Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. 2ress the knot do$n.etrace /. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. a.1*.. + . + . Figure 4-). it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(..oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.epeat + .. by tying the knot in a retrace. %. + .. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.0. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part... Checkpoints.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.. /o$ever.'. Tying the Knot. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.. b. .+ . Figure-$ight .1. .

* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.0.. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. + . + ... o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope.1.'. + . and route the $orking end through the loop. . ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.. he finished knot is dressed loosely. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. + .7. b. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. Checkpoints %.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.+ . leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. Figure 4-)1. Figure-eight retrace.). forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.. !ith the $orking end. .

/old rope in both hands.. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*..'. .. and bring it in$ard. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop...0. %.'*. /old the standing end in the left hand. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. + .. !ith the right hand. reach under the horiAontal anchor. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.1. + .. Tying the Knot. /old the loop in the left hand. he knot is tied. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.. + . %0* End of the Rope. depending on ho$ it is tied. + . a. + .. + . palms do$n $ith hands together.* Middle of the Rope. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions..0. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. grasp the $orking end.%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.

!hen tying this knot. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. b. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. Checkpoints..1.7*. + .. + . %. a.. C!o2e hitch.'. It is a middle rope knot. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. . %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining.+ . 2ress do$n the knot.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. !ith the right hand. Figure 4-)4. Tying the Knot.. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. ake up the slack from the anchor.. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.

+ . palm. + .1.. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. + . Figure 4-)5.)..'. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.7. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. . and fingertip. + . and place it over the heel $rap.+ .0. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap..8.. b. + .. Checkpoints. (ireman’s knot. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop..4. + .5. + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap...

It is a middle rope knot. + . !hen dressing the knot do$n. a. it lays in$ard. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.0. + ... Tying the Knot. + . tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.. the tail and the bight must be together. . Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.. !ith the $rap thus formed.%.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.. + . %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends..)*. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. Cake one $rap around the palm.'.1.

Checkpoints. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. %0* he tail and bight must be together.4*. %. It is a middle rope knot. . %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. b.Figure 4-)6. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. Directiona! #igure-eight.

. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.. + ..7.. ie an overhand knot on a bight.. + .a. Tying the Knot. . + . + . 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + .1. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.4.0. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.). &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be.'.. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot... &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. forming t$o loops. + . + .

. form an . %o+!ine-on-a..5.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left.Figure 4-)7.. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.ight.. Checkpoints. + . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. >sing a doubled rope. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. Tying the Knot. b.* It is a middle rope knot.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. %. a.

a. b.0. Figure 4-)". T+o-!oop #igure-eight.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar..7.'. %..8*. + . + . /old the bight $ith the left hand. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. 2ress the knot do$n. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.. Tying the Knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.+ . + . It is a middle of the rope knot. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.. . !ith the $orking end. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. Checkpoints.1.

1. + ... 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. + .. %. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. Tying the Knot. It is a specialty knot. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. form a loop in rope %standing part*.0. Figure 4-)'.. Checkpoints. Figure-eight !oop. b.. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. a. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. 2ress the knot tightly.+ . !ith the bight as the $orking end. .* he loop is the desired siAe.

. + . 2ouble the short rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted..*: + . . + . Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .each do$n through the . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.%.*.0(inch bight. + .. + . %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. Figure 4-. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. $ith the $orking ends even. ..*.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.. . he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.0..1. >sing an arm3s length of rope.. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. + .0.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart.1.. forming a bight. and place it over the long rope.. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik..

nsure they are tight. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. + .+ . $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. and not t$isted.4. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. .). $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. + . It is a specialty knot. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. parallel.7. + . %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed..'. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. . Figure 4-. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.. %.. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. Checkpoints. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. b.).

. + . Figure 4-. %achman knot. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. Tying the Knot....a. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. b.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.0.. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . Checkpoints. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. + . + . %..1. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.

bring a bight up through the loop. It is a specialty knot.4. . + . /olding the bight loosely.1.* A minimum of four $raps.. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage... -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. hen. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. .'. b. $ith a bight held in place by a loop.... !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. + . +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. not crossed.. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. Tying the Knot. + . %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. >sing the standing part. + . a. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. he standing portion is on the bottom. he running end is to the back of the body.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. single coil. %.. + .). place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.7. !ith the running end. tie an overhand around all coils. Checkpoints.0.. + . + .

+ .. + . form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. + . Bay the loops to the right.0. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system.1.Figure 4-. a. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!...'. Tying the Knot. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. . Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. It is a specialty knot..1. + .. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. !ith the right hand..

. It is a specialty knot. Three-!oop o+!ine.+ . +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.. + . Tying the Knot. . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. Checkpoints. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.4.7. %.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.. &orm a .. Figure 4-. b. a.

Figure-eight s!ip knot. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. + . /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . Figure 4-. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. standing end of the rope.5.'.0. + .+ .). . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.7. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. Checkpoints. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand... -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. %. + . b.1. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise..:u!e Knot0 .. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. + .0 inches up the rope.each through the bight and grasp the long. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.

+ .. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*... %. %1* he bight is a minimum of . b. Figure 4-. It is simply an overhand slip knot. + . Transport knot.. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. Tying the Knot.0 inches long. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.6. K!eimhiest Knot . + .1. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.0. a.* here is a single overhand slip knot. Check 9oints..

0. + .. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. . !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull..0 inches. + .. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. Tying the Knot. + . + .*. pass them through the bight %see + .. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. It is a special( purpose knot... a.7. !rap at least four complete turns.1.'. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. find the center of the rope and form a bight... + .he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . !ith the ends offset. easily adjustable.

Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .0 inches. %. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.: to . Checkpoints. It is a special(purpose knot. b. .. + . %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. + . K!eimhiest knot.7. Tying the Knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. a. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier...0.Figure 4-.. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull.

:unter -itch .: &orm a bight. + .* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.". Checkpoint. Figure 4-. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. + .* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.. Frost knot. b. It is a special(purpose knot.1: Cinch the knot tightly. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.. b. Checkpoints. %. %. a. <irth hitch. + . Tying the Knot...0: <ring the runner back through the bight. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.Figure 4-.'. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.

. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.he munter hitch. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. b.. + . + . Check 9oints.. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.0. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. + .0 inches apart. /old the loop $ith the left hand.1... palms do$n about . !ith the right hand.* A bight passes through the carabiner. %. !ith the right hand. %0* he carabiner is locked.'. + . Bock the locking mechanism. Tying the Knot. .. /old the rope in both hands. a. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.

. + . + .*.' feet or longer.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. Tying the Knot.Figure 4-1*. + .. .. It usually re#uires a sling rope ...'. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. thus creating a loop around the $aist.. . -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. a. + . ensuring they do not cross. :unter hitch.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.1..0.

+ .).7. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. &rom rear to front. -ull up on the ropes.4. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. Check 9oints..* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. %. tightening the seat.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. . pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. b.. . + .appe! seat. + . Figure 4-1).

..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs.0. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. + . preferably ovals*. Tying the Knot.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. a. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. + .. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot..

* !hen properly dressed. %.Figure 4-1. <uar&e knot. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. b. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. rope can only be pulled in one direction. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . Although mountain operations have not changed. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. Check 9oints. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities..

movement on glaciers. anchors. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience.). =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. >nless other$ise stated. he proponent of this publication is /F . glaciers. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. $henever the masculine gender is used. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. Countain Dperations. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . illness and injury. >.army. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. &ort <enning.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. tactics. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. evacuation. Inclement $eather. and training. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. and urban vertical environments. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. for training %see Appendi" A*. Army Infantry +chool. ice climbing.8:7(7781.A2DC. A =: A +/(. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. rock climbing. sno$(covered mountains. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. and actions. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. 9A 1.<D.+. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. ho$ever.).). e#uipment. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. both men and $omen are included.

Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . compartments.::: kno$n minerals. and $ell(led troops. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. Df the appro"imately 0. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. surprise. Spring storms. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. AcclimatiAation. conditioning.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. sno$fields. rehearsals. single ridges. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. glaciers. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging.

Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. e. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. After a rain. d. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. . found in limestone. +topping a slide on small. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. . c.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. b. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. San&stone. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. &ace climbing can be found."cept for calcite. . Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. and de$. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced.ockfall danger is high. Bimestone has pockets. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. granite dries #uickly. conglomerate type stones may be loose. Cha!k an& 8imestone. and cracks. <ranite. ho$ever. S!ate an& <neiss. ne$ sno$. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. After long. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. a. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. . Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. face climbing. <rassy S!opes. it cannot be protected. &ace climbing is possible. f. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. and it is usually difficult to protect. .

&irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. If possible. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. /o$ever. %. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds.ocks. . creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. his results in an intrusive rock.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. Ta!us. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. but smaller than boulders. a. Ascending scree is a tedious task. =gneous . Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. internal heat. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. and over time. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot.ocks.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. Scree. under pressure. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising .* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e .ock C!assi#ications . $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. g. he magma may move up$ard. or. h. avoid scree $hen ascending. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri".<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. . making coarse(grained plutonic rock. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell.

the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. Adirondacks. and dikes. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks.and crystalliAing. $hich cut across the strata. herefore. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. In plutonic rocks. . . it is called 6tuff. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures.ockies. Fuieter eruptions. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. %1* Cointing .ocks. or clusters of segregated minerals. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. Barge %. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. Dccasionally. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . forced bet$een sedimentary strata. =orth Cascades. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. +ierras.ocks. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. produce basalt.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. ."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. In the Alps.

ocks. hese changes may be minimal. Se&imentary . he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. :etamorphic . by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. c. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. but cleavage or foliation. +hale changes to slate or schist. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. In fact. %.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. he Canadian . sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. <ecause of this cleavage. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater.ocks. or oceans. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. especially in limestone. $hich offers .b. As sediments accumulate. and limestone to marble. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. %. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. After sediments are solidified. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. only slightly altering the sediments. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. lakes. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock.

$hich also provides solid climbing.* Dome :ountains. %. 9!ate Tectonics. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks.$orld class climbing. a. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. often accompanies up$arp. and heavier. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. &aulting. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. b. :ountain Structure. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. =evada. volcanoes. forming fault(block mountain ranges. and to pull apart and crack. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. he breakage e"tends . .ach type of stress produces a typical structure. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. and mountain ridge systems. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. ocean trenches. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. e"posing the central igneous core. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. . the Dlympics of !ashington. granitic continental crust. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. heaving up fold mountains. $hich results in fault(block mountains.

As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. ectonic forces. it is faulted on one side only. central core is all that remains. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. Core often. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. %1* Fo!& :ountains. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. he best kno$n is the 6.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. ho$ever. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. the oldest.

Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. the Caucasus region. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes.idge. and the Cediterranean. a. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. and faulted."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. and the . !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault.do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. domed. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. . there are folds measured by a rope length. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. Asian arc. In addition. . these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. he I2+ classes are: . the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines.ift Valley of . Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other.

his is the simplest form of free climbing. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions.—/iking trail. belay and emplace intermediate protection.8—.:(7. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. H Class 1—Climbing."tremely great difficulty.)—Cedium difficulty. $hich may have some e"posure. often combined $ith small belay points.:—. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. /ands are necessary to support balance. H Class '—<elayed climbing. and e"perience re#uired. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. %7* Class 7.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. . Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling."traordinary difficulty. %4* Class 7.H Class ..e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. hree points of contact are necessary. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. climbing techni#ue. . % his is moderate to difficult scrambling."posed positions. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. %)* Class 7. .7—Coderate difficulty. %'* Class 7.5—Very great difficulty.4—9reat difficulty. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure.'—Bittle difficulty.* b. /igh physical conditioning.* Class 7. %0* Class 7. %1* Class 7.

. if a fall $as e"perienced.asy aid. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. c. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level.. c. the 6. b.:d*. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars... %0* A.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. %.* Classes are further divided into a..—. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. 7.* A:—M&rench(free. %5* Class 7. and energy e"penditure.. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs.: to 7.' %for e"ample. 7.6 or 6L.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. ground fall $ould occur.5. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area.'—9reater increases of difficulty. and d categories starting from 7. d.5J*. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple. %&or e"ample. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling. . %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6. re#uiring more climbing ability. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable.6 indicates periods of run(out $here.. in a classification of 7.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. e"perience.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area.(7. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.

his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice.K0 days %usually not less than 7. III — About three(fourths of a day. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. VI — 9reater than 0 days. such as A1J or A1(. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %'* A1—/ard aid. V — .5*. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. hese falls. e. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. II — /alf of a day.4*. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. . /o$ever.%1* A0—Coderate aid. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. . >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall."tremely severe aid. All protection is sketchy at best. %7* A'—+erious aid. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous.K0 to 0 . ho$ever. %4* A)—. %)* A7—."treme aid. long fall potential does e"ist. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. If the leader falls. =o serious fall danger. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length.

b.)a 7.c 0a.b VIII .5 .8 0: 0.'a 1b.. able .a..c.* easy %.8 VI 7a 7.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup ..c.. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.f.1 IIIsup .b.c )a..1. 'b hard severe.7b(7c 7.a..:c VII .c..4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %. III .. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.:b VII . hard severe.7 ...* easy %.:a VII( ..: 7.. sho$s a comparison of these systems.c .).oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty. hard very 7.. 'c 7...c 7b.c 7b..'a 'a..:d VIIJ .7b 7. hard severe.c VIII .b 0a.1K.:.0.c )a.b. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .c 7a.(.1 7.1a 1b.'. 7. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.c 'a. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.7b 7.'. 'a severe.b.c )a.5 VI( severe. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.c 7b. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.b 7b.' 7.b.'a 1b.* moderate %CD2* . DDS Class . H <raAilian—<raAil uses .urope.c 7b.K.8 IIsup .0.)a 7.b 0c.0 7.b.7 7..7b 7.4 ..) 7.)b .b.a VIII( . Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems...

. all in a remote area.)K4. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.7.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. his route is subject to objective haAards. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour.)c 4a 05 . he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors. H V — A long climb in a remote setting.ating systems.. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. . and the route might be prone to avalanche. %.atings. $ith sustained technical climbing.)K4.0d IL( IL IL ILJ . easy climb near the road. . g. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. and more of it.0c 7. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.* Commitment . AI %alpine ice*. $ith little objective haAard. possibly $ith a haAardous descent.0a 7.verything a grade VI has. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*.7. -ossibly days to approach the climb.)c 4a VIII 0) . H VII — .oman numerals. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .0b 7. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself. . 2ifficult physically and mentally.7... $ith objective haAards ever(present.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings.. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day.7.)K4.)K4... H I — A short. A difficult and involved approach and descent.

possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. $ith places to rest. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. — A froAen lake or stream bed. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. H 7 — A long. An e"tremely tough pitch. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. he pitch may be shorter. strenuous pitch. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. additional information may be needed about siAe. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. but on featureless ice. erratic $eather. location. physically and mentally. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. a.atings. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. H . H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic.%0* Technica! . re#uiring agility and creativity. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. !hen planning mountain operations. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. . H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good.

H If lost. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. Co2er an& Concea!ment . during severe mountain storms. types. stay $arm. H 2o not rush. and amounts of precipitation. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. put on dry clothing.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. H ?eep dry. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. c. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. if possible. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. but do not overdress. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. H ?eep $arm. dry. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms.b. and calm. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. %. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain.

like observation. +ome rock types. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. b. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. dead space is a problem at short ranges. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. boulders. a. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. such as volcanic tuff. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. outcroppings. As in all operations. heavy vegetation. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. and fog can limit visibility. sleet. /o$ever. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. /o$ever. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. Conversely. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. In other areas. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. sno$. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. . positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. hail. are easily e"cavated.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. rain. In alpine environments. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. are e"cellent at long ranges. . sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. in depth.!hen moving in the mountains. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds.

especially in $inter. . he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. b. a. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. latitude. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. sno$ conditions. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. rainfall. or a rise in temperature. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. If an une"pected $ind strikes. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. and $eather factors. . but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable.

he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. At higher altitudes. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. 2ue to the cold. conse#uently. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. such as those found in desert regions. In tropical regions. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. d. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. +ome mountains. the thinner. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. a. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. . b. <ecause of this increased dryness. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. (eather Characteristics . Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. he barometer usually drops 0. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes.c. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard.

on the other . %. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. !ith lo$er air pressure. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. and the earth3s rotation.. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . land masses. Bo$ pressure. he higher in altitude. %0* 8o+ 9ressure.:. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. the lo$er the pressure. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. he higher the pressure.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. ho$ it is being moved. Associated $ith clear skies. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. and if it is being lifted or not. humidity %moisture content*. b.1 millibars %mb*. oceans. the better the $eather $ill be.::: feet.* -igh 9ressure. Associated $ith bad $eather. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. air pressure %barometric pressure*. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. In order to understand this. a. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6.

!ith increasing $ind strength. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. <ecause of these funneling effects. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. c. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. b. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. Above hot surfaces. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. Dn a $eather map. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. dense clouds fill the air. =ormally. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. or at high altitudes. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. c. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs.6 (in& In high mountains. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. a. . the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. >sually.hand. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. and sinks to the earth3s surface. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. 2uring the $inter season. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction.

Continental ropical — $arm. dry air mass. dry air mass. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. Caritime -olar — cold. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. g. e. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. Caritime ropical — $arm. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. . he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. f. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. In the =orthern /emisphere.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. has settled to the surface. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. $et air mass.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. $et air mass. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. there are three prevailing $inds: %. due to the earth3s rotation. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast.d. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold.

. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture.:: percent relative humidity. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. and thermometer. fog.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing.%.0 degrees &ahrenheit per .. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. a. rain. the $armer the air. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. and so on*. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point.:: percent relative humidity*.. $ind meter. clouds are formed. sno$.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. b. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. de$. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. the more moisture it can hold.

and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . b.a. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. a. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s.(0*. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. it has no$here to go but up. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. hey can be classified by height or appearance. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). c. +ince air masses $ill not mi".arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. Bo$(level clouds %: to ).(. 6rographic 8i#ting. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. Clouds can be described in many $ays. d. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. . his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . Fronta! 8i#ting. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached.7:: feet. !hen temperatures are cold enough. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. and . A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. mid(.

Stratus C!ou&s. %.(1 and . . 3im ostratus C!ou&s. Cumu!us C!ou&s.('*..* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . Figure )-. Figure )-1.Figure )-).

he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus.::: feet .Figure )-4. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. especially if the cloud is more than 1. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation.

here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather.()*. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. especially if they are rising over time.::: feet thick. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. though usually hours a$ay. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). Figure )-5.(7 and . composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. 7!tostratus.7:: to 0:.* b. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. Figure )-6. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures .thick. Cold clouds. .::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. 7!tocumu!us. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.

::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. Figure )-7. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. in a blue sky. at night. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. humidity rises. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. Cirrus. emperatures are $arm.(5*. c. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. !ith altostratus. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. As the storm approaches. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even.(4 and &igure . produces a ring of light around the moon. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay.%. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. . he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass.

%0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like.::: feet. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. releasing incredible amounts of energy. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. %. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. %. As a result. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. . the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. or seemingly all tangled together. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation.Figure )-". shaped like a comma. Cirrostratus. ?no$n for their flat bases and ."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. hey can be nearly straight.::: feet. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. d.

!ithout a continued supply of rising air. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. an artifact of erosion. >nder favorable conditions. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. ice crystals dominate the composition.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. . As the air rises.::: feet or higher. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. ho$ever. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. 9iven suitable conditions. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. damaging $inds. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.(8*. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. and tornadoes. .distinct outlines. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. large hail. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms.

and cools. stable air encounters a mountain.:*.Figure )-'. is lifted up$ard. 6ther C!ou& Types. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. If they gro$ and descend. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. lenticulars. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. similar to a 6flying saucer. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. hey are orographic clouds. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. $arming as it descends. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. /o$ever. >pon reaching the mountain top. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. %. and contrails. .* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. Dnce the air returns to its original height. e. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. Initially. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. Cumu!onim us. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. !ith continued descent. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups.(. bad $eather can be e"pected.

Figure )-)*.*. Figure )-)). +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. f.. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. 8inticu!ar.(. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Contrai!s. especially if the sky is . then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. C!ou& =nterpretation. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon.

6cc!u&e& Front. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. there . cumulus. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. to the local sky. c. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. and stationary. cirrostratus.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. a. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. Co!& Front. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. b. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. <ecause $arm air is less dense. $ill force the $arm air up. cirrostratus. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. cold. (arm Front. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. being more dense than $arm air. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. it becomes a stationary front. he four types of fronts are $arm.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead.covered $ith cumulus clouds. Dccasionally. Cold air. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. . nimbostratus %producing rain*. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. occluded. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. and nimbostratus. and fog. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. d. it is a $arm occlusion. Stationary Front. altostratus. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air.

a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . the temperature of the air drops 7.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. and mid(latitudes. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . sno$. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion.::: feet of elevation gain. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. Temperature =ormally. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. subarctic. Conse#uently. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. a. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. fog. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. due to convection currents. b. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. <esides permitting rapid heating. the temperature of the air drops 1. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset... Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. and precipitation*. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. clear. . he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit.::: feet of elevation gain. his cooler. At high altitudes. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming.. and heat loss through thermal radiation. calm mornings. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every .

a. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. o be effective. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample..::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. .0 degrees &ahrenheit per .c.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast.* 9ersistence :etho&. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. including >+A&. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. temperature. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. $ind meter. . b. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. thermometer. if today $as hot and dry. but more slo$ly %1. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. >+=. or the =ational !eather <ureau. the amount of data available. are also helpful. herefore.

high( and lo$(pressure centers. Aisi i!ity in :eters. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*.* If an anemometer is available.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. .%0* Tren&s :etho&. tents. Ideally. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. (in& Direction. (in& Spee&. /o$ever. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. Assess $ind speed in knots. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. such as trees. c. and so forth. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. &or e"ample. bushes. assess speed to the nearest knot. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. %. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. are blo$ing. this may not al$ays be the case. a. b. . $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. and clouds and precipitation. %0* If no anemometer is available. under changing conditions. %'* 7na!og :etho&. estimate the speed in knots. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing.

5 times C plus 10. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . degrees & Q 10 " . Tota! C!ou& Co2er. e.* f. %. %&or e"ample. &og. total cloud cover is 'K5. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. If clouds are not touching terrain. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . Assess total cloud cover in eighths. . $Bamp!e4 '.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. Cei!ing -eight. g.77. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather.. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*.. degrees &.d. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. 9resent (eather. colder temperatures.77 P 7 degrees C. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. hail. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. Temperature.* !ith a thermometer. then estimate to the best of your ability. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. =ote if bases are above all terrain. .ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. .5 J 10 P '.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. heavy do$npours. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . 7 degrees C " .

* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. Carked $ind speed increases.%0* !ithout a thermometer. %. !ith a barometer or altimeter. Changes in obstructions to visibility. 9ressure Tren&. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. 6 ser2e& (eather. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. Carked cooler temperature changes. i. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. %. Carked increase in humidity. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Increasing cloud coverage. he closer the isometric lines are. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. as $ell as an estimated temperature. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. assess the pressure trend. Increase in precipitation. h. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. .

such as lack of preparation.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. carelessness. $ind. Ep&ate. Fa!!ing. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. bad $eather. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. age. companions. over(fatigue. improper diet. tour.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. &alling can be caused by carelessness. or as a combination %human trigger*. a hold breaking a$ay. a. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. man(made %caused by an individual. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. j. /umidity decreases. %i2ouac Site. b. avalanche run(out Aones. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. c. . overestimating ability. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. or other reasons. Increasing barometric pressure. and poor judgment. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. $quipment. e#uipment misuse*. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. or e"cessive use. dehydration. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . choice of route. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. climbing above one3s ability. and flooding %especially in gullies*. overe"ertion. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. rope in. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. lightning. If the possibility of falling e"ists. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. heavy e#uipment.

If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. icefalls. If you must cross these danger areas. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. and so on. +leep $ell. As this slope increases . and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. Aisi i!ity. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. a. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. sno$. stay hydrated. d. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend.ock. rain. Cre2asses.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. . 72a!anches. darkness. Avoid. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. &og. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope.::: pounds*. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year.efer to paragraph . acclimatiAe slo$ly. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall.ock#a!!. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. At high altitudes %especially over ). c. if at all possible.* f."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample.: kilograms %about 0. rockfalls.7:: feet*. If ice is in the gully. %. >se a route sketch and march table. b. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. it is best to rope up. endurance and concentration is reduced. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. lightning. e. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. . g. If you must move under these conditions. storms. 7!titu&e. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. hanging glaciers and seracs. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. <u!!ies.

isolated trees. b."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. but dehydration is of greater concern. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening.::: feet. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. A clear. and a bluish light %+t. a. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. c. fi"ed $ire installations. Bike$ise. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. .lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. rock $alls. herefore. cracks filled $ith earth. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. Bightning is fre#uent. haAardous icefalls can be formed. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. d. +eek shelter around dry.* Avoid peaks. e.from 07 to 1: degrees. as a glacier makes a bend. Above appro"imately 5. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. violent. %. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. shallo$ depressions. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. . hair standing on end. and rock needles. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. the force #uadruples. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend.: kilometers apart. humming of metal objects. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. ridges. . crackling. cracks that guide $ater. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. shallo$ overhangs. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . caves*.

f. the sno$ #uickly melts. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. $hich may bury the trail. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. rain. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. If half $ay up the rock face. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. and sno$. &or each . and debris being blo$n about. If already rappelling. g. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing.5 inches@ ho$ever. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*.* . $indburn. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. 2rink plenty of fluids. . h. % able . i. even if overcast. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. If it is sno$ing.::(meter rise in altitude.0 to . $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. j."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. 2uring and after rain.

%0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. %1* S!ope 7spect. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. S!ope Sta i!ity.* S!ope 7ng!e. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees.Ta !e )-. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . but may occur on concave slopes. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes.7 degrees have avalanched. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. +lopes as gentle as .. a. %. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep.

+torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. %. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. %Dn at least one occasion. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. . 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . b. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. e"plosions. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. Sno+ 9its. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. %'* (eight. +ustained $inds of . are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. %'* <roun& Co2er. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. the potential for avalanche is high.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. Various factors trigger avalanches.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. At temperatures above freeAing. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations.* Temperature. %. Dn grassy slopes or scree. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. -assing helicopters. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. Triggers.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. $arm days. heavy e#uipment. . %1* (in&.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. c. %7* Ai ration. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. %0* 9recipitation.sunny.

he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. %1* Conduct a . place the other foot on the block. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. Dnce above. d. through all the sno$. =e"t. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. to the ground. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. and so on.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. If the block is still holding up. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. then t$ice. o conduct the test. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. s#uat once. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. smooth the face $ith a shovel. %. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block.pit across the fall line. o isolate the rear of the column. Dnce the pit is complete. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer.utschblock test.

a drop in temperature of .during the $inter sno$ season. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. Barge avalanches of this type.: degrees Celsius %.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. settled sno$. . +lab release is rapid. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. d. %b* As slabs become harder. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. Although any avalanche can kill you. &or normal density. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. 9rotecti2e :easures. Dther measures include: .

-ut your hood on. far from the bottom of slopes. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. avoid moving during these periods.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. $hich is al$ays the best choice. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. and not directly up the center. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. %1* ake advantage of dense timber.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. . as $ell as protect your spine. If you must traverse. e.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. 2eploy avalanche cord. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. >se them for lunch and rest stops.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. ridges. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. f.%. -repare to discard e#uipment. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. %0* <roup Sa#ety. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. . %. %. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. .oute Se!ection. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. climb to the side of the avalanche path.

<e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. ID>. their pulse rate declines. %)* ry to rela". %1* Soun&s. no one can hear you scream. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. shut your mouth. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed.. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$.* :ountain 8i2ing . %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. Sur2i2a!. g. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. hold your breath. . Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. they $ould avoid the avalanche. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. %. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. &I9/ &D. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. do not fight it. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. BI&. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. If you feel yourself about to pass out.%0* Fracture 8ines. If you feel your feet touch the ground. and the body temperature is lo$ered.* 2iscard e#uipment.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers.

Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. /yperventilation and the cool. #ormal activities $navigation. &luids lost through respiration. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. raining should include: psychological preparation. locating $ater. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. perspiration. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. fire building. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. communications. health haAards. a.(4)*. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. Dne #uart of $ater. or the . he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. shelter considerations.

If he is hot and the $ater is cold. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. . physical activity must be reduced. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. b. ho$ever. thirst should be satisfied in increments. mountain streams. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. severe cramping may result. c. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. Conserve $ater for drinking. d. +no$. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping.e#uivalent. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. springs. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply.ven $hen $ater is plentiful.0 #uarts %. If the $ater supply is insufficient. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. -urification must be accomplished. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. juices. and a loss of . . -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. &ruits. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. rain. e.

defense*. If possible. b. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. After sundo$n. !ater is scarce above the timberline.::: feet*. precautions must be taken. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. assembly area. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. . f.(4)*. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. but other$ise not dangerous. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. !ater that is unfit to drink. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*.drinking $ater. a $atering party should be employed. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. a. high mountain areas freeAe. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available.'. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. At progressively higher elevations %greater than .

and are harder to digest at higher altitudes.of cold rations. eggs. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. and minerals. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. or milk proteins. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. Cain sources of fats are meats. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. cheese.* 9rotein. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. Df the total daily caloric intake. fats. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. fiber. is 5 ounces for a . vegetables. butter. metabolic changes. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. milk. and loss of appetite. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. vitamins. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. eggs. . he minimum daily protein re#uirement.7'(pound man. nuts. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. and legumes also provide amino acids. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. and cheese. poultry. milk. resulting from digestion of protein. energy. fish. Dther foods such as cereals. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. regardless of physical activity. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. amino acids. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. and carbohydrates. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. %. hese food components provide energy. c. %0* Fats. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. and meats. he amino acids.

a balanced diet is a necessity. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. In the form of glucose. %'* Aitamins.: days. . =utritionally. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. vegetables. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. vegetables. . A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. especially if this period is to e"ceed . iron. vegetables. d. and ?. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. vitamin supplements should be considered. 2. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. depending on the soldier. and fruit. fruits. fruits*. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. and meats. %. .ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. phosphorous. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A.%1* Car ohy&rates.. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. and Ainc. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . $hich are found in cereals. %7* Cinerals. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake.

metal containers. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food.$orks. herefore. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. candies. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion.7:: calories for garrison activity.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. thus releasing heat."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. Commanders may consider supplementing C. . %About '. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon.s $ith breakfast bars. >se stoves and heat . and hot chocolate are diuretics. %1* .::(pound man*. juices. cramps. shortness of breath. /ot beverages of soup. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. fires. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. juices. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. !hen cooking. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. po$dered milk. cereal bars. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. At higher elevations. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. fruits.. are important in maintaining energy levels."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. stoves. and be eaten hot or cold. +ince coffee. and illness. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. and cider should also be considered. o conserve fuel. . tea.. and chocolate. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. marked."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. Carbohydrates. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. the cooking time may be doubled.

he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. and burial sites. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. As all missions are tactical. %7* Certain drugs. ahkios. a. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. !hen operating in areas . +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. hydration. If possible. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. medications. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. mainly during periods of cold $eather. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. herefore. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. alcohol. no trace of a unit should be detected. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. garbage should be burned or deep buried. nose. %. perspiration. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. and eyelids. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. 9ersona! -ygiene. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. and judgment of soldiers. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. his is especially important in the high mountains. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. In freeAing $eather. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended.

$hich may cause blisters. In rocky or froAen ground. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. If laundering of clothing is difficult. Sanitation. cracks. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. &eet should be $ashed daily. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. digging latrines is usually difficult.6 +ince $aste freeAes. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. it can . In tactical situations. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. dried. but must be #uickly dried. b. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. and kept as dry and clean as possible. the soldier in a designated. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. If latrines are constructed. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. and discoloration. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. !henever changing socks.$here resupply is not possible. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. blisters. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet.

::: feet.::: feet %high elevation*.::: feet and ending at . . he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore. /o$ever.5. employment of the local population may be advantageous. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . Areas above .::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. starting at about 5.::: to . Above 5. $aste may be covered $ith stones. At these altitudes. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people.'.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.'.::: to . he e"pectation that freshly deployed.*. Altitude illness is common here.be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. Very high altitude is the region from .5.*. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC.'.::: feet.::: to 5.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. Coderate altitude is from 7.::: feet. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. $here altitude illness is the rule. and training of soldiers. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. In rocky areas above the timberline. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. conditioning. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation.::: feet. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent. /ere. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary.::: to 5.::: feet.4.

Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and .apid ascent to elevations of . nutrition and physical activity it is about .0.:.::: to . Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. 2eterioration of memory. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent. operational unit. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . +leep disturbances.5 percent may have severe symptoms.::: feet. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ).::: feet*. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. Increased irritability in some individuals.7:: feet causes severe. /eadache.0 to . 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. +lurred speech.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms.apid ascent to . a.'. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. Irregular breathing. . he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months.apid ascent to .'. the rate of ascent. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated.4. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ). and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. . Boss of appetite. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. . incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. b.

Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness.+. and enemy situation. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . As $ith all military operations. -riorities of training must be established.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache.+. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. >.. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. a. herefore.+.unacclimatiAed personnel. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. environment.

taking an e"tended rest period. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. time to ac#uire $ater. and.::: feet. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. !ater. $ater purification supplies. . Additionally. mission.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. $ith the unit.::: feet per day. if in a $inter environment. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. c. a unit should ascend at a rate of . hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. and rest must be considered as priorities.. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation.::: to 0. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. these drugs are diuretics. >nits can leapfrog. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*.* Above 5. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. food. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater.

f. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. . he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. A different group of muscles are used. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. $hich must be developed and hardened. his conditions the back and legs. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. he better the physical condition of the soldier. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. the soldier3s . developing a sense of insecurity and fear. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. d. climbing. and special e#uipment loads. $hile carrying D. . his increases the soldier3s endurance. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. e. At the same time. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. and calisthenics. the metabolism becomes more efficient. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs.

. abdomen. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. to the point of instinctive reaction. breathing management. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. . and trench foot*. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. conditioning. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. . and mountaineering skills are realiAed. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. he heart rate. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. >pon deploying to high elevations. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. arms. and circulatory support. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. contusions and fractures.epetitive practice. back. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. lungs. personnel can still become injured %sprains. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. hese include sprains. metabolism. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. strains.capacity for e"ertion is increased. As $ith any other injuries. legs. After acclimatiAation. strains. frostbite. g. hypothermia. abrasions. fractures.

fever. and headaches may occur. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. he . he skin may be $arm to the touch.7::.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. bandage. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. Sun urn. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain.:: and . $ash thoroughly. %1* o treat sunburn. burning. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. Immediate first aid is given on site. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling.* Contributing factors include fair skin. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. . the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. If blisters do break. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. 2o not pop blisters. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. In severe cases chills.. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. %. a. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. 2ue to rough terrain. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. and seek medical attention.

+no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. Sno+ !in&ness. %. .7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. ice.* In an emergency.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. an +-& of . the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. %'* o prevent sunburn. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. b. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation.* 2uring sustained activity. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. %&or e"ample.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. the >. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. Avoid rubbing the eyes. and $ater.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. -roper sunglasses should provide . improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. %1* o treat sno$blindness. red. If still painful.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. Administer pain medication if needed.+. %Currently. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache.

a. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. personnel. rest. and fight in $inter conditions. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. and immersion foot. but freeAing temperatures are not. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. /o$ever. b. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results.0. +imple tasks take longer to perform. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. and nutrition.*. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. move. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. dissemination. dehydration. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. .

he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. %1* <eographic 6rigin. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. %0* .ace. %'* 7m ient Temperature.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. (in& chi!! chart.Figure .-). If a soldier has had a cold injury before. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. %. &or e"ample. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. c. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor.

?eep dry. %5* C!othing. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. • • • . he lo$er the $ind chill. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. in mind. Avoid overheating. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. D—2ry.D. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. 6—Dverheating. %4* Terrain. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less.6. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. therefore. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature.8. !et clothing loses insulation value. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries.danger Aone or beyond. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. %)* Type o# :ission. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. accumulation of perspiration.

'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience.7* 3utrition. %. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. %. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. %.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. age is not a significant factor. d. %. %. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions.1* Concomitant =n>ury. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries.%8* :oisture. In cold $eather the human body needs special care.* 7ge.. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration.:* Dehy&ration. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder. %. . $hich in turn can accelerate shock. %. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. especially in higher elevations. Individuals must retain their body fluids. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et.0* Fatigue. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel.a&ica! Changes in the (eather. %.4* . .

Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. f. or evaporation. and careful. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. ."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. %.a&iation. conduction.%. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. %0* Con&uction. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. e. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries.* . -erform emergency first aid. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. deliberate. Dn cold days. convection. . +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*.

Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. %'* $2aporation. slo$er heart beat. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. o treat shock. cold skin. his is usually caused by . pain. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin.levate the back and head. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. Any illness or injury can produce shock. %. shortness of breath. insulates. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. g. fear. !ind chill is convection cooling. rapid and faint pulse. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. Clothing that ventilates. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. %0* Dehy&ration. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. %b* 'reatment. s$eating. . %a* Symptoms. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. administer $ater. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. or feet. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. and e"cessive thirst. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. .* Shock. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin.%1* Con2ection.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. unconsciousness. and possibly death. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. and loss of blood. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. his condition may digress into incoherence.

the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. decreased amounts of urine being produced. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. %b* Symptoms. lack of appetite. o distinguish bet$een them. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. At high altitudes. fainting. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. in fact. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. upset stomach. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. hey may. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. he is probably dehydrated. diAAiness. If the stomach is cold. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. /o$ever. the air is dry. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. and unconsciousness. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. higher temperature. %a* Contributing +actors. mental sluggishness. headache. tiredness. Cold causes fre#uent urination. dry mouth. rapid heartbeat.

In advanced cases. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. %c* 'reatment. . Allo$ the victim to rest. Change in $eather. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Contributing +actors. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. %1* -ypothermia. 2iarrhea. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. -oor nutrition. 2ecreased physical activity. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. Accidental immersion in $ater. /igh $inds. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. is planned for every 1. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. If untreated. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. /A-. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. reatment of /A-. $armth. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*.::: to 0. • • • . may become irreversible and cause death. A rest day. given orally can also be effective. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. /A-. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0.• -rogressive shortness of breath. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . are prone to second attacks. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. >nconsciousness. rest. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. using mannitol could be fatal. &urosemide %Basi"*. and death results. e. hydration.. rapid heartbeat %pulse .::: feet of altitude gained. =ifidipine %-rocardia*.):*. $hich is a diuretic.::: to 1. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. Crackling. is prevented by good nutrition.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. and o"ygen. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. . $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells.0: to . if left untreated. • • d.

c. is a severe headache. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. is the same as for /A-. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. a. Beft untreated. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital.est. maintaining hydration. reatment for /AC. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. b. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. $armth. . +ymptoms of /AC. +upplemental o"ygen. vomiting. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. . d. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. and /AC. paralysis. hallucinations.apid descent and medical attention. include mild personality changes. . decrease in urination. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. immediate descent is mandatory. confusion. can cause death. -revention of /AC.. coma. /A-. -reventive measures include good eating habits. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. inability to concentrate. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions.. stupor. he main symptom of /AC. and lack of coordination. may occur in e"perienced. convulsions..• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. headaches. /AC. and unconsciousness.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion.

:ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. cause increased proteins in the plasma. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. edema. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. . . 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals.rovided all tactical concerns are met. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. therefore. both cerebral and pulmonary. occurs. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. move faster. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. cools down and heats up differently. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. and /AC. . 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. &rom this. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. or the fluid portion of the blood. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity.

Foot+ear Currently. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. a. a lace( up configuration. he inner boot provides support. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. c. /o$ever. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots.*. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. he outer .* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane.*. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. %. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. as $ell as insulation against the cold. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. b. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock.

and provide insulation from cold temperatures.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. uncomfortable and.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. As a system. the insulation layers. he is. ski bindings. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. Figure 1-). !hen $orn improperly. socks provide cushioning for the foot.egardless of climatic conditions. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. at $orst. . !hen clothing is $orn properly. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. . develops hypothermia or frostbite. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. Socks. and the outer most garments. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. remove e"cess moisture. at best. if $orn correctly. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. a. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. %. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers.

&or the most part. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. In colder environments. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. he primary material in this product is polyester.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. . these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. /o$ever. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. If the user is $earing V< boots. En&er+ear. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. b. c. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. he . =nsu!ating 8ayers. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. %a* In severe $et conditions. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions.

<aiters. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the .C!C+ correctly. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. e. as $ell as mud. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. d. 6uter 8ayers. t$igs. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers.. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. and stones. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. he .Figure 1-. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard .

It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. -an& (ear.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. Figure 1-1. Three types o# gaiters. $ill need to be locally purchased. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock.ven during the best climatic conditions. . and snaps. %. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole.. . hook(pile tape. in most cases. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it.C!C+ and. f.

%.Figure 1-4. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. predominately $ool.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. as $ell as replacement liners for both.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. g. -an& +ear. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. man( made fibers are preferred. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. =atural fibers. -ea&+ear. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. . %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers.

i.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. . and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. neck. Figure 1-5. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. &or e"treme cold. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. Figure 1-6. -e!mets. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. $ye+ear. his covers the head. h.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. a balaclava can be added. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . !hichever helmet is selected. -e!mets.

* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and.uropean norm %. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains.uropean norm %C.uropean economy. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. $ebbing. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. have been combined to make combined . heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. . . Figure 1-7. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. Community . &rance. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .=*.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. :aintenance o# C!othing. It is based in -aris.urope %C. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. and comprises several commissions. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging.urope. and harnesses. cord. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. j.=* and C. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.

. &or most military applications. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle.a.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought..opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. Kernmant!e construction. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*.* . Its ability to stretch up to . it should be >IAA certified. abrasion resistance. essentially.(mm rope. If used for -rusik knots. and is best used in rope installations.opes an& Cor&. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. a standard . impact force. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope.. A static rope has very little stretch. Figure 1-".(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . $hich is. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. factors affecting rope selection include intended use.:. . are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. (e ing an& S!ings. . b. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an .egardless of the rope chosen. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension.. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. called slings or runners. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. he . A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. and elongation. %.7( or .K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall.

K.)(inch or . Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. Tie& or se+n runners. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors.) inch.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope. ' inches. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. are usually lighter. . he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material ..* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. Figure 1-'. and have less bulk than the tied version. and . . . . %. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. c. more durable. the rope.) inch. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. carabiners. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying.0 inches. inch. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. and 0' inches.uses for these simple pieces are endless. &or most military applications. -arnesses.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*.unners are predominately made from either 8K.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. $hich is stronger. . hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. and anchors.

his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(.:*.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. %. . are more restrictive. !hile these harnesses are safer.:*. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. %1* .is unavailable. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. referred to as a seat harness.:*. &itted properly. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. his type of harness. !ith the remaining $ebbing. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses.

<asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes.. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. great care should be . Cara iners. . Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. Figure 1-)*. !hen using a carabiner. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. +teel is still $idely used. a. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism.*. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. the 2(shaped. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. he oval. his rope. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. given other options. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains.

3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.. Figure 1-)).0*.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. the load is . <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. Figure 1-). %.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength.

vertical cracks.* 1ertical . and angle. Dn vertical pitons. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. %. $afer. b. Figure 1-)1. hese pitons are used in flush. and angles. hey are made of malleable steel. and length %&igure 1(. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. specifically the locking version. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. horiAontal. %1* .egardless of the type chosen. Aarious pitons. and $ith the gate open. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. or other alloys.itons. . A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. hardened steel. design. along its minor a"is. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. 9itons. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner.1*. hey are described by their thickness. the blade and eye are aligned. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly.

>.itons. ledges. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(.(inch s#uare. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances.itons. or leather is used to .itons. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . 9iton -ammers. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. %4* 3ong . hese pitons are used in shallo$. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. or flakes. hese are used in direct(aid climbing.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. metal.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. %)* Angle . hey are designed to bite into thin. .'*. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. hese pitons are used in flush. hey are small and fit into thin. shallo$ cracks. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. Dn horiAontal pitons. A safety lanyard of nylon cord.itons. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. flush cracks. shallo$ cracks.5 centimeters $ide. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction.itons. %1* Wafer . hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place.itons. c. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1.%0* Horizontal . %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. %'* 2nife 3lade . $ebbing.

A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. . into the rock. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. Figure 1-)4. Chocks. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. to be used as anchors.7 centimeters long and $eigh .7*. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons.0 to 07 ounces. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. d. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. 9iton hammer. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use.

he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. e. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. Three-point camming &e2ice. Figure 1-)6. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . Chocks. f. $hen used in the camming mode. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*.Figure 1-)5. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(.4* provide convenient. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices.)*.

Figure 1-)7. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. . .ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. they can be purchased or homemade. g.semi(rigid point of attachment. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. Chock 9icks. hese are placed #uickly and easily. saving time and effort. Cade from thin metal.5*.

Figure 1-)". h. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. $hich is driven into the rock. <ecause of this re#uirement. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. Dnce emplaced. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. Chock picks. . <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. <urrs. and e"tremely noisy. bolt driver. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock.8*. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. %o!ts. and moisture. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. %. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. corrosion. and $eights. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. brands."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. $hich is time(consuming. e"hausting. . A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. hese re#uire a hammer.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. and drilling anchor. chips. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. dirt. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts.

and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. %. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. . the tuber. . <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot.Figure 1-)'. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. %o!ts an& hangers.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay.egardless of the belay device choosen. i. %e!ay De2ices.

. Descen&ers.Figure 1-. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. &or difficult vertical terrain. Figure 1-. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. t$o ascenders $ork best. &or lo$er angle movement. j.). S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. 7scen&ers.*. k. Figure-eights. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. one ascender is sufficient. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0.*.

errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields.Figure 1-. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. 9u!!ey. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. 9u!!eys. &or best results. glaciers. and strong. froAen $aterfalls(can .. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems.. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*.1. l. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. 7scen&ers. A pulley should be small. Figure 1-. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. light$eight.

but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. is perpendicular to the shaft. %.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. a. . direct(aid climbing. probing. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. self(arrest. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. =ce 7B. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. It can be made of fiberglass. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. used for chopping. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. step cutting. belays. head %pick and adAe*. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. therefore safer for mountaineering. hollo$ aluminum. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. he adAe. anchors. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. can have different configurations. %b* he head of the a".

c. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. =ce aB an& ice hammers. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear.4. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. . Crampons. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of .b. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. loose ends should be trimmed. Figure 1-. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. . inch of front point protruding.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. =ce -ammer. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*.

Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. It is designed to be used $ith soft. %. fle"ible boots.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done.5. but can be used on less vertical terrain. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. %0* he rigid crampon. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . is rigid and does not fle". All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. as its name implies. Crampons.Figure 1-. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types.

4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. Figure 1-.6.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. . ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. =ce Scre+s.. d. =ce scre+s. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength. %. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation.mountaineering boots. . • • • ype I is . he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. hey are scre$ed into ice formations.

Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. If any cracks or bends are noticed. ho$ever. hey are available $ith bent faces. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion.' centimeters. . f. Figure 1-. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. flanged sides. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. the scre$ should be turned in. bends. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel.7. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. =ce 9itons. =ce piton. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. e. hey can. and fi"ed cables. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum.

Figure 1-. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . in shelter construction. he picket should be inspected for bends. chips. broken $ire strands. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age.". Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. and for cutting . !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. Sno+ Sa+. It can be used in step cutting. the picket should be turned in for replacement. g. Sno+ 9icket. $ands*. mushrooming ends. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*.::: kilograms. and carrying gear. or slippage is noticed. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. a. If bent or cracked. for removing froAen obstacles. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. and other deformities. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing..• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. broken $ire strands. bivouacs. he ends should be filed smooth. cracks. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. hey can be angled or (section stakes. movement. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. If any cracks.

bends. he handle should be inspected for cracks. and removing obstacles. cracks. bends. fading. number of haAards identified. and burrs. security to the shaft. Sno+ Sho2e!. folding. If the shovel is beyond repair. rust. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. $eather conditions %and visibility*. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. it should not be used. $arping. bends. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. light$eight aluminum alloy. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. !ands are . he sno$ shovel is made of a special. it should be turned in. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . step cutting. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. A file can repair most defects. b. he blade should be inspected for rust. burrs. and missing or dull teeth. shelter construction.sno$ stability test pits. and discoloration. Dn folding models. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he handle should be telescopic. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. and number of teams in the climbing party. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. and stability. to . and deformities. If the sa$ is beyond repair. 72a!anche rescue equipment. caches. bends. frays.. (an&s. d. and stability. he handle should be inspected for cracks. If any defects are discovered. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. c. he flag should be inspected for tears. the hinge and nuts should be secure. crevasses. !ands are used to identify routes. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. the $ands should be replaced. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. sno$(bridges.

robe. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier.Figure 1-. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. %. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. %0* . hese are small. . $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. %. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. e. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. 72a!anche rescue equipment.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back.'. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. 9acks.* Avalanche .

and its reliability. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. fuel availability.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. and are simple and light$eight. the better it $ill be.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. !hite gas. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. more harsh environment. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. and materials. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. and butane are the common fuels used. kerosene. !hen selecting a tent. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. g. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. he fly protects against . %. $eights. Tents. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. Sto2es. %. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. factors that should be considered are $eight. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. f. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. !hen choosing a stove.

light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. Skis. h. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. Sno+shoes. <efore using a ne$ tent. j. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. connect. +ome ski poles are . +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. they create the shape of the tent. sno$shoeing. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. i. and carrying heavy packs. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. !hen carrying heavy packs. Ski po!es. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. and become long and rigid. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution.

%. a component of the . /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. A flashlight can provide light. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. . can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. +leds vary greatly in siAe.egardless of the siAe. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. on some models. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small.:(man arctic tent system. to the one(person sko$. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. l. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. k. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. S!e&s. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . -ea&!amps.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. especially $hen hauling fuel. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. Figure 1-1*.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. . It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. !hichever sled is chosen. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and.* !hen choosing a headlamp.

.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. s$eater.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. Dbviously. and $ater procurement material. Stan&ar& <ear. a. magaAine pouches. the e"ception being hot. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag.conditions. stoves. compass and or altimeter. polypropylene top. foul $eather shells. or lithium batteries. if needed. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. first aid kits. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. $ater. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. fuel. desert. sunblock and lip protection. climbing e#uipment. map. $ith canteens. $histle. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. food procurement material. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. sunglasses. !hen the light is being packed. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. b. $quipment 9acking . nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. or jungle mountain environments. fire starting material. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. notebook $ith pen or pencil. ropes. nickel(cadmium. Caution4 Cotton clothing. 9ersona! <ear. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. $orn on the body. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. pressure bandage. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. -ocket items should include a knife. food.

!hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. &lashlight or headlamp. Day 9ack. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. pile top."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. Climbing rope. . e. d.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. rain suit. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. Crampons. Carabiners. or poncho. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. Cold $eather hat or scarf. &irst aid kit. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. Climbing rope. Canteen. one per climbing team.appelling gloves. casualty evacuation. Bocking carabiner%s*. Climbing rack. 9loves. or unplanned bivouac. . one per climbing team. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness.c. =onlocking carabiners. one per climbing team. Climbing rack. +ling rope or climbing harness. or s$eater. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. Ice a".appelKbelay device. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. . he carries a light day pack. >tility cord%s*. +urvival kit. . one per climbing team. In the event of an injury. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site.

$hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. and licking is best. %0* Compass. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . +ide shields. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. f. $ashing. The Ten $ssentia!s. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. pants. %7* ()tra Clothing. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. he clothing used during the active part of a climb.• • • • +leeping bag. %'* ()tra +ood. gloves or mittens. hey should filter 87 to . . and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. &uel bottle. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. +#uad stove.7 or higher. hat. .* 5ap. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof.S. under$ear. s$eater or fleece jacket. and or 6. boots. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. or navigational error. Altimeter.:: percent of ultraviolet light.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. +leeping mat. &or lip protection. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. includes socks. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. %. blouse. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. injury. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen.

scissors. &inally. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. %4* +irst aid 2it. . a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. the mountain environment— steep. $orking around the camp. • • • • • . e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs."tra pair of heavy socks. a broken bone. moleskin. elastic compression $rap."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. %b* o back up foul $eather gear."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. . In $inter or severe mountain conditions. small adhesive bandages. 2ecentraliAed operations. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. sharp tools. -ressure dressings.%a* . bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. herefore. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. adhesive tape. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. serious sprain. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. gauAe pads. and blisters. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. but commercially available headlamps are best. cleanser. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. . $hich is important $hile climbing. cutting the $ind. and employing $eapons systems. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. . Ciniature flashlights can be used. . butterfly bandages."tra hats or balaclavas.

harness. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. /eavy(duty thread. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. %0* 7ce A). %1* 4epair 2it. . Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations.:* 2nife. 2uct tape. Dther repair items as needed. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. +afety pins. -atches. g. and canned heat all $ork.ighter. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. A$l and or needles. as $ell as for stream crossings.* Water and Water Containers. %8* 5atches and . a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. Candles. heat tabs. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. %. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. or pack. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes.%5* +ire Starter. %. Bighters are handy for starting fires. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. Cord and or $ire. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires.

<y packing the lighter. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. As much as possible. and be securely . his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. e. among others. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. climbing hard$are.%'* =nsect . b. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. In most cases.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. nearer the shoulder blades. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. food. emergency bivouac shelter. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. rope. $ater. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. the load is held high and close to the back. e"tra ammunition* on top. more compressible items %sleeping bag. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. he ice a". and $ater procurement. d. if not carried in hand. c. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. . %7* Signa!ing De2ices. a.epe!!ent.

and 0nots. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . as stated above.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. care and maintenance procedures. rappelling. bring the hands together forming a loop. f. until the rope is completely coiled. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. and then tied in place. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. he rope may be given a . 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. . meter from the end $ith one hand. o start a mountain coil. t$ists. management techni&ues. serious in!ury may occur.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer.fastened. When climbing. his is repeated. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. . the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. a. 9rasping the rope firmly. and knots later during deployment.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. . grasp the rope appro"imately .ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . :ountain Coi!. or building various installations.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. If not. .K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.

>ncoil the last loop and. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. :ountain coi!.%. securing the coil. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil.* Figure 4-1. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place.* In finishing the mountain coil. -ull the running end of the bight tight. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. using this length of the rope. %utter#!y Coi!. slung across the chest. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. . doubling it and placing it under the flap. b.

-ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n.* Coiling. . grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. -lace the doubled rope over the head.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. In this configuration . Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. !ith the bight in the left hand. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. . %utter#!y coi!. o start the double butterfly. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps.Figure 4-4. %. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. and hold the center in one hand. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. .emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight.

c.ope. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. Cake three or more $raps. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. or for storage.0(inch bight is left. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . sling rope. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. !rap that bight around the coil. 2ress it do$n tightly. ensuring no kinks are in the rope.* Figure 4-5. . <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. . &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.

hro$ the large coils in the right hand first.ope <efore thro$ing the rope.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. Thro+ing the . he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. A smooth follo$ through is essential.e. =e"t. feeding it to a lead climber. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. Dnce stacked. hro$ up and out. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. %. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. a. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. !hen the rope is needed for use. A slight t$ist of the $rist. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. and so on. .D-.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. !ith the left hand. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling.

0.b. Class II—anchor knots. bends. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. Class III—middle rope knots.1. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. In a strong cross $ind. . + . bights. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. Tying the Knot...0. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. It is a joining knot. Anchor. c. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. and hitches is almost endless. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. he stronger the $ind. /olding one $orking end in each hand. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. + . a. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . up and out to$ard the horiAon.. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. he variety of knots. !ith e"perience and practice. adjustments must be made.. Aiming just above the horiAon.. back feed. + . the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target.. and stack the rope properly as described above. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. and Class IV—special knots.

. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. a. + .. Tying the Knot. It is a joining knot. Figure 4-6. %.. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied.* here are t$o interlocking bights.'. b.. Square knot.+ . Checkpoints. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. .

.. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. Checkpoints. Figure 4-7..nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. %1* . b. Tying the Knot. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot.1. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %.0.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. standing part of the opposing rope.+ .nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. a. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. + . It is a joining knot. Fisherman’s knot.

four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails..+ . b...*. %1* . Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight.. .. Dou !e #isherman’s knot. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. Insert the $orking end %+ .. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.. + .* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart.-+ . and 0*. + .. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. $hich contains the standing part %+ . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + .1. !ith the $orking end of one rope.. + . Checkpoints.* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight.'.0. %. Figure 4-"..

emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. . 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.. 2ress the knot do$n. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. Figure-eight en&.. Tying the Knot..0. !ith the other hand. + .... a.1.7.'. Figure 4-'. + . . race the original knot to the standing end. + . .Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. + . + ..

&eed the other end back through the knot.b. a.1.. overhand retrace. It is also called a ring bend. + . he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. Tying the Knot. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse.0.. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. + . + .. Checkpoints. or tape knot. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. %. .. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot.:*.. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot.

a. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. Tying the Knot.. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions.Figure 4-)*... b. %. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. one retracing the other. Checkpoints.*. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(.. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor.* here are t$o overhand knots. . %0* here is no slack in the knot. (ater knot. It is an anchor knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. + .

.. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight. %. + .7.+ ..oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . b.0.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. + . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. and bring it back onto itself. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + .'... %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*.1. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight. =o$ dress the knot do$n. .each through the loop and pull up a bight.

epeat + . b. 2ress the knot do$n.. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. Checkpoints. .oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. + . .etrace /.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.. Figure 4-). a. %..1..* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining...his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor. . + .un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact... distributing the load over the anchor. Figure-$ight . Tying the Knot. + .0.eroute& Figure-$ight0 . It is an anchor knot. and one in the front*.'.0*. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. + .oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. .

..).he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. by tying the knot in a retrace. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.1. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. + .. Tying the Knot. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope..0. . a. he finished knot is dressed loosely. ake the $orking end around the anchor point.. + .7. + .. /o$ever. + . and route the $orking end through the loop. !ith the $orking end. + . + .'..1*.. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.

. /old rope in both hands. a. depending on ho$ it is tied.* Middle of the Rope.. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. + . b. %. Tying the Knot.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.. Figure-eight retrace. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. . palms do$n $ith hands together.Figure 4-)1. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. Checkpoints %.'*.

!ith the right hand. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.0. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. + . reach under the horiAontal anchor. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.. + . /old the loop in the left hand. + . + . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.. 2ress do$n the knot. grasp the $orking end. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. !ith the right hand.1. he knot is tied..'.1. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.'.. /old the standing end in the left hand. %0* End of the Rope.. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. . + .. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*..+ . + . and bring it in$ard.0. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes..

and fingertip. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. + . + .0. a. . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(..'. palm.Figure 4-)4..7*.. Checkpoints.. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. + .. + . %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.1. It is a middle rope knot. + .4.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. ake up the slack from the anchor.. %. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single..). C!o2e hitch. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.7. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. b. + . Tying the Knot. !hen tying this knot.. + . and place it over the heel $rap.

fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. + . Figure 4-)5.+ . %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. a. Checkpoints. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. It is a middle rope knot.5. . Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.)*. %. (ireman’s knot. b. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. Tying the Knot.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point..8..

it lays in$ard. the tail and the bight must be together... tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. + . + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.0.1..+ .* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.. Figure 4-)6. Directiona! #igure-eight.. !ith the $rap thus formed.'. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. %. !hen dressing the knot do$n. Checkpoints. b.. . Cake one $rap around the palm. + .

4*. ie an overhand knot on a bight. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. + .'. . + . + . %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up..). + . a. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly... 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight..4.1.. + . forming t$o loops.. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. It is a middle rope knot.. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. + . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.%0* he tail and bight must be together. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. Tying the Knot..0. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.7. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. + .

5.. .5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. Tying the Knot.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. %o+!ine-on-a. b.. %..Figure 4-)7. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. + .* It is a middle rope knot. Checkpoints. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.ight. a. >sing a doubled rope. form an . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.

form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. b. + .'.+ . + . + .0.7.. .. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. It is a middle of the rope knot.1. 2ress the knot do$n. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. a.. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. !ith the $orking end. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. Figure 4-)".8*. /old the bight $ith the left hand. %..* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.

!ith the bight as the $orking end. form a loop in rope %standing part*. %.0. b. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. Checkpoints.1...* he loop is the desired siAe. Figure 4-)'. + . 2ress the knot tightly.. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. It is a specialty knot..+ . + . 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. Tying the Knot. . Figure-eight !oop. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. a.

*: + ..0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. + .. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. >sing an arm3s length of rope. . 2ouble the short rope. forming a bight.0.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. .. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.0. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. and place it over the long rope.each do$n through the . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. + . + .*.1... -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.*.%. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.. + . Figure 4-. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is ... Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope..1.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. $ith the $orking ends even. .0(inch bight. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.. + .

.). + . It is a specialty knot. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. %.+ . $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. and not t$isted. . Bay the $orking end under the long rope. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. %0* he locking bar faces the climber... $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.. + .. Figure 4-. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.4. b.7. Checkpoints.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.nsure they are tight. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.'. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.). %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. parallel. + . %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.

1. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. Figure 4-.. + . Checkpoints. + .0.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. + . %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.a. Tying the Knot. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner... b. %.. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. %achman knot. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner..

. single coil.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. + . bring a bight up through the loop.* A minimum of four $raps. hen. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. + . + . Tying the Knot.'. + .).. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.. he running end is to the back of the body. + . + . %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. he standing portion is on the bottom.4. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. It is a specialty knot. not crossed.0. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.1.. tie an overhand around all coils. a. !ith the running end. . Checkpoints. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.. %. b.. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself... +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.7. /olding the bight loosely. >sing the standing part. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. + .

It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. Tying the Knot.0. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. a. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. + . . form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.'.. + .. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.Figure 4-.1. Bay the loops to the right..1. !ith the right hand... + . + . -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. It is a specialty knot..

a. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. Three-!oop o+!ine. Checkpoints.4. Figure 4-.. It is a specialty knot.. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. Tying the Knot. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. . &orm a . b..7. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts..+ .* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. %. + .0(inch bight in the end of the rope.

.:u!e Knot0 . + .* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. %. standing end of the rope. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.'. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. Checkpoints. Figure 4-.. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.0 inches up the rope.. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . .0. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. + .).each through the bight and grasp the long.1. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. + .. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. + . %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.7.+ . b. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand..5. Figure-eight s!ip knot.

+ . Tying the Knot. It is simply an overhand slip knot..1.6. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. + ... Transport knot. + . -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. K!eimhiest Knot . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. %1* he bight is a minimum of . -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. Check 9oints.. Figure 4-. %.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.* here is a single overhand slip knot.. b. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.0. a.0 inches long.

!rap at least four complete turns. + . find the center of the rope and form a bight.... It is a special( purpose knot. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. + .. + .0. + .'. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. easily adjustable. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. !ith the ends offset. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.0 inches.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. . !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. a..7. Tying the Knot... >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . + . pass them through the bight %see + .*. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .1..

: to . a. . Tying the Knot..0. b. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.Figure 4-. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. %.... It is a special(purpose knot.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Checkpoints. + . Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. + . %0* All $raps are tight and touching.0 inches.7. K!eimhiest knot.

". %. + . Frost knot. Tying the Knot. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot... + .Figure 4-.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. a.: &orm a bight. It is a special(purpose knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Checkpoints.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.1: Cinch the knot tightly. Checkpoint. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. + . <irth hitch. :unter -itch .. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot..'. b. Figure 4-. b. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. %.

$ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. + ..1. %0* he carabiner is locked. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.* A bight passes through the carabiner. + . is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. /old the rope in both hands. /old the loop $ith the left hand..'. . %.he munter hitch.. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.. a. !ith the right hand. Bock the locking mechanism. b.0 inches apart.0. Tying the Knot. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. palms do$n about . + .. !ith the right hand. + .. Check 9oints.

. a. + .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. It usually re#uires a sling rope . -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. :unter hitch.Figure 4-1*. + . . ... thus creating a loop around the $aist..' feet or longer.'. Tying the Knot.. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. + .0. . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. ensuring they do not cross.*..1. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. + .

. + .. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.. %. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. -ull up on the ropes.appe! seat.+ . Figure 4-1).4. .* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. Check 9oints.).7. . + . tightening the seat. b. &rom rear to front.

he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. preferably ovals*. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. a.. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. Tying the Knot. + .%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip.0. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. + . <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot....

* !hen properly dressed. b. %. .. it will fail. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. or the e&uipment . <uar&e knot. rope can only be pulled in one direction. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load.Figure 4-1. Check 9oints. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load.

used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. boulders. /o$ever. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. .* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. /o$ever. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it.*. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. rees. When selecting or constructing anchors.

All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. b. . treesusually have a shallo$ root system. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. In rocky terrain. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use.Figure 5-). Trees use& as anchors. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. Figure 5-. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. a. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position.. Chockstones should be checked for strength. >se padding on soft. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. security.

hese include blocks. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position.Figure 5-1. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. . flakes. and clipping on a carabiner. horns. the projection should be avoided. their firmness is important. If rock projections are used. and spikes. tying a rope to it. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. a. Chockstones. If any of these signs e"ist. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. c. .ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*.ock 9ro>ections . b.

he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*.Figure 5-4.ock pro>ections. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. . . As $ith trees. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*.

$rap. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. Figure 5-6. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. . a. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. !hichever method is used.Figure 5-5. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. and girth. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. %ushes an& shru s. Drape.

!rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. (rap.Figure 5-7. b. Figure 5-". . Drape. (rap.

ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*.c. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable.:*. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. <irth. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. <irth. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. . .ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. his re#uires less e#uipment. 7nchoring (ith . . Figure 5-'.

he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps.Figure 5-)*. to absorb the tension. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. Figure 5-)). he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. Tension!ess anchor. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . more if necessary. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom..*. . A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps.

pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. $ould be ideal. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. chocks. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. e#uipment. such as a railroad tie.* Barge boulders can be used. such as pitons and bolts. and +BC2s. .:: years. In e"tremely hard. he"centrics. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. such as skis. As $ith natural anchors. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. %A hefty timber. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. &or training planning. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. ice a"es. and ruck sacks. and the load to be placed on it. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience.ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. sno$shoes. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. he sling is attached to the anchor. a.#uipment. .>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. . +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. Although still available. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. can also be used if necessary. b. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor.

the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. b. pitons can support multiple directions of pull.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. !hen this type of rock must be used. %. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. c. %0* !hile it is being driven. 9iton 9!acement. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. Disa&2antages. %&igure 7(. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. a. clear the loose rock. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. should be studied.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. as $ith any artificial anchor. if available* so that if the piton is knocked .3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. practiced. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. dirt. 7&2antages.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not.

%1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(.1*. and on the type of rock. because the piton is too long. Clip a carabiner into the loop. thereby loosening the emplacement.out of the crack. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. Figure 5-). 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely.. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. . +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. herefore. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. it $ill not be lost. he piton should not spread the rock. the firmer the anchor $ill be.

-ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. the emplacement is probably safe. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. Testing. Eerk vigorously up$ard.emo2ing 9itons. drive the piton in as far as possible. ry to be in a secure position before testing. and $hen using chocks. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. e. . drive it into another place.'*. there is any #uestion of its soundness.K0 meter from the carabiner. .epeat these actions as many times as necessary. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. . If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. If the sound regains its original pitch. d. do$n$ard. to each side. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. If the pitch has changed greatly. -ero-!oop. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. o test pitons pull up about . ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. then grasp the rope at least . Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it.Figure 5-)1. upon driving it.

they may have been driven poorly the first time.eusing 9itons. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. <efore use. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. vectors. having fallen and $edged in a crack. . Bight to carry. In training areas. Disa&2antages. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. 7&2antages. 9iton remo2a!. and straightened may be reused. but comple" in practice. removed. provides an e"cellent anchor point. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall.Figure 5-)4. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. f. a. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. he disadvantages of using chocks are: .asy to insert and remove. >sually easy to retrieve and. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. Also. b. but they must be checked for strength. . but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. unless severely damaged. are reusable. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. A natural chockstone. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. +oft iron pitons that have been used.

nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. c. grass.7*. if possible. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. Avoid poor protection.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. A carabiner often provides enough $eight .* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. Figure 5-)5. $hich should be removed before placing the chock.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. Dften provide only one direction of pull. $hich may accept pitons. . %0* !hen selecting a chock. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. %. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. Chock p!acements. and dirt. 9!acement. Book for a constriction point in the crack. +ome cracks may have loose rock. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. %1* . then select a chock to fit it. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. cord. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point.

+ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. use pairs of chocks in opposition.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. test it to ensure it remains in place. . since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. After seating a chock. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. %a* . It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. Testing. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced.)*. o test it. d. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem.

b. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. and release the retractor bar. a. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks.Figure 5-)6. place the device into a crack. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. pull the retractor bar back. %o!ts . S8CD p!acements. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. it may rotate and pull out.

!hen using bolts. or cracking. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. $hich bores the hole. c. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. .mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt.4*. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. b. carabiners. flaking. and should be tested $ith a hammer. . and runners. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. a. . <olts should be used $ith carriers. since this permanently $eakens it. /o$ever. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available.

but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points.8*. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. b. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. his not only provides greater anchor strength. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. It is aimed in the direction of the load. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. Figure 5-)". 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor.5*. a. . A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)7. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. $qua!i@ing 7nchors .

3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. therefore. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . terrain hazards.Figure 5-)'. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. and the enemy for the length of the climb. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather.

$##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. . 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations.ven before getting on the rock. . rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. he mentally climbs the route. or 6lines. ledges. !hen picking the line.6 . the climber studies all possible routes.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes.trained in the basics of climbing. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles.6 to the top looking for cracks. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet.*. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. reconnaissance personnel. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. nubbins. using the hands primarily for balance. +orward observers.

If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. If the soles are $et or damp.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. dry rock. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. In the training environment. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. C7ET=63 .Terrain Se!ection #or Training . In later lessons. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. such as a rock or climbing gear. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . the boot soles should be dry and clean. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. falls from climbers above. /o$ever. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall.

and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. A rela"ed. $eight shift. and so on. his vibration. If strained for too long.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. and reduce the impact of a fall. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. lo$ering the heel. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. right foot.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. a$ay from the rock. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. b. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. left foot. comfortable stance is essential. kno$n as 6. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. a. and body %trunk*. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. or moving on to a more . Stance or %o&y 9osition. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. sho$s a correct climbing stance. help the climber land feet first. left hand. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. %&igure )(. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. and movement. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. helping to minimiAe fatigue.

%. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. he hands are used to maintain balance.. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. the hips and shoulders should be . !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. Figure 6-.restful position. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical.* !henever possible.a!ance& o2er oth #eet. Correct c!im ing stance. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. Figure 6-).

$hen footholds are small. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. Dn steep rock. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. Dn lo$(angle slopes.centered over both feet. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. Again. he basic steps are $eight. . +ometimes. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. as the climbing progresses. intermediate holds. In most cases. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. C!im ing Sequence. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. creating more stress. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. or body*. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. and movement %movement being either the foot.D=. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. his is normally done on #uick.: + .!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. hand.* + . shift. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. c. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements.

: + . $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved./.: + . the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability. If both legs are bent. .&D>. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs.epeat steps . + ..&IV. through 1 for remaining foot.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.+ . 2uring this movement. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. %. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height.

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence. .

Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .Figure 6-1.

these movements become more critical.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. not the arms. to rest on. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. even painful. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. Dther than being uncomfortable. Sa#ety 9recautions . %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. because the legs are much stronger. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. %. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. his type of lifting is inefficient. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms.Figure 6-1.

Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. a. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. If the rock $ill endanger your second. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. a fi"ed rope should be installed.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. >pon hearing the $arning. follo$ing the same line. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. d. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. a spotter can be used for safety. e. If conducting a roped climb. +hould a climber fall. b. do not do it. let the rope provide protection. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. tossing it do$n. . C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. immediately shout the $arning 6. grasping for any possible hold available. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. If on a lo$(angle climb. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. and to reduce the impact of a fall. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. c. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine.

A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. a. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays.f. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety.&D. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. depending on it. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. g. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use.. sedimentary(type rock. b. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. !hen climbing. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. his may simply be a #uick. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. !hen leading a group of climbers. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. !hen in doubt. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. +ometimes. C!im ing (ith The Feet . <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. !hen the rock is $et.

he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles.* %a* +mooth. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. as in mountain $alking. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. . ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. &ailure to climb any route. he principle of using full sole contact.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it.* Maximum Sole Contact. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. also applies in climbing. a. the entire foot cannot be used. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. . he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. In the early learning stages of climbing. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. %b* Dn some large holds. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. easy or difficult. b. Also. . most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. %. forgetting to use the feet properly. In this case.

$ell(defined ledges. edging $ith the front of the boot. . $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. may be used.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue.Figure 6-4. !henever possible. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. %0* Edging. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. .* %a* Dn smaller holds. >sually. or toe. Again.

ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. . . do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. therefore. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and.* %a* . usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. $ith its softer sole. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock.%b* . . %1* Smearing. the better the edging capability. he Army mountain boot. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. he stiffer the sole. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. intermediate holds.ounded. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. Figure 6-5. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique.

the possibilities are endless. he toes. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. +ome positions are more tiring. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. resisting a do$n$ard pull. restful position. and even more painful on the foot. such as edges. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. depending on the siAe of the crack. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. than others. pockets. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. or the entire foot can be used. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. like a camming device. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. and so on. ball of the foot. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. %'* Jamming.Figure 6-6. inside and $ithin reach.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. arms. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. hands. .

If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. a. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Core often though. !hen removing the boot from a crack. $Bamp!es o# >amming. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. b. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. our body $eight is on our legs."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. Dn lo$er(angled rock. +econdly.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. Dur hands grip. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. Figure 6-7. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. +ometimes. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. As stated earlier. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. . As the individual climbs.

%&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds.* Push olds. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. or 6pinching. the side of the palm. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". the fingers.our balance and footing on the ladder. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. %. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. his is fine.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. and on occasion. Df course. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. Dn smaller holds. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. . this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. Ideally. -ushing side$ays. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing.

emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. creating an unbalanced stance. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for.* %a* Bike push holds. therefore. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. -ull holds. . %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. just good techni#ue. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. Again. pull holds are often over$orked. side$ays. and. also called 6cling holds. . or up$ard. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. %0* Pull olds.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength.Figure 6-".

in opposition to the pull by the fingers. =ormally. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. creating a stronger hold. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. his helps to hold the finger tips in . %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. Dn small holds. Figure 6-'.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack.

his hand configuration. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. kno$n as a 6ring grip. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. %'* Jam olds. %1* Pinch olds.* Figure 6-)*. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. knuckles. %&igure )(.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. ape also adds friction . Bike foot jams.

and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. and body jams. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position.. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. or body into an off $idth. . . %b* In smaller cracks. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction.to the hand in jammed position. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. only the fingers $ill fit. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. or 6off $idths. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. leg. %&igure )(.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. leg. !hen the arm is straightened. and fle"ed to fit the crack. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. hands.6 re#uiring the use of arm.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. from the calf to the thigh. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. &or off $idths. the principle is the same as for fingers. /o$ever. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. is another techni#ue. he leg can be used. o jam or cam an arm.

he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. &rom these fundamentals. feet. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands.Figure 6-)). numerous combination techni#ues are possible. As the climber gains e"perience. .

?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands.otating . Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. before the hands. even on an easy route. +till. o prevent an off balance situation. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. or hop step. %0* Mantling. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. Combination possibilities are endless. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. %&igure )(.* Change Step. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet.a. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. he change step. arms. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. or other body parts tire. %. o make the move. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. $here the pull holds become push holds.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. . he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. +hort of turning back. yet #uickly. +ometimes.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. b. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. t$o solid handholds should be used. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. mantling begins $ith pull holds. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing.

.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. Dnce the arms are locked. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. momentarily. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. !ith the foot on the ledge. Dnce balanced over the foot. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked.

also. %1* !ndercling. he arms and legs . :ant!ing sequence. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge.. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce.1*.Figure 6-). An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. or body tension. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. forming a bulge or small overhang. applying an up$ard pull. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds.

he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. more or less. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. putting the body into an B( shaped position.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. the climber $ill . . Figure 6-)1. he climber bends at the $aist. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. %'* "ie#ack. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. En&erc!ing. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge.

8ie ack on a #ace. Dften. Figure 6-)4. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. or vice versa. rather than muscle. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces.7*. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. or for a rest position. %7* Stemming. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. . Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities.likely fall. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(.'*. he legs should be straightened $henever possible.

full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. or body as an integral contact point. legs. >sually. Stemming on a #ace. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide.)*. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. kno$n as chimneys. . parallel cracks.Figure 6-)5. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact.

Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence. .

4*. . he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. face features. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. or a much narro$er crack irotection. forcing the body against the opposing $all. if any holds. A slab is a relatively smooth. %c* . he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. /o$ever.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. .Figure 6-)6. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. Chimney sequence /continue&0.

or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. to increase friction. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. %4* %o&n Clim#ing.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. . a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. Figure 6-)7. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. Also. Dften. S!a technique. Dn steeper slab. .ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. or the .

abilities of others to follo$. and slips are more likely to occur. a$ay from the rock. As the steepness and difficulty increase. the climber can face out$ard. use a roped descent. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. !hatever the case may be.. Dn the steepest terrain. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. he can often turn side$ays. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. !hen in doubt. 0. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. !hen in doubt. use a roped descent. C7ET=63S . enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. %a* Dn easier terrain. If the handholds are too high. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold.

is usually best on steeper slab. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky.planned landing area. &acing the rock. . 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. facing out$ard or side$ays. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. reducing friction. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. and a tendency to move too #uickly. as in ascending. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet.5*. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. %d* Dn steeper slab. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue.

eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. may induce further injuries. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . ropes must be used to proceed. length.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. is highly unlikely in most instances. . .. they offer little support to the climber. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. . 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. .ope Dver the years. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. A severe fall.

prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. also. reduce the fle"ibility of gear.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. /o$ever. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. . %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. $hen used correctly. it is not for a belay anchor. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. Seat -arness. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. specialiAed e#uipment. -rese$n harness are bulky. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. a. including cost. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. such as a prese$n harness. =o assembly is re#uired. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. %. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that.

his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. at the chest. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. Chest -arness. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. %. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. c. he s$ami belt is a simple. than an improvised chest harness. or ease of adjustment. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point.b. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. Dne(inch $ebbing . a. gear loops. such as padding. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. S+ami %e!t.

6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. Figure 6-)'. In a severe fall. raditionally. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. any tie(in around the $aist only could . %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. &ABB. b. !I /D> /. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist.8*. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort.$ill provide more comfort. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. !hen the terrain becomes steeper.V. %.. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap..

place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon.* Bocate the center of the rope. . =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. %.ven in a relatively short fall. like a parachute harness. $ith the knots to the front. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. . 9rasping both ends. c.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. Dff to one side. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. and comfortable. A safe. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. and hold it in place on the hip. . the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. $rapping to the outside. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping.

or cross. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. .*. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. and drape the sling over the shoulders. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. but remember that $ith $ebbing. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling.Figure 6-.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. Appro"imately ) to .* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. d. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. forming t$o loops. he t$ist. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. .: feet usually $orks. %. just as you $ould put on a jacket.

he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. %. create a type of full(body harness. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. e.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. 7ttaching the . &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. the standing part of the rope is then . the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. f. If using a chest harness. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. and comes off the harness in a fall.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness.I ICAB BI=?. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. at the chest. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. or incorrectly. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. in effect.

%e!ay Techniques . %. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. rather than tying the rope to it. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. or third loop formed in the knot. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. Figure 6-)". C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. If using the three loop bo$line. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. and possibly the e#uipment available. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. ensure the end. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie.

ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. . >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. sitting position $henever possible. Dn steep terrain. . &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull.6 can be applied to halt a fall. >se a $ell braced. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. if one person falls. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. In some instances. or a 6brake. and snug. Dne person climbs at a time. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. e"posed terrain. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. independent. • • • • . <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. . rope team members can often move at the same time.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. for an up$ard pull.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. +tack the rope properly. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. the procedure should become 6second nature. ho$ever. but $ith practice.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions.

he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. a. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand.. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. or run through a friction device.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. aking up rope.• . If the brake hand is removed. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. b.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. there is no belay. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. • • .ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(. and apply the brake to halt a fall.BAI. !hen giving slack. otal control means the brake hand is =. the rope management procedure is basically the same. ho$ever.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the .nsure anchor attachments. guide carabiner %if applicable*.BAI D=.A9. removed from the rope. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the .nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side.V.

step 0*.. %. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0.. :anaging the rope.brake hand remains on the rope at all times. step 1*. step . place it behind the back and around the hips..)..epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.*.. to the front of the brake hand.. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. . step )*. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. he other hand is the brake hand. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. Figure 6-. slide the guide hand out. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0. %)* . step '*. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand.

he leg on the 6guide . and the amount of load. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. he body belay. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. %. %o&y %e!ay.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. especially for beginners. in its various forms. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. It is best to sit in a slight depression. the belay may have to absorb. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. stiff. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. a. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. +ometimes. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. re#uiring no special e#uipment. and froAen. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. using terrain to his advantage. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. . placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. !hen perfectly aligned. or fall force. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. It is the simplest belay.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues.

. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. Sitting o&y e!ay. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support.. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. Figure 6-. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay.

%a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. Stan&ing o&y e!ay.Figure 6-. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. If the rope runs too high. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle.1. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. If the rope runs too lo$. . dumping the belayer out of position. rendering the belay useless. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks.

he carabiner must be large enough. %. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. is designed for the Cunter hitch. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. to allo$ this function. /o$ever. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. :echanica! %e!ay. b.* Munter itch. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. or pearabiner. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice.Figure 6-.4. $hich forms an obvious. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. useless hitch. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. and of the proper design. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. As a climbing belay. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. &or the most part. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. attaching both to the carabiner. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. -ut some .

he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. Figure 6-. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. rather than around the belayerUs body. though developed as a rappel device. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body.+ =D change the function of the hands. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. As a belay device.5. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. . he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. :unter hitch. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. is al$ays the guide hand. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. he hand on the rope running to the climber. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. or load. to$ards the load.

the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. Figure-eight &e2ice. . he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. %b* As a lo$ering belay. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. A short. Figure 6-.6. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. . but have no moving parts.ope management is performed as in a body belay. >nlike the other devices. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner.%a* As a climbing belay. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness.

he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. slotted plate. if the second falls or $eights the rope. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. .%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. the most commonly used. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. he air traffic controller %A C*. If the belay is correctly established. An indirect belay. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. the belayer is not locked into a position. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. =n&irect %e!ay. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. b. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. Direct %e!ay. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . a. Additionally. Also. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process.

&or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. . Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. 7im the %e!ay. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. . he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. b. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. a. rela"ed stance. and in line $ith the first protection placement. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. sitting stance are preferred. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. 7nchor the %e!ay.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. Dnce the climbing line is picked. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. If this placement fails under load. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time.* . A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. !ith the belay position selected. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. the belayer selects his position. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. %. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. c.

%1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. reach back. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. and 6snug6.%0* . If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. 6independent6. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. o accomplish this. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. his is not mandatory. say after a severe fall. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. . saving the slings for the climb.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope.

or on the ledge. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. 7nchoring a e!ay. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. %. d. e.ope. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile.* Dn small ledges. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out.Figure 6-. !ith the rope properly stacked. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. he rope should be stacked on the ground. and applies the actual . 7ttach the %e!ay.7. Stack the .

If using a body belay. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. If the climber takes a fall. If the belay is set up correctly. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*.BAI D=W6. the anchor attachments. %. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. the force.". Figure 6-. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. final inspection of his belay. 6<. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. guide carabiner. Anchor attachments.belay techni#ue. !hen belaying the 6second6. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position.* he belayer should make one #uick. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. %e!ay setup. if any. he gives the signal. guide carabiner if applicable.

Top-. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables.7CT=63 T7K$3 . Aer a! Comman&s able )(. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. C8=:%$. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. :$73=3<. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. A solid. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom.* %$87D$. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. e"posed routes. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. or at the top at the anchor.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. . he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer.

6+BAC?6 .6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. If multipitch climbing.DC?6 6.=( I( &IV. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. ensure climbers belo$ hear. Climber selects a belay position. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.6T$CT D6E. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. . I am falling. 9. <elayer removes slack and applies brake. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. <elayer takes in rope. <elayer removes brakeKtension.S$8F F.6 6 !. 6 .DC?6 -roceed.6 .=+ID=6 ake all the slack. and again. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. apply brake. and hold me.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.6<. 6 A?.D-. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.

o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. his is the signal for 6<.6 +et up the belay.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. his is especially true in $indy conditions. !hile a lead climb is in progress. use only one. . Iou have no more rope.emoves the 6D&& <. !ith the issue of this command. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& .BAI6 belay. Ta !e 6-).7 feet of rope left. Climber sets up the belay.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing.=6 Iou have appro"imately .. I have finished climbing and I am anchored. b. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. 6&IV. Iou may remove the belay. the most important command is 6<. prepares to climb.6&I&( . . remaining anchored. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. -repares to climb. anchoring and putting the second on belay.ope comman&s. . +et up the belay position. &or a rope tug command. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart.BAI D=.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . or at the back of a ledge. . remains anchored.. a. above an overhang. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. or $hen the climber is around a corner. <elayer removes the belay and. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands.

ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. you can easily avoid the climb itself. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements.6 6pro. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. b.6 6pieces of pro. rope%s*. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor.6 and so on. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. If you can easily access the top of a climb. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. a leader or climber. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors .6 6pieces. a. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. Top-.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. &or training.In military mountaineering. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. As he climbs the route.6 6pro placements. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. .

taking on the role of lead climber. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. such as rappel points. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. or 6leap frogging. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. ice. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. and is responsible for selecting the route. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . a.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. b.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. +$inging leads. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. c. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. or other rope installations. belays. $ill be referred to as 6anchors.established for other purposes. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. he belayer simply adjusts his position. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.

ne"t belay. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. 6CBIC<I=96. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. %1* <efore the climb starts.BAI D=6. etc.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. it can be called for. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. is responsible for belaying the leader. $hether by sight or feel. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. to remove any protection that the leader may place.. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. . he leader then begins climbing. such as a piton hammer. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. !hen the leader is ready. he double checks the belay. only as a courtesy. nut tool. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. or 6rope drag6. removing the belay anchor. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. he leader can then signal. until the climber tells him other$ise. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. !hen the belay is ready. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. the belayer signals. >nless told other$ise by the climber. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. %0* he other member of the climbing team. If he cannot see the climber. again. thus minimiAing friction. %. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. only as a courtesy. 6<. %'* !hile belaying. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury.

BAI D=6 is given. . connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. $ith t$o carabiners on each.* he leader $ill assemble. and $hat types. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. In this situation. At this position.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. he must also determine ho$ much. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. d. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment.D-. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. Assorted he"entrics. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. the leader sets an anchor. !hen the leader selects a particular route. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. &ive to ten standard length runners.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. each on a separate carabiner.BAI6.%7* As the leader protects the climb. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. %. or 6rack. the command 6 A?. . in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. or the clip. each on a separate carabiner. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. !hen the leader has completed the connection.

(inch $ebbing. the necessary e#uipment. • • . =ut tool. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate.• • • $o to three double length runners. Cordellette. $ith t$o carabiners on each.(inch $ebbing. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. • ."tra carabiners. Bong -rusik sling. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. 0: feet of . . . =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling.: feet of . %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. ."tra carabiners.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. to some degree.

moving past a difficult section. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. for both the leader and second if either should fall. and <. kno$n as a traverse.* Placing Protection. saving hard$are for difficult sections. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. placement of protection. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. If the climbing becomes easier. during. As the leader begins this type of move. 9enerally. is re#uired. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. %. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. Dnce an anchor is placed. or pendulum. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. protection can be placed farther apart. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n.. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. protection should be placed more fre#uently.e. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. and upon completion of any traverse. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing.&D. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. If the climbing is difficult. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements.

a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. in a . the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. $hen released. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. !hen placing protection. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. %a* If the route changes direction. If the clip is made correctly. In addition. /o$ever. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. C7ET=63 . %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that.

the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. rotate the carabiner up$ards .leader fall. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. o prevent this possibility.5: degrees. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. =o matter ho$ direct the route. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. Figure 6-. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. C!ipping on to protection. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement.'. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to .

some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. C7ET=63 .ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. Figure 6-1*. o prevent this. . It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. Ese o# s!ings on protection. or anchor. . inducing a fall. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position.

2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. . it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. Figure 6-1). %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. . %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance.*. As the climber moves above the placements. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. All $ired chocks used for ."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. even $hen used 6actively6.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. or runner. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous.

rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. .leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position.. %e* . 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. &urthermore. ry to use the shortest runners possible. therefore. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. +ome of the larger chocks. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. Figure 6-1. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag.

f. %.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. he can. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. !hen the second is ready. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. $hile the final preparations are taking place. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. rock fall.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. reply $ith 6CBIC<. If necessary. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. unless other$ise directed. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. or 6cleaning the pitch6. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. no$ the climber. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. g. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. or seconding.6 he second. &ollo$ing. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. !hen removing the protection. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands.6 and the leader can.BAI D=. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <.BAI D=. signal 6CBIC<I=9. +harp rocks.BAI6 to the belayer. !hen removing protection. he second has to issue commands to the leader. as a courtesy. again as a courtesy.* h. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope.

+$inging leads. taking on the role of lead climber. or 6leap frogging. he should immediately connect to the anchor. If removing a piton. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. he should signal 6 A?.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. . Dnce the second completes the pitch.BAI. a.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. $quipment. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.D-.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. he belayer simply adjusts his position. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. Dnce secured. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. If too much slack develops. . %. the method of aid climbing .egardless of the type of protection used. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike.=+ID=.reaches a more secure stance. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. he can signal 6D&& <. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks.6 he leader removes the belay.

%a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. bolts can be used for aid climbing. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . %. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. /o$ever. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. $ith or $ithout the hanger. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. %0* 'olts. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. +ince pitons are multidirectional. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands.is the same. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed.* Pitons. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill.

smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. %7* %aisy Chains. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. %4* (ifi ook. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. or steps. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. although in aid climbing. %5* -scenders. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. .triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. although in aid climbing. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. appro"imately every . but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. . At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. %)* Etriers .* .. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. . 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches.0 inches. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. A fifi hook is a small. split(shaft rivets. %1* S"C%s. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders.or -iders. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. %'* Chocks.

* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. aiders. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. the climb continues as follo$s: %. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . !ith the daisy chains. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you are no$ standing above your support. he big difference is the movement up the rock. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. %4* . but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. into the steps in the aider. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. Technique.b. one at a time. If this happens. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. again. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. &rom this height. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain.

!hen the pitch is completed. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. o ascend the route. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. move the ascenders.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. a serious fall could result. tie in short on the rope every . .. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. Secon&ing.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece.:* . !hen adjusted to the correct height. o make this easier. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. o prevent this possibility. repeat this procedure. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. one at a time. 3otes4 . After ascending another 0: feet.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . the arms need not support much body $eight. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. Clear each knot as you unclip it. %. above the piece. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. If the ascender is too high.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly.* >nlike lead climbing. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle.

he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. his is in effect a self(belay.as you ascend. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. 0. /o$ever. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. o make this safer and easier. do not tie into the end of the rope. hooks. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. and other protection placed easily by hand. d. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. %. !hile leading an aid traverse. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. he hook .* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. +BC2s. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. to get caught as you move up$ard. e. possibly resulting in the protection failing. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner.

Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. the methods $ill vary. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. a. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. $hich involves more difficulties. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. a forty foot fall could result.::(foot climb $ith a . belayed climb. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. hese types of devices due to their passive application. 9iven one rope.::(foot climb $ith a . At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. protected traverses .7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . If the climb is only one pitch. although bolts can be used. b. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. only t$o are described belo$. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. &or e"ample: a .

and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. !hen using t$o ropes. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. !hen number . =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. or number . %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . or number 0 climber. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . and number 1. !hen the leader completes this pitch. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. %. ascends belayed by number 0. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes.BAI D=.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. he second.BAI6 from the leader. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up.$ill re#uire additional time. If using one rope. he again sets up a ne$ belay. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends.. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . !hen the leader completes the pitch. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0.Us . climber.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. !hen number 1 receives 6<. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers.

the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. %d* =ormally. %d* In this method. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. number 1 performs no belay function. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . his $ould save time for a team of three. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously.. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. he remains anchored to the rock for security. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. such as the tuber type. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. !hen number 1 is not climbing.belay is ready. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch.

. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. even worse. H )i. ascenders. faster. and safer. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. =nsta!!ation . he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& .ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. but adds to total mission $eight. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. However. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. he use of harnesses.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne.in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain.

he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. autoblock*. Dnce the anchor is rigged. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. If the leader placed protection. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. Esing a #iBe& rope. he $ill stack and manage the rope. Figure 7-). t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*.*. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. . >pon reaching the end of the pitch. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. -rusik.o install a fi"ed rope. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. Dther$ise. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope.

If not. FiBe& . the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. Esing a se!#. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. .. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes.Figure 7-. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. .e!ay. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.

=nsta!!ation. avoids obstacles. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. actical considerations are met. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. . ease of negotiation. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. he second sets up a standard belay. a. Area is safe from falling rock or ice.Figure 7-1.

and attaches the rope to the anchor.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. he temporarily anchors the rope. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. !hen he reaches an anchor point. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. . /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. . double figure(eight*. %. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. As the leader climbs the route.ope crossovers should be avoided. 3ote4 . his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

diagonally across the chest. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks.appe! %&igure 4(7*. and back over the opposite shoulder. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. %o&y . he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. and runs it around either hip. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. /e then pulls the rope from behind. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. &rom there. -asty rappe!. the rope runs to the brake hand. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. o brake. 9loves are $orn. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. . and his back straight to reduce friction.Figure 7-4. b. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times.

%o&y rappe!. 3otes4 .appe! %&igure 4()*. Seat--ip . 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. . c. 0..Figure 7-5.

his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. Seat-hip rappe!. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. %. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. stand to one side of the rope. stand to the right of the rappel rope. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. If a single rope is used. and is fast and safe. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. /o$ever. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. his method has minimal friction.Figure 7-6. If using a right(hand brake. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side.

he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. Figure 7-7. Figure-$ight Descen&er. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight.* o use the figure(eight descender. . pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. %. d. &or this reason.

hese include slots or plates and tubers.) of an inch in siAe. d. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. .Figure 7-". Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands.appe! De2ice. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. $Bten&ing the . 6ther De2ices. e. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. Figure-eight &escen&er. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. f. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*.

depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. 6ne-. /o$ever. depends on the techni#ue. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. . $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing.Figure 7-'. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about .ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope.e!ay.

=atural anchors. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. c. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. he anchor should be $aist high. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. If t$o carabiners are used. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. such as large trees and solid rock formations. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. a.:. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. If crossing a ravine or gorge. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. b. . At that time. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. $iremanUs. Dnce across. If crossing a stream. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. the s$immer must be belayed across. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. are al$ays preferred. the gates $ill be opposing.

.1*. Transport tightening system. e.*.0*. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. d.Figure 7-)*. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. . >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure.

Figure 7-)..oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.Figure 7-)). Transport knot . . .

3ote4 2uring training.:. . the far side man anchors the rope. c. Tension!ess anchor knot. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. Dnce across. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety.Figure 7-)1. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. a. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. $eb $rap. b. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage.

he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. transport knot. and is run back to the near side anchor. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. Figure 7-)4. g. As the rope is pulled tight. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. F-pu!!ey tightening system. from inside to outside. . here are several methods of accomplishing this. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. e. !hen the rope is tight. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope.d. f.

all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance.)*. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. Figure 7-)5. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. and yrolean traverse. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l.a.7*. -referably. . the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. monkey cra$l. :etho& o# Crossing. If dry crossing is impossible. attach it to the bridge. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. he may $ear it over both shoulders. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. o recover if he falls over. %. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. Comman&o cra+!. and pull the rucksack across.

appe! seat metho&. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. Figure 7-)7. . If crossing $ith rucksacks. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. . %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(.4*. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across.Figure 7-)6. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. :onkey cra+!.

and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. he other end is anchored on the near side. Figure 7-)". &inally. ammunition. A unit +D. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. cordage %various siAes*. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. or supplies. Any special e#uipment. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. -au!ing !ine.igging Specia! $quipment. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge.* Machine /uns. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun.5*. %0* -"0CE Packs.b. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. Construction. . +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. All the slack is pulled to the near side. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. o rig machine guns. %. ABIC. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. and carabiners.may dictate the rigging of these items. a. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. . such as cre$(served $eapons.

:o2ing . %. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. c. a. . he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. .b. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. Dn each side of this carabiner. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. .etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. assembled on the far side. he far side remains anchored. If the < C chooses the dry method. %'* A three(man pull team. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. :o2ing 8itters.ucksacks. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot.

inserts a carabiner. chasms. and up or do$n a vertal.%)* Dnce across. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. removes the knots. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. Suspension tra2erse. %.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. Site Se!ection . Figure 7-)'. ravines. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. and then pulls the rope across. b. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers.

0 feet long. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. . $o sturdy poles are needed. an A(frame must be used. hree to five . a. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. b. and mark the ape" on both poles.'(foot sling ropes are needed. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. Construction. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse.* . leaving about . %.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to .5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. $quipment. %0* !ith a sling rope. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. 7-#rames. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. -osition this knot on .he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. c. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection.

* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied.*.*. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps.* Figure 7-. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. . Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. ensure it is in the same direction as the . Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. %+ee &igure 4(0:C.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps.

the direction of kick.*. Adjust the A( . If the ground is soft. .* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. =nsta!!ation Construction. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. . d. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. If more than one sling rope is needed. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. dig the legs in about ) inches. 7-#rame sprea&er.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. %. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. Figure 7-.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. %4* If the ground is a hard surface.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs.). . ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.

3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. Figure 7-. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*.. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. Eoin the ends of a . . 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.. not forcing it in a lateral direction.0*.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope..* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( .

preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground.1. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope.Figure 7-. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. 2ue to the constant . !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending.

Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. or supplies Figure 7-. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. herefore. rucksacks. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge.4. . Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*.tension maintained on the belayer. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. use a relay man. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . use a mechanical belay.

a. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". find the middle. and anchor it. %+ee &igure 4(07. o maintain the . if necessary. 2ouble one installation rope.5. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame.0(inch bight. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope.* Figure 7-. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. . ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. .nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %.platforms that provide a safe $orking area.

Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . $hich is tied to the A(frame. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. or to. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. . e. o anchor the A(frame. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position.b. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. d. directional figure(eight. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. f. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. belay from the top using the hauling line. he angle should be . ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads.0 inches apart. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . c. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. g.

but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. b. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. Construction. !hen in use. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. e#uipment.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. Consi&erations.. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. load $eight. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. .etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. . $eather. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. c. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. Theory. !hen it is no longer needed. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. and the rope condition. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope.h. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. .educe e"cessive friction on the system. terrain. and availability of anchors. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. a. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. pull the other side from belo$. Simp!e . Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. . the load rubbing against the rock $all.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment.

ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. . >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots.%. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. .* . %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. place a pulley into the carabiner.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot.

and availability of anchors. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load.6. >se belays and backup safeties. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. $eather. d. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. . F-pu!!ey system. e#uipment. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load.Figure 7-. If the t$o pulleys touch. 6ther Factors. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. a. &or greater efficiency. load $eight. Consi&erations. terrain. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.

Construction. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner.. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. %. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. . and the rope condition.* Anchor the hauling rope. Figure 7-. E-pu!!ey system.7. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. his is the -C2. Theory. %7* Construct a second anchor. c.b. the load rubbing against the rock $all.

H In addition to proper techni#ue. produces early fatigue. he mountaineer sets a tempo. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times.est. and results in loss of climbing time. hen. and a unit can cover a given . .:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. the slo$er the pace. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. or number of steps per minute. conditioning.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. technical roc0 and ice climbing. even under ideal conditions. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. pace. re#uires more rest halts. s0iing or snow shoeing. good nutrition and hydration. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. Coving too fast. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. rugged terrain. pace is adapted to conditions. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. he more adverse the conditions. the need for rest halts decreases. H he terrain. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. rappelling. $eather. acclimatiAation. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. he trained. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. !hen a moderate pace is set. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. proper training. empo. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus.

sno$fields. steady. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. %. breathe deeply. rock. hydrate. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. and snack on trail food. the soldier pauses briefly. If possible. he soldier e"hales strongly. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. %'* After a climb. supports the $eight. enabling an easier. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. If possible. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. to .. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. <listers and . hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. deeper inhale. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue.7 hours. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. not muscle. soldiers lean against a tree. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb.distance in a minimal time.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. %.* After each step for$ard. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. %1* his slo$. and higher elevations. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines.

and on scree and talus slopes. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. !hile traversing. knee damage.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. . A ski pole. in lo$ brush or heather. A normal progression. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step.. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. $ould be from $alking straight up. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. and back pain may follo$. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. %. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. and loss of balance. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier.efer to Chapter . as the slope steepens. surface. If side hill travel is necessary. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. o turn at the end of each traverse. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. /ard ground is firmly compacted.blackened toenails.* !hen ascending. to a herringbone step. back injury. try to s$itchback periodically. H -ar& <roun&. animal trails. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. %. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. ice a". through thick brush.

he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. he ice a". he soldier faces out. aggressive manner. and they $ill not be as secure. each one improving the step as he ascends. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. . If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. /. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. returning to the in(balance position. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. simply $alk straight do$n. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. and $eighting the trail leg. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. held in the uphill hand. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step.. $hich take half of the boot. $hich must be done in a positive. steps off.H Sno+ S!opes. and plants his foot solidly. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. his is the in(balance position. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. he soldier performs a basic rest step. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard.0 Step Kicking. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique.

and the upper leg is used only for balance. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. brush is both a help and a hindrance. !hen traversing. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. trees. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. H <rassy S!opes. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. $here the ground is more level.* !hen ascending. H Thick %rush./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. %. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. &or the military mountaineer. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. In this techni#ue. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions.

the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. o .* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. !hen $alking in talus. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. ascending or descending. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. %. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. and heels dug in. feet pointed do$nhill. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. back straight. H Scree S!opes. H Ta!us S!opes. if possible. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. and then repeats the process. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. After determining that the step is stable.

Backing cover. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. is the foundation of good navigation. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. the $arning. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. 6. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective.ockW6 is shouted immediately. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. compass and identifiable terrain features. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. and do not look up. knees and toes. elbo$s. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. digging into the slope $ith hands. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. he use of the map. . the location of a target objective. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest.prevent rock fall injuries. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. sno$. navigation. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. and route finding. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. grass. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+.

* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. or millibars.. a. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. b. . <y measuring air pressure. and bad $eather should be e"pected. millimeters of mercury.1 inches has occurred. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. checking progress and terrain identification. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. route planning. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. $hich are reflected in the altimeter.::: feet of elevation. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. usually attached to a cord. usually inches of mercury.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. 7!timeters.H . 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. Compasses. a loss of barometric pressure of . %. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level.

his can result in faulty elevation readings. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. survey monuments. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. it can provide position %accurate up to . Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. he 9-+ is a space(based. longitude and elevation of the individual user. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. global. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. all($eather. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. stream(trail intersections.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. %. and so forth* is reached. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. <!o a! 9ositioning System. causing them to give poor readings. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. c. saddles.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. %4* . It can determine the latitude. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. .ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations.

Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. . terrain association. start point and objective.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. %4* .idgelines. or plateaus are better. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. the better the system performs. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. but due . due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. or altimeter navigation. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. deep valleys. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. &or navigation. summits. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. d. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. enter their coordinates as $ay points. spurs. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. saddles. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. after choosing critical checkpoints. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. Dther$ise.%1* 2uring route planning. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. 3a2igation Techniques. open valleys. %'* +ince the 0. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. Canyons.

ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. burned(over. /eavy fog. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. . bo"ing(in areas. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route.* Dea& . he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain.eckoning. /andrails. checkpoints. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. and not a precise point. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. siAe. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. glacier. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. elevation. %. that feature becomes an e"panded objective.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. orientation. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. than as a primary navigational aid.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. navigational corridors. he shape. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. . catching features. slope %+D+. and attack points are all used. !hen clear cut.

or desert. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. $ater. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. such as sno$. in computing rates of ascent or descent. dusk. in resection. H !hen looking over a smooth. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. $atercourse. such as da$n. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. hey aid in orientation. uniform surface. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. H !hen the object blends into the background. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. but not behind the object being vie$ed. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. check the . %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. and in $eather prediction. open road or track. H !hen the light is poor. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. H !hen looking do$n a straight. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression.

clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. cliffs. and crevasse Aones become visible. and the physical condition of the team. such as couloirs or gullies. may present themselves. light conditions %time of day*. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position.ates of travel. !atch the mountain during the approach march. sno$fields and glaciers.altimeter. cliff bands. %. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. along $ith $eather conditions. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. gross bedding planes of rock. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. studying it for climbing routes. In this case. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. . &ault lines. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. e. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. In addition. . H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission.

and the siAe of the unit. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. individual ski abilities. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. vegetation. (inter . $ith sparser or different types of vegetation.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. shovel tests. f. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. terrain relief. sno$ pits. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. &or $eaker skiers. g. avalanche danger. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. pays off in more efficient travel. $ater features. and impact on your route choices. If you must cross one. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. %.oute Se!ection. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. constrain your choice of terrain. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. 2uring calm $eather. 2uring movement. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. are often steeper. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route.

!hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. %4* 2uring ski movements. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. and so on to get accurate readings. !eather and tactical situation permitting. If the $eather turns bad. If $eak skiers are in the group. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. . efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. Avoid north. east. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. H >se a steady. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion.danger is still present. ice a". !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate.

hick vegetation and rough. drastically limit visibility.h. %.* In $inter. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. %'* /andling maps. sno$fall. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. . and drifting sno$. caused by large ore deposits. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. especially above tree line. Careful map reconnaissance. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. At times. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. $hiteouts. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. kno$ledge of the enemy . trails. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. bliAAards. compasses. short hours of daylight. . <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. fog. 9ro !ems. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light.

:07. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. a. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. verbal descriptions. cable and tram$ays are often found. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. Along $ith sketch maps. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. In addition. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain.::: map and should be used $henever possible. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. Civilian . +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. terrain analysis of the operational area.:7:.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue.::: map depicts greater detail than a .econnaissance.situation. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. :ap . /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover.::: maps can be used if available. clear cuts. An . such facilities as ski lifts.:. %. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. pay close attention to the marginal information. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units.0. obli#ue angle. Areas above tree line. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. A . Aerial. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. even larger scale maps are desirable.

important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. and large open areas above tree line. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions.uins. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. $eather permitting. %1* /elicopter support. they have a marked advantage. c. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. resupply and medevac. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. %0* Dbstacles.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. e"tractions. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. trails. roads. b. bridges. and plans made to avoid them. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. are factored in. . $nemy Situation. such as rivers and gorges. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. but should still be e"pected. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. impassable torrents. . barns.

$ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. %. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. good friction@ use of pitons. mountain structure and forms. Time-Distance Formu!as. camming units*. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. smooth rock@ bolts. and ground cover. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. %0* .ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain.outes through granite rock %long cracks. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. including the geology. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . e. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. . !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. d. Enit 7ssessment.*.success.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain.

indicates. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons.0 to ' kph +kiing . %0* As able 5(.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than . such as patrolling or deliberate assaults. to 7. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. %.0 kph 0 to 1.' to . %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. foot of .) to 1. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.) to 1..K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.5 to 7. . +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC. should take this into account. actical movements. foot . helicopter support cannot be relied on.) kph '. Add one hour for each . In order to do this.0 kph 0 to 1.. and clothing for mountain travel. realistic rates of march.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-)..0 kph 1. $eights in order to obtain accurate. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . basic mountaineering gear. Time-&istance #ormu!as. first measure the map distance.. his distance plus .* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel.::: feet of ascent or 0.

avalanche probability. -lot start and end points. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines.equire& $quipment. Se!ect a . Se!ect a Current :ap. $eather reports. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. a. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. and trails accurately. sno$ depth. b.* Tra##ica i!ity. roads.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. Consider the follo$ing: %. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. aerial photos. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. . c. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. his includes degree of slopes. avalanche probability. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. and the likelihood of crevasses. clearings. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*.oute. $idth of trails. sno$ condition reports.. vegetation. Additionally. %1* .

its width. . or deep. . 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. swift. %)* Con&itions. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from.Contro! 9oints. an alternate route should be used. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats.Capa i!ities o# Enit. %4* Checkpoints. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. ake into consideration their present health. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly.econnaissance . as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. speed of the current. When rivers or streams must be crossed. depending upon the type of stream.%7* Communications. and depth of the water. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. >se all available information and plan accordingly. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. !hen plotting a route on the map. 7f a water obstacle is too wide.

b. the rivers rise. photo. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. In a s$amp.*. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. Crossigs. the closer you are to the source. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing.econnaissance of the route %map. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. a. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. perhaps from a ridge. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. A distant vie$. for e"ample. sno$. If a dry crossing is unavailable. depending on the distance from the source. As glaciers. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. Figure '-).* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. 2epending upon the time of year. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites.. or ice melt during the day. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. if . or head$aters.

made during the early morning. contain sections $ith numerous channels. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. ho$ever.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. =atural anchors are not a necessity. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. point of the river or stream. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. above the tree line for e"ample. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. . ho$ever. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. and thus shallo$est. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. if any. In some areas. Dnce a log jam is formed. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. firm bottom. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %1* Cany mountain streams. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater.

a. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. temperature of the air and $ater*. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. tactical situation. binoculars.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. %)* !hen possible. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. if available. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. !rap radios. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. b. -reparation includes the follo$ing. he could easily dro$n. All pockets are buttoned. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. H If you must cross on the upstream side. +DI. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. as in the higher alpine Aones. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. <oots should be $orn . !hen cover and concealment is minimal. papers.

he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. Dn the far side. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. c.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. e. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. socks and inner soles should be removed. a. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. /o$ever. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. At times. f. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. d. he may choose to face more side$ays as this .

he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. and if available. c. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. o increase balance. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. he staff should be moved first. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. . here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. If an obstacle is encountered. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. e. /e should take short. b. a long ice a". sturdy tree limb. deliberate steps.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. d. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.

stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. he line formed faces the far bank. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings.. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. but $ith the added support of each other. a team crossing may be used. . or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. &or chain crossing. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current.Figure '-.

a. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. Cany times though.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. he stream at this point may be impassable. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. and the distance from the near and far anchors. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. Chain metho& #or stream crossing.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . he $ill pendulum back to the near bank.Figure '-1. . his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. height of the anchors above the $ater. . $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed.

and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. %. /e should =.V. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across.. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. If this is impossible. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. . If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. should he fail to reach the far bank.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing.$ill pendulum back.

it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. An appropriate knot is tied into the . It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. %. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. pulled tight.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. /ere again. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. and anchored on the near bank. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. rather than straight across the stream.Figure '-4.

he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. Figure '-5. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. %7* >nder most circumstances. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. . $hichever appears easiest. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum.

c. Sa#ety . he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. a. speed of the current. recoilless rifles. and so on. stream bottom configuration. . A lookout should be posted 7: to . b. e. use a different techni#ue. f. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected.%)* . If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. or choose another route. such as mortars. especially heavier $eapons. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. and individual e"perience. $idth of the stream. d.

!hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. b. d. h. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. for assistance or rescue. e. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. seek out the closest and safest spot. If the shore is too difficult to reach. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. 2o not try to fight the current. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters.g. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. such as a sandbar. In either case. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. . o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. c. facing do$nstream. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. a. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

Dn steep terrain. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. Figure )*-)*. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. and traverse. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. descend straight do$n the fall line. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . . assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". . gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. !henever possible.:(. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending.egardless of the techni#ue used.degrees. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope.: and .:(.*. As the slope steepens. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es.. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. d.

A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. logical progression. <acking up the slope %crab position*. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue.Figure )*-)). he techni#ues can be used in any combination. . Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. /erringbone step straight up the slope. raverse $ith feet flat. 3orma! 9rogression. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. e. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. %0* =ce 7B.* Crampons. &ront(pointing. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side.

>sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure ..0*.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". C!im ing sequence. Step Cutting. >sing most of these positions.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again.e. Figure )*-). +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. in some cases. f. . save the $eight of the crampons altogether.1*. C!im ing Sequence. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . and move the hand up the a" shaft.:(. .:(.

then cut one bet$een those t$o. . <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. steps may be cut straight up the slope. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. they should be smaller than footholds. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. %. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse.* Sno+. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. a traverse is also the preferred method. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. In ascending. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. and angled more. =e"t. If handholds are cut. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. %'* -an&ho!&s. %0* =ce. !hen changing direction. Dnce the step is formed. In descending.

the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. Se!#-7rrest. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. .'*.:(. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. g.Figure )*-)1. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. 2uring movement on steep ice. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. or arrest. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. a fall %&igure . $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*.

Se!#-arrest technique.Figure )*-)4. .

and feet pointed upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope. H /ead upslope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. H /ead do$nslope. H /ead do$nslope. stomach on the slope. and feet pointed do$nslope.Figure )*-)4. and feet pointed upslope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. back to the slope. back to the slope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. stomach on the slope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. H /ead upslope. the climber must first gain control of his body. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. . %.

If crampons are not $orn. .aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope.7*. $ith the pick pointed into the slope.%a* In the first position. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". 9lissading is similar to skiing. stomach do$n position. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. %'* !hen a fall occurs. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. could severely injure his ankles and legs. controlled. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. rapid descent. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up.:(. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. %d* In the fourth position. %b* In the second position. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. stomach on the slope. e"cept skis . or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . %c* In the third position. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained.

and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. b. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. and the other hand on the shaft. .are not used. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. he same balance and control are necessary. $hich serves as the rudder. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. as painful injury could result. Sitting <!issa&e. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. Sa#ety. Also. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". pick. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. c. and guide for the glissade. brake. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. Squatting <!issa&e. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen.

deadman(type anchors. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets.Figure )*-)5. =ce 9itons. %. >sed singularly. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. and ice pitons. sleds. . he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. or any large items. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. <!issa&ing techniques. skis. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. flukes. ice scre$s.: inches in length. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. a. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. backpacks.

making further use difficult. move to another spot and replace it. $hen placed correctly. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. =ce Scre+s. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand.)*. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . such as top roping.4*.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . Figure )*-)6. he pair of pitons.:(. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . !hen an ice piton is removed. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. are multidirectional. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. If it pulls out or appears $eak. =ce piton pair. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. c.:( . or the ice may crack or soften. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure.

you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. must be removed before further use. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. such as top roping.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation.%. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. or the ice may crack or soften. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . the ice that has accumulated in the tube. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. . %. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. Figure )*-)7.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*.:: degrees from the lo$er surface.

It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is.d. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. .:(. Figure )*-)".: feet. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. !hen constructed of sno$. In ice. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. depending on the strength of the ice. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. e. or other e#uipment for added strength. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. the $idth should not be less than . It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. %. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure .5*. pickets.

!hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. rappel points. %. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. such as a picket or a". it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull.* !henever possible. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. f. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. ski poles. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. skis. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. sno$shoes. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. or other fi"ed rope installations.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head.%. should be at a right angle to its length.:(. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. . A similar anchor. %&igure . If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. also. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. he direction of pull on long items.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. . t$o or more anchors should be used.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. frayed.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor.

$hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. !hen crevasses are e"pected. for more information*. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. b. +hould any member fall. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. Covement on 9laciers. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. <y using this . $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure.:(4. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. a. :o2ement. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. Tie-=n :etho&. all climbers move simultaneously. . a three(man rope team is recommended. %+ee paragraph . A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. Figure )*-)'. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. the tie(in is modified slightly.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position.e#ualiAed anchor.

:(0:*. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. Dn steeper slopes. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . %. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. .*. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. 9enerally. called the 6team arrest.method. c. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a".* %oot-7B %e!ay. %oot-aB e!ay. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. Figure )*-.

H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. FiBe& . he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice.opes. or cliffs. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis.%0* %o&y %e!ay. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. As the movement continues. also. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. d. %1* :unter -itch. H . An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. ridgelines. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. .

Characteristics an& De#initions.:(00 depicts common glacier features.).:(0. %&igure . and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. and &igure . <!acier cross section.a.* Figure )*-. . his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.

he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. <!acier #eatures..* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %.Figure )*-. . %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall..

As you approach this area.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. <e cautious. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. he firn line can change annually. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier.. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. %. %. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. . you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. %.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. %. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. . %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. Cost of these are formed by the $ind.

his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. %. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. icefalls. In $inter.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. %. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. %. o$ard the end of the summer. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . and ice avalanches. $hen visibility is poor. %0.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. Dangers an& 6 stac!es.%. %.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. b. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses.

in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. %. criss(crossed $ith crevasses. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.:(0'*. Figure )*-.1. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.:(01*. . Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure .

o locate the positions.Figure )*-. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. If the team members need to assemble in one area. assess the situation. if three people are on a team. ie in to the bights and the ends. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. the remaining members go into team arrest. If four people are on a team. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse.4. .ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. he simplest and most common . %0* !hen conditions $arrant. use the -rusik to belay each other in.

$hile ideal for rock climbing. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. he best combination is a three(man rope team. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. .method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed.ope& :o2ement. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. their security being the team arrest. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. A roped team of t$o. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment.:(07*. 9enerally. halting the fall. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. . c.

he remaining 6thirds6 . he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner.5. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. <ecause of this.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. as for a four(person team. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope.* .Figure )*-.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. %0* . the rope should be divided into thirds. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. $hether improvised or premanufactured. %. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes.

$ith double fishermanUs knots. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. he ends of the ropes are tied together.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. &or safety reasons. may be e"tremely difficult. forming endless loops or slings. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness.ucksack. !hen . 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. /o$ever. attached to the rucksack. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. <efore movement. d. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals.0(foot ropes. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps.. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. or carried over the head and shoulder. the chance of it failing is much greater. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. if $arm clothing is needed. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. If necessary. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. Securing the %ackpack. e. by itself. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue.

. Crossing Cre2asses. In this Aone.outes. and do not take the place of. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. large crevasses remain open. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. Dpen crevasses are obvious. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. g. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. . on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. connecting both sides of it.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. =arro$ cracks may be covered. %. heavily crevassed portions. the sno$. they only supplement. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*.* In the area of the firn line. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. f. %. steep terminal or lateral moraines. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice.hanging from the drop cord. /o$ever. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. and icefalls. $hich covers glacier ice.

!hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. If he is. its detection is difficult. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. In such a situation. and may form firmer bridges. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". h. %. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. a crevasse is probably present. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. but difficult to detect in flat light.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. Sno+ %ri&ges. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. . the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. the team may proceed. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. and gradually turn into glacier ice.

A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. =umber t$o belays number three across. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. he assumes the belay position. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. Dnce the second is across. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. . distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. %1* In crossing crevasses. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. i. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. 2o not stamp the sno$. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary.: feet back from the edge. %c* he leader should move for$ard. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed.

it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. if the person $as almost across.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest.. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. =umber 1 must al$ays be . !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . % his scenario is for a team of three. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. /o$ever. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. using the -rusik as a self belay. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. the rope is al$ays kept taut. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. to anchor the rope. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope.%. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse.

/e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. number .. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . close to number 0. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. if the middle person should fall through. onto the anchor. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . the procedure is the same e"cept that number . An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. =ormally. $ould anchor the rope by himself. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse.Us anchor. j. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. as a minimum. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. Cre2asse .escue Techniques. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . assumes the role of number 1. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse.

under the rope and at right angles to the stress. on the edge of the ice. =umber . the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. If the fallen climber is not injured.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. clips number 1Us rope to himself. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. %.edge. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! .ope. In order to reduce friction.ope Teams. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. As the assisting team pulls. place padding. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. ski pole. If necessary. In some situations. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. ski. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. . %0* FiBe& . thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. such as an ice a". or backpackKrucksack. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member.

%f* he procedure is repeated. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. /o$ever. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. Dther times. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. or 6stirrup. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . to ascend the rope. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n.person in the crevasse. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord.6 of the long sling. %&igure .

/e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( .6 system. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . Figure )*-. to the anchor. % his scenario is for a team of three. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.::(pound load $ith this system. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. and they have decided to install the V rig. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. If additional rope teams are not immediately available.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number .support.. 9rusik ascen&ing technique. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line.6. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . In theory. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner.:(04*. A pulley can be used here if available. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . In actual field use. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor.

Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. he system is no$ ready for another haul. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage.6 system. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. . =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. H !ith the 61(to(.

he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. =ormally. poles. and so on. .7. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. a. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. at least eight feet in length. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. a crevasse is present. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform.Figure )*-.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole.

'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. At a minimum. :ountain . digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. In deep soft sno$. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . %. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. by 0 feet. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. e. therefore. d. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. If a dugout latrine is necessary. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. distance to be moved. terrain. and e)isting installations. 7t is. Air evacuation is preferred: however. Under these conditions. by . Dccasionally $hile probing.b. If a latrine area is needed. tactical situation. probe again after digging. ry to find a solid platform. the weather. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible.* &or block construction. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. c. $hich keeps tents closer together.

.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. c. physician/s assistant.* Assume command. medic%. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. . &or a planned rescue.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . and maintain moderate body $armth.evel 777 supervising. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. control serious bleeding. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. %.sufficient. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. /o$ever. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim.evel 7 and . ho$ever. and one person only. . there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. b.2.nsure that the C. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. hey are. . &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. a. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. Dne person. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. resume victimUs breathing. is overall in charge at all times. .

. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. a. vehicle. or any other immediate haAard. . %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. environmental haAard. and terrain at hand. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. avalanche run(out Aone.$SCE$. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries.esist the urge for action. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. or a change in $eather. +peed is less important than correct action. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. should be used for evacuation. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. possibility of falling rocks*. 9!anning . :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. if available. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action.escue 6perations . -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. continually monitor pulse. T-$ . hanging glacier.If the victim is unconscious. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft.

#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. routine. $hen. $hat. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. and ho$ the situation happened. $hy. rescue. $here. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*.b. H Are additional personnel. c. tactical immediate*. In planning a rescue. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. medical. security. H errain features and location of the casualties. H . relate it to the circumstances of the situation. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. treatment. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. H . Cake a realistic estimate of time available . and the nature of their injuries. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location.* After identifying the task. H actical situation. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. priority. H -lan the action. d. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. he task must be identified. and evacuation. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security.

he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. If the victim is airlifted out. $alking trails. !ith all rescue techni#ues. tents. and rescue belay points*. reliable trails or roads is essential. stove. ime becomes the critical element. lo$ering lines. %c* !hen performing all rescues. e. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. and the personnel and e#uipment available. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. and stretchers. drugs started. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. fi"ed lines. . Ca"imum use of secure. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. ropes. blood pressure. $arm clothes.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. bivouac sacks. anchor points. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber.* In estimating time available. and so on*. the situation. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. pulse rate. hot food and drinks. sleeping bags. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. Age and physical condition may vary.

=TD T-.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential. or gusting $inds.=TD F6E. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation. H 9. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. . Specia! Training .T.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. e"treme cold. separate stages are taken. H F6E. . H T-=.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. H F=.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . H 9.emove dead personnel.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available.D ST7<$4 .4 he logistics removal of dead personnel.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris.=6. In high altitudes. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. .ST ST7<$4 . :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated.=6. an orderly rescue may involve further planning.%1* . .=6. a.ST7<$4 .=6.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. available time is drastically reduced. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9. b. H 9.

saddleback. before trying to move the $ounded soldier.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. it can be lost through carelessness. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. he sling(rope carry %&igure . piggyback. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. pistol belt. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. 6ne-:an Carries. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. . the best method of manual transportation is selected. %. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. or inade#uate protection from the elements. rough handling. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers.(. four(hand. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep.* S!ing-. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. a. herefore..ope Carry.* re#uires a '. difficult terrain. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. t$o(hand.

%d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. and back around to the front of the bearer. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) .ope Coi! Carry. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. around the casualtyUs thighs. -adding. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. S!ing-rope carry. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. Figure ))-). he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. $hen available. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. %0* . %f* he rope must be tight. %a* -lace the casualty on his back.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. . crosses the ends.K0( meter coiled rope. forming t$o almost e#ual groups.

the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. If this is not done. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. b. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. . he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. pulling the casualty onto his back. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. %u&&y . %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. In this case. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils.appe!. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. the bearer carefully stands. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended.

A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. he victim straddles the carrier.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. from right to left.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back.0(meter sling rope is used. . the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. over his left shoulder. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake.%. %7* he rope is run diagonally. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. %0* A '. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. across the carrierUs chest. from left to right. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. and back under the victimUs left armpit. across the victimUs back. from right to left. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. he rope is run diagonally. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope.

nature of injuries. as described above. . over the shoulder. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. $hich are se$n on one side. It can be improvised $ith poles. depending on the terrain. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. and e#uipment available.%. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing.* he poleless. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. and then carried again. belayed. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. on traverse lines. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. :anu#acture& 8itters.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. easy to carry. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. behind the neck. If the litter must be carried. and then do$n along the other arm. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. he rope is folded in half. %. and readily available.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. and then routed up along the handling arm. a.

* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. . he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. %+ee &C 5(. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.5.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment.1. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. . $hich is a potential breaking point. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it.

and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. . ladders. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. jackets. these objects should be padded. shelter halves. scoop stretchers. a large item..(0):(.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. the hood must be up and under the victim.0.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. . $indo$ shutters. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. +uch objects include boards..* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. %0* If poles cannot be found. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center. doors.. or mattress covers.(0*.. b. such as a blanket. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. not dragging on the ground. A litter can be improvised from many different things. /o$ever. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. shirts. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. tarpaulin.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . If possible. bags. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. benches. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. cots. Figure ))-. %. skis. ponchos. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. If a poncho is used. and poles. and other similar items. tent supports.6*-). sacks.

2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. . %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). Figure ))-1.ach clove hitch should be about . he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. empty bo"es. little material e"ists to construct litters. . make a clove hitch over each bight.(1*..%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. centimeters long.ope !itter.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. . 3ote4 Above the tree line. sleeping bags.

escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations.escue Systems .%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. ake t$o . tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue.7 centimeters. a. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. and place a carabiner into the loop. %e!ay 7ssist.(meter poles. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. . but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section.* &irst. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord. After placing the clove hitches over the bights. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. %. %7* -ull up on the rope. 2o not remove the belay.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. . %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary.

. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. o improve this system. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. b. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. %7* . %.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. %5* . %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. %e!ay $scape.* After a climber has been injured. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope.

the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. . hand $inches. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. are often encountered along the evacuation path. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. %. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. In practice. belays.aising systems. transferring the $eight to the anchor. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. backup safety -rusiks are used to .%)* . and other variables. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load.* . these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. . 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. %1* %ackup Sa#eties.aising System. $hich must be surmounted. . rope(edge friction. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. a. %0* %e!ays.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended.

%)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. taking care not to jar the casualty. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge..* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. %. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter.( '*.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. %. c. % his is the signalman or relay man. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . if possible.aising the 8itter. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed.safeguard the system. . b. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. Descen&ing S!opes. he litter is prepared as already described. . %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions.

he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. clearance for the casualty along the route. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation .&escen&ing. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points.. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. and anchor points for the A(frame. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. many different techni#ues can be used. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders.Figure ))-4.(7*: a. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. %1* he most direct. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. b. good loading and unloading platforms. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . if used.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation .

c. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. C!i## e2acuation &escent. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent.:1814 Inches . Figure ))-5. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. d. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated.

. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. random probing starts in that vicinity. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations.:81) .7.1814 . 18. .14 . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search..) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& . <enera! 9roce&ures .escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. chances of survival are remote. after two hours. .:105.05.robability of survival drops rapidly and. If any indication of the location of the victim is found.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .. if a member of your group is in an avalanche.)0.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes.14 1.

poles. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. >sing this and any other information. . DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. b.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. a. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. >nless other$ise indicated. ice a"es. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. packs. . a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. urbulence.. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. and mark all clues. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. gloves. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. if enough personnel are available. goggles. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. . Book for skis. several factors influence the bodyUs location. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. If using avalanche beacons. usually the toe of the slide. A human body. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. boots. make an initial probe search in that area. hats. terrain.

Conversely. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. 9ro e 9o!es. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. the greater $ill be his burial depth. • . although they may operate differently in the search mode. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. and other obstacles act as snares. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. Cany models of transceivers are available. Although this type of pole . All currently available transceivers are compatible. especially in a high $ind. rocks. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. . An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. In the case of large and violent avalanches. a. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. • Vegetation. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately .

probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. %. 9ro ing 8ines. coarse probing implies a .* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. .ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles.* . As evidenced by their names. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. the number of personnel per line should be limited. %. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. 9ro ing Techniques. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. he only sure check is by digging. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. b. c. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried.performs best. &or the probing operation to be effective. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. $enty per line is satisfactory. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. %0* If no probing poles are available. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe.

&ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness.!A.&D. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.6 6+ .2. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.. $hich almost guarantees finding the body.-. $ith feet about . It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.D<.. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed.::(percent chance of locating the body. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.7 inches apart. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. $hile the fine probe has.6 6>..6 <y using these commands.D<.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center. a . %. +trict discipline and firm. &ine probing is the concluding measure. essentially. he probers themselves $ork silently. clear commands are essential for efficient probing. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.

6 6.ach probe is made . >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.6 6>.6 6+ . he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.D<..= .!A..& -. and finally in front of his right foot..D<.-.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe. . %b* Dn command.D<.. foot.%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.2.D<.ach man probes in front of his left foot. then in the center of his straddled position.. $hich is then moved ahead . the line advances .6 6>. -.&D.. .6 6C.D<.I9/ -.6 6>.: inches from the adjacent one.. foot and repeats the probing se#uence.-. . %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.D<.-. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing..

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