsions. coma. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. and using a gradual ascent to altitude.. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. inability to concentrate. is a severe headache.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death.apid descent and medical attention. paralysis. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. . . reatment for /AC. maintaining hydration. /AC. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. he main symptom of /AC. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. b. immediate descent is mandatory. Beft untreated. hallucinations. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. decrease in urination. include mild personality changes. /A-.est. and /AC. c.. vomiting. -reventive measures include good eating habits. .. a. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. may occur in e"perienced. and lack of coordination. -revention of /AC. +ymptoms of /AC. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. headaches.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. and unconsciousness. +upplemental o"ygen. stupor. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. d. is the same as for /A-. $armth. can cause death.

he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. and /AC. .eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. cause increased proteins in the plasma. . cools down and heats up differently. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. . and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. therefore. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. edema. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. &rom this. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. both cerebral and pulmonary.rovided all tactical concerns are met. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. move faster. or the fluid portion of the blood. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. occurs. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient.

he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. c. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. a lace( up configuration. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. b.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. a. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. /o$ever. he inner boot provides support. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. as $ell as insulation against the cold. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain.*. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. Foot+ear Currently.*. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. %. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. he outer .

at best. and the outer most garments. develops hypothermia or frostbite. %. the insulation layers. he is. Socks. As a system. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. . . uncomfortable and. !hen clothing is $orn properly. if $orn correctly. Figure 1-). C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. !hen $orn improperly. socks provide cushioning for the foot. remove e"cess moisture. at $orst. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. a. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects.egardless of climatic conditions. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. ski bindings.

the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. =nsu!ating 8ayers. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. En&er+ear. If the user is $earing V< boots. /o$ever. . c. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. he . b. In colder environments. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. he primary material in this product is polyester. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. %a* In severe $et conditions. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. &or the most part.

he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached.. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. 6uter 8ayers. and stones. t$igs. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. <aiters. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice.Figure 1-. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . d. as $ell as mud. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . he . e.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system.C!C+ correctly.

.C!C+ and. %. hook(pile tape. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. f. Three types o# gaiters. in most cases. $ill need to be locally purchased.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety.ven during the best climatic conditions.. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. Figure 1-1. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. -an& (ear. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. and snaps. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. .

%0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. as $ell as replacement liners for both. %. predominately $ool.Figure 1-4. . g. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. =atural fibers. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . man( made fibers are preferred. -an& +ear. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. -ea&+ear. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet.

$ye+ear. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. !hichever helmet is selected. -e!mets. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. his covers the head. a balaclava can be added. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. neck. Figure 1-5. -e!mets. Figure 1-6. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the .ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. h. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. . i. &or e"treme cold.

=*. $ebbing.uropean norm %. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .uropean economy. cord. :aintenance o# C!othing.urope.uropean norm %C. heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use.urope %C. &rance. and harnesses. j. Figure 1-7. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. have been combined to make combined . . C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. and comprises several commissions. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. It is based in -aris.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. . Community . as the broader(based testing facility for the combined .=* and C.

. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . %.. Kernmant!e construction. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. (e ing an& S!ings. A static rope has very little stretch.:. he . he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. Figure 1-".(mm rope. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. a standard .opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths.. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. and elongation. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. it should be >IAA certified. .opes an& Cor&.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. and is best used in rope installations. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. Its ability to stretch up to . A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. essentially. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. called slings or runners. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. $hich is. .egardless of the rope chosen. . Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. impact force.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance.a. &or most military applications. b. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. If used for -rusik knots.7( or .(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. abrasion resistance.* .

inch. Tie& or se+n runners. &or most military applications.. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K.unners are predominately made from either 8K.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. . hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope.0 inches. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. .) inch. $hich is stronger. and anchors. %.) inch.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. .)(inch or .* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. . and 0' inches. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. more durable. the rope. c. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. and . +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. carabiners. and have less bulk than the tied version.uses for these simple pieces are endless. -arnesses. are usually lighter. ' inches. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . Figure 1-'.K.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. .

%0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.:*. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. . they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(.is unavailable. %1* . his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. !hile these harnesses are safer. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. are more restrictive.:*. %. referred to as a seat harness. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.:*.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. &itted properly. his type of harness. !ith the remaining $ebbing.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to .#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis.

*. his rope. . his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. !hen using a carabiner. Figure 1-)*. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. given other options. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. Cara iners. the 2(shaped. +teel is still $idely used. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. a. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls.. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. great care should be . he oval. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. but is not preferred for general mountaineering.

the load is .* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. Figure 1-)).. Figure 1-). 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.0*. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. %. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(.

%0* he pear(shaped carabiner. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. hey are made of malleable steel. the blade and eye are aligned.* 1ertical . %1* . specifically the locking version. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. b. 9itons.itons.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. . Figure 1-)1. hey are described by their thickness. along its minor a"is. vertical cracks. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. %. design. and length %&igure 1(. $afer. and $ith the gate open. hardened steel. or other alloys. and angle. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. Aarious pitons.egardless of the type chosen. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical.1*. hese pitons are used in flush. Dn vertical pitons. and angles. horiAontal. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot.

hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. %'* 2nife 3lade . +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. hese pitons are used in shallo$. metal. %4* 3ong . A safety lanyard of nylon cord. or flakes. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. %)* Angle .ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %.(inch s#uare.%0* Horizontal .itons. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. 9iton -ammers. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality .itons. or leather is used to .'*. $ebbing. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. ledges.itons. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. %1* Wafer . his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. Dn horiAontal pitons. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood.>.itons. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. shallo$ cracks. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks.itons.itons. . or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. flush cracks. c. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. hey are small and fit into thin.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. shallo$ cracks.5 centimeters $ide. hey are designed to bite into thin. hese pitons are used in flush.

A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. d. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. .7 centimeters long and $eigh . +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. to be used as anchors. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. into the rock. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams.0 to 07 ounces. Figure 1-)4. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. 9iton hammer. Chocks.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use.7*. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord.

Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. Figure 1-)6.4* provide convenient. e. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. $hen used in the camming mode. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. Three-point camming &e2ice. Chocks.)*. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.Figure 1-)5. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. f. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or .

Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. saving time and effort. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s.semi(rigid point of attachment. . he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. Figure 1-)7. .5*.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. g. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. Cade from thin metal. Chock 9icks. hese are placed #uickly and easily. they can be purchased or homemade.

%o!ts. %. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. Chock picks. <ecause of this re#uirement. . $hich is driven into the rock. e"hausting. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. $hich is time(consuming. chips. hese re#uire a hammer. Dnce emplaced. bolt driver.Figure 1-)".8*. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. h. brands. and e"tremely noisy."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. corrosion. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. and moisture. dirt. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. and drilling anchor. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. . <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. <urrs. and $eights. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock.

egardless of the belay device choosen. %o!ts an& hangers. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. %.Figure 1-)'. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. i. . <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. the tuber. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. .* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. %e!ay De2ices. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment.

S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice.*.*. 7scen&ers. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. . j.). Figure 1-. t$o ascenders $ork best. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0.Figure 1-. Descen&ers. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. Figure-eights. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. one ascender is sufficient. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. &or lo$er angle movement. &or difficult vertical terrain. k.

9u!!eys. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*.Figure 1-. glaciers. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. light$eight. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. l. froAen $aterfalls(can . 9u!!ey.. &or best results.. 7scen&ers. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. A pulley should be small. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used.1. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. and strong. Figure 1-.

* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. belays. anchors. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. direct(aid climbing. head %pick and adAe*. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. hollo$ aluminum. can have different configurations. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. used for chopping. is perpendicular to the shaft. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. self(arrest. It can be made of fiberglass. =ce 7B. therefore safer for mountaineering. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. a. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. %b* he head of the a". he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. %. step cutting. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. he adAe. probing. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. . he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length.

4. . It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. inch of front point protruding. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. loose ends should be trimmed. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . c. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid.b. Crampons. . =ce -ammer. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. =ce aB an& ice hammers. Figure 1-. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*.

he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. %0* he rigid crampon. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. Crampons. but can be used on less vertical terrain. as its name implies. It is designed to be used $ith soft. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system.Figure 1-. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . is rigid and does not fle".5. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. %. fle"ible boots.

he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. • • • ype I is .. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from .mountaineering boots. Figure 1-. =ce scre+s. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening.6. . $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. %. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. =ce Scre+s. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. . d. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth.

Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. hey are available $ith bent faces. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. e. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. ho$ever. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. hey can. =ce piton. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. =ce 9itons. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures.' centimeters. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. If any cracks or bends are noticed. and fi"ed cables.7. . the scre$ should be turned in. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. f. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. bends. Figure 1-. flanged sides.

• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters.". If bent or cracked. $ands*. or slippage is noticed. g. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. and for cutting . chips. he ends should be filed smooth. and other deformities. mushrooming ends. he picket should be inspected for bends. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. in shelter construction. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. movement. If any cracks. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. Figure 1-. cracks. Sno+ Sa+. a. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . the sno$ anchor should be turned in. the picket should be turned in for replacement. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. for removing froAen obstacles. broken $ire strands. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. Sno+ 9icket. and carrying gear. broken $ire strands. hey can be angled or (section stakes. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. It can be used in step cutting.::: kilograms. bivouacs..

fading. and removing obstacles. Dn folding models. he blade should be inspected for rust. number of haAards identified. and deformities. If the shovel is beyond repair. bends. frays. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. shelter construction.. it should be turned in. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. light$eight aluminum alloy. he handle should be inspected for cracks. A file can repair most defects. burrs. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. he flag should be inspected for tears. caches. (an&s. folding. It can be used for avalanche rescue. c. b. bends. rust. it should not be used. !ands are used to identify routes. $arping. bends. the hinge and nuts should be secure. 72a!anche rescue equipment. he handle should be inspected for cracks. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. cracks. $eather conditions %and visibility*. !ands are . If any defects are discovered. the $ands should be replaced.sno$ stability test pits. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. security to the shaft. If the sa$ is beyond repair. and stability. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. sno$(bridges. and number of teams in the climbing party. d.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. and burrs. Sno+ Sho2e!. and stability. bends. and missing or dull teeth. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. he handle should be telescopic. and discoloration. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. crevasses. step cutting. to . Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. or removable to be compact $hen not in use.

* Avalanche . he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. . %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers.Figure 1-.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy.robe. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. 72a!anche rescue equipment."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. %. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. e. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. 9acks. hese are small. %. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode.'. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. %0* .

A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. !hite gas. !hen choosing a stove. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. $eights. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. %.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. !hen selecting a tent. the better it $ill be. fuel availability. g. and butane are the common fuels used. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. he fly protects against . %. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. factors that should be considered are $eight. and its reliability. f. kerosene. Sto2es. and materials. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. Tents. and are simple and light$eight. more harsh environment. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome.

and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. and become long and rigid. +ome ski poles are . but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. sno$shoeing. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. and carrying heavy packs. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. <efore using a ne$ tent. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. connect. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. h. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. Ski po!es. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. Skis. Sno+shoes. j. they create the shape of the tent. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. i. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. !hen carrying heavy packs. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard.

he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . l. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. . !hichever sled is chosen. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. especially $hen hauling fuel. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. to the one(person sko$. +leds vary greatly in siAe. A flashlight can provide light. -ea&!amps.* !hen choosing a headlamp. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. . it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it.egardless of the siAe. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. Figure 1-1*. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. a component of the . /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. S!e&s. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. k.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. on some models. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. %.:(man arctic tent system. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$.

and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. food procurement material. sunblock and lip protection. !hen the light is being packed. desert. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. $histle. pressure bandage. climbing e#uipment. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. or jungle mountain environments. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. or lithium batteries. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. Caution4 Cotton clothing. foul $eather shells. food. . polypropylene top. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. a. magaAine pouches. s$eater. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. -ocket items should include a knife. nickel(cadmium. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. stoves. Stan&ar& <ear. b. notebook $ith pen or pencil. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. if needed. map. and $ater procurement material. fuel. sunglasses. ropes. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. compass and or altimeter. first aid kits. Dbviously. $ith canteens. $ater.conditions. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. $orn on the body. $quipment 9acking .#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. fire starting material. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. the e"ception being hot. 9ersona! <ear.

these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. +urvival kit. Cold $eather hat or scarf. he carries a light day pack. Bocking carabiner%s*. one per climbing team. In the event of an injury. d. Crampons. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. +ling rope or climbing harness.appelling gloves. e. =onlocking carabiners. Climbing rope. . &irst aid kit. Canteen. Ice a". one per climbing team. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. casualty evacuation. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . or unplanned bivouac.c. &lashlight or headlamp. >tility cord%s*. or poncho. Climbing rope. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. 9loves. Carabiners. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. .appelKbelay device. Day 9ack. . Climbing rack. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. pile top. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. Climbing rack. one per climbing team. rain suit. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. one per climbing team.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. . or s$eater."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear.

includes socks. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . or navigational error. gloves or mittens. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. f. s$eater or fleece jacket. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. under$ear.S. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. hey should filter 87 to .* 5ap.• • • • +leeping bag. +#uad stove. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains.:: percent of ultraviolet light. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. . %7* ()tra Clothing. hat. &uel bottle. and or 6. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit.7 or higher. $ashing.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. blouse. %'* ()tra +ood. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. injury. &or lip protection. Altimeter. %. The Ten $ssentia!s. +ide shields. +leeping mat. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. and licking is best. %0* Compass. . boots. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. pants.

a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. . A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. gauAe pads. serious sprain. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. • • • • • . ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. but commercially available headlamps are best. %4* +irst aid 2it."tra hats or balaclavas. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. $orking around the camp. adhesive tape. butterfly bandages. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. moleskin.%a* . Ciniature flashlights can be used. small adhesive bandages. sharp tools. -ressure dressings. a broken bone. . %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. . . and employing $eapons systems. cleanser."tra pair of heavy socks. the mountain environment— steep. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. 2ecentraliAed operations. %b* o back up foul $eather gear."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. scissors."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. elastic compression $rap. herefore. cutting the $ind. and blisters. . /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. $hich is important $hile climbing. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. &inally.

heat tabs. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations.%5* +ire Starter. Candles. as $ell as for stream crossings. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. %. -atches. 2uct tape. +afety pins. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. %. Bighters are handy for starting fires. %0* 7ce A). he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. . A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. Dther repair items as needed.:* 2nife. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. g.* Water and Water Containers. %8* 5atches and . /eavy(duty thread. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. Cord and or $ire. or pack. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. %1* 4epair 2it.ighter. harness. A$l and or needles. and canned heat all $ork. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup.

nearer the shoulder blades. the load is held high and close to the back. more compressible items %sleeping bag. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. among others. rope. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. c. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. <y packing the lighter. $ater. emergency bivouac shelter. e. . thus placing the most $eight on the hips.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack.epe!!ent. As much as possible. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan.%'* =nsect . a. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. In most cases. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. food. e"tra ammunition* on top. he ice a". b. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. and $ater procurement. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. if not carried in hand. d. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. and be securely . climbing hard$are.

and knots later during deployment. bring the hands together forming a loop. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. meter from the end $ith one hand. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . . the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. he rope may be given a . grasp the rope appro"imately . management techni&ues. :ountain Coi!. t$ists. his is repeated. a. until the rope is completely coiled. and then tied in place. serious in!ury may occur.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. or building various installations. .un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. 9rasping the rope firmly. If not. o start a mountain coil. When climbing.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. .fastened. rappelling. . care and maintenance procedures. and 0nots. as stated above. f.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction.

. b.%. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. -ull the running end of the bight tight. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. >ncoil the last loop and. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. doubling it and placing it under the flap. :ountain coi!. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. slung across the chest. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight.* In finishing the mountain coil. securing the coil. %utter#!y Coi!. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil.* Figure 4-1. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. using this length of the rope.

grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. !ith the bight in the left hand. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. %. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. . dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. o start the double butterfly. %utter#!y coi!. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself.Figure 4-4. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. and hold the center in one hand. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. . &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist.* Coiling. .nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. -lace the doubled rope over the head. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. In this configuration .

. .0(inch bight is left.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter .opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. !rap that bight around the coil. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. 2ress it do$n tightly.* Figure 4-5. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . c. sling rope. Cake three or more $raps. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. or for storage. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness.ope. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.

=e"t. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. . allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. %. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. Dnce stacked. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. feeding it to a lead climber. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. a. !ith the left hand. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. A slight t$ist of the $rist. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. A smooth follo$ through is essential.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched.e. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. Thro+ing the . !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. and so on.D-. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. !hen the rope is needed for use. hro$ up and out.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site.

ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. !ith e"perience and practice. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. and hitches is almost endless. Class III—middle rope knots. and Class IV—special knots... In a strong cross $ind. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. . Class II—anchor knots. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. It is a joining knot. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. Tying the Knot. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. a. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. + . + . Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. Aiming just above the horiAon. Anchor. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. back feed. c.. /olding one $orking end in each hand. he stronger the $ind.b.. bights. up and out to$ard the horiAon. he variety of knots. and stack the rope properly as described above. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + .1.0.0.. + .. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. bends. adjustments must be made.

* here are t$o interlocking bights. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Figure 4-6. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. It is a joining knot. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.. a. b.. . Checkpoints... Tying the Knot.'. %. + .+ . Square knot.

Figure 4-7. . ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope..* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. Checkpoints. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . It is a joining knot. Fisherman’s knot.+ . ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. Tying the Knot. b. a..1. + . %1* .0. standing part of the opposing rope.

.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart.+ .. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. + .. + .. ..0... tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . %.1. Insert the $orking end %+ . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns.'. Checkpoints.-+ . Figure 4-". and 0*. !ith the $orking end of one rope.* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. %1* . b...nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails.*. Dou !e #isherman’s knot. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. + .. $hich contains the standing part %+ . four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.

. Figure-eight en&. . + .. Tying the Knot. + . + .'.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers.0. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. . 2ress the knot do$n.. . + .. !ith the other hand..7. Figure 4-'. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. a. + . grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end..1.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end..Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*.

+ . follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. a. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot.0.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. overhand retrace. Tying the Knot. &eed the other end back through the knot.. + . It is also called a ring bend. %.b. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. Checkpoints. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(... or tape knot. + ..:*. .1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot..

(ater knot. one retracing the other.Figure 4-)*. . It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. a. %0* here is no slack in the knot.. b. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail..* here are t$o overhand knots. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It is an anchor knot. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. Checkpoints. + ..*. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. Tying the Knot. %..

Checkpoints.'. and bring it back onto itself. Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot.. %.7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.. + .1. b. + .. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. + .each through the loop and pull up a bight.+ . -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches .0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. =o$ dress the knot do$n.. .

distributing the load over the anchor. %. Tying the Knot.. Figure 4-)... . It is an anchor knot. Figure-$ight .1.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.. . forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.. and one in the front*.0.epeat + .0*. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. + . 2ress the knot do$n. . <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.. . b.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.etrace /. a.oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor. + ..his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.eroute& Figure-$ight0 .'.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.. + . and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. + . Checkpoints.

leaving enough rope to $ork $ith... + . and route the $orking end through the loop. ake the $orking end around the anchor point.. + . >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor.0.1*.. .he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. . + ..1.'. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. Tying the Knot.).emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. he finished knot is dressed loosely.. + . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. a. /o$ever. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.7. + . by tying the knot in a retrace.. !ith the $orking end.

palms do$n $ith hands together.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. b..'*. + .Figure 4-)1. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. . It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. Checkpoints %. depending on ho$ it is tied.* Middle of the Rope. Tying the Knot. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. /old rope in both hands. a. Figure-eight retrace.. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. %.

-lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor..1.0. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.. he knot is tied. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. + .+ . !ith the right hand. reach under the horiAontal anchor.. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.'. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. /old the standing end in the left hand. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.'. + .. %0* End of the Rope. + . grasp the $orking end. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right... and bring it in$ard. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right.. /old the loop in the left hand. !ith the right hand. + .0.1. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. + .. + . 2ress do$n the knot..

%0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. + .4...1. !hen tying this knot. + .'. ake up the slack from the anchor.7*. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to.. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.. . +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.). palm. and place it over the heel $rap. C!o2e hitch. It is a middle rope knot. and fingertip. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. + .7. Tying the Knot.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar.Figure 4-)4.. Checkpoints. b. + . %.... %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. a.0. + . (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.. + . +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + .

* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. %. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. a..5.8. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. Checkpoints. b.+ . .)*. It is a middle rope knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. + . Tying the Knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.. Figure 4-)5. (ireman’s knot.

Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.+ . Figure 4-)6. + . %... + .. !ith the $rap thus formed. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. b. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. + .1.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. !hen dressing the knot do$n.. Directiona! #igure-eight. the tail and the bight must be together. . Cake one $rap around the palm... it lays in$ard.0. Checkpoints.'.

. . %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.. + . + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.). ie an overhand knot on a bight. + . + ..4. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot..1. + . forming t$o loops. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.0... + . a.%0* he tail and bight must be together..4*. It is a middle rope knot.'.. Tying the Knot.7. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. + .. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.

b..5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. a. Tying the Knot.5. ..ight. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.Figure 4-)7.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. %o+!ine-on-a. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.* It is a middle rope knot. %. >sing a doubled rope.. + . %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. form an . Checkpoints.

. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. /old the bight $ith the left hand. + . !ith the $orking end.7.. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. Tying the Knot.+ . %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.'.. b. a.0. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.. It is a middle of the rope knot. . %. + . + .8*.1.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. Figure 4-)". Checkpoints. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. 2ress the knot do$n. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.

Figure 4-)'. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. a. . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. Checkpoints. form a loop in rope %standing part*. %. It is a specialty knot.+ . + .. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. + . Tying the Knot.0.. 2ress the knot tightly. b.. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.* he loop is the desired siAe...1. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. Figure-eight !oop.

. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps... + . and place it over the long rope.1.*. . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. forming a bight.1.each do$n through the . 2ouble the short rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. $ith the $orking ends even. + ... &orm a complete round turn in the rope. Figure 4-.. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:..*: + . + . + . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.*. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .. >sing an arm3s length of rope.0(inch bight.%.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart.0.. . + ..0. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. .

Figure 4-.7. parallel.+ . %. and not t$isted.. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. It is a specialty knot. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.4.). + . . the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. Checkpoints. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. b. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension... . + . %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. + . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.nsure they are tight.. Bay the $orking end under the long rope.).'.

%0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.a. + . %.. + . + . %achman knot. Checkpoints. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. Figure 4-.0..* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.1.. b. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. Tying the Knot. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner... %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .

tie an overhand around all coils.'.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. ..1. + . !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. . hen. Tying the Knot. + . he running end is to the back of the body. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. %.. >sing the standing part. /olding the bight loosely. + . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. single coil. a. Checkpoints.. not crossed.. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. he standing portion is on the bottom. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. + ..7. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.).* A minimum of four $raps.. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. + . + . bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. b.. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.0. bring a bight up through the loop.4. + ... It is a specialty knot. !ith the running end. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself.

. It is a specialty knot. + . + . &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight..'. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts... !ith the right hand. Tying the Knot. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.1.. + .. + .1.0. Bay the loops to the right. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. . a. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself.Figure 4-. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.

Checkpoints.+ . %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.. &orm a . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. a. Figure 4-..4. + . %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. It is a specialty knot.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. .0(inch bight in the end of the rope.7... b. %. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Three-!oop o+!ine. Tying the Knot.

:u!e Knot0 . %.7.. b. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . + . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. + .. + . %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. standing end of the rope..+ . /old the center of the bight in the right hand.each through the bight and grasp the long. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. + . .0 inches up the rope. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.). -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.. Checkpoints.5.0. Figure 4-.. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. Figure-eight s!ip knot.1.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.'. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand.

* here is a single overhand slip knot. Transport knot.0.6. %1* he bight is a minimum of . b.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. It is simply an overhand slip knot.0 inches long. + . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.. Check 9oints.1. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. Figure 4-... %. Tying the Knot.. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. a.. + . + . K!eimhiest Knot . +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.

!rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. pass them through the bight %see + . a....*. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . !ith the ends offset. Tying the Knot..'.. easily adjustable. + . !rap at least four complete turns... 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.0. + . Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.0 inches.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. find the center of the rope and form a bight. . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.1. + . + .. + .7. It is a special( purpose knot.. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.

+ . a..Figure 4-. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.. K!eimhiest knot.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.0 inches.. b. Tying the Knot.: to ..7. + . It is a special(purpose knot. Checkpoints. %. . Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.0.

:unter -itch .* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. + . %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Checkpoint. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.Figure 4-..". + . Figure 4-.1: Cinch the knot tightly. b. Checkpoints. b. %..'. <irth hitch..* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. It is a special(purpose knot. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.: &orm a bight.. a. + . Tying the Knot. Frost knot. %.

+ . place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. %0* he carabiner is locked.0... . + .. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. /old the loop $ith the left hand. !ith the right hand.1.he munter hitch. b. Bock the locking mechanism.'.. a. Check 9oints..* A bight passes through the carabiner. + .. /old the rope in both hands.0 inches apart. !ith the right hand. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. %. Tying the Knot. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. palms do$n about . + .

+ . + .' feet or longer.0. . :unter hitch.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. . ensuring they do not cross.. thus creating a loop around the $aist. It usually re#uires a sling rope .1. + . &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. .Figure 4-1*. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs...appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. Tying the Knot. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.*..'. a.. + .

+ .. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.appe! seat. . b. -ull up on the ropes. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. %. + . Figure 4-1). <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.7. Check 9oints.4..* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. tightening the seat.). . -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. &rom rear to front. + ..

. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. . -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. Tying the Knot..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. a..0. + . he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. preferably ovals*..

+ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. it will fail. b. or the e&uipment . %.* !hen properly dressed. Check 9oints. . 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load.Figure 4-1.. <uar&e knot. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. rope can only be pulled in one direction.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice.

+ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof.*. /o$ever. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. boulders.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. /o$ever. rees.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. When selecting or constructing anchors.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. . natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*.

he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. . >se padding on soft. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. Figure 5-.. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. Chockstones should be checked for strength. treesusually have a shallo$ root system.Figure 5-). and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. b. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. Trees use& as anchors. security. a. In rocky terrain. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary.

Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. a. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. hese include blocks.ock 9ro>ections .Figure 5-1. If any of these signs e"ist. their firmness is important. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. b. tying a rope to it. Chockstones. . and clipping on a carabiner. . and spikes. the projection should be avoided. flakes. horns. c.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. If rock projections are used. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner.

the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. . the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. .Figure 5-4. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch.ock pro>ections. As $ith trees. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*.

he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. and girth. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. a. %ushes an& shru s. $rap. Drape. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. Figure 5-6. . !hichever method is used. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used.Figure 5-5.

b. . (rap. Figure 5-". Drape. (rap.Figure 5-7. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*.

:*. 7nchoring (ith . <irth. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor.c. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. Figure 5-'. . he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. . his re#uires less e#uipment. <irth. . he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(.

Figure 5-)).Figure 5-)*. more if necessary. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps.*.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. . $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. Tension!ess anchor. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. to absorb the tension. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps..

Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. and the load to be placed on it.:: years. can also be used if necessary. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. sno$shoes. a.* Barge boulders can be used. such as skis. ice a"es. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. e#uipment. $ould be ideal. . ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. .ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. he"centrics. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. and +BC2s.#uipment. %A hefty timber. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. As $ith natural anchors. chocks. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. such as a railroad tie.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. such as pitons and bolts. &or training planning. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. and ruck sacks. . 3ote4 Artificial anchors. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. In e"tremely hard. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. Although still available. b. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. he sling is attached to the anchor.

he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. 7&2antages. dirt. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. %0* !hile it is being driven. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. c.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. !hen this type of rock must be used. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. %.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. 9iton 9!acement. a. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. should be studied. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. b. as $ith any artificial anchor. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . %&igure 7(. Disa&2antages. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. clear the loose rock. practiced. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall.

the firmer the anchor $ill be.. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. herefore. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(.out of the crack. . it $ill not be lost. Clip a carabiner into the loop. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. thereby loosening the emplacement. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock.1*. because the piton is too long. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. he piton should not spread the rock. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. and on the type of rock. Figure 5-).

-ero-!oop. drive the piton in as far as possible. and $hen using chocks. ry to be in a secure position before testing. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. . Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. If the pitch has changed greatly.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. . and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. e.Figure 5-)1. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. Testing. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. o test pitons pull up about . . drive it into another place. Eerk vigorously up$ard.emo2ing 9itons. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. the emplacement is probably safe. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. d. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(.K0 meter from the carabiner. do$n$ard.'*. to each side. then grasp the rope at least . upon driving it. If the sound regains its original pitch. there is any #uestion of its soundness.

pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. are reusable.asy to insert and remove. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall.Figure 5-)4. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. . but comple" in practice. f. vectors. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. a. Disa&2antages. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. +oft iron pitons that have been used. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . Bight to carry. they may have been driven poorly the first time. In training areas. Also. <efore use. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. unless severely damaged. and straightened may be reused. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. removed. b. >sually easy to retrieve and. provides an e"cellent anchor point.eusing 9itons. . Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. 7&2antages. A natural chockstone. having fallen and $edged in a crack. but they must be checked for strength. 9iton remo2a!.

choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. +ome cracks may have loose rock. $hich may accept pitons.7*.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. if possible. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. %1* . Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. . $hich should be removed before placing the chock. Figure 5-)5. Book for a constriction point in the crack. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. Dften provide only one direction of pull. %0* !hen selecting a chock. %. Chock p!acements.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. then select a chock to fit it. grass. Avoid poor protection.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. 9!acement. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . cord. and dirt. c.

+ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. o test it.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. %a* . It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out.)*. . test it to ensure it remains in place.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. d. use pairs of chocks in opposition. Testing. After seating a chock.

Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. %o!ts . pull the retractor bar back. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. S8CD p!acements. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage.Figure 5-)6. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. place the device into a crack. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. b. and release the retractor bar. a. it may rotate and pull out.

flaking. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. !hen using bolts.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole.4*. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. b. carabiners. or cracking. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. . . <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. $hich bores the hole. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. <olts should be used $ith carriers. since this permanently $eakens it. /o$ever.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. and should be tested $ith a hammer. c. and runners. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. . a.

$qua!i@ing 7nchors . his not only provides greater anchor strength. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. b.5*.8*. a. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. It is aimed in the direction of the load. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors.Figure 5-)7. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. . 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. Figure 5-)". Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.

All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. therefore. and the enemy for the length of the climb. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor.Figure 5-)'. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. terrain hazards. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming.

the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. +orward observers. . 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. ledges. nubbins. or 6lines. reconnaissance personnel. . Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations.ven before getting on the rock. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. using the hands primarily for balance.trained in the basics of climbing. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. the climber studies all possible routes. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor.*.6 . taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. !hen picking the line. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain.6 to the top looking for cracks. he mentally climbs the route.

the boot soles should be dry and clean. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. C7ET=63 . Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. /o$ever. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. In the training environment. falls from climbers above. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. If the soles are $et or damp. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . In later lessons. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. such as a rock or climbing gear. dry rock.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$.

lo$ering the heel. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. and reduce the impact of a fall. and so on. helping to minimiAe fatigue.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. right foot. a. and body %trunk*. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. help the climber land feet first. a$ay from the rock. comfortable stance is essential. A rela"ed. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. Stance or %o&y 9osition. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. left hand. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. $eight shift.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. If strained for too long. b. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. sho$s a correct climbing stance. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. left foot. kno$n as 6. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. or moving on to a more . resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. and movement. his vibration. %&igure )(.

%. he hands are used to maintain balance.. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. Correct c!im ing stance.* !henever possible. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. Figure 6-. the hips and shoulders should be . =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. Figure 6-).restful position.a!ance& o2er oth #eet.

C!im ing Sequence. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. and movement %movement being either the foot. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. as the climbing progresses. shift. Again. $hen footholds are small. c. hand.* + . Dn steep rock. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands.centered over both feet. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. Dn lo$(angle slopes.D=. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. +ometimes. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. his is normally done on #uick. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. or body*.: + . !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. . creating more stress. In most cases. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. he basic steps are $eight. intermediate holds. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be.

+ . but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.+ .&D>. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability. If both legs are bent. ./.: + .&IV.: + . &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. through 1 for remaining foot. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs.. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. %..epeat steps . 2uring this movement. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved.

Typica! c!im ing sequence. .Figure 6-1.

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .

because the legs are much stronger. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. these movements become more critical. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. Dther than being uncomfortable. even painful. %. Sa#ety 9recautions . to rest on. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. not the arms. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time.Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. his type of lifting is inefficient.

do not do it. tossing it do$n. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. follo$ing the same line. >pon hearing the $arning. +hould a climber fall. If the rock $ill endanger your second. grasping for any possible hold available. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. If conducting a roped climb. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. you may encounter precariously perched rocks.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. and to reduce the impact of a fall. d. b. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. c. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. immediately shout the $arning 6. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. let the rope provide protection. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. a fi"ed rope should be installed. a spotter can be used for safety. . C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. If on a lo$(angle climb. e. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. a.

the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. !hen leading a group of climbers. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed.. +ometimes. a. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. depending on it. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. b. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. sedimentary(type rock.&D. !hen in doubt. his may simply be a #uick. C!im ing (ith The Feet . !hen climbing. !hen the rock is $et. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. g. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold.f. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use.

%b* Dn some large holds. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. b. In this case. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. %.* %a* +mooth. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. Also.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. .emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. easy or difficult. . he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds.* Maximum Sole Contact. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. as in mountain $alking. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. . also applies in climbing. he principle of using full sole contact. forgetting to use the feet properly. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. &ailure to climb any route. the entire foot cannot be used. In the early learning stages of climbing. a.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember.

* %a* Dn smaller holds. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. >sually. !henever possible. %0* Edging. .Figure 6-4. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. $ell(defined ledges. or toe. may be used. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. Again. edging $ith the front of the boot. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. . $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact.

but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. . %1* Smearing. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. $ith its softer sole. he Army mountain boot. Figure 6-5. he stiffer the sole.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. the better the edging capability. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and.ounded. intermediate holds.* %a* .%b* . therefore. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. . . he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited.

ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. pockets. like a camming device. restful position. arms. +ome positions are more tiring. resisting a do$n$ard pull. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. %'* Jamming. such as edges. ball of the foot. and so on. the possibilities are endless. and even more painful on the foot. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. inside and $ithin reach. than others. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. Aside from these t$o basic ideas.Figure 6-6. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. depending on the siAe of the crack. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. he toes. hands. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. . Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. or the entire foot can be used.

he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. Figure 6-7. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. Dur hands grip. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . +econdly. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. As stated earlier. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. a. Dn lo$er(angled rock. $Bamp!es o# >amming. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. our body $eight is on our legs. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. !hen removing the boot from a crack. Core often though. +ometimes. b."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. . the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. As the individual climbs.

the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. Ideally. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. or 6pinching. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. his is fine. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. -ushing side$ays. Df course. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. Dn smaller holds. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. the side of the palm. the fingers. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. . %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. and on occasion.our balance and footing on the ladder. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". %.* Push olds. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance.

also called 6cling holds. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. or up$ard. %0* Pull olds.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. creating an unbalanced stance. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. . therefore. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. Again. and. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. -ull holds. pull holds are often over$orked. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from.Figure 6-". . <ecause of this increased feeling of security. side$ays. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head.* %a* Bike push holds. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. just good techni#ue. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing.

%c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. =ormally.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. his helps to hold the finger tips in . he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. Figure 6-'. Dn small holds. creating a stronger hold. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions.

$Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. Bike foot jams. %'* Jam olds.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. knuckles. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds.* Figure 6-)*. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. his hand configuration. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. kno$n as a 6ring grip. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. ape also adds friction . %1* Pinch olds. %&igure )(. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more.

or 6off $idths. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks.to the hand in jammed position. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. &or off $idths. . +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. is another techni#ue.6 re#uiring the use of arm. leg. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. or body into an off $idth. leg. . it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. he leg can be used.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. %&igure )(. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. and body jams. only the fingers $ill fit. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. !hen the arm is straightened. the principle is the same as for fingers. o jam or cam an arm. hands.. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. %b* In smaller cracks. from the calf to the thigh. and fle"ed to fit the crack. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. /o$ever.

$Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. As the climber gains e"perience. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. feet. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. &rom these fundamentals. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. .Figure 6-)).

he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. he change step. or other body parts tire. %. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. yet #uickly.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. o prevent an off balance situation.otating .0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. o make the move. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. mantling begins $ith pull holds. %&igure )(. b.a. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. . the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. $here the pull holds become push holds. even on an easy route. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. +ometimes. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. or hop step.* Change Step. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. before the hands. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. arms. +hort of turning back. +till. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. t$o solid handholds should be used. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. Combination possibilities are endless. %0* Mantling. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately.

Dnce the arms are locked. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. . a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. momentarily. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. !ith the foot on the ledge.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. Dnce balanced over the foot.

1*. %1* !ndercling. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge.Figure 6-). $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. applying an up$ard pull. also. forming a bulge or small overhang. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. or body tension. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(.. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. he arms and legs . :ant!ing sequence.

he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. %'* "ie#ack. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. he climber bends at the $aist. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. En&erc!ing. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. putting the body into an B( shaped position. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. the climber $ill .should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. Figure 6-)1. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. more or less. .

7*. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. %7* Stemming. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. 8ie ack on a #ace. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. or vice versa. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. Figure 6-)4. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. or for a rest position.'*. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(.likely fall. rather than muscle. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. Dften. .

Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . although smearing may $ork best in some instances. or body as an integral contact point. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(.)*. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. >sually. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. kno$n as chimneys. Stemming on a #ace. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack.Figure 6-)5. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. . parallel cracks. legs.

Chimney sequence.Figure 6-)6. .

/o$ever. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. Chimney sequence /continue&0. .outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. if any holds. A slab is a relatively smooth. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. %c* . %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack.4*.Figure 6-)6. or a much narro$er crack irotection. face features.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. forcing the body against the opposing $all. .

the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. Dften. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. . Dn steeper slab. Also. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. or the . %4* %o&n Clim#ing. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. S!a technique.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. to increase friction. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. . %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. Figure 6-)7. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability.

as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. Dn the steepest terrain. use a roped descent. C7ET=63S . !hen in doubt. !hatever the case may be.. and slips are more likely to occur. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. !hen in doubt. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. If the handholds are too high. %a* Dn easier terrain. the climber can face out$ard. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. As the steepness and difficulty increase. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. he can often turn side$ays.abilities of others to follo$. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. 0. use a roped descent. a$ay from the rock. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold.

Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. reducing friction. &acing the rock. as in ascending. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. . and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. is usually best on steeper slab. %d* Dn steeper slab. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. !eight is still concentrated over the feet.planned landing area. facing out$ard or side$ays. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction.5*. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. and a tendency to move too #uickly. and leading to the likelihood of a slip.

.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. A severe fall. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. length.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly.ope Dver the years. . Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. is highly unlikely in most instances.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. ropes must be used to proceed. may induce further injuries. they offer little support to the climber. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . . . and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*.. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock.

It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. -rese$n harness are bulky. $hen used correctly. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. such as a prese$n harness. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. Seat -arness. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. =o assembly is re#uired. including cost. . specialiAed e#uipment. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. %. a. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. it is not for a belay anchor. also.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. /o$ever. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that.

at the chest. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. Dne(inch $ebbing . <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. a. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. Fu!!-%o&y -arness.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. c. such as padding.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall.b. Chest -arness. gear loops. than an improvised chest harness. %. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. S+ami %e!t. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. or ease of adjustment. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. he s$ami belt is a simple.

&ABB.. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. %. any tie(in around the $aist only could . Figure 6-)'. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist.$ill provide more comfort. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. raditionally. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. b. In a severe fall.8*. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. !I /D> /.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*.V. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist.

Dff to one side. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. and comfortable. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*.* Bocate the center of the rope. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. 9rasping both ends. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. like a parachute harness. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. $rapping to the outside. and hold it in place on the hip. . . Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. A safe.ven in a relatively short fall.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. c. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. . %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. $ith the knots to the front. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. %. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock.

*. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. just as you $ould put on a jacket. .: feet usually $orks. but remember that $ith $ebbing. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness.Figure 6-. and drape the sling over the shoulders. he t$ist. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. or cross. making a sling 1 to ' feet long.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. %.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. . %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. Appro"imately ) to . d. forming t$o loops.

%. or incorrectly.I ICAB BI=?.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. e. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. create a type of full(body harness. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. and comes off the harness in a fall. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. the standing part of the rope is then . he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. at the chest. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. 7ttaching the .* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. in effect. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. f. If using a chest harness.

%e!ay Techniques .clipped into the chest harness carabiner. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. Figure 6-)". and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. and possibly the e#uipment available. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. or third loop formed in the knot. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. If using the three loop bo$line. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. rather than tying the rope to it.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. %. ensure the end. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner.

&or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. Dne person climbs at a time. the procedure should become 6second nature.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. independent. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction.6 can be applied to halt a fall. +tack the rope properly. . &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. or a 6brake. if one person falls. and snug. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. Dn steep terrain.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. . In some instances. >se a $ell braced. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. e"posed terrain. ho$ever. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. . • • • • . but $ith practice. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. sitting position $henever possible. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. for an up$ard pull. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. rope team members can often move at the same time. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t.

nsure anchor attachments.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. a. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(. ho$ever. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. removed from the rope.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing.V.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand.• . he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. take up rope to remove e"cess slack.BAI.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. or run through a friction device.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. otal control means the brake hand is =. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. b. guide carabiner %if applicable*. and apply the brake to halt a fall. aking up rope.BAI D=. the rope management procedure is basically the same. there is no belay. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.. • • . If the brake hand is removed. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side.A9. !hen giving slack.

step 0*.). It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. %. step '*. he other hand is the brake hand.brake hand remains on the rope at all times.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands.. Figure 6-.. :anaging the rope. .epeat step 7 of &igure )(0.*.. slide the guide hand out.. %)* . $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0.. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. place it behind the back and around the hips. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. step . step 1*. to the front of the brake hand. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. step )*.

the belay may have to absorb. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. . %o&y %e!ay. using terrain to his advantage. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. a. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. stiff. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. !hen perfectly aligned. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. especially for beginners. he leg on the 6guide . and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. re#uiring no special e#uipment. and froAen. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. and the amount of load. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. in its various forms. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. or fall force. %. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. It is best to sit in a slight depression. It is the simplest belay. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. +ometimes. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. he body belay.

Sitting o&y e!ay. Figure 6-. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible.. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard..hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. . %0* Standing 'ody 'elay. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*.

rendering the belay useless. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. . Stan&ing o&y e!ay.Figure 6-. If the rope runs too high. If the rope runs too lo$.1. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. dumping the belayer out of position. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle.

and of the proper design. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. is designed for the Cunter hitch.4. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route.Figure 6-. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. or pearabiner. %. /o$ever. -ut some . he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. he carabiner must be large enough. &or the most part. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. useless hitch. $hich forms an obvious. :echanica! %e!ay. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate.* Munter itch. attaching both to the carabiner. to allo$ this function. b. As a climbing belay. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he locking pear(shaped carabiner.

he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. to$ards the load.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. though developed as a rappel device. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. :unter hitch. he hand on the rope running to the climber. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. Figure 6-. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. rather than around the belayerUs body.+ =D change the function of the hands. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. is al$ays the guide hand.5. As a belay device. . or load.

A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. Figure 6-. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber.ope management is performed as in a body belay. . %b* As a lo$ering belay. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design.6. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. . small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. A short. >nlike the other devices. Figure-eight &e2ice. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling.%a* As a climbing belay. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. but have no moving parts.

Additionally. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. the most commonly used. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. b. he air traffic controller %A C*. Direct %e!ay. Also. An indirect belay. slotted plate. =n&irect %e!ay. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. If the belay is correctly established. a. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. . $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. the belayer is not locked into a position. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. if the second falls or $eights the rope. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible.

he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. c. the belayer selects his position.* . Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. sitting stance are preferred. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. rela"ed stance. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. If this placement fails under load. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. Dnce the climbing line is picked. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. 7nchor the %e!ay. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. and in line $ith the first protection placement. %. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. . the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. b. a. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. 7im the %e!ay. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. !ith the belay position selected. . he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal.

=ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. say after a severe fall. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. saving the slings for the climb. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. his is not mandatory. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. and 6snug6. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. o accomplish this. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. . reach back. 6independent6. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. and connect the sling to one of the anchors.%0* . &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement.

Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position.* Dn small ledges. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. e.Figure 6-. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. Stack the . $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. !ith the rope properly stacked.ope. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. 7ttach the %e!ay. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. and applies the actual . the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. or on the ledge. %. d. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. he rope should be stacked on the ground.7. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. 7nchoring a e!ay. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay.

guide carabiner if applicable. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . !hen belaying the 6second6. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. Anchor attachments. the anchor attachments. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. 6<. If using a body belay. If the belay is set up correctly. guide carabiner. he gives the signal. %e!ay setup. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. final inspection of his belay. if any. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side.".belay techni#ue. Figure 6-. the force. If the climber takes a fall.BAI D=W6. %. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner.* he belayer should make one #uick. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock.

If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. A solid. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered.7CT=63 T7K$3 . . A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. e"posed routes. or at the top at the anchor.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. Aer a! Comman&s able )(.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. :$73=3<. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused.* %$87D$. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. C8=:%$. Top-.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position.

S$8F F. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.6T$CT D6E. 6 . Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. 6+BAC?6 . . If multipitch climbing.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.6 .DC?6 6. and again.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. Climber selects a belay position.D-.6 6 !. 6 A?. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. <elayer takes in rope. and hold me. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb.DC?6 -roceed. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.6<. apply brake. I am falling.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. 9. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.=( I( &IV. ensure climbers belo$ hear. <elayer removes brakeKtension.=+ID=6 ake all the slack.

6&I&( . he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. +et up the belay position. -repares to climb. above an overhang.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing.7 feet of rope left. Climber sets up the belay. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . Iou have no more rope.6 +et up the belay. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. <elayer removes the belay and.. I have finished climbing and I am anchored.=6 Iou have appro"imately .BAI6 belay. &or a rope tug command.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. Ta !e 6-). . .ope comman&s. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. . !hile a lead climb is in progress. or at the back of a ledge.BAI D=. anchoring and putting the second on belay. b. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. .ope& C!im ing :etho&s . a. remaining anchored. remains anchored. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. 6&IV. use only one. the most important command is 6<.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. !ith the issue of this command. Iou may remove the belay. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands.. or $hen the climber is around a corner. his is the signal for 6<.emoves the 6D&& <. his is especially true in $indy conditions. prepares to climb.

the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. a. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner.6 6pro. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. &or training. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit. rope%s*. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors.ven if the climbing is for another purpose.6 6pieces of pro. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams.6 6pieces.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. As he climbs the route. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. If you can easily access the top of a climb. b. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer.6 and so on. a leader or climber. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb.6 6pro placements. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. Top-. . op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements.In military mountaineering. you can easily avoid the climb itself.

!hichever techni#ue is chosen. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.established for other purposes. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. c. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. taking on the role of lead climber. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. or other rope installations. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. +$inging leads. b. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. or 6leap frogging.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. a. ice. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the .6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. belays. he belayer simply adjusts his position. such as rappel points.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. and is responsible for selecting the route.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing.

If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. 6CBIC<I=96. again. %'* !hile belaying. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. If he cannot see the climber. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. he double checks the belay. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. he leader then begins climbing. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. etc. >nless told other$ise by the climber. he leader can then signal. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. the belayer signals. !hen the leader is ready. . %. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. !hen the belay is ready. it can be called for. removing the belay anchor. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. thus minimiAing friction. %0* he other member of the climbing team. or 6rope drag6.BAI D=6. only as a courtesy. $hether by sight or feel. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. until the climber tells him other$ise. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury.. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move.ne"t belay. nut tool. only as a courtesy. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. to remove any protection that the leader may place. 6<. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. is responsible for belaying the leader. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. %1* <efore the climb starts. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. such as a piton hammer. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack.

each on a separate carabiner. !hen the leader has completed the connection. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. .6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. he must also determine ho$ much. the leader sets an anchor. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. the command 6 A?.BAI D=6 is given.BAI6. d. In this situation. each on a separate carabiner. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. %. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope.D-. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. $ith t$o carabiners on each. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. !hen the leader selects a particular route. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. or 6rack. . in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. At this position. or the clip. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. &ive to ten standard length runners.* he leader $ill assemble. and $hat types. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. Assorted he"entrics.%7* As the leader protects the climb. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack.

Bong -rusik sling. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. • . 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate.(inch $ebbing."tra carabiners. $ith t$o carabiners on each. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. to some degree. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear.• • • $o to three double length runners. Cordellette.: feet of .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. the necessary e#uipment. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*."tra carabiners. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. 0: feet of . . • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling.(inch $ebbing. =ut tool. . • • .

%0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. and <. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. and upon completion of any traverse. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. If the climbing becomes easier. or pendulum. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. As the leader begins this type of move. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. Dnce an anchor is placed. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. during. If the climbing is difficult. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. placement of protection. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. %. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. protection can be placed farther apart.&D. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection.* Placing Protection. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. moving past a difficult section. 9enerally. for both the leader and second if either should fall. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. protection should be placed more fre#uently. kno$n as a traverse. saving hard$are for difficult sections. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements.. is re#uired.e.

%c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. C7ET=63 . the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. !hen placing protection.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. If the clip is made correctly. %a* If the route changes direction. /o$ever. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. $hen released. in a . he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. In addition. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that.

it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended.'. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used.leader fall. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . rotate the carabiner up$ards .5: degrees. o prevent this possibility. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. Figure 6-. =o matter ho$ direct the route. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. C!ipping on to protection. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement.

Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. . Figure 6-1*. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. . or anchor. inducing a fall. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. C7ET=63 . almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. o prevent this. Ese o# s!ings on protection.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position.

2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions.*.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. All $ired chocks used for . Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. . Figure 6-1). %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. even $hen used 6actively6. . or runner. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. As the climber moves above the placements. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner.

ry to use the shortest runners possible. . Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. Figure 6-1. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. +ome of the larger chocks. therefore. &urthermore. %e* . Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. ensuring they are long enough to function properly.. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor.

the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. or seconding. rock fall. $hile the final preparations are taking place. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. +harp rocks. !hen removing the protection. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. again as a courtesy.6 he second. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing.f. or 6cleaning the pitch6. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope.BAI D=.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er.BAI6 to the belayer. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. he can. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. !hen the second is ready. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. If necessary. &ollo$ing. he second has to issue commands to the leader.* h. reply $ith 6CBIC<. as a courtesy. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$.BAI D=. g. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. %. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . !hen removing protection.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. unless other$ise directed. no$ the climber. signal 6CBIC<I=9. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er.6 and the leader can.

and is the simplest form of aid climbing. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. he should signal 6 A?. . he should immediately connect to the anchor. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. +$inging leads. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. $hile remaining attached to an anchor.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. he can signal 6D&& <.reaches a more secure stance.egardless of the type of protection used. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. If too much slack develops. %. If removing a piton.BAI. a.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. or 6leap frogging. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. $quipment. he belayer simply adjusts his position. the method of aid climbing .6 he leader removes the belay. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. Dnce secured.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. Dnce the second completes the pitch. taking on the role of lead climber.D-. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. .=+ID=.

%a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. /o$ever. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. %.* Pitons. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. bolts can be used for aid climbing. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. %0* 'olts. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands.is the same. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. $ith or $ithout the hanger. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. +ince pitons are multidirectional. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart.

%4* (ifi ook.0 inches. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. %)* Etriers . %7* %aisy Chains. split(shaft rivets. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders.. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. . Chocks are used the same as for free climbing.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. %5* -scenders. or steps. %'* Chocks. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. although in aid climbing. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction.* . A fifi hook is a small.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. %1* S"C%s. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. although in aid climbing. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes.or -iders. . !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. appro"imately every . . although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate.

he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . &rom this height. %4* . you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. Technique. again.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. into the steps in the aider. you are no$ standing above your support. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. !ith the daisy chains. aiders. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. one at a time. he big difference is the movement up the rock. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. the climb continues as follo$s: %.b. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. If this happens.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection.

move the ascenders. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. repeat this procedure. above the piece. If the ascender is too high.:* .nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . 3otes4 . 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. Clear each knot as you unclip it. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. . Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. o make this easier. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. !hen adjusted to the correct height. o ascend the route. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. !hen the pitch is completed.* >nlike lead climbing. Secon&ing. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. tie in short on the rope every . C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece.. %. o prevent this possibility. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. a serious fall could result. one at a time. After ascending another 0: feet. the arms need not support much body $eight.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly.

o make this safer and easier. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. !hile leading an aid traverse. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. and other protection placed easily by hand. /o$ever. he hook . %. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. his is in effect a self(belay. 0. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. hooks. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended.as you ascend. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. d. possibly resulting in the protection failing. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. do not tie into the end of the rope. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. e. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. to get caught as you move up$ard. +BC2s.

he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. 9iven one rope. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. &or e"ample: a . If the climb is only one pitch. protected traverses . only t$o are described belo$. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers.::(foot climb $ith a . a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. b. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. although bolts can be used.::(foot climb $ith a . hese types of devices due to their passive application. a forty foot fall could result. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. the methods $ill vary. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. a. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. belayed climb. $hich involves more difficulties. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired.

and number 1. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. !hen the leader completes the pitch. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. he again sets up a ne$ belay. climber. !hen number 1 receives 6<.BAI6 from the leader. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes.. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . !hen the leader completes this pitch.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. or number . or number 0 climber. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number .$ill re#uire additional time. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. !hen using t$o ropes. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader.BAI D=. %. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. ascends belayed by number 0. he second. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. !hen number . Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. he most e"perienced individual is the leader.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. If using one rope.Us . and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up.

!hen number 1 is not climbing. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. %d* =ormally.belay is ready. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. his $ould save time for a team of three. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . number 1 performs no belay function. %d* In this method. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. he remains anchored to the rock for security. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. such as the tuber type. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay..

%b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. ascenders. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . However. faster. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. and safer. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable.in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. he use of harnesses. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. =nsta!!ation . As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. H )i. . with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. but adds to total mission $eight. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. even worse. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained.

Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. -rusik. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. . he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. Esing a #iBe& rope. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope.o install a fi"ed rope. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. Dnce the anchor is rigged. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. he $ill stack and manage the rope. If the leader placed protection. autoblock*. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. Figure 7-).*. Dther$ise. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall.

Figure 7-. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. Esing a se!#. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. . . it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t.. If not.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. FiBe& . he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.e!ay. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer.

Area is safe from falling rock or ice. =nsta!!ation. a. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. avoids obstacles. ease of negotiation. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. . Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. actical considerations are met. he second sets up a standard belay.Figure 7-1.

. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. he temporarily anchors the rope. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. double figure(eight*. %. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. !hen he reaches an anchor point. and attaches the rope to the anchor. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. .ope crossovers should be avoided. As the leader climbs the route. 3ote4 . /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. /e then takes up any e"cess slack.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

/e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. %o&y . . o brake. the rope runs to the brake hand. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. -asty rappe!. &rom there. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. and his back straight to reduce friction. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself.Figure 7-4. /e then pulls the rope from behind. and runs it around either hip. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays.appe! %&igure 4(7*. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. 9loves are $orn. b. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. and back over the opposite shoulder. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. diagonally across the chest.

c. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.Figure 7-5. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. .. 0. Seat--ip . 3otes4 . 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller.appe! %&igure 4()*. %o&y rappe!.

his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. and is fast and safe. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner.Figure 7-6. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. If a single rope is used. Seat-hip rappe!. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . /o$ever. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. %. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. stand to one side of the rope. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. stand to the right of the rappel rope. his method has minimal friction. If using a right(hand brake.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed.

Figure-$ight Descen&er.* o use the figure(eight descender. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. %. &or this reason. . %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. d. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. Figure 7-7. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*.

It also allo$s for easier self( belay. f. d. $Bten&ing the . hese include slots or plates and tubers. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. 6ther De2ices. e.appe! De2ice. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness.) of an inch in siAe.Figure 7-". he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. . Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. Figure-eight &escen&er.

depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. 6ne-. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. depends on the techni#ue. /o$ever.e!ay.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope.Figure 7-'. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. . A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about .

he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. At that time. c. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. If crossing a stream. =atural anchors. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. $iremanUs. such as large trees and solid rock formations. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. the s$immer must be belayed across. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. If t$o carabiners are used. Dnce across. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. . the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. If crossing a ravine or gorge. the gates $ill be opposing. a. b. are al$ays preferred.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(.:. he anchor should be $aist high. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle.

Transport tightening system. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.Figure 7-)*. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope.0*. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation.1*. e.. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. . round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. d.*.

oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.Figure 7-)). .. . Figure 7-). Transport knot .

he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(.Figure 7-)1. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing.:. 3ote4 2uring training. the far side man anchors the rope. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. Tension!ess anchor knot. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. a. .'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. $eb $rap. c. Dnce across. b.

and is run back to the near side anchor.d. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. As the rope is pulled tight. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. g. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. !hen the rope is tight. from inside to outside. . one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. e. F-pu!!ey tightening system. transport knot. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. Figure 7-)4. here are several methods of accomplishing this. f. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners.

7*. . %. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. monkey cra$l. attach it to the bridge. Comman&o cra+!. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. Figure 7-)5. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. -referably. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line.)*. and pull the rucksack across. If dry crossing is impossible. and yrolean traverse. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. :etho& o# Crossing. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. o recover if he falls over.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position.a. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. he may $ear it over both shoulders.

%1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. :onkey cra+!. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body.4*. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. If crossing $ith rucksacks.Figure 7-)6. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge.appe! seat metho&. Figure 7-)7. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. . .

ABIC. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun.b. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. -au!ing !ine. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. and carabiners. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. Any special e#uipment. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. %0* -"0CE Packs. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. .5*.igging Specia! $quipment.* Machine /uns. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. Figure 7-)". Construction. a. ammunition. he other end is anchored on the near side. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. %. o rig machine guns. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge.may dictate the rigging of these items. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. All the slack is pulled to the near side. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. such as cre$(served $eapons. cordage %various siAes*. or supplies. &inally. A unit +D. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. .

using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. . >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. . then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. %'* A three(man pull team. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. :o2ing .etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. he far side remains anchored. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. If the < C chooses the dry method.ucksacks. :o2ing 8itters. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot.b. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. c. %. a. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. Dn each side of this carabiner. .emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. assembled on the far side.

chasms. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. Site Se!ection . the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. %. and then pulls the rope across. inserts a carabiner. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. Suspension tra2erse. removes the knots.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness.%)* Dnce across. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. Figure 7-)'. and up or do$n a vertal. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. ravines. b.

an A(frame must be used.'(foot sling ropes are needed. . %.* . -osition this knot on . If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. leaving about . he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. Construction. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. $quipment.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation.0 feet long. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. %0* !ith a sling rope. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. b. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . %+ee &igure 4(0:A.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. $o sturdy poles are needed.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. c. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. and mark the ape" on both poles. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. a. hree to five . All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. 7-#rames.

ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch.*. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. . Cake the $raps as tight as possible. ensure it is in the same direction as the .5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails.* Figure 7-. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:.*.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot.

dig the legs in about ) inches. .*. the direction of kick. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. If the ground is soft. %. . If more than one sling rope is needed. Adjust the A( . Figure 7-. d. 7-#rame sprea&er. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. . tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. %4* If the ground is a hard surface.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. =nsta!!ation Construction.). ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors.

Figure 7-. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. Eoin the ends of a . -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame..* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope.. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. . his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. not forcing it in a lateral direction.. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame.0*. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot.

Figure 7-. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse.1. 2ue to the constant . his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions.

use a relay man.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment.tension maintained on the belayer. rucksacks. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. . the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. herefore. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. or supplies Figure 7-. use a mechanical belay.4.

7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. o maintain the .5. 2ouble one installation rope.* Figure 7-. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. %+ee &igure 4(07.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. and anchor it. . find the middle. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame.0(inch bight.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. a. if necessary. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. .

!hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. d. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame.b. g. f. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. $hich is tied to the A(frame. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. o anchor the A(frame. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . c.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. or to. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. he angle should be . use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope.0 inches apart. e. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line .0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. belay from the top using the hauling line. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. . hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. directional figure(eight. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor.

. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. a. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. terrain. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. !hen it is no longer needed. and the rope condition. b. $eather. the load rubbing against the rock $all. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks.educe e"cessive friction on the system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. Theory. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. pull the other side from belo$. Construction.h. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. and availability of anchors. . . he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. load $eight. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. c. Simp!e . . o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. e#uipment. Consi&erations. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. . >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. !hen in use.

%0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope.* . tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. . place a pulley into the carabiner. and run the hauling rope through the pulley.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. . -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. then place the $orking end into the carabiner.%. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+.

&or greater efficiency. $eather. Consi&erations. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. load $eight. a. . If the t$o pulleys touch. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. and availability of anchors.6. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. e#uipment. F-pu!!ey system. d. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. >se belays and backup safeties. 6ther Factors. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. terrain.Figure 7-. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.

%)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. the load rubbing against the rock $all. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. E-pu!!ey system. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. %. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. his is the -C2.7. c.* Anchor the hauling rope.. Figure 7-. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. . -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. Theory. %7* Construct a second anchor.b. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. Construction. and the rope condition.

!hen a moderate pace is set. pace.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. Coving too fast. conditioning. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. s0iing or snow shoeing. hen. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. pace is adapted to conditions. and a unit can cover a given . H In addition to proper techni#ue. proper training. and results in loss of climbing time. empo. good nutrition and hydration. he more adverse the conditions. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. or number of steps per minute. rappelling. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. produces early fatigue. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes.est. the need for rest halts decreases. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. acclimatiAation. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. he mountaineer sets a tempo. rugged terrain. technical roc0 and ice climbing.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. H he terrain. he trained. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. $eather. re#uires more rest halts. the slo$er the pace. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. even under ideal conditions. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. .

to . a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. If possible. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. steady.* After each step for$ard. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. he soldier e"hales strongly. %1* his slo$. If possible. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. and higher elevations. sno$fields.7 hours. <listers and . %'* After a climb. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements.distance in a minimal time. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. soldiers lean against a tree. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. deeper inhale. hydrate.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. %. rock. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. supports the $eight. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. breathe deeply. %. and snack on trail food.. not muscle. enabling an easier. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. the soldier pauses briefly.

back injury. %.blackened toenails. to a herringbone step. . in lo$ brush or heather. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. surface. $ould be from $alking straight up. H -ar& <roun&. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. knee damage.* !hen ascending. and on scree and talus slopes.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. /ard ground is firmly compacted. and back pain may follo$. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. as the slope steepens. and loss of balance. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. %. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. ice a". and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. through thick brush. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. A normal progression. o turn at the end of each traverse. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. If side hill travel is necessary. animal trails. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. try to s$itchback periodically. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible.. !hile traversing. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. A ski pole.efer to Chapter . rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step.

Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. returning to the in(balance position. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. simply $alk straight do$n. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. he ice a". and plants his foot solidly. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields.. he soldier performs a basic rest step. . At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. each one improving the step as he ascends. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. aggressive manner. $hich take half of the boot.0 Step Kicking. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. his is the in(balance position. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. /. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique.H Sno+ S!opes. he soldier faces out. held in the uphill hand. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. and $eighting the trail leg. $hich must be done in a positive. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. steps off. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. and they $ill not be as secure. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker.

and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. %. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on ./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. trees. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. and the upper leg is used only for balance. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. H <rassy S!opes. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. In this techni#ue.* !hen ascending. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. &or the military mountaineer. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. $here the ground is more level. !hen traversing. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. H Thick %rush. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. brush is both a help and a hindrance.

* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. H Scree S!opes. %. After determining that the step is stable.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. o . his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. if possible. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. ascending or descending. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. and then repeats the process. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. feet pointed do$nhill. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. back straight. and heels dug in. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. !hen $alking in talus. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. H Ta!us S!opes. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control.

H !hen traveling through steep terrain. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions.ockW6 is shouted immediately. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. navigation. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. Backing cover. and do not look up. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. sno$. is the foundation of good navigation. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. he use of the map. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. grass. . H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is.prevent rock fall injuries. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. the $arning. 6. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. and route finding. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. the location of a target objective. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. knees and toes. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. compass and identifiable terrain features. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. elbo$s. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. digging into the slope $ith hands.

a loss of barometric pressure of . It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. route planning.H . a.1 inches has occurred. 7!timeters. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. usually inches of mercury. <y measuring air pressure. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. b. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain.::: feet of elevation. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. and bad $eather should be e"pected. millimeters of mercury.. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. checking progress and terrain identification. or millibars. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. %. Compasses. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . usually attached to a cord. .

or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. and so forth* is reached. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. <!o a! 9ositioning System. It can determine the latitude. causing them to give poor readings. it can provide position %accurate up to . %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. his can result in faulty elevation readings. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. %. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. saddles. all($eather. longitude and elevation of the individual user. c. .ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. survey monuments.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. %4* . his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. stream(trail intersections. global. he 9-+ is a space(based. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint.

the better the system performs. terrain association. d. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. Canyons. or altimeter navigation. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. start point and objective. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. spurs.idgelines. . <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat.%1* 2uring route planning. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. saddles. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. or plateaus are better. %4* . so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. Dther$ise. deep valleys. &or navigation. summits. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. after choosing critical checkpoints. enter their coordinates as $ay points. open valleys. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. %'* +ince the 0. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. but due . operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. 3a2igation Techniques. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots.

slope %+D+. . /eavy fog.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. elevation. %. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. navigational corridors.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. /andrails. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. than as a primary navigational aid. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. !hen clear cut. glacier.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. burned(over.* Dea& . and attack points are all used. he shape. checkpoints. orientation. catching features. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. .eckoning. bo"ing(in areas. siAe. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. and not a precise point. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees.

H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. and in $eather prediction. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. $ater. H !hen the light is poor. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. $atercourse. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. dusk. but not behind the object being vie$ed. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. in resection. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. H !hen looking do$n a straight. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. H !hen the object blends into the background. H !hen looking over a smooth. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. hey aid in orientation. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. open road or track. or desert. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. check the . such as da$n. in computing rates of ascent or descent. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. such as sno$. uniform surface. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude.

H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. cliff bands.altimeter. In addition. cliffs. . H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. light conditions %time of day*. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. %. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. e. &ault lines. sno$fields and glaciers. such as couloirs or gullies. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. !atch the mountain during the approach march. In this case. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. gross bedding planes of rock. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. and the physical condition of the team. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. studying it for climbing routes. .ates of travel.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. may present themselves. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. and crevasse Aones become visible. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. along $ith $eather conditions.

as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. &or $eaker skiers. are often steeper. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. shovel tests. g. $ater features. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. and the siAe of the unit. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. sno$ pits. %. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. pays off in more efficient travel. vegetation. individual ski abilities. terrain relief. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. 2uring movement. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. (inter . If you must cross one. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. and impact on your route choices. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. 2uring calm $eather. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. avalanche danger. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . because of more intense glaciation in past ages. constrain your choice of terrain.oute Se!ection. f. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere.

!hile traveling in mountainous terrain. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. and so on to get accurate readings. do not needlessly give up elevation gained.danger is still present. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. ice a". %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. !eather and tactical situation permitting. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. If the $eather turns bad. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. H >se a steady. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. If $eak skiers are in the group. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. Avoid north. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. %4* 2uring ski movements. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. . >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. east. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion.

and drifting sno$. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. compasses. At times. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. bliAAards. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. trails. 9ro !ems. $hiteouts. especially above tree line. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. sno$fall. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. drastically limit visibility. %'* /andling maps. caused by large ore deposits. %.* In $inter. . Careful map reconnaissance. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks.h. . fog.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. kno$ledge of the enemy . hick vegetation and rough. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. short hours of daylight.

+ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. obli#ue angle. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process.:. such facilities as ski lifts.::: map and should be used $henever possible. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. pay close attention to the marginal information. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. a. An . Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. Areas above tree line. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields.:7:. :ap .econnaissance. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. verbal descriptions. clear cuts. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. %. Aerial. cable and tram$ays are often found. Civilian .situation. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information.0. Along $ith sketch maps. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. terrain analysis of the operational area. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. In addition. A .* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*.:07.::: map depicts greater detail than a . +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. even larger scale maps are desirable.::: maps can be used if available.

2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. e"tractions. and plans made to avoid them. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. are factored in. bridges. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. resupply and medevac. . &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. $nemy Situation. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. barns. $eather permitting. such as rivers and gorges. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. . c.uins. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. %1* /elicopter support. %0* Dbstacles. but should still be e"pected. trails. b. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. roads. and large open areas above tree line.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. impassable torrents. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. they have a marked advantage.

En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. d. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. %0* . smooth rock@ bolts. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. e. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. . therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. and ground cover. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels.*. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. good friction@ use of pitons. mountain structure and forms.outes through granite rock %long cracks. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. camming units*.success. Time-Distance Formu!as. including the geology.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. Enit 7ssessment. %. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment.

foot of .0 kph 0 to 1.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). .5 to 7.) kph '. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than .) to 1. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain.. foot . and clothing for mountain travel.. %. Time-&istance #ormu!as.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. first measure the map distance. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. helicopter support cannot be relied on. his distance plus . $eights in order to obtain accurate. In order to do this.::: feet of ascent or 0.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. actical movements. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than .) to 1... units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel. should take this into account. indicates. Add one hour for each .::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. basic mountaineering gear.0 kph 1. %0* As able 5(.0 kph 0 to 1. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. realistic rates of march. to 7. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing .0 to ' kph +kiing .' to .

roads. his includes degree of slopes. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. and the likelihood of crevasses. . 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. clearings. vegetation. aerial photos.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. sno$ depth. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. -lot start and end points. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help.* Tra##ica i!ity. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. a. Se!ect a Current :ap.equire& $quipment. Additionally. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. $idth of trails. Consider the follo$ing: %. sno$ condition reports. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. avalanche probability. Se!ect a . avalanche probability. %1* . and trails accurately. b. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation.. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. c. $eather reports. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective.oute.

swift. depending upon the type of stream. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. When rivers or streams must be crossed. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. %)* Con&itions.Contro! 9oints. speed of the current.Capa i!ities o# Enit. . Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. and depth of the water. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. >se all available information and plan accordingly.%7* Communications. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. its width. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. an alternate route should be used. ake into consideration their present health. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. or deep. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. !hen plotting a route on the map.econnaissance . Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. . %4* Checkpoints. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential.

As glaciers. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. the closer you are to the source. A distant vie$.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor.*. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. a.econnaissance of the route %map. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. perhaps from a ridge. Figure '-).. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. the rivers rise. Crossigs. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. sno$. b. if . Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. If a dry crossing is unavailable. In a s$amp. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. 2epending upon the time of year. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. for e"ample. photo. or ice melt during the day. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. or head$aters. depending on the distance from the source.

made during the early morning. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. and thus shallo$est. ho$ever. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. ho$ever. %1* Cany mountain streams. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. firm bottom. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. . =atural anchors are not a necessity. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. point of the river or stream. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. In some areas. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. if any.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. above the tree line for e"ample. contain sections $ith numerous channels. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. Dnce a log jam is formed. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards.

+ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. a. tactical situation.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. he could easily dro$n. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. +DI. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. <oots should be $orn . his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. b. if available. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. All pockets are buttoned. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. as in the higher alpine Aones. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. binoculars. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. -reparation includes the follo$ing. !rap radios. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. temperature of the air and $ater*. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. %)* !hen possible. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. H If you must cross on the upstream side. papers. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. stay $ell upstream from the log jam.

the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. /o$ever. At times. d. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. c. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. Dn the far side. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. e. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. f. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. socks and inner soles should be removed. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . a. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever.

the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. deliberate steps. o increase balance. a long ice a". he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. and if available. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. c. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. /e should take short. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. sturdy tree limb. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. d. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. b. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. . e. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. If an obstacle is encountered. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. he staff should be moved first.

he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. &or chain crossing.Figure '-. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. he line formed faces the far bank. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. a team crossing may be used. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. .. but $ith the added support of each other.

the chosen site must be closely e"amined. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. height of the anchors above the $ater. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. Cany times though.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. .Figure '-1. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. a. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. he stream at this point may be impassable. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately .ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. . and the distance from the near and far anchors. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater.

If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. %. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*.V.$ill pendulum back. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. If this is impossible. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. should he fail to reach the far bank. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner.. /e should =. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. .

Figure '-4. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. pulled tight. and anchored on the near bank. %. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. An appropriate knot is tied into the . %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. /ere again. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. rather than straight across the stream. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. Stream crossing using a han&!ine.

If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. . his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. $hichever appears easiest. %7* >nder most circumstances. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. Figure '-5. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine.

b. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing.%)* . then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. A lookout should be posted 7: to . d. c. e. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. and individual e"perience.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. stream bottom configuration. or choose another route. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. such as mortars. f. especially heavier $eapons. and so on. a. speed of the current.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. Sa#ety . . recoilless rifles. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. use a different techni#ue. $idth of the stream. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely.

h. b. . <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. such as a sandbar. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. facing do$nstream. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. e. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. In either case. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. d. for assistance or rescue.g. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. 2o not try to fight the current. a. c. If the shore is too difficult to reach. seek out the closest and safest spot. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. descend straight do$n the fall line. Figure )*-)*. and traverse..degrees. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short.*. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.:(. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied.: and . . he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. d. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". !henever possible. As the slope steepens. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. .egardless of the techni#ue used.:(. Dn steep terrain.

-ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. %0* =ce 7B. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. logical progression. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. <acking up the slope %crab position*.Figure )*-)). /erringbone step straight up the slope. raverse $ith feet flat. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground.* Crampons. &ront(pointing. . 3orma! 9rogression. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. e. he techni#ues can be used in any combination.

<egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. in some cases. C!im ing Sequence.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". save the $eight of the crampons altogether. C!im ing sequence. >sing most of these positions.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again.0*. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .:(. Step Cutting. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . Figure )*-). . . f.. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can.:(.1*. and move the hand up the a" shaft.e.

Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. they should be smaller than footholds. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. %'* -an&ho!&s. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. . steps may be cut straight up the slope. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. In descending.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. =e"t. %0* =ce. then cut one bet$een those t$o. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. If handholds are cut.* Sno+. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. %. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. In ascending. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. Dnce the step is formed. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. !hen changing direction. and angled more. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. a traverse is also the preferred method. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made.

'*. Se!#-7rrest. a fall %&igure . or arrest.:(. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. . 2uring movement on steep ice. g. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting.Figure )*-)1. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall.

Figure )*-)4. . Se!#-arrest technique.

and feet pointed upslope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. back to the slope. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. H /ead do$nslope. and feet pointed upslope.Figure )*-)4. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. stomach on the slope. H /ead upslope. the climber must first gain control of his body. and feet pointed do$nslope. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. %. H /ead do$nslope. back to the slope. stomach on the slope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. .

<!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope.:(. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. If crampons are not $orn. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. stomach do$n position. stomach on the slope. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope.7*. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". . Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. e"cept skis . 9lissading is similar to skiing. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. %b* In the second position. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall.%a* In the first position. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . %d* In the fourth position. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. %c* In the third position. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. %'* !hen a fall occurs. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. rapid descent. controlled. could severely injure his ankles and legs.

he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. pick. brake. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. . Sitting <!issa&e. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. b. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. and guide for the glissade. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. and the other hand on the shaft. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. as painful injury could result. Squatting <!issa&e. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. $hich serves as the rudder. he same balance and control are necessary. c. Sa#ety.are not used. Also.

flukes. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. =ce 9itons. <!issa&ing techniques. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. >sed singularly. %. and ice pitons.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. or any large items.Figure )*-)5. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. skis. deadman(type anchors. ice scre$s.: inches in length. backpacks. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. a. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. . sleds. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets.

-lace ice scre$s as follo$s: .%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . !hen an ice piton is removed. or the ice may crack or soften. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. c. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation.:(. If it pulls out or appears $eak. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. If repeated use is necessary for one installation.:( . the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. =ce piton pair. Figure )*-)6. he pair of pitons. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. making further use difficult. move to another spot and replace it. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. =ce Scre+s.4*. $hen placed correctly.)*. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . such as top roping. are multidirectional.

Figure )*-)7. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. such as top roping.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. must be removed before further use. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. %. or the ice may crack or soften.%. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. .* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced.

. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots.:(. depending on the strength of the ice. In ice. the $idth should not be less than . the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. pickets. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. !hen constructed of sno$. e. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious.: feet. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. Figure )*-)". %. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. or other e#uipment for added strength. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed.d.5*. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s.

rappel points. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. such as a picket or a". should be at a right angle to its length. %. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. or other fi"ed rope installations.* !henever possible. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. sno$shoes. . A similar anchor.%.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. he direction of pull on long items. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. %&igure . it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. frayed. also. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . f. . t$o or more anchors should be used. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. skis. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. ski poles. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn.:(.

:(4. +hould any member fall. a three(man rope team is recommended. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. a. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. Covement on 9laciers. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. !hen crevasses are e"pected. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. Figure )*-)'. the tie(in is modified slightly. :o2ement. %+ee paragraph . for more information*. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. <y using this .6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. . =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. all climbers move simultaneously. Tie-=n :etho&. b. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure.e#ualiAed anchor.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets.

*.:(0:*.method. . c. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. Dn steeper slopes. 9enerally. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. Figure )*-. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. called the 6team arrest. %oot-aB e!ay. %. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support.* %oot-7B %e!ay.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a".

As the movement continues. d. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. %1* :unter -itch. . a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. also.%0* %o&y %e!ay.opes. ridgelines. or cliffs. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. H . he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. FiBe& . and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed.

a. %&igure . and &igure .* Figure )*-.). . <!acier cross section. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.:(0.:(00 depicts common glacier features. Characteristics an& De#initions. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers.

he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier.. .* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. <!acier #eatures. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.Figure )*-. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. %..

hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. Cost of these are formed by the $ind.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. he firn line can change annually. . hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. <e cautious.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. . hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more.. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. %. As you approach this area. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. %. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. %. %. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier.

ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs .)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer.%. %. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. %. icefalls. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. In $inter. b. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. %.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. %0. o$ard the end of the summer. %. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. %.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. $hen visibility is poor. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. and ice avalanches.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.

Figure )*-. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall.1. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers. . %.in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. criss(crossed $ith crevasses. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .:(01*. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer.:(0'*.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.

the remaining members go into team arrest. ie in to the bights and the ends. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. he simplest and most common . three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. o locate the positions. . If four people are on a team. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. if three people are on a team.Figure )*-. If the team members need to assemble in one area. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. use the -rusik to belay each other in. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. assess the situation.4. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse.

c. he best combination is a three(man rope team. their security being the team arrest. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. . secure it not only to a climber to pull it. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse.:(07*. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. A roped team of t$o. halting the fall. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier.ope& :o2ement. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. $hile ideal for rock climbing. . 9enerally. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope.

leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness.5. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. <ecause of this.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. $hether improvised or premanufactured. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. %. the rope should be divided into thirds.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. %0* . he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. he remaining 6thirds6 .* . as for a four(person team.Figure )*-.

Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. &or safety reasons. forming endless loops or slings. !hen . movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. Securing the %ackpack. attached to the rucksack. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . If an individual should fall into a crevasse. e.. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. <efore movement. may be e"tremely difficult. If necessary. /o$ever.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. $ith double fishermanUs knots. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. the chance of it failing is much greater. d. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. he ends of the ropes are tied together. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. or carried over the head and shoulder. by itself.ucksack. if $arm clothing is needed. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel.0(foot ropes.

* In the area of the firn line. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. large crevasses remain open. steep terminal or lateral moraines. . $hich may be major obstacles to progress. the sno$. $hich covers glacier ice. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. =arro$ cracks may be covered. %.outes. . !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. f. heavily crevassed portions. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. g. and do not take the place of. %.hanging from the drop cord. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. Crossing Cre2asses. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. In this Aone. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. /o$ever. they only supplement. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. Dpen crevasses are obvious. and icefalls. connecting both sides of it.

a crevasse is probably present. If he is. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. and may form firmer bridges. but difficult to detect in flat light. and gradually turn into glacier ice. h. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. the team may proceed. Sno+ %ri&ges. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". As long as a firm foundation is encountered.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. In such a situation. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. %.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. . its detection is difficult. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses.

/e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. . =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. he assumes the belay position. %c* he leader should move for$ard. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. =umber t$o belays number three across. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. Dnce the second is across. 2o not stamp the sno$. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. i. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. %1* In crossing crevasses. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary.: feet back from the edge. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load.

to anchor the rope. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. the rope is al$ays kept taut. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. if the person $as almost across. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough.%.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest.. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . using the -rusik as a self belay. =umber 1 must al$ays be . +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. /o$ever. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. % his scenario is for a team of three. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail.

the procedure is the same e"cept that number . as a minimum.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. Cre2asse . /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0.Us anchor. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the .: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. assumes the role of number 1. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. if the middle person should fall through. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . onto the anchor. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. =ormally. $ould anchor the rope by himself. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor.. close to number 0. number . j.escue Techniques.

a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. place padding.ope. In some situations. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the .nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. %. If the fallen climber is not injured.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. or backpackKrucksack. ski. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. ski pole. %0* FiBe& . . As the assisting team pulls. If necessary. clips number 1Us rope to himself. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. such as an ice a". thus relieving the strain on the sno$. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number .edge. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. In order to reduce friction. =umber . thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. on the edge of the ice. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique.ope Teams. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$.

%b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n.person in the crevasse. to ascend the rope. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop.6 of the long sling. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. %f* he procedure is repeated. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. Dther times. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. /o$ever. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. %&igure . Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. or 6stirrup.

9rusik ascen&ing technique. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.::(pound load $ith this system. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik.6 system. In theory. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . A pulley can be used here if available. Figure )*-.support. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. % his scenario is for a team of three.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . and they have decided to install the V rig. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. to the anchor. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip.6. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( .. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. In actual field use.:(04*. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number .

belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. he system is no$ ready for another haul. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0.6 system. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. . H !ith the 61(to(.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope.

the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. =ormally.7. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. . at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. at least eight feet in length.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. a. and so on. poles. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important.Figure )*-. a crevasse is present. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large.

therefore. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. In deep soft sno$. terrain. e. 7t is. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. tactical situation. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately .b. Air evacuation is preferred: however. %. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. c. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. ry to find a solid platform.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. by 0 feet. and e)isting installations. $hich keeps tents closer together. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. probe again after digging. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. At a minimum. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . :ountain . d. If a latrine area is needed.* &or block construction. Dccasionally $hile probing. Under these conditions. distance to be moved. the weather. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. If a dugout latrine is necessary. by . relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation.

and one person only. is overall in charge at all times.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. Dne person. . 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation.evel 7 and . physician/s assistant. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . control serious bleeding. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. &or a planned rescue. and maintain moderate body $armth. hey are.evel 777 supervising. . !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. resume victimUs breathing. a. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay.nsure that the C.sufficient. . . b. . c.2. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. medic%. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake.* Assume command. %. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. ho$ever. /o$ever.

the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. possibility of falling rocks*. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. should be used for evacuation. . 9!anning . avalanche run(out Aone. and terrain at hand.$SCE$. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD.esist the urge for action. hanging glacier. continually monitor pulse. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. . %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. a. vehicle. or a change in $eather. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. +peed is less important than correct action. or any other immediate haAard.If the victim is unconscious. environmental haAard.escue 6perations . evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. T-$ . he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. if available. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset.

#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. he task must be identified. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. c. $here. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. rescue. $hat. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. H errain features and location of the casualties. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. In planning a rescue. medical. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. and ho$ the situation happened. d. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. $hen. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. and evacuation. and the nature of their injuries. H actical situation. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. H -lan the action. H . that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. routine. $hy.b.* After identifying the task. security. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. priority. H . the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. treatment. H Are additional personnel. tactical immediate*.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %.

stove. $alking trails. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. $arm clothes. drugs started. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. and so on*. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. e. ime becomes the critical element. and rescue belay points*. anchor points. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. reliable trails or roads is essential. hot food and drinks. %c* !hen performing all rescues.* In estimating time available. and the personnel and e#uipment available. . %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. sleeping bags. pulse rate. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. ropes. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. tents. and stretchers. the situation. !ith all rescue techni#ues. Age and physical condition may vary. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. bivouac sacks. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. lo$ering lines. Ca"imum use of secure. fi"ed lines. If the victim is airlifted out. blood pressure.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining.

elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. . H F6E. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. H T-=.=6. e"treme cold. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time. H 9. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. Specia! Training . H S$C63D ST7<$4 . In high altitudes.D ST7<$4 .ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.=6. or gusting $inds.ST7<$4 . b.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated.=TD F6E. H 9.T.%1* . an orderly rescue may involve further planning. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. .emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.=6.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. available time is drastically reduced.emove dead personnel. H 9. H F=.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. separate stages are taken.=TD T-. .ST ST7<$4 .vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris.=6. a.

(. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. 6ne-:an Carries. piggyback. t$o(hand. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. it can be lost through carelessness.ope Carry. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back.* re#uires a '. difficult terrain. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. %. four(hand. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. herefore. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. .<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry.* S!ing-. pistol belt.. he sling(rope carry %&igure . <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. the best method of manual transportation is selected. or inade#uate protection from the elements. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. rough handling. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. saddleback. a.

It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim.K0( meter coiled rope. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. %f* he rope must be tight. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. S!ing-rope carry. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) .%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits.ope Coi! Carry. -adding. $hen available. %0* . crosses the ends. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. and back around to the front of the bearer. around the casualtyUs thighs. . %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. Figure ))-). he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle.

the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. If this is not done.appe!.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. . %u&&y . $hich frees the bearerUs hands. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. the bearer carefully stands. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. In this case. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. pulling the casualty onto his back. b. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*.

+lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. across the carrierUs chest. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. over his left shoulder. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. %7* he rope is run diagonally. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. . he rope is run diagonally. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. %0* A '. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. from left to right. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. from right to left. from right to left. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots.%. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. across the victimUs back. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. and back under the victimUs left armpit.0(meter sling rope is used. he victim straddles the carrier.

and then routed up along the handling arm. :anu#acture& 8itters. he rope is folded in half. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. on traverse lines. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. over the shoulder. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. and then carried again. a. behind the neck. . It can be improvised $ith poles. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. %. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. and then do$n along the other arm. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. depending on the terrain. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. $hich are se$n on one side. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel.* he poleless. and e#uipment available. as described above. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. If the litter must be carried. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. easy to carry. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. and readily available. nature of injuries. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used.%. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. belayed.

:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. . his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. . %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. %+ee &C 5(.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported.5.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5.1. $hich is a potential breaking point.

and poles. +uch objects include boards. or mattress covers. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. benches. b. jackets. ladders. sacks. the hood must be up and under the victim. shirts. such as a blanket.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. %.. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. .000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center. scoop stretchers. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe.(0):(. . shelter halves.6*-). cots. $indo$ shutters. tent supports. these objects should be padded. not dragging on the ground. Figure ))-. a large item. If a poncho is used. A litter can be improvised from many different things.0. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. If possible. /o$ever.(0*.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. skis... ponchos.. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. %0* If poles cannot be found. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. doors. bags.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. tarpaulin. and other similar items. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device.

2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. sleeping bags. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available.(1*. make a clove hitch over each bight.. Figure ))-1. . little material e"ists to construct litters.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. 3ote4 Above the tree line. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. empty bo"es. .7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time.ach clove hitch should be about . %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. . &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. centimeters long. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ).ope !itter.

2o not remove the belay. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. a.(meter poles. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side.* &irst. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. After placing the clove hitches over the bights.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. . tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. %7* -ull up on the rope. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. . but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord. %e!ay 7ssist. and place a carabiner into the loop. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it.7 centimeters.escue Systems . %. ake t$o . -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue.

%1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. . he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. %. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance.* After a climber has been injured.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. %5* . the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. %e!ay $scape. o improve this system. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. b. %7* . 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety.

%)* . it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. . . transferring the $eight to the anchor.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. rope(edge friction. backup safety -rusiks are used to . and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage.* . he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor.aising systems. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. are often encountered along the evacuation path. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. $hich must be surmounted. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. In practice. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. belays. hand $inches. and other variables.aising System. . %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. %0* %e!ays. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. %. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. a. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*.

% his is the signalman or relay man. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. %.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. he litter is prepared as already described. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge.. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man.aising the 8itter. . he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. %. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . Descen&ing S!opes. . if possible. taking care not to jar the casualty. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.safeguard the system.( '*. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. c. b.

b. good loading and unloading platforms. As long as safety principals are follo$ed.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. clearance for the casualty along the route. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. and anchor points for the A(frame. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation .. many different techni#ues can be used.Figure ))-4. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered.&escen&ing. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure .(7*: a. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. %1* he most direct. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . if used.

hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. Figure ))-5. c. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . C!i## e2acuation &escent.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. d.:1814 Inches .

he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search. 18. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.robability of survival drops rapidly and.)0. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. chances of survival are remote.05. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. <enera! 9roce&ures . random probing starts in that vicinity.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations.7..escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous. . after two hours. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent.1814 .14 . Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately . .Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . if a member of your group is in an avalanche..14 1. If any indication of the location of the victim is found.:105. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides..:81) .) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .

Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial.. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. several factors influence the bodyUs location. urbulence. gloves. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. boots. . >sing this and any other information. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. terrain. >nless other$ise indicated. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. if enough personnel are available. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. If using avalanche beacons. Book for skis. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. and mark all clues.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. ice a"es. poles. . All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. goggles. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. usually the toe of the slide. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. A human body. packs. b. make an initial probe search in that area. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. a. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. . hats. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers.

he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. especially in a high $ind. In the case of large and violent avalanches. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. All currently available transceivers are compatible. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. although they may operate differently in the search mode. 9ro e 9o!es. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. the greater $ill be his burial depth. a. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. Although this type of pole .igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. • Vegetation. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. Cany models of transceivers are available.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. . rocks. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. Conversely. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. • . the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. and other obstacles act as snares.

he probe is left in contact and the line continues."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. 9ro ing 8ines. he only sure check is by digging. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. $enty per line is satisfactory. c.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. 9ro ing Techniques. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. %. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. coarse probing implies a .ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %0* If no probing poles are available. %.performs best. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. .* . b. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. &or the probing operation to be effective. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. As evidenced by their names. the number of personnel per line should be limited. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$.

he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. clear commands are essential for efficient probing. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center. +trict discipline and firm. a . he probers themselves $ork silently. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -.6 6>. &ine probing is the concluding measure.D<.-. essentially.6 6+ . $hile the fine probe has.7 inches apart. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness.&D.6 <y using these commands. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. $ith feet about . the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.::(percent chance of locating the body.. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.D<. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: .!A...2. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. %. $hich almost guarantees finding the body.

6 6+ .D<. foot.D<.6 6C. -.ach man probes in front of his left foot.6 6>.6 6. and finally in front of his right foot.= .D<. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B..-.: inches from the adjacent one. the line advances .6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe. then in the center of his straddled position.6 6>.6 6>.& -.. %b* Dn command.D<...I9/ -.2.ach probe is made . . $hich is then moved ahead .&D.-. . foot and repeats the probing se#uence..D<.%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe..!A..D<. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string. . Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing..-.

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