Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. Figure-$ight . a..'. + . 2ress the knot do$n. /o$ever. Figure 4-).0. . by tying the knot in a retrace.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. Tying the Knot..* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.epeat + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. . Checkpoints. %. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. + . b. .1*.1. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part...+ .eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.etrace /. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith... + .0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*..

$rap the $orking end around the standing part. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. + .emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.0. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. Figure-eight retrace. Checkpoints %.'.). + . forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.+ .. + . he finished knot is dressed loosely. b. !ith the $orking end.1. and route the $orking end through the loop. ..* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. Figure 4-)1.. . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. + .. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse.7..

-lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. %0* End of the Rope.. + . + . %.. + . /old rope in both hands. a. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. depending on ho$ it is tied.1. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.. he knot is tied. + .0..'*.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.'. palms do$n $ith hands together. !ith the right hand. reach under the horiAontal anchor.0. Tying the Knot. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot... C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. + . /old the loop in the left hand. and bring it in$ard. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. + .. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.. .* Middle of the Rope. /old the standing end in the left hand. grasp the $orking end. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.

. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. It is a middle rope knot.. !hen tying this knot. 2ress do$n the knot. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. + . Figure 4-)4.7*. Checkpoints. a. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. + . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. b. !ith the right hand. %. .+ . %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. ake up the slack from the anchor.'..1. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to... %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. Tying the Knot. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. C!o2e hitch.

0. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.4. + . -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot.5. + . 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.7. and fingertip. b. (ireman’s knot.1. + . +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.8..'. + . + . and place it over the heel $rap.). +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger... +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. . + .. Figure 4-)5. Checkpoints. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop.. + ...+ . palm..

tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.'. Tying the Knot. + .. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.0.%... !hen dressing the knot do$n. .)*. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.. + . Cake one $rap around the palm. !ith the $rap thus formed. + .* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. + . it lays in$ard. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.1. a.. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. the tail and the bight must be together.. It is a middle rope knot.

It is a middle rope knot. %0* he tail and bight must be together. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.Figure 4-)6. . Checkpoints. %. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. b.4*.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Directiona! #igure-eight.

&rom the end %ape"* of the bight..).7.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. + .. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.... Tying the Knot.0. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. + . spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. forming t$o loops.1. + .. + . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.. . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.4. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + .a. + . ie an overhand knot on a bight..'.

Tying the Knot.Figure 4-)7. + ..* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.* It is a middle rope knot. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. form an . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %o+!ine-on-a. %. >sing a doubled rope.5. b. Checkpoints. .. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. a..ight.

. Tying the Knot.. %. Figure 4-)". form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. It is a middle of the rope knot. a. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.+ .'.0. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar..7. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. Checkpoints. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. !ith the $orking end. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.8*. + . and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.1. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. b. + .. + . 2ress the knot do$n. . /old the bight $ith the left hand.

Figure 4-)'. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.. %. .+ .1. Tying the Knot. + . &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop..* he loop is the desired siAe.. !ith the bight as the $orking end. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.0. form a loop in rope %standing part*. Checkpoints. It is a specialty knot. b. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. Figure-eight !oop.. a. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. + . 2ress the knot tightly.

*: + .. ... + ....0.. . =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.1. + .0. + .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.%. + ... ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. Figure 4-. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart.*. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.each do$n through the . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.0(inch bight. + . 2ouble the short rope. >sing an arm3s length of rope. $ith the $orking ends even. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. forming a bight. and place it over the long rope.*. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.1.. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.

+ .4. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.). + ..). Bay the $orking end under the long rope. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. parallel. Checkpoints.7. Figure 4-. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. + . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.+ ..nsure they are tight.. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. It is a specialty knot. and not t$isted. b. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik.. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. .'. %. . &orm a complete round turn in the rope.

Checkpoints. + . + . 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. Figure 4-.. b.0.. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing...1. Tying the Knot. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.a. + . !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.. %achman knot.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .

tie an overhand around all coils.* A minimum of four $raps. + . %. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. $ith a bight held in place by a loop... + . not crossed. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.7. hen. .. he running end is to the back of the body.. >sing the standing part.'. bring a bight up through the loop. It is a specialty knot. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*.. + . Checkpoints.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. /olding the bight loosely.. he standing portion is on the bottom. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand.4. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. + . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. single coil. + . !ith the running end. + . %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. Tying the Knot.0. a. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body... + .1. . make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.. b. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.).

+ . It is a specialty knot... !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. + . &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.Figure 4-. !ith the right hand.1. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.. Bay the loops to the right.. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. Tying the Knot. + . + ..'. a. .0. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.1.

%1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts... + . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. a.. . Tying the Knot..7. Checkpoints.4. %.+ . It is a specialty knot.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Three-!oop o+!ine.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. &orm a . %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. b. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. Figure 4-.

* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.7.1. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.5. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. + . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.. Checkpoints. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. b. standing end of the rope.:u!e Knot0 . + . Figure 4-. . /old the center of the bight in the right hand.each through the bight and grasp the long..0 inches up the rope. + .). + . /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .. %.. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.0.. Figure-eight s!ip knot.'.+ .

%.0 inches long.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.0.. Transport knot. Tying the Knot. + . + .. %1* he bight is a minimum of . K!eimhiest Knot . -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. b.6.. + . It is simply an overhand slip knot. Figure 4-. a. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope..1. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight..* here is a single overhand slip knot. Check 9oints.

.. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.0 inches.1. pass them through the bight %see + .. a. Tying the Knot. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. It is a special( purpose knot. + . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .. easily adjustable. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. . !ith the ends offset.. + .7.'.0.. + . + . !rap at least four complete turns.. + .. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.*.. find the center of the rope and form a bight. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.

Checkpoints.Figure 4-.: to .. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . %. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. Tying the Knot. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. + .* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. It is a special(purpose knot.7.0. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. b.. + . a. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. K!eimhiest knot. ...0 inches. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.

'.. %. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. + .Figure 4-.: &orm a bight..* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. It is a special(purpose knot. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. :unter -itch . Tying the Knot. + .". Frost knot.1: Cinch the knot tightly. Checkpoint. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.. + . Checkpoints.. Figure 4-.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. b. <irth hitch. b. a. %.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.

b. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. %. . palms do$n about ... /old the loop $ith the left hand..1. Bock the locking mechanism.'. Tying the Knot.0 inches apart. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.. + . !ith the right hand.. %0* he carabiner is locked. + . !ith the right hand. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. + . + . Check 9oints.he munter hitch. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. a. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. /old the rope in both hands.. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop.0.* A bight passes through the carabiner.

0. ensuring they do not cross. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. + . + .'.*. Tying the Knot. :unter hitch. . It usually re#uires a sling rope ..each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. thus creating a loop around the $aist.' feet or longer.. + .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. .Figure 4-1*.. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. .1. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. + .... a.

pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.7.. . Figure 4-1). Check 9oints. tightening the seat. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. + . b.). + . bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. %. .appe! seat. &rom rear to front.+ . -ull up on the ropes.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.4.

0. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. Tying the Knot. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*.... + . %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. preferably ovals*. + . %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. a. . ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.

Check 9oints. Although mountain operations have not changed.. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load.Figure 4-1. b. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities.* !hen properly dressed. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. rope can only be pulled in one direction. <uar&e knot. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. %.

he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. e#uipment. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation.). $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. ho$ Countain Dperations. evacuation. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. Weather and terrain combine to challenge .mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. glaciers. Inclement $eather. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. he proponent of this publication is /F .8:7(7781. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. sno$(covered mountains. &ort <enning. tactics. $henever the masculine gender is used. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. anchors. for training %see Appendi" A*. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training.A2DC. rock climbing. ice climbing. movement on glaciers. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. illness and injury. A =: A +/(. and actions. and urban vertical environments. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. >nless other$ise stated.<D.+. and training. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. 9A 1. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. >.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander.). hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. both men and $omen are included. Army Infantry +chool.). hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build.

+lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. compartments. Spring storms. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. sno$fields. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . conditioning.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. single ridges. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. rehearsals. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. AcclimatiAation. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. surprise. and $ell(led troops.::: kno$n minerals. glaciers. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. Df the appro"imately 0. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather.

Bimestone has pockets. S!ate an& <neiss. &ace climbing can be found. . and it is usually difficult to protect. <ranite. d. . ne$ sno$. Cha!k an& 8imestone. and de$. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. After long. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. a. b. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards.ockfall danger is high. c. San&stone. face climbing. f. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. &ace climbing is possible. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. +topping a slide on small. it cannot be protected. . !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. and cracks. conglomerate type stones may be loose. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. ho$ever. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. e. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. ."cept for calcite. <rassy S!opes. Cost climbs follo$ a crack.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. . 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. granite dries #uickly. After a rain. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. found in limestone.

either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. internal heat. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". but smaller than boulders. g. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. or. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. If possible. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle.ocks. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. a. under pressure.ocks. =gneous .ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. he magma may move up$ard. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . !hen the cooling occurs at depth. %. Ta!us. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". Scree. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. . h. Ascending scree is a tedious task. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. avoid scree $hen ascending. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. /o$ever. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. and over time. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe.ock C!assi#ications . his results in an intrusive rock. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri".<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . .

this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. produce basalt. Barge %. . +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted.ocks. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. $hich cut across the strata. it is called 6tuff. Dccasionally. ."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. In the Alps. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. and dikes. In plutonic rocks. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . =orth Cascades. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. Fuieter eruptions.ocks. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. or clusters of segregated minerals. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. $hen a ledge suddenly ends.and crystalliAing. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. %1* Cointing .ockies.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. . Adirondacks.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. herefore. +ierras.

and limestone to marble. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. he Canadian . %. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. or oceans. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. $hich offers .* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. %. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. After sediments are solidified. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. Se&imentary . !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. As sediments accumulate. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. In fact.b. but cleavage or foliation. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. hese changes may be minimal. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps.ocks. :etamorphic . especially in limestone. lakes. <ecause of this cleavage. c. only slightly altering the sediments. +hale changes to slate or schist. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth.ocks.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement.

ach type of stress produces a typical structure. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. ocean trenches. volcanoes. . :ountain Structure. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. the Dlympics of !ashington. $hich results in fault(block mountains. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. forming fault(block mountain ranges. a. $hich also provides solid climbing. often accompanies up$arp. . and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. and heavier. &aulting. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. =evada. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. %. b. and to pull apart and crack. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. and mountain ridge systems. granitic continental crust. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes.* Dome :ountains. heaving up fold mountains. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. 9!ate Tectonics. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. he breakage e"tends . he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. e"posing the central igneous core.$orld class climbing.

%a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. it is faulted on one side only. %1* Fo!& :ountains. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . 9eologists call folds geosynclines. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. Core often. ho$ the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . central core is all that remains. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. he best kno$n is the 6. ectonic forces. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. the oldest. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley.

the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. there are folds measured by a rope length.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. a. and the Cediterranean. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. he I2+ classes are: . the Caucasus region. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. and the . and faulted. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. In$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores.ift Valley of . and have the skills to accomplish the plan. domed. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. .idge. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. . these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. Asian arc. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material.

Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. %1* Class 7. climbing techni#ue. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %."traordinary difficulty. %7* Class 7. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. often combined $ith small belay points. belay and emplace intermediate protection. . his is the simplest form of free climbing.8—. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. and e"perience re#uired.* b.)—Cedium difficulty. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. %)* Class 7. %4* Class 7. H Class 1—Climbing.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. %'* Class 7.* Class 7. H Class '—<elayed climbing.:(7.'—Bittle difficulty. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*.5—Very great difficulty.4—9reat difficulty. . /ands are necessary to support balance..* H Class 7—&ree climbing. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions.H Class . /igh physical conditioning. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training.7—Coderate difficulty. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling."posed positions. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue.—/iking trail. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. hree points of contact are necessary. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. ."tremely great difficulty. %0* Class 7. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced.:—. $hich may have some e"posure.

. 7.* A:—M&rench(free.5. d. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. %. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars..6 indicates periods of run(out $here. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.' %for e"ample. if a fall $as e"perienced.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6. and energy e"penditure. c.. and d categories starting from 7.. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs.. the 6. re#uiring more climbing ability. in a classification of 7. %0* A.'—9reater increases of difficulty.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level.(7.5J*.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. c.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out. %5* Class 7. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling. b.6 or 6L.asy aid. 7.* Classes are further divided into a. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. %&or e"ample..: to 7.:d*.—. e"perience. ground fall $ould occur. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable..

ho$ever. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection.K0 to 0 . >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall.%1* A0—Coderate aid. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. long fall potential does e"ist."tremely severe aid. %)* A7—.K0 days %usually not less than 7. /o$ever. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. such as A1J or A1(. %4* A)—. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %7* A'—+erious aid. e. %'* A1—/ard aid. II — /alf of a day. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. VI — 9reater than 0 days. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route."treme aid. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. =o serious fall danger. . V — . his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. III — About three(fourths of a day. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard.4*.5*. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. . If the leader falls. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. All protection is sketchy at best. hese falls.

able .). H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.f.)a 7.b.c..7 7.* easy %...1 IIIsup . his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.:.4 . 'a severe. DDS Class .a VIII( .urope. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7..'a 1b.8 0: 0..b 0a.8 IIsup .'.5 VI( severe.b.(..1....a.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.)a 7.' 7...b 7b.7b 7.. 7.c )a.b. hard severe.c 7b.:b VII .c.'a 'a.b.b 0c.c.c 7a.c VIII .:d VIIJ . H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.* moderate %CD2* .7b 7.'a 1b.0. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .7 .b.'.0 7.0.c )a. sho$s a comparison of these systems..:a VII( .) 7.7b(7c 7. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems. hard severe. hard very 7.c 'a.. 'c 7..c 7b.b.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .* easy %.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5..a.7b 7.:c VII .1 7.)b ..b VIII . 'b hard severe. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.c 0a..b.1K..8 VI 7a 7..: 7.K. III .c 7b. H <raAilian—<raAil uses .c )a.c ..5 .c 7b.1a 1b.. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.

)c 4a VIIIsup 04 . $ith sustained technical climbing. H VII — ... Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. %. and more of it.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation..* Commitment .0c 7.0b 7. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*..7. . H V — A long climb in a remote setting. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.)c 4a 05 .0d IL( IL IL ILJ .)K4. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.ating systems. easy climb near the road. AI %alpine ice*. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .0a 7.oman numerals.atings. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.7. -ossibly days to approach the climb. all in a remote area. g. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. . $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. . possibly $ith a haAardous descent. 2ifficult physically and mentally. A difficult and involved approach and descent.7.)K4. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings..)K4.7. his route is subject to objective haAards.. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. $ith little objective haAard.)c 4a VIII 0) .verything a grade VI has.)K4. $ith objective haAards ever(present. and the route might be prone to avalanche. H I — A short.

H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. $ith places to rest. re#uiring agility and creativity. a. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. strenuous pitch. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. !hen planning mountain operations. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. H . erratic $eather. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. but on featureless ice. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. additional information may be needed about siAe. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. . echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. — A froAen lake or stream bed. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain.%0* Technica! . and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions.atings. physically and mentally. he pitch may be shorter. location. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. An e"tremely tough pitch. H 7 — A long.

put on dry clothing. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. H 2o not rush. Co2er an& Concea!ment . but do not overdress. during severe mountain storms. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. c.b. H ?eep dry. and amounts of precipitation. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. types. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. %. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. stay $arm. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. and calm. if possible. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. H ?eep $arm. dry. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. H If lost. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods.

hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. and fog can limit visibility. +ome rock types. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. in depth. outcroppings.!hen moving in the mountains. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. dead space is a problem at short ranges. /o$ever. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. b. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. a. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. Conversely. are easily e"cavated. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. As in all operations. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. In alpine environments. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. rain. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. . 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. . mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. like observation. heavy vegetation. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. /o$ever. sleet. boulders. In other areas. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. such as volcanic tuff. hail. sno$. are e"cellent at long ranges.

If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. or a rise in temperature. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. especially in $inter. and $eather factors. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. latitude. . he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. If an une"pected $ind strikes. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. sno$ conditions. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. b. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. rainfall.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. . and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. a. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations.

the thinner. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. such as those found in desert regions. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. b. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. 2ue to the cold. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. In tropical regions. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. <ecause of this increased dryness. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. d. conse#uently. a.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. At higher altitudes. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. (eather Characteristics . . he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. he barometer usually drops 0. +ome mountains. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard.c. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater.

:. In order to understand this. air pressure %barometric pressure*.::: feet. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . the lo$er the pressure. ho$ it is being moved. humidity %moisture content*.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. the better the $eather $ill be. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Associated $ith clear skies.* -igh 9ressure. he higher in altitude. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. b. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. and the earth3s rotation. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. Associated $ith bad $eather. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. land masses. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. on the other . he higher the pressure. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. !ith lo$er air pressure.1 millibars %mb*. %. Bo$ pressure. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. a. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. oceans. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse.. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. and if it is being lifted or not. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere.

hand. <ecause of these funneling effects. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography.6 (in& In high mountains. dense clouds fill the air. !ith increasing $ind strength. a. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. b. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. Above hot surfaces. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. c. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. or at high altitudes. c. >sually. Dn a $eather map. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. =ormally. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. . !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. 2uring the $inter season. and sinks to the earth3s surface.

he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. g.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. Caritime ropical — $arm. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. f. $et air mass. has settled to the surface. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. due to the earth3s rotation. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. dry air mass. Caritime -olar — cold. dry air mass. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s.d. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. there are three prevailing $inds: %. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. In the =orthern /emisphere. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. Continental ropical — $arm. e. . hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. $et air mass.* 9o!ar $aster!ies.

his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0.:: percent relative humidity. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. the more moisture it can hold. and so on*.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . de$.:: percent relative humidity*. sno$. fog. $ind meter. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. the $armer the air. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. a.. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing.%.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. and thermometer.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. clouds are formed. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. b.. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. . -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. rain.

Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point.a. c. it has no$here to go but up. . and . Cyc!onic 8i#ting.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. +ince air masses $ill not mi". Clouds can be described in many $ays. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. 6rographic 8i#ting. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide.(. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. !hen temperatures are cold enough. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. b. Fronta! 8i#ting.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . hey can be classified by height or appearance. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached.7:: feet. mid(. d.(0*. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. a.

3im ostratus C!ou&s.('*. Figure )-1.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . %.(1 and . Stratus C!ou&s. Cumu!us C!ou&s.Figure )-). . Figure )-..

he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. especially if the cloud is more than 1. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist.::: feet . lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation.Figure )-4. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$.

::: feet* have a prefi" of alto.()*. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. . have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.::: feet thick. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height.7:: to 0:. though usually hours a$ay. especially if they are rising over time. 7!tostratus.thick. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . Cold clouds. Figure )-6. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. Figure )-5.* b.(7 and . 7!tocumu!us.

emperatures are $arm. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. As the storm approaches. produces a ring of light around the moon. humidity rises. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. at night. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit.(4 and &igure . are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies.%. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. !ith altostratus. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. in a blue sky. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. Figure )-7.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. . Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. c.(5*. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. Cirrus.

+ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon.::: feet. releasing incredible amounts of energy. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front.::: feet. %. hey can be nearly straight. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like.Figure )-".* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. As a result. . or seemingly all tangled together. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. ?no$n for their flat bases and . shaped like a comma. %. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. Cirrostratus. d. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes.

vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. . Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. an artifact of erosion. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing. As the air rises. large hail. 9iven suitable conditions. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells.::: feet or higher. and tornadoes.(8*. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. !ithout a continued supply of rising air.distinct outlines. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. . the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. ice crystals dominate the composition. ho$ever. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. damaging $inds. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. >nder favorable conditions. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18.

Figure )-'. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*.:*. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. Dnce the air returns to its original height. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . /o$ever. If they gro$ and descend. 6ther C!ou& Types. is lifted up$ard. stable air encounters a mountain. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. !ith continued descent.(. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. bad $eather can be e"pected. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. Initially. >pon reaching the mountain top. and cools. similar to a 6flying saucer. Cumu!onim us. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. . hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. lenticulars. e. and contrails. hey are orographic clouds. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. %. $arming as it descends.

then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon.*. especially if the sky is .(. C!ou& =nterpretation.Figure )-)*. 8inticu!ar. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. Figure )-)). Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Contrai!s.. f. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location.

d. occluded. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. cirrostratus. $ill force the $arm air up. Dccasionally. cold.covered $ith cumulus clouds. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. it becomes a stationary front. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. <ecause $arm air is less dense. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. and nimbostratus. being more dense than $arm air. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. nimbostratus %producing rain*. cirrostratus. cumulus. a. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. c. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. Stationary Front. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. (arm Front. there . Co!& Front. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. Cold air. he four types of fronts are $arm. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. altostratus. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. and fog. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. 6cc!u&e& Front.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. b. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. and stationary. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. . cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. to the local sky. it is a $arm occlusion.

his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. At high altitudes. the temperature of the air drops 1. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. sno$. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. b. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas.. Temperature =ormally. due to convection currents. a. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic.. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. . clear. subarctic. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. and mid(latitudes. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . calm mornings.::: feet of elevation gain. <esides permitting rapid heating.. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds.::: feet of elevation gain. his cooler. Conse#uently. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . and heat loss through thermal radiation. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. the temperature of the air drops 7. fog. and precipitation*. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction.

and barometric pressure $ill all be different. are also helpful. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. the amount of data available. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. temperature. b. but more slo$ly %1. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. thermometer. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience.c. including >+A&. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast.* 9ersistence :etho&. $ind meter. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. . his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. a. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. >+=. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns.eports from other localities and from any $eather service..::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . . o be effective. herefore. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. if today $as hot and dry. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. or the =ational !eather <ureau.

if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. Ideally. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*.* If an anemometer is available. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. such as trees. Assess $ind speed in knots. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. bushes. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. (in& Spee&. b. assess speed to the nearest knot. a. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. Aisi i!ity in :eters. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. %. under changing conditions. c. high( and lo$(pressure centers. . tents. are blo$ing. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. and clouds and precipitation. /o$ever. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. %0* If no anemometer is available. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. . this may not al$ays be the case. and so forth. estimate the speed in knots. &or e"ample.%0* Tren&s :etho&. %'* 7na!og :etho&. (in& Direction.

. =ote if bases are above all terrain. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. g. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. colder temperatures. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . . hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. 9resent (eather. heavy do$npours.5 J 10 P '. Temperature.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. degrees &.77 P 7 degrees C. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • .stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. $Bamp!e4 '.* !ith a thermometer. . !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. e.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. total cloud cover is 'K5. degrees & Q 10 " . Assess total cloud cover in eighths.* f. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*.d. %&or e"ample. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. hail. . o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm.77. then estimate to the best of your ability.. %. If clouds are not touching terrain. Count the sections $ith cloud cover.5 times C plus 10. &og. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. 7 degrees C " . Cei!ing -eight.

%0* !ithout a thermometer. . i. Carked cooler temperature changes. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. Increasing cloud coverage. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. 9ressure Tren&. Carked $ind speed increases. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. h. assess the pressure trend.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. he closer the isometric lines are. Carked increase in humidity. Changes in obstructions to visibility. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. %. %. Increase in precipitation. 6 ser2e& (eather. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. !ith a barometer or altimeter. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. as $ell as an estimated temperature.

here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. %i2ouac Site. companions. or other reasons. bad $eather. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. age. overestimating ability. and flooding %especially in gullies*. c. rope in. $ind. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. If the possibility of falling e"ists. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . climbing above one3s ability. overe"ertion. e#uipment misuse*. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. and poor judgment.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. b.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. such as lack of preparation. over(fatigue. or e"cessive use. heavy e#uipment. . Fa!!ing. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. lightning. Ep&ate. &alling can be caused by carelessness. or as a combination %human trigger*. dehydration. j. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. a. Increasing barometric pressure. choice of route. improper diet. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. a hold breaking a$ay. tour. avalanche run(out Aones. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. carelessness. man(made %caused by an individual. /umidity decreases. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. $quipment. 2ecreasing cloud coverage.

Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. . Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. rain. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases.7:: feet*.ock. At high altitudes %especially over ). darkness. it is best to rope up. endurance and concentration is reduced. Avoid.* f. c."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous.: kilograms %about 0. &og. and debris are channeled do$n gullies.efer to paragraph . or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. and so on. e. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. if at all possible. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. hanging glaciers and seracs. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. rockfalls. stay hydrated. storms. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. Cre2asses. . >se a route sketch and march table. acclimatiAe slo$ly. If you must move under these conditions.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches.ock#a!!. d. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. lightning. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. If ice is in the gully. If you must cross these danger areas. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. 7!titu&e. <u!!ies. icefalls. g. sno$. Aisi i!ity. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. As this slope increases .::: pounds*. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. a. +leep $ell. b. 72a!anches. %. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe.

Bike$ise. c. and a bluish light %+t. ridges. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. and rock needles. b. %. d. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. shallo$ overhangs. hair standing on end.from 07 to 1: degrees. humming of metal objects. the force #uadruples. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. a. Above appro"imately 5. but dehydration is of greater concern. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. crackling. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. shallo$ depressions. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends.::: feet. . his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. isolated trees. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. cracks filled $ith earth. rock $alls. A clear.: kilometers apart. e. violent. . herefore. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks.* Avoid peaks. caves*. Bightning is fre#uent. fi"ed $ire installations. cracks that guide $ater. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. . as a glacier makes a bend. haAardous icefalls can be formed.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. +eek shelter around dry.

::(meter rise in altitude. &or each . his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. h. If already rappelling. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses.0 to . g. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. i.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. $hich may bury the trail. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. and debris being blo$n about. If half $ay up the rock face. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. and sno$. $indburn. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. even if overcast. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs.* .%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position.5 inches@ ho$ever. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. j. 2rink plenty of fluids. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. % able . $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of ."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. the sno$ #uickly melts. If it is sno$ing. rain. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. f. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. 2uring and after rain. .

+lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep.. +lopes as gentle as .7 degrees have avalanched. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees.* S!ope 7ng!e. a. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger.Ta !e )-. %. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. S!ope Sta i!ity. %1* S!ope 7spect. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. but may occur on concave slopes.

%1* (in&. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. e"plosions. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. heavy e#uipment.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. %. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. especially $hen accompanied by $ind.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. %'* (eight. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes.* Temperature.sunny. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. +ustained $inds of . . c. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. %'* <roun& Co2er. Various factors trigger avalanches.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. b. %. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. -assing helicopters. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. $arm days. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. Sno+ 9its. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. Dn grassy slopes or scree. . the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. the potential for avalanche is high. %0* 9recipitation. At temperatures above freeAing. %7* Ai ration. Triggers. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. %Dn at least one occasion. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later.

ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. smooth the face $ith a shovel. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. to the ground. o isolate the rear of the column. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. %1* Conduct a . isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. o conduct the test. Dnce the pit is complete. place the other foot on the block. If the block is still holding up. d. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test.pit across the fall line. then t$ice. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear.utschblock test. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. %. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. s#uat once.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. Dnce above. and so on. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. through all the sno$. =e"t.

hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. &or normal density.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. 9rotecti2e :easures. Barge avalanches of this type. Although any avalanche can kill you.during the $inter sno$ season. +lab release is rapid. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. a drop in temperature of .: degrees Celsius %. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. d. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. %b* As slabs become harder. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. . his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. Dther measures include: . settled sno$. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection.

2eploy avalanche cord. %0* <roup Sa#ety. and not directly up the center. f. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. . %.%. climb to the side of the avalanche path. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. ridges.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. -ut your hood on. %. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. . >se them for lunch and rest stops.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. $hich is al$ays the best choice. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. as $ell as protect your spine. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. e. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. . If you must traverse.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. avoid moving during these periods. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. far from the bottom of slopes. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision.oute Se!ection. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. -repare to discard e#uipment.

%7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %1* Soun&s. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. and the body temperature is lo$ered. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. they $ould avoid the avalanche. %)* ry to rela". shut your mouth. no one can hear you scream. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. If you feel yourself about to pass out. &I9/ &D.* 2iscard e#uipment. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. hold your breath. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. If you feel your feet touch the ground. BI&. Sur2i2a!. their pulse rate declines. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. ID>. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface.. do not fight it.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. %. . Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks.* :ountain 8i2ing .%0* Fracture 8ines. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. g. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise.

communications. or the . shelter considerations. raining should include: psychological preparation. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. locating $ater. fire building. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. Dne #uart of $ater.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. a. &luids lost through respiration. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself.(4)*. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. /yperventilation and the cool. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. health haAards. #ormal activities $navigation. perspiration. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty.

d. ho$ever. mountain streams. rain. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. juices. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. &ruits. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. and a loss of . severe cramping may result. . +no$. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. -urification must be accomplished. thirst should be satisfied in increments. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. If the $ater supply is insufficient. b. springs.e#uivalent. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. e. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. Conserve $ater for drinking.0 #uarts %. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. physical activity must be reduced.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. c.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. .

A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. If possible. may be used for other purposes such as bathing.'. a. After sundo$n. a $atering party should be employed.drinking $ater. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. assembly area. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body.::: feet*. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. defense*. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. precautions must be taken. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten.(4)*. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. . a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. but other$ise not dangerous. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. !ater that is unfit to drink. b. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. f. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. !ater is scarce above the timberline. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. high mountain areas freeAe. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*.

or milk proteins. butter. and loss of appetite. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. poultry. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. and cheese.* 9rotein. resulting from digestion of protein. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates.of cold rations. and meats. he amino acids. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. and minerals. c. Dther foods such as cereals. and carbohydrates. cheese. is 5 ounces for a . hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. vegetables. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. Cain sources of fats are meats. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. fats. nuts. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. %0* Fats. regardless of physical activity. amino acids. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. energy. . vitamins.7'(pound man. Df the total daily caloric intake. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. and legumes also provide amino acids. metabolic changes. fiber. milk. hese food components provide energy. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. eggs. %. milk. eggs. fish.

he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. %.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. . +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. . Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. =utritionally. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. fruits. and Ainc. 2. phosphorous. iron.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. and ?. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. vegetables. and meats. a balanced diet is a necessity. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. vitamin supplements should be considered. depending on the soldier. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. %7* Cinerals. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. . the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver.: days. fruits*.%1* Car ohy&rates. vegetables. d. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism.. In the form of glucose. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . especially if this period is to e"ceed . $hich are found in cereals. and fruit. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . vegetables. %'* Aitamins.

s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. . shortness of breath. thus releasing heat. +ince coffee. juices. po$dered milk. and cider should also be considered.s $ith breakfast bars. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. metal containers. tea. herefore. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. %About '. At higher elevations. Commanders may consider supplementing C.. marked."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite. cereal bars. !hen cooking. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. and chocolate. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . /ot beverages of soup. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. and be eaten hot or cold.::(pound man*. and hot chocolate are diuretics."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. fires. cramps. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1.$orks. juices. .. stoves. fruits.7:: calories for garrison activity. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. the cooking time may be doubled. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. are important in maintaining energy levels. %1* . Carbohydrates. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. >se stoves and heat . and illness. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. candies. o conserve fuel. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon.

!ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. %. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. 9ersona! -ygiene. nose. In freeAing $eather. ahkios. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. If possible. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. hydration. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. As all missions are tactical. herefore. a. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. no trace of a unit should be detected. garbage should be burned or deep buried. medications. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. alcohol. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. !hen operating in areas . mainly during periods of cold $eather. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. and eyelids. and burial sites. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. %7* Certain drugs. perspiration. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. his is especially important in the high mountains. and judgment of soldiers.

they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. !henever changing socks. In tactical situations.6 +ince $aste freeAes. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. In rocky or froAen ground. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. cracks.$here resupply is not possible. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. $hich may cause blisters. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. If latrines are constructed. &eet should be $ashed daily. Sanitation. digging latrines is usually difficult. blisters. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. b. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. and discoloration. If laundering of clothing is difficult. it can . socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. and kept as dry and clean as possible. the soldier in a designated. but must be #uickly dried. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. dried. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation.

Altitude illness is common here.4. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. /ere. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation.::: feet. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7.::: to . arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.'.::: to 5. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7.::: to . or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories.5. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. and training of soldiers. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. $here altitude illness is the rule.::: feet. /o$ever. $aste may be covered $ith stones. Areas above .::: feet. In rocky areas above the timberline.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. .5. Above 5.::: to 5. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-.'. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . employment of the local population may be advantageous. Coderate altitude is from 7. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. starting at about 5.::: feet and ending at .::: feet.::: feet. Very high altitude is the region from . $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.::: feet %high elevation*. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . conditioning.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained.*. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects.*. At these altitudes. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.'.

::: feet. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. . he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.apid ascent to .0 to . 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. operational unit. /eadache.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. the rate of ascent. . +leep disturbances.5 percent may have severe symptoms. nutrition and physical activity it is about . +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks.7:: feet causes severe. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ). and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility.'.:. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes.apid ascent to . Immediately upon arrival at high elevations.0. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.::: to . 2eterioration of memory. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. Irregular breathing. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). a. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. Boss of appetite. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. .::: feet*. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . b. Increased irritability in some individuals.'.apid ascent to elevations of . +lurred speech.4.

+. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. -riorities of training must be established.::: feet for at least 0' hours*.+. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. environment. herefore. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions.unacclimatiAed personnel. a. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. >. As $ith all military operations. and enemy situation. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain..+. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations.

::: feet. !ater.. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. . he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. >nits can leapfrog. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. if in a $inter environment. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. food. and rest must be considered as priorities. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. c. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. Additionally. $ith the unit. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. and. a unit should ascend at a rate of . he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. time to ac#uire $ater.::: feet per day. $ater purification supplies.::: to 0. mission.* Above 5. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. these drugs are diuretics. taking an e"tended rest period.

At the same time. and special e#uipment loads.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. the soldier3s . and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. his increases the soldier3s endurance. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. he better the physical condition of the soldier. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. the metabolism becomes more efficient. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. f. climbing. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. . although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. . and calisthenics. his conditions the back and legs. $hich must be developed and hardened. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. A different group of muscles are used.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. e. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. d. $hile carrying D. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion.

and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. arms. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart.capacity for e"ertion is increased. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. he heart rate. breathing management. . and mountaineering skills are realiAed. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. abdomen. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. metabolism. g. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. and circulatory support. . conditioning. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. strains. frostbite. lungs. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. back. . As $ith any other injuries. After acclimatiAation. personnel can still become injured %sprains. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. hese include sprains. contusions and fractures. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. legs. strains.epetitive practice. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. >pon deploying to high elevations. hypothermia. abrasions. to the point of instinctive reaction. fractures. and trench foot*.

burning. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. Sun urn. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. 2o not pop blisters. he skin may be $arm to the touch. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling.* Contributing factors include fair skin. and headaches may occur. If blisters do break.7::. $ash thoroughly. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. fever. a. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation..:: and . raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. 2ue to rough terrain. %1* o treat sunburn. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of .endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. and seek medical attention. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. Immediate first aid is given on site. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. he . %. bandage. . Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. In severe cases chills. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather.

%'* o prevent sunburn. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. %. If still painful. . Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . %Currently. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. an +-& of .* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . Sno+ !in&ness.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. Administer pain medication if needed. Avoid rubbing the eyes. red. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it.* In an emergency.* 2uring sustained activity. %&or e"ample. %1* o treat sno$blindness. b. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. -roper sunglasses should provide . ice. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. and $ater. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication.+. the >. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache.

A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. /o$ever. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. and nutrition. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. move. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(.*. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . but freeAing temperatures are not. and immersion foot. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. dissemination. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. dehydration. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. personnel. and fight in $inter conditions. a.0. b.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. . rest.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. +imple tasks take longer to perform.

!hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased .ace. %0* . he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. &or e"ample. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries.Figure . he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. (in& chi!! chart. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. c. %. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit.-). %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. %'* 7m ient Temperature. %1* <eographic 6rigin.

%4* Terrain. ?eep dry. but not belo$ the ambient temperature.danger Aone or beyond. 6—Dverheating. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. accumulation of perspiration. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection.8. !et clothing loses insulation value. he lo$er the $ind chill. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. D—2ry. %)* Type o# :ission. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. therefore. Avoid overheating. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. • • • . • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. %5* C!othing. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. in mind.D.6.

!ithin the usual age range of combat personnel.%8* :oisture. %.* 7ge. %.:* Dehy&ration. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.a&ica! Changes in the (eather. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. %. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. %. %. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. %. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. . d. age is not a significant factor. especially in higher elevations. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken..4* . Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. Individuals must retain their body fluids. %.7* 3utrition."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration.1* Concomitant =n>ury. %.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. . !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*.0* Fatigue.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience.

%0* Con&uction. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. Dn cold days. %. ."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. convection. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily.* . reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. f. . <ody heat may be lost through radiation. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. deliberate. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. conduction. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. -erform emergency first aid.%. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. e. and careful. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. or evaporation.a&iation.

* Shock. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. !ind chill is convection cooling. unconsciousness.%1* Con2ection. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. %. shortness of breath.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. o treat shock. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. . +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. s$eating. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. or feet. fear. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. Clothing that ventilates. and e"cessive thirst. . Any illness or injury can produce shock. administer $ater. cold skin. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. and loss of blood. g.levate the back and head. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. insulates. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. pain. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. rapid and faint pulse. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. his condition may digress into incoherence. %0* Dehy&ration. his is usually caused by . %b* 'reatment. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. and possibly death. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. %'* $2aporation. slo$er heart beat. %a* Symptoms.

At high altitudes. tiredness. headache. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. Cold causes fre#uent urination. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. in fact. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. /o$ever. decreased amounts of urine being produced. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. lack of appetite. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. the air is dry. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. fainting. If the stomach is cold. he is probably dehydrated. upset stomach. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. rapid heartbeat. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. %b* Symptoms. hey may. higher temperature. dry mouth. diAAiness. o distinguish bet$een them. %a* Contributing +actors. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. and unconsciousness. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. mental sluggishness.

/ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. %1* -ypothermia. In advanced cases. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. Change in $eather. Allo$ the victim to rest. 2iarrhea. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. -oor nutrition. 2ecreased physical activity. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. . /igh $inds. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. %a* Contributing +actors. Accidental immersion in $ater.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. %c* 'reatment.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

is planned for every 1.. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth.::: to 0. reatment of /A-. using mannitol could be fatal. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*.• -rogressive shortness of breath. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. e. are prone to second attacks. hydration. rapid heartbeat %pulse . /A-. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0.::: to 1. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. and o"ygen.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. may become irreversible and cause death. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. . rest.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. A rest day. • • • .):*. $armth.0: to . Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. is prevented by good nutrition. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-.::: feet of altitude gained. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . given orally can also be effective. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. • • d. &urosemide %Basi"*. Crackling. /A-. $hich is a diuretic. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. and death results. if left untreated. >nconsciousness. If untreated. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber.

-revention of /AC. hallucinations. inability to concentrate. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. reatment for /AC. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. stupor. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. he main symptom of /AC. may occur in e"perienced. maintaining hydration. b. a.apid descent and medical attention. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. can cause death. and /AC... /AC. decrease in urination.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. convulsions. Beft untreated.est. is the same as for /A-. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. d. c. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. is a severe headache. paralysis. +ymptoms of /AC. and lack of coordination. /A-. and unconsciousness. -reventive measures include good eating habits. headaches. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. confusion. coma. immediate descent is mandatory. vomiting. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5.. include mild personality changes. . $armth. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. . is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. and using a gradual ascent to altitude.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. . hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. +upplemental o"ygen.

cools down and heats up differently. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. therefore. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. cause increased proteins in the plasma. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. .eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and.rovided all tactical concerns are met. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. or the fluid portion of the blood. edema. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. &rom this. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. . move faster.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. both cerebral and pulmonary. occurs. . he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. and /AC. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure.

/o$ever.*. c. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. Foot+ear Currently. a.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. %. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly.*. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. b. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. as $ell as insulation against the cold. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. a lace( up configuration. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. he outer . $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. he inner boot provides support.

Socks. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. !hen $orn improperly.egardless of climatic conditions. As a system. Figure 1-). $hich protect the soldier from the elements. a. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. remove e"cess moisture. !hen clothing is $orn properly. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. at best. %. .boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. if $orn correctly. and the outer most garments. . and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. develops hypothermia or frostbite. he is. socks provide cushioning for the foot. ski bindings. the insulation layers. uncomfortable and. at $orst.

Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. &or the most part. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. /o$ever. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. . %a* In severe $et conditions. In colder environments. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. b. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. If the user is $earing V< boots. he . >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. =nsu!ating 8ayers. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. he primary material in this product is polyester. c. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. En&er+ear.

t$igs. <aiters. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. e.. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. as $ell as mud. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. and stones.Figure 1-. 6uter 8ayers. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment.C!C+ correctly.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. d. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . he .

It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. hook(pile tape. . his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. .ven during the best climatic conditions. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock.. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. -an& (ear. and snaps. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. $ill need to be locally purchased. %. Figure 1-1.C!C+ and. in most cases. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. Three types o# gaiters. f. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves.

* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. man( made fibers are preferred. g. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. =atural fibers. . Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times.Figure 1-4. predominately $ool.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. as $ell as replacement liners for both. -an& +ear. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. %. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . -ea&+ear. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area.

h. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. Figure 1-5. neck. -e!$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. i. a balaclava can be added. -e!mets. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. $ye+ear. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. &or e"treme cold. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. . it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. Figure 1-6. !hichever helmet is selected.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. his covers the head. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering.

have been combined to make combined .urope. and harnesses. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. and comprises several commissions. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. It is based in -aris.urope %C. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and.=*. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances.uropean norm %C. :aintenance o# C!othing. . to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*.=* and C. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. cord. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .uropean norm %. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. Figure 1-7. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. &rance. .uropean economy. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. $ebbing. heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. Community . j.

essentially. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. he . and elongation. %.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. Its ability to stretch up to . All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope.7( or . a standard . &or most military applications. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. . hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. impact force. abrasion resistance. $hich is.a. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. A static rope has very little stretch. . the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . and is best used in rope installations. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . it should be >IAA certified. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension.. called slings or runners.. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer.:. If used for -rusik knots.* .(mm rope.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. b. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord.. . factors affecting rope selection include intended use. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. (e ing an& S!ings. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. Figure 1-". Kernmant!e construction.opes an& Cor&. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance.egardless of the rope chosen.

hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. are usually lighter. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. . Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. .unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. . he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . and anchors.uses for these simple pieces are endless.0 inches. c.K.)(inch or . can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. and have less bulk than the tied version. . +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. Figure 1-'.. -arnesses. .* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. and . and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. more durable. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. carabiners. Tie& or se+n runners. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. and 0' inches.) inch. ' inches.) inch. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. the rope. inch.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.unners are predominately made from either 8K. $hich is stronger. %. &or most military applications.

&or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying( unavailable. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing.:*. !ith the remaining $ebbing.:*.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. are more restrictive. referred to as a seat harness. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either .:*.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. . !hile these harnesses are safer. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. %. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. his type of harness. %1* . $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. &itted properly. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.

. Figure 1-)*. he oval. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. given other options. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. Cara iners. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. a. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. +teel is still $idely used. !hen using a carabiner. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. great care should be . %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer.*. the 2(shaped. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. his rope..

:a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. %. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength..0*.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. Figure 1-)). <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. the load is . 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. Figure 1-).

hey are described by their thickness. $afer. Aarious pitons. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. %1* .angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. and angles. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. and length %&igure 1(. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. and angle. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness.itons. hey are made of malleable steel. and $ith the gate open. hardened steel. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. along its minor a"is. . he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades.egardless of the type chosen.1*. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. vertical cracks. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. design. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. Dn vertical pitons. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. Figure 1-)1.* 1ertical . b. the blade and eye are aligned. or other alloys. hese pitons are used in flush. 9itons. horiAontal. specifically the locking version. %.

.(inch s#uare. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. shallo$ cracks. %'* 2nife 3lade . hey are small and fit into thin. hese pitons are used in flush. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances.%0* Horizontal .itons. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. %1* Wafer . hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. $ebbing. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons.itons. %)* Angle . shallo$ cracks. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. metal. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. hey are designed to bite into thin.itons.'*.itons. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. %4* 3ong . or flakes. ledges. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. 9iton -ammers. or leather is used to .itons. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. c. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack.5 centimeters $ide. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. hese pitons are used in shallo$.>. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. Dn horiAontal pitons. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. flush cracks.itons. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight.

All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. 9iton hammer. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. d. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. Chocks. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. Figure 1-)4. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. to be used as anchors. into the rock. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton.7*. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself.7 centimeters long and $eigh . .0 to 07 ounces. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07.

+pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. $hen used in the camming mode. f. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.4* provide convenient. e. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . Three-point camming &e2ice.)*. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. Chocks.Figure 1-)5. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. Figure 1-)6.

5*. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. . g. they can be purchased or homemade.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. Chock 9icks. Figure 1-)7. Cade from thin metal. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. saving time and effort. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. hese are placed #uickly and easily. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements.semi(rigid point of attachment. . hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith.

* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. brands. %o!ts. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor.8*. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. %.Figure 1-)". A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. Chock picks. and $eights. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. $hich is driven into the rock. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. bolt driver. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. hese re#uire a hammer. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. and drilling anchor. corrosion. <ecause of this re#uirement. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. dirt. . $hich is time(consuming. h. and moisture. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. and e"tremely noisy. chips. e"hausting. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. . <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. <urrs. Dnce emplaced.

%1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position.Figure 1-)'. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. . .egardless of the belay device choosen. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. %e!ay De2ices. %. i. %o!ts an& hangers. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. the tuber. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement.

one ascender is sufficient. 7scen&ers.*. t$o ascenders $ork best. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair.*. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. . 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. Figure-eights. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*.). &or lo$er angle movement. k. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam.Figure 1-. Figure 1-. &or difficult vertical terrain. Descen&ers. j. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction.

the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. &or best results. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings.Figure 1-.. and strong. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. 9u!!eys. light$eight.. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. glaciers. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. A pulley should be small. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. froAen $aterfalls(can . 9u!!ey. 7scen&ers.1. Figure 1-. l.

he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". head %pick and adAe*. It can be made of fiberglass. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. direct(aid climbing. used for chopping. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. step cutting. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. =ce 7B. %. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. is perpendicular to the shaft. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. %b* he head of the a". probing. a. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he adAe. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. self(arrest. belays. hollo$ aluminum. therefore safer for mountaineering. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. %0* As climbing becomes more$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. can have different configurations. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. . anchors.

hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. =ce aB an& ice hammers.b. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. Crampons. c. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. loose ends should be trimmed. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. inch of front point protruding. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long.egardless of the type of crampon chosen.4. Figure 1-. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. =ce -ammer. . . Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.

Crampons.5. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . as its name implies. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots.Figure 1-. %0* he rigid crampon. %. but can be used on less vertical terrain. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. is rigid and does not fle". It is designed to be used $ith soft. fle"ible boots. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself.

* !hen selecting ice scre$s.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. =ce Scre+s. . Figure 1-. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. =ce scre+s.mountaineering boots. .6. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. %. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. • • • ype I is . $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. d. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth.

Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. =ce piton. hey are available $ith bent faces. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. =ce 9itons. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. flanged sides. e. ho$ever. . Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. Figure 1-. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. bends. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. and fi"ed cables. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . f. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. If any cracks or bends are noticed. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. hey can. the scre$ should be turned in.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks.7.' centimeters. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s.

bivouacs. movement. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. hey can be angled or (section stakes. a.::: kilograms. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. Sno+ 9icket. Figure 1-. If bent or cracked. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. broken $ire strands. If any cracks. he ends should be filed smooth. It can be used in step cutting. g. Sno+ Sa+. $ands*. or slippage is noticed. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is .. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. in shelter construction. the picket should be turned in for replacement. chips. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. and other deformities. broken $ire strands.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. and for cutting . he picket should be inspected for bends. for removing froAen obstacles. and carrying gear.". mushrooming ends. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. cracks.

and discoloration. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. it should not be used. d.. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. and deformities. frays. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. the $ands should be replaced. the hinge and nuts should be secure. and turns on sno$ and glaciers.sno$ stability test pits. bends. folding. Sno+ Sho2e!. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . he handle should be inspected for cracks. it should be turned in. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. b. and burrs. he handle should be inspected for cracks. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. If the sa$ is beyond repair. $eather conditions %and visibility*. shelter construction. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. (an&s. bends. It can be used for avalanche rescue. !ands are . he shovel should be inspected for cracks. c. Dn folding models. !ands are used to identify routes. If the shovel is beyond repair. $arping. he flag should be inspected for tears. and missing or dull teeth. and removing obstacles. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. 72a!anche rescue equipment. he handle should be telescopic. A file can repair most defects. and number of teams in the climbing party. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. step cutting. fading. light$eight aluminum alloy. bends. crevasses. number of haAards identified.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. and stability. caches. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. sno$(bridges. burrs. to . security to the shaft. cracks. he blade should be inspected for rust. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. and stability. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. bends. rust. If any defects are discovered.

$hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. %. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. %0* . his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. %.robe.* Avalanche . 9acks. hese are small. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. . +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. e.Figure 1-. 72a!anche rescue equipment. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites.'. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche.

%. g. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. kerosene. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. factors that should be considered are $eight. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. !hen selecting a tent. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. the better it $ill be. %. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. !hite gas. !hen choosing a stove. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. and materials. Sto2es. and butane are the common fuels used.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. and its reliability. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. f. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. he fly protects against .%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. $eights. Tents.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. and are simple and light$eight. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. fuel availability. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. more harsh environment. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned.

+kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. and carrying heavy packs. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. i. +ome ski poles are . hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. h. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. j. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. Skis. they create the shape of the tent. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. sno$shoeing. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. Sno+shoes.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. <efore using a ne$ tent. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. !hen carrying heavy packs. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. connect. and become long and rigid. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. Ski po!es.

egardless of the siAe. %. S!e&s. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. especially $hen hauling fuel. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. Figure 1-1*. k. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$.* !hen choosing a headlamp. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. -ea&!amps. . /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. A flashlight can provide light. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. !hichever sled is chosen.:(man arctic tent system. to the one(person sko$. . on some models. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. a component of the . sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. +leds vary greatly in siAe. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. l.

-ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. if needed.conditions. Caution4 Cotton clothing. !hen the light is being packed. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. Stan&ar& <ear. desert. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. . 9ersona! <ear. $ith canteens. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. sunglasses. food procurement material. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. polypropylene top. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. pressure bandage. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. sunblock and lip protection. $ater. -ocket items should include a knife. a. and $ater procurement material. Dbviously. $histle. compass and or altimeter. notebook $ith pen or pencil. ropes. s$eater. map. b. magaAine pouches. first aid kits. nickel(cadmium. food. or jungle mountain environments. $quipment 9acking . Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. fuel. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. or lithium batteries. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. the e"ception being hot. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. foul $eather shells. fire starting material. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. stoves.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. climbing e#uipment. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. $orn on the body.

or unplanned bivouac. +ling rope or climbing harness. &irst aid kit. >tility cord%s*. one per climbing team. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. Climbing rack. &lashlight or headlamp.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. one per climbing team. .appelling gloves. e. . Climbing rope. =onlocking carabiners. d. he carries a light day pack. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. Carabiners. +urvival kit. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. or poncho. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. Canteen. Ice a". Cold $eather hat or scarf. Climbing rope. casualty evacuation. pile top. 9loves. one per climbing team. . his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Bocking carabiner%s*. . !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. Day 9ack."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. In the event of an injury.c. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members.appelKbelay device. one per climbing team. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. Crampons. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. Climbing rack. rain suit. or s$eater.

. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. %. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. +#uad stove. and or 6.* 5ap. &uel bottle. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. blouse. f. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. $ashing. Altimeter. %'* ()tra +ood. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. and licking is best. or navigational error.7 or higher. . pants. under$ear.• • • • +leeping bag.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. %7* ()tra Clothing. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . &or lip protection. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. s$eater or fleece jacket.:: percent of ultraviolet light. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. +ide shields. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. gloves or mittens. %0* Compass. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. +leeping mat. hat. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. boots.S. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. The Ten $ssentia!s. includes socks. injury. hey should filter 87 to . and considered to be the basic climbing outfit.

a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. -ressure dressings. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. . $orking around the camp. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. $hich is important $hile climbing. . inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. Ciniature flashlights can be used. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. small adhesive bandages. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. scissors.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. gauAe pads. %4* +irst aid 2it."tra hats or balaclavas. sharp tools. . . +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. 2ecentraliAed operations. adhesive tape."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. moleskin. elastic compression $rap. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag.%a* . cleanser. &inally. cutting the $ind. and blisters. and employing $eapons systems. herefore. serious sprain."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. butterfly bandages. the mountain environment— steep. . %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight."tra pair of heavy socks. • • • • • . a broken bone. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. but commercially available headlamps are best. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter.

Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. Dther repair items as needed. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. Cord and or $ire. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. %0* 7ce A).:* 2nife. or pack. %1* 4epair 2it. Bighters are handy for starting fires. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. +afety pins. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. A$l and or needles. Candles. heat tabs. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. -atches. %. .%5* +ire Starter. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. /eavy(duty thread. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. harness. %. and canned heat all $ork. %8* 5atches and . g. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. 2uct tape. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. as $ell as for stream crossings.* Water and Water Containers.ighter. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts.

among others. rope. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. and be securely . clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. climbing hard$are. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. more compressible items %sleeping bag. c. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. emergency bivouac shelter. $ater. the load is held high and close to the back. b. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. <y packing the lighter. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. he ice a". As much as possible.epe!!ent. food. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. .%'* =nsect . a. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. d. In most cases. if not carried in hand. e. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. and $ater procurement.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. nearer the shoulder blades. e"tra ammunition* on top. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back.

K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. . management techni&ues. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. f. grasp the rope appro"imately . until the rope is completely coiled.fastened.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. care and maintenance procedures. 9rasping the rope firmly. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . o start a mountain coil. . and then tied in place. and knots later during deployment. . the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. he rope may be given a . and 0nots. t$ists. . or building various installations. his is repeated. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. a. as stated above. serious in!ury may occur. When climbing. :ountain Coi!. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. rappelling. meter from the end $ith one hand.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. bring the hands together forming a loop.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. If not.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. Coi!ing an& Carrying the .

$rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place.%. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. %utter#!y Coi!. :ountain coi!. -ull the running end of the bight tight.* In finishing the mountain coil.* Figure 4-1. doubling it and placing it under the flap. using this length of the rope. >ncoil the last loop and. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. . or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. b. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. securing the coil. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. slung across the chest.

Figure 4-4. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. o start the double butterfly. and hold the center in one hand.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. %utter#!y coi!. %. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. !ith the bight in the left hand.* Coiling. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. . In this configuration . Coil alternating from side to side %left to right.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. -lace the doubled rope over the head. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. . &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. . make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight.

utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. 2ress it do$n tightly. sling rope. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. c. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. Cake three or more $raps.ope. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. or for storage. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. .* Figure 4-5. .opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. !rap that bight around the coil.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack.0(inch bight is left.

<ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. . Thro+ing the . his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. A smooth follo$ through is essential. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. !ith the left hand. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. !hen the rope is needed for use. Dnce stacked. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. A slight t$ist of the $rist. %.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best.D-. feeding it to a lead climber. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. =e"t. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6.ope <efore thro$ing the rope.e. and so on. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. a. hro$ up and out.

!hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. Aiming just above the horiAon.. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. Tying the Knot. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . he variety of knots.b.1.. !ith e"perience and practice. + . vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. bends.0. bights. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations.. /olding one $orking end in each hand. adjustments must be made. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. and stack the rope properly as described above. + . the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. and hitches is almost endless. he stronger the $ind. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. Class III—middle rope knots. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. a. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. + . c. back feed. Class II—anchor knots... It is a joining knot. In a strong cross $ind. ..0. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. and Class IV—special knots. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. up and out to$ard the horiAon. Anchor. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*.

* here are t$o interlocking bights. . + .. Tying the Knot. %... 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. Figure 4-6. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. Square knot.+ . a. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. It is a joining knot.. b.'. Checkpoints. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope.

It is a joining knot. . Tying the Knot.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . + . %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. b. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. standing part of the opposing rope.+ . %. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. Figure 4-7.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails.. Fisherman’s knot. a.. %1* . Checkpoints.0.1.

.-+ . %1* . Dou !e #isherman’s knot. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart.'..1. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.. !ith the $orking end of the other rope..* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight..+ . + .. and 0*. Figure 4-". !ith the $orking end of one rope.. b. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.. Checkpoints.. %. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . + .*. Insert the $orking end %+ .0. . + . $hich contains the standing part %+ .nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails..

. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + . Tying the Knot.'. Figure-eight en&. 2ress the knot do$n.7. + . .Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*.1. race the original knot to the standing end.. Figure 4-'. . !ith the other hand. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. a.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end.. + .0.....emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. + .. + .

b.. &eed the other end back through the knot.. %. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. overhand retrace. It is also called a ring bend.. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. + . he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. or tape knot.. a. + ..1.:*. Checkpoints. + . Tying the Knot.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. . ie an overhand knot in one of the ends.0. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot.

*. + . (ater knot. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor.. . It is an anchor knot. %. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. one retracing the other. a.. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions.. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. b. %0* here is no slack in the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.* here are t$o overhand knots.Figure 4-)*. Tying the Knot.. Checkpoints.

+ .. %. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor..+ . and bring it back onto itself. .. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*.each through the loop and pull up a bight.'.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight. %o+!ine knot.1. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.7.. . b. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)). =o$ dress the knot do$n.0. + .

and one in the front*. %.'.. b. . + . distributing the load over the anchor. + . Figure-$ight .his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor. Tying the Knot..etrace /.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. Checkpoints. + .oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0.0*.. . ..epeat + .. . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.. Figure 4-). + . a. 2ress the knot do$n.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.eroute& Figure-$ight0 . It is an anchor knot. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*..1.

+ . ake the $orking end around the anchor point. a. + .. he finished knot is dressed loosely. + . ... $rap the $orking end around the standing part..1*. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. by tying the knot in a retrace..'.he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. + .. !ith the $orking end.). leaving enough rope to go around the anchor..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.7. . and route the $orking end through the loop. /o$ever. + . leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope..0. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. Tying the Knot. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.1. + . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.

.. %.. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. Checkpoints %. . a. Figure-eight retrace.'*. Tying the Knot. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. palms do$n $ith hands together. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.Figure 4-)1.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. depending on ho$ it is tied.* Middle of the Rope. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. /old rope in both hands. b. + .

/old the standing end in the left hand.1. !ith the right hand. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.. + .0. assume that the anchor is horiAontal..0. /old the loop in the left hand. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor..'. + . + . he knot is tied. + ..+ .. !ith the right hand.. and bring it in$ard. + . %0* End of the Rope. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. reach under the horiAontal anchor. grasp the $orking end. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. + . -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.'.1.. . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. 2ress do$n the knot...

+ .. C!o2e hitch... ake up the slack from the anchor. ..7*. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.1. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap..). + . + . and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop.7. + . %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining.. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. and fingertip. + .'. + .Figure 4-)4. + . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. !hen tying this knot. It is a middle rope knot.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar.4. %. a. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.0. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull... Tying the Knot. palm. b.. and place it over the heel $rap. Checkpoints.

+ .8.)*. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.5. %.+ . Checkpoints... a. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. . Figure 4-)5. It is a middle rope knot. (ireman’s knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. b. Tying the Knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.

Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.. + . %. . &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.. Cake one $rap around the palm.'. it lays in$ard.. + .* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Directiona! #igure-eight...1.0.. b.+ . the tail and the bight must be together. !ith the $rap thus formed. Figure 4-)6. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. Checkpoints. !hen dressing the knot do$n. + .

Tying the Knot..4.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.4*. + ..7. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. a. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. + . + . + . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.. + . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.. forming t$o loops.'. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .. It is a middle rope knot. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.0. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + . spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.%0* he tail and bight must be together. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.). .. ie an overhand knot on a bight..1. + ..

. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. . + .5.Figure 4-)7. Checkpoints. form an . %o+!ine-on-a..* It is a middle rope knot. a. %.. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. Tying the Knot. >sing a doubled rope. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.ight.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. b.

0. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand..7. b. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. + .8*. .1. Figure 4-)". + .. a. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. !ith the $orking end. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. It is a middle of the rope knot. + .'.. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. Checkpoints..+ . is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. 2ress the knot do$n. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. /old the bight $ith the left hand. %. Tying the Knot.

+ . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. Figure 4-)'. + . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %... b..1. 2ress the knot tightly. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.0.. a. form a loop in rope %standing part*. Checkpoints.* he loop is the desired siAe. Tying the Knot. Figure-eight !oop. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. . %1* he knot is tightly dressed. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop.+ . It is a specialty knot..

.*.1. 2ouble the short rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.0. . + . $ith the $orking ends even.. + . .*: + .. + .. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .%.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.0. Figure 4-. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps... :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. forming a bight....each do$n through the . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. and place it over the long rope. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. + . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. + .. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.1.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. >sing an arm3s length of rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.*.0(inch bight..

&orm a complete round turn in the rope. and not t$isted. parallel.4. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.'.+ . It is a specialty knot.. + . Bay the $orking end under the long rope. . . %.).).. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. + . Checkpoints. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. b. + .7..* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. Figure 4-. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.nsure they are tight.

. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. + .1. Tying the Knot.... Checkpoints. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %. b.0. %achman knot. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. Figure 4-.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner..* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. + .a. + . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner..

.0.. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times.4.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. . + .. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. . !ith the running end.. + . leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. bring a bight up through the loop. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. /olding the bight loosely.. he running end is to the back of the body.). + . hen. single coil. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed.'. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. b.. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. he standing portion is on the bottom. + ..1. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. %.. It is a specialty knot.7. a. >sing the standing part. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. + . + . bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. not crossed. Checkpoints.* A minimum of four $raps. tie an overhand around all coils. Tying the Knot. + .

+ . It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.1. a.. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.'. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.1. !ith the right hand. . &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. Bay the loops to the right. + . Tying the Knot.Figure 4-.... It is a specialty knot.. + .0. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. + .

Checkpoints. .4. Figure 4-. + .* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. Tying the Knot.. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.. a. Three-!oop o+!ine. &orm a .7. %. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. b... %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts.+ . It is a specialty knot.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.

1.:u!e Knot0 . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. + . Figure-eight s!ip knot.. standing end of the rope. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . + . b.'.0 inches up the rope.. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. %.. + ..* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.+ .5. Figure 4-. Checkpoints. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. . + . /old the center of the bight in the right hand.7. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.each through the bight and grasp the long. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.). t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.0..

+ . Tying the Knot. + . It is simply an overhand slip knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*..0.6. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.0 inches long. %. K!eimhiest Knot . b..* here is a single overhand slip knot.1. %1* he bight is a minimum of . + . Figure 4-. Transport knot. a.. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. Check 9oints.. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight..

Tying the Knot.. It is a special( purpose knot.7.... + . pass them through the bight %see + . + . + . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. a. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. easily adjustable. + ... . !rap at least four complete turns. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .*. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. !ith the ends offset. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. find the center of the rope and form a bight. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot..0 inches.. + . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.1.'.0.

It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. . %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.0. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . + . %. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.7.Figure 4-. Checkpoints.0 inches. K!eimhiest knot. + . Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. a. b.: to ... It is a special(purpose knot..* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Tying the Knot.

%0* he knot is dressed tightly.. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. %.. b.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. + . :unter -itch . Figure 4-. + . b. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.".: &orm a bight. a.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.1: Cinch the knot tightly. Checkpoint. Checkpoints.. It is a special(purpose knot.. Frost knot. Tying the Knot. <irth hitch.Figure 4-.'. + . %.

. Tying the Knot. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. Bock the locking mechanism. a. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. + .he munter hitch.'..* A bight passes through the carabiner. b.. %. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.. . !ith the right hand. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. !ith the right hand. + .0 inches apart. + . Check 9oints. %0* he carabiner is locked.0. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. + . /old the rope in both hands..1. /old the loop $ith the left hand.. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. palms do$n about .

+ ....appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. . thus creating a loop around the $aist.'.0.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. :unter hitch. + . Tying the Knot. It usually re#uires a sling rope .1.. a.' feet or longer. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.. ensuring they do not cross.Figure 4-1*.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. + . + .*. .

-ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. Figure 4-1). + . bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. %. tightening the seat.. Check 9oints.+ .. . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.7. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. &rom rear to front. .. -ull up on the ropes.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.).4. b.appe! seat. + .

ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. a.0. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. + . Tying the Knot.. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. . %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side... he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. preferably ovals*.

it will fail. b. rope can only be pulled in one direction. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing.* !hen properly dressed.Figure 4-1. <uar&e knot. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. %.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. . +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. Check 9oints.. or the e&uipment .

hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. boulders. rees. /o$ever. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. .* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. When selecting or constructing anchors.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*.*.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. /o$ever.

. In rocky terrain. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. Figure 5-. Chockstones should be checked for strength. b. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. a. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. . he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. security.Figure 5-). alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. >se padding on soft. Trees use& as anchors. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable.

If any of these signs e"ist. horns. . b. a. and clipping on a carabiner. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. and spikes. their firmness is important. . +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. flakes. If rock projections are used. c.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. Chockstones. hese include blocks. tying a rope to it.Figure 5-1. the projection should be avoided. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position.ock 9ro>ections . hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness.

Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. . . All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*.Figure 5-4. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. As $ith trees. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch.ock pro>ections.

and girth. %ushes an& shru s. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. $rap.Figure 5-5. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. . the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. !hichever method is used. a. Figure 5-6. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. Drape. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape.

(rap.Figure 5-7. Drape. Figure 5-". !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. b. . (rap.

:*. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. Figure 5-'. . <irth. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. . he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor.c.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. his re#uires less e#uipment. 7nchoring (ith . Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. <irth. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. .

Figure 5-)). he rope is $rapped from top to bottom.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot.Figure 5-)*. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$..*. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. to absorb the tension. more if necessary. . Tension!ess anchor. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.

+BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. b. and +BC2s.:: years. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . such as a railroad tie.* Barge boulders can be used. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. ice a"es. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. $ould be ideal. %A hefty timber.#uipment. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. and the load to be placed on it. e#uipment. In e"tremely hard. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. . such as skis. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. and ruck sacks.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. sno$shoes. . Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. . Although still available. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. chocks. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. can also be used if necessary. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. he sling is attached to the anchor. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. As $ith natural anchors. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. such as pitons and bolts. &or training planning. he"centrics. a.

As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. as $ith any artificial anchor. clear the loose rock. c. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. should be studied. %. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. %&igure 7(. 9iton 9!acement. b. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. Disa&2antages. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. dirt. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. practiced. a. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. !hen this type of rock must be used. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. 7&2antages. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. %0* !hile it is being driven.

$Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. he piton should not spread the rock. and on the type of rock. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. herefore. Clip a carabiner into the loop. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack.out of the crack.1*. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. Figure 5-). because the piton is too long.. . the firmer the anchor $ill be. it $ill not be lost. thereby loosening the emplacement.

concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. do$n$ard. .K0 meter from the carabiner. d. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. o test pitons pull up about . -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. -ero-!oop. there is any #uestion of its soundness. . Eerk vigorously up$ard.emo2ing 9itons. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. Testing.'*. e. drive the piton in as far as possible. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. and $hen using chocks. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed.Figure 5-)1. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. to each side. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. . the emplacement is probably safe. If the pitch has changed greatly. ry to be in a secure position before testing. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. upon driving it. then grasp the rope at least . If the sound regains its original pitch. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. drive it into another place.

Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall.eusing 9itons. 9iton remo2a!. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. In training areas. vectors. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. but comple" in practice. Bight to carry. +oft iron pitons that have been used. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades.asy to insert and remove. unless severely damaged. Also. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . a. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. they may have been driven poorly the first time. 7&2antages. b. f. provides an e"cellent anchor point. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. A natural chockstone. >sually easy to retrieve and. . removed.Figure 5-)4. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. <efore use. and straightened may be reused. . are reusable. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. but they must be checked for strength. having fallen and $edged in a crack. Disa&2antages.

Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. $hich may accept pitons. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. Book for a constriction point in the crack.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. Figure 5-)5.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical.7*. Dften provide only one direction of pull.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. %. grass. %1* . A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. %0* !hen selecting a chock. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. +ome cracks may have loose rock. if possible. Chock p!acements. and dirt. . c. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. Avoid poor protection. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . then select a chock to fit it. cord. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. 9!acement.

It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem.)*. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. test it to ensure it remains in place.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. Testing. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. After seating a chock. use pairs of chocks in opposition. %a* . o test it. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. d. .

$ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. it may rotate and pull out.Figure 5-)6. %o!ts . S8CD p!acements. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. a. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. and release the retractor bar. b. place the device into a crack. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. pull the retractor bar back.

and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. a.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. . +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. carabiners. since this permanently $eakens it. $hich bores the hole. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. or cracking. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. b. . flaking.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time.4*. . +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. <olts should be used $ith carriers. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. c. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. /o$ever. !hen using bolts. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. and should be tested $ith a hammer. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. and runners.

b. his not only provides greater anchor strength.Figure 5-)7. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. . A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail.5*. a. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. It is aimed in the direction of the load. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel.8*. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. Figure 5-)".

3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. and the enemy for the length of the climb. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection.Figure 5-)'. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. therefore. terrain hazards.

Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. . . reconnaissance personnel. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places.ven before getting on the rock.6 to the top looking for cracks. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. ledges.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. he mentally climbs the route. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. +orward observers. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations.trained in the basics of climbing. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit.6 . ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. !hen picking the line. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. the climber studies all possible routes.*. nubbins. using the hands primarily for balance. or 6lines.

C7ET=63 . beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. dry rock. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. the boot soles should be dry and clean. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. In later lessons.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. such as a rock or climbing gear.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. In the training environment. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. /o$ever. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. If the soles are $et or damp. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. falls from climbers above. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety.

he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. and so on. his vibration. help the climber land feet first. or moving on to a more . comfortable stance is essential. and movement. a. and reduce the impact of a fall. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. helping to minimiAe fatigue. A rela"ed. Stance or %o&y 9osition. a$ay from the rock.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. b. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. right foot. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. If strained for too long. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. and body %trunk*. $eight shift. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. left hand. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. sho$s a correct climbing stance. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. kno$n as 6. left foot. %&igure )(. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. lo$ering the heel.

!hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out.* !henever possible. Figure 6-. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. Figure 6-). %. he hands are used to maintain balance. the hips and shoulders should be . three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical.restful position..a!ance& o2er oth #eet. Correct c!im ing stance.

c. In most cases. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock.centered over both feet.: + . C!im ing Sequence. as the climbing progresses. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. intermediate holds. $hen footholds are small. Dn steep rock. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. and movement %movement being either the foot. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance.* + . the hips are pushed closer to the rock. +ometimes. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. creating more stress. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. shift.D=. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. or body*. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. Dn lo$(angle slopes. .!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. his is normally done on #uick. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. Again. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. he basic steps are $eight. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. hand.

leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. If both legs are bent. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made. %.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs. + .: + . 2uring this movement. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.&IV..+ .. through 1 for remaining foot. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms.&D>. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability.: + ./.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again. .epeat steps . Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.

Typica! c!im ing sequence.Figure 6-1. .

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .

%0* !hen the angle of the rock increases.Figure 6-1. because the legs are much stronger. to rest on. even painful. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. his type of lifting is inefficient. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. Dther than being uncomfortable. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. Sa#ety 9recautions . these movements become more critical. %. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. not the arms. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock.

. If on a lo$(angle climb. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. If the rock $ill endanger your second. c. If conducting a roped climb. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. +hould a climber fall. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. immediately shout the $arning 6. b. let the rope provide protection. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. a fi"ed rope should be installed. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. >pon hearing the $arning. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. d. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. do not do it. tossing it do$n. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. a spotter can be used for safety. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. e. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. follo$ing the same line. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. and to reduce the impact of a fall. a. grasping for any possible hold available. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it.

<e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced.f. sedimentary(type rock. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. a. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards.&D. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. !hen the rock is $et. g. his may simply be a #uick. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety.. !hen in doubt. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. !hen leading a group of climbers. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. !hen climbing. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. b. +ometimes. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. C!im ing (ith The Feet . :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. depending on it. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability.

.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. easy or difficult. &ailure to climb any route. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. Also. . Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. forgetting to use the feet properly. he principle of using full sole contact. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. In the early learning stages of climbing. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. %. also applies in climbing. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. the entire foot cannot be used. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. as in mountain $alking. .* %a* +mooth. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. In this case.* Maximum Sole Contact. a. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. b. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. %b* Dn some large holds. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever.

turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. >sually. Again. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. . or toe. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. %0* Edging. !henever possible. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. may be used.* %a* Dn smaller holds. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. $ell(defined ledges. edging $ith the front of the boot.Figure 6-4. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. .

ounded. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. . the better the edging capability. . he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited.%b* . intermediate holds. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. he Army mountain boot. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. he stiffer the sole. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. %1* Smearing.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. therefore.* %a* . Figure 6-5. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. $ith its softer sole. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. .

hands. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. and so on. resisting a do$n$ard pull. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. . %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. or the entire foot can be used. than others. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. the possibilities are endless. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. ball of the foot. restful position. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. inside and $ithin reach. such as edges. %'* Jamming. arms. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. and even more painful on the foot. +ome positions are more tiring. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. like a camming device. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. pockets. he toes. depending on the siAe of the crack.Figure 6-6.

<oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. +ometimes. $Bamp!es o# >amming. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. Core often though. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. Dn lo$er(angled rock. As the individual climbs. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. a. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. +econdly. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. . !hen removing the boot from a crack. Figure 6-7.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. our body $eight is on our legs."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. Dur hands grip. b. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. As stated earlier.

friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. Dn smaller holds. Ideally. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. and on occasion. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever.our balance and footing on the ladder. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. or 6pinching. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. his is fine. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds.* Push olds.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. . the fingers.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. %. Df course. the side of the palm. -ushing side$ays. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure.

. pull holds are often over$orked. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. therefore. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. Again. also called 6cling holds. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. just good techni#ue.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. . and. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. -ull holds.* %a* Bike push holds.Figure 6-". or up$ard. %0* Pull olds. creating an unbalanced stance. side$ays.

here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. his helps to hold the finger tips in . Dn small holds.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. =ormally. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. creating a stronger hold. Figure 6-'. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions.

%d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. %&igure )(. knuckles. Bike foot jams.* Figure 6-)*. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. kno$n as a 6ring grip.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. ape also adds friction . &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. %'* Jam olds. his hand configuration. %1* Pinch and reduces muscle strain in the hand. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight.

outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and the hand in jammed position. or body into an off $idth. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. %&igure )(. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. . he leg can be used. only the fingers $ill fit. /o$ever. or 6off $idths. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. leg. &or off $idths. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. the principle is the same as for fingers.6 re#uiring the use of arm. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. . o jam or cam an arm. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. !hen the arm is straightened. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack.. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. from the calf to the thigh. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. hands. %b* In smaller cracks. is another techni#ue. and body jams. leg. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. and fle"ed to fit the crack.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays.

. &rom these fundamentals. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. feet. As the climber gains e"perience.Figure 6-)). and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever.

$hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. o prevent an off balance situation. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. mantling begins $ith pull holds. o make the move. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. t$o solid handholds should be used. before the hands. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. %. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. arms.a. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. $here the pull holds become push holds. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. Combination possibilities are endless. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. +hort of turning back. +till. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. b. +ometimes. . ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands.otating . yet #uickly. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. or other body parts tire. even on an easy route. %0* Mantling. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. he change step. or hop step. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. %&igure )(. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues.* Change Step.

Dnce the arms are locked. !ith the foot on the ledge. Dnce balanced over the foot.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. . momentarily. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach.

forming a bulge or small overhang.1*. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. applying an up$ard pull. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets.. %1* !ndercling. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard.Figure 6-). :ant!ing sequence. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. he arms and legs . or body tension. also.

he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. more or less. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. En&erc!ing. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. he climber bends at the $aist. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. . he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. %'* "ie#ack. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. putting the body into an B( shaped position. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. the climber $ill . Figure 6-)1.

or vice versa. or for a rest position. 8ie ack on a #ace. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. rather than muscle. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. Figure 6-)4.'*. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. %7* Stemming.7*. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. Dften.likely fall. . for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features.

%a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. . although smearing may $ork best in some instances. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into.Figure 6-)5. or body as an integral contact point. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack.)*. Stemming on a #ace. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. kno$n as chimneys. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. >sually. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. parallel cracks. legs. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys.

Figure 6-)6. . Chimney sequence.

+ince slab rock normally contains fe$.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. %c* . Chimney sequence /continue&0.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. if any holds. . he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver.4*. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. or a much narro$er crack irotection. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. A slab is a relatively smooth. face features. forcing the body against the opposing $all. /o$ever. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet.Figure 6-)6.

he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. Figure 6-)7. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. or the . %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. Also. to increase friction. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. . ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. . S!a technique. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. Dften.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. Dn steeper slab.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab.

%b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. and slips are more likely to occur. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. As the steepness and difficulty increase. !hatever the case may be.. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. use a roped descent. C7ET=63S . do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. 0. !hen in doubt. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. use a roped descent. the climber can face out$ard. If the handholds are too high. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. Dn the steepest terrain. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. he can often turn side$ays. %a* Dn easier terrain. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. !hen in doubt. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. a$ay from the rock.abilities of others to follo$. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step.

Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. &acing the rock. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate.planned landing area. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. is usually best on steeper slab. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. facing out$ard or side$ays. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. %d* Dn steeper slab. and a tendency to move too #uickly. as in ascending. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. . reducing friction.5*. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster.

Tying-=n to the C!im ing . is highly unlikely in most instances.ope Dver the years. A severe fall. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely.. . All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. . .eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. they offer little support to the climber. . may induce further injuries. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. length. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. ropes must be used to proceed.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock.

$ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. . also. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. =o assembly is re#uired. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. Seat -arness. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. including cost. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. such as a prese$n harness. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. a. -rese$n harness are bulky. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. /o$ever. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. $hen used correctly. it is not for a belay anchor. %. specialiAed e#uipment. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another.

Fu!!-%o&y -arness. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. than an improvised chest harness. gear loops. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. a. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. Chest -arness. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. at the chest. or ease of adjustment.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. c.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. S+ami %e!t. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. such as padding. Dne(inch $ebbing . C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. %.b. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. he s$ami belt is a simple. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point.

Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. %. raditionally.$ill provide more comfort. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. any tie(in around the $aist only could . Figure 6-)'.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. In a severe fall. &ABB. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!.8*. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. b. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. !I /D> /.V. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled..

ven in a relatively short fall. $ith the knots to the front. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. . like a parachute harness. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. Dff to one side.* Bocate the center of the rope. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. A safe. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. and comfortable. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. and hold it in place on the hip. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. . binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. c. . adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. 9rasping both ends. $rapping to the outside. %. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing.

d. or cross.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. forming t$o loops. he t$ist.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing.Figure 6-.*.: feet usually $orks. . . in the sling should be in the middle of the back. just as you $ould put on a jacket. and drape the sling over the shoulders. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. but remember that $ith $ebbing. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. Appro"imately ) to . %. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness.

=mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. or incorrectly. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. in effect. and comes off the harness in a fall. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. %. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation.I ICAB BI=?. 7ttaching the . he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. e. create a type of full(body harness. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. If using a chest harness. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. f. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. the standing part of the rope is then . A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. at the chest. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness.

3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. If using the three loop bo$line. or third loop formed in the knot. %. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. ensure the end. and possibly the e#uipment available. rather than tying the rope to it. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. %e!ay Techniques . A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. Figure 6-)". %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment.

>se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. if one person falls. e"posed terrain.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. rope team members can often move at the same time. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. sitting position $henever possible.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. • • • • . >se a $ell braced. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. for an up$ard pull. +tack the rope properly. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. In some instances. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. but $ith practice. the procedure should become 6second nature. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. or a 6brake. independent. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. . . . &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. Dne person climbs at a time. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. Dn steep terrain. ho$ever. and snug. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs.6 can be applied to halt a fall. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t.

ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. a.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the .ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. !hen giving slack.V. removed from the rope. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.A9.• . the rope management procedure is basically the same. aking up rope. b.BAI D=. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. guide carabiner %if applicable*. and apply the brake to halt a fall.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. ho$ever.nsure anchor attachments.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. • • . !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. If the brake hand is removed.BAI.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. or run through a friction device.. otal control means the brake hand is =.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. there is no belay. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the .

:anaging the rope.. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. step . %. step 1*.brake hand remains on the rope at all times.. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand.). %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. . step )*.. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0. to the front of the brake hand. step 0*. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.*.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. Figure 6-. place it behind the back and around the hips. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. slide the guide hand out. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. he other hand is the brake hand...epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. %)* . he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. step '*..

and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. +ometimes. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. he leg on the 6guide . the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. %. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. It is the simplest belay. . using terrain to his advantage. %o&y %e!ay. !hen perfectly aligned. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. especially for beginners. he body belay. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. or fall force. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. and the amount of load. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. the belay may have to absorb. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. stiff. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. It is best to sit in a slight depression. a. in its various forms. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. and froAen. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. re#uiring no special e#uipment.

he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load.. Sitting o&y e!ay. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. . as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load.. Figure 6-. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.

1. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. If the rope runs too lo$. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening.Figure 6-. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. rendering the belay useless. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. If the rope runs too high. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. dumping the belayer out of position. .

:echanica! %e!ay. $hich forms an obvious. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. b. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. -ut some . the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. &or the most part. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. is designed for the Cunter hitch. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. attaching both to the carabiner. /o$ever. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. useless hitch. and of the proper design. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate.* Munter itch. to allo$ this function. he carabiner must be large enough. or pearabiner. As a climbing belay.4.Figure 6-. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. %.

he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly.5. or load. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. . %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. he hand on the rope running to the climber. rather than around the belayerUs body.+ =D change the function of the hands. Figure 6-. :unter hitch. is al$ays the guide hand. though developed as a rappel device. As a belay device. to$ards the load. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations.

%1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. . but have no moving parts. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. Figure-eight &e2ice. . Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. A short. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness.ope management is performed as in a body belay. %b* As a lo$ering belay. >nlike the other devices.6. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber.%a* As a climbing belay. Figure 6-. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device.

creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. he air traffic controller %A C*. Direct %e!ay. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. if the second falls or $eights the rope. slotted plate. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. An indirect belay. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. a. the most commonly used. If the belay is correctly established. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. the belayer is not locked into a position. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. . =n&irect %e!ay. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. b. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. Additionally. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. Also. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor.

five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. 7nchor the %e!ay. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. 7im the %e!ay.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. a. the belayer selects his position. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. Dnce the climbing line is picked.* . he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. !ith the belay position selected. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. and in line $ith the first protection placement. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. . the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. %.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. sitting stance are preferred. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. c. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. b. . the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. rela"ed stance. If this placement fails under load. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time.

&igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. and 6snug6. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. his is not mandatory. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency.%0* . o accomplish this. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. say after a severe fall. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. 6independent6. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. . attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. saving the slings for the climb. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. reach back. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed.

or on the ledge. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile.ope. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay.7. d. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. !ith the rope properly stacked.* Dn small ledges. and applies the actual . If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. e. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. 7nchoring a e!ay.Figure 6-. 7ttach the %e!ay. Stack the . Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. he rope should be stacked on the ground. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. %. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber.

%e!ay setup. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. !hen belaying the 6second6. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake.BAI D=W6. Figure 6-. the same procedure is used to set up the belay.* he belayer should make one #uick. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. the anchor attachments. guide carabiner. If using a body belay.". ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. if any. the force. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. guide carabiner if applicable.belay techni#ue. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. 6<. Anchor attachments. final inspection of his belay. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . If the belay is set up correctly. If the climber takes a fall. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. he gives the signal. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. %.

Aer a! Comman&s able )(. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. :$73=3<. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb.7CT=63 T7K$3 . As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. . he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. A solid. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. or at the top at the anchor.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<.* %$87D$. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. C8=:%$. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. e"posed routes.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. Top-. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position.

+tart looking for the ne"t belay position.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. <elayer takes in rope. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. and again. I am falling. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. 9. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.6T$CT D6E. 6 A?. Climber selects a belay position.S$8F F.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS.6<. and hold me. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. <elayer removes brakeKtension. ensure climbers belo$ hear.D-.DC?6 6.=( I( &IV.6 6 !. the rope $ill be managed as necessary.DC?6 -roceed. 6 . Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. If multipitch climbing. 6+BAC?6 . .6 . apply brake.

Iou have 7 feet of rope left.. !hile a lead climb is in progress. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& .BAI D=. Climber sets up the belay. Iou have no more rope. anchoring and putting the second on belay. &or a rope tug command. a. remains anchored. his is the signal for 6<.BAI6 belay. <elayer removes the belay and.. Ta !e 6-). . .BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready.6 +et up the belay. use only one. or at the back of a ledge. b. the most important command is 6<. above an overhang.emoves the 6D&& <.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . Iou may remove the belay. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. or $hen the climber is around a corner. !ith the issue of this command.7 feet of rope left. remaining anchored.=6 Iou have appro"imately . -repares to climb. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. .ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. +et up the belay position.6&I&( . his is especially true in $indy conditions. prepares to climb. I have finished climbing and I am anchored. . 6&IV.ope comman&s.

you can easily avoid the climb itself. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. a leader or climber. b. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. rope%s*. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. &or training. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . Top-. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner.6 6pieces of pro.6 6pro placements. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. a. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. . usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams.6 6pro.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only.6 and so on.In military mountaineering. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. If you can easily access the top of a climb. As he climbs the route. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock.6 6pieces.

A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . $ill be referred to as 6anchors. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains.established for other purposes. b. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. c. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. +$inging leads. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. and is responsible for selecting the route. belays. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. he belayer simply adjusts his position.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. taking on the role of lead climber. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. or 6leap frogging. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. a. or other rope installations. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. such as rappel points. ice. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel.

. he leader can then signal. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. is responsible for belaying the leader. again. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. etc. %. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. !hen the belay is ready. it can be called for. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. 6<. %'* !hile belaying. such as a piton hammer. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. only as a courtesy. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. .ne"t belay. !hen the leader is ready. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. until the climber tells him other$ise. he double checks the belay. only as a courtesy. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. 6CBIC<I=96. %0* he other member of the climbing team. If he cannot see the climber. removing the belay anchor. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. nut tool. to remove any protection that the leader may place. or 6rope drag6. the belayer signals. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. thus minimiAing friction. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. he leader then begins climbing. >nless told other$ise by the climber. %1* <efore the climb starts.BAI D=6.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. $hether by sight or feel.

%)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. !hen the leader selects a particular route. each on a separate carabiner. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. In this situation. . slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. &ive to ten standard length runners. At this position. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. additional anchors for the ne"t belay.BAI D=6 is given. or 6rack.D-. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. and $hat types. !hen the leader has completed the connection. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. $ith t$o carabiners on each.BAI6. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. or the clip. d. . the command 6 A?.* he leader $ill assemble. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. the leader sets an anchor. Assorted he"entrics. %. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack.%7* As the leader protects the climb. each on a separate carabiner. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. he must also determine ho$ much.

$ith t$o carabiners on each. . 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling.(inch $ebbing. =ut tool. . • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. 0: feet of . Cordellette. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear.• • • $o to three double length runners."tra carabiners.: feet of . • .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. to some degree. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. Bong -rusik sling."tra carabiners. • • . the necessary e#uipment. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*.(inch $ebbing.

he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. kno$n as a traverse. %. protection should be placed more fre#uently. and <. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. for both the leader and second if either should fall. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing.&D. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. or pendulum. If the climbing becomes easier. is re#uired. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. moving past a difficult section.. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. protection can be placed farther apart.* Placing Protection. during. 9enerally. If the climbing is difficult.e. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. placement of protection. Dnce an anchor is placed. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. As the leader begins this type of move. saving hard$are for difficult sections. and upon completion of any traverse.

C7ET=63 . !hen placing protection. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. /o$ever. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. If the clip is made correctly. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. In addition.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. $hen released. %a* If the route changes direction. in a .

the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. o prevent this possibility. Figure 6-. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. rotate the carabiner up$ards . +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions.leader fall. C!ipping on to protection. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . =o matter ho$ direct the route.'. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners.5: degrees.

ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. Ese o# s!ings on protection. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. inducing a fall. Figure 6-1*. o prevent this. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. . the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. . or anchor. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. C7ET=63 . Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance.

"tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement.*. .%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. As the climber moves above the placements. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. even $hen used 6actively6. All $ired chocks used for . Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. . Figure 6-1). you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. or runner. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements.

Figure 6-1..ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. +ome of the larger chocks. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. ry to use the shortest runners possible. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. . Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. &urthermore. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. therefore. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. %e* . resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams.

he can. rock fall. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. !hen removing the protection. !hen removing protection. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb.6 and the leader can. as a courtesy. unless other$ise directed. no$ the climber. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . signal 6CBIC<I=9.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$.f. or seconding. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. again as a courtesy. reply $ith 6CBIC<.BAI D=. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <.* h. If necessary. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. or 6cleaning the pitch6.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope.6 he second. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. %.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. g.BAI D=. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. he second has to issue commands to the leader. !hen the second is ready. +harp rocks.BAI6 to the belayer. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. &ollo$ing. $hile the final preparations are taking place.

%.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. . Dnce the second completes the pitch. Dnce secured. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. $quipment. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. . a.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 .D-.reaches a more secure stance. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. the method of aid climbing . valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. he belayer simply adjusts his position. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. If too much slack develops. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable.BAI. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. he should immediately connect to the anchor. $hile remaining attached to an anchor.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. he can signal 6D&& <.=+ID=. If removing a piton. he should signal 6 A?. or 6leap frogging.6 he leader removes the belay. taking on the role of lead climber. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. +$inging leads.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.egardless of the type of protection used.

In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. bolts can be used for aid climbing. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. /o$ever.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. %. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. $ith or $ithout the hanger. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place the same. +ince pitons are multidirectional. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. %0* 'olts. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer.* Pitons.

* . 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. . although in aid climbing. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders.0 inches.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. %7* %aisy Chains. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops.. %1* S"C%s. %4* (ifi ook. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. .asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. %)* Etriers . appro"imately every . Chocks are used the same as for free climbing.or -iders. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. .removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. split(shaft rivets. %'* Chocks. although in aid climbing. A fifi hook is a small. or steps. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. %5* -scenders. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.

If this happens. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. &rom this height. %4* . As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. he big difference is the movement up the rock. you are no$ standing above your support. into the steps in the aider. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . aiders.b. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. Technique. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. one at a time. !ith the daisy chains. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. again. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. the climb continues as follo$s: %. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection.

nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . Secon&ing. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. above the piece. the arms need not support much body $eight. one at a time.. repeat this procedure. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. o ascend the route. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. tie in short on the rope every . use ascenders instead of -rusiks. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. o prevent this possibility. If the ascender is too high. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch.:* . move the ascenders. !hen adjusted to the correct height. Clear each knot as you unclip it.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. o make this easier. a serious fall could result.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. After ascending another 0: feet. !hen the pitch is completed. . 3otes4 .* >nlike lead climbing. %. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route.

formed by tying in at the end of the rope. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. and other protection placed easily by hand. possibly resulting in the protection failing. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. he hook . you ascend. 0. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. /o$ever. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. !hile leading an aid traverse. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. hooks. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. e. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. his is in effect a self(belay. do not tie into the end of the rope. +BC2s. d. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. o make this safer and easier. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. to get caught as you move up$ard. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning.

9iven one rope.::(foot climb $ith a . a. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. b. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. hese types of devices due to their passive application. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. &or e"ample: a . If the climb is only one pitch. $hich involves more difficulties. only t$o are described belo$. although bolts can be used. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers.::(foot climb $ith a . a forty foot fall could result. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. protected traverses . the methods $ill vary. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. belayed climb.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired.

!hen number 1 receives 6<. he most e"perienced individual is the leader.. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired.$ill re#uire additional time. he again sets up a ne$ belay. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . !hen the leader completes the pitch. !hen number . he second.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. or number . he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. climber. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay.BAI D=.BAI6 from the leader. !hen the leader completes this pitch. and number 1. If using one rope. !hen using t$o ropes. or number 0 climber.Us .* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. ascends belayed by number 0. %. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors.

such as the tuber type. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight.belay is ready. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. %d* =ormally. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. he remains anchored to the rock for security. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. %d* In this method. !hen number 1 is not climbing. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. number 1 performs no belay function. his $ould save time for a team of three. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously.. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches.

he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. even worse. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. he use of harnesses. faster.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. . However. H )i. ascenders. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. and safer. =nsta!!ation .in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. but adds to total mission $eight. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second.

Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. . Dther$ise. autoblock*. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. Dnce the anchor is rigged. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. he $ill stack and manage the rope. If the leader placed protection. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope.*.o install a fi"ed rope. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. Figure 7-). An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. Esing a #iBe& rope. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. -rusik.

the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. . it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. .e!ay. Esing a se!#. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope.Figure 7-. FiBe& ..ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. If not. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.

FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. ease of negotiation. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. =nsta!!ation. avoids obstacles.Figure 7-1. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. actical considerations are met. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. a. . he second sets up a standard belay.

nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. %. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. !hen he reaches an anchor point. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. . 3ote4 . /e then takes up any e"cess slack. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. he temporarily anchors the rope. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. double figure(eight*. As the leader climbs the route. and attaches the rope to the anchor. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. . middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections.ope crossovers should be avoided. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

the rope runs to the brake hand. diagonally across the chest. /e then pulls the rope from behind. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. and runs it around either hip. o brake. %o&y .appe! %&igure 4(7*. -asty rappe!. . b. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. &rom there. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. and back over the opposite shoulder.Figure 7-4. and his back straight to reduce friction. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. 9loves are $orn.

he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. . %o&y rappe!. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. Seat--ip . /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact.Figure 7-5. 3otes4 . 0.. c.appe! %&igure 4()*. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns.

stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. %. and is fast and safe.Figure 7-6. If using a right(hand brake. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. Seat-hip rappe!. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. stand to the right of the rappel rope. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . stand to one side of the rope. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. If a single rope is used. his method has minimal friction. /o$ever. hen run the rope through the single carabiner.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness.

&or this reason. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. he brake hand goes on the slack rope.* o use the figure(eight descender. d. %. Figure 7-7.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. Figure-$ight Descen&er. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. .

Figure-eight &escen&er. $Bten&ing the . &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. . preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate.) of an inch in siAe. 6ther De2ices.appe! De2ice. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope.Figure 7-". he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. hese include slots or plates and tubers. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. f. d. e. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*.

$Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#.e!ay. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. depends on the techni#ue. .Figure 7-'. /o$ever. 6ne-. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope.

he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. If crossing a stream. . the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. c. are al$ays preferred. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. If t$o carabiners are used. At that time. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. he anchor should be $aist high. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner.:. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. the gates $ill be opposing. a. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. If crossing a ravine or gorge. $iremanUs. b. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. such as large trees and solid rock formations. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. the s$immer must be belayed across. Dnce across. =atural anchors. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side.

3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope.*. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(. d. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. e.0*. . he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.Figure 7-)*.1*. Transport tightening system. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope..

Transport knot .oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight. .. . Figure 7-).Figure 7-)).

b. c. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. . Dnce across. $eb $rap.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. Tension!ess anchor knot. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. a. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope.:. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. 3ote4 2uring training. the far side man anchors the rope.Figure 7-)1.

e. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. f. and is run back to the near side anchor. !hen the rope is tight. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device.d. Figure 7-)4. from inside to outside. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. g. As the rope is pulled tight. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. here are several methods of accomplishing this. F-pu!!ey tightening system. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. . transport knot.

/e pulls $ith his hands and arms. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. monkey cra$l. . If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms.a. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. -referably. :etho& o# Crossing. Comman&o cra+!. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. and yrolean traverse. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. If dry crossing is impossible. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. he may $ear it over both shoulders. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. and pull the rucksack across. o recover if he falls over. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation.)*. attach it to the bridge. Figure 7-)5. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack.7*. %. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross.

Figure 7-)6. :onkey cra+!. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. . . If crossing $ith rucksacks. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. Figure 7-)7.appe! seat metho&.4*.

5*. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. All the slack is pulled to the near side. Figure 7-)". cordage %various siAes*. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. or supplies. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post.igging Specia! $quipment.b. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. Any special e#uipment. such as cre$(served $eapons. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. -au!ing !ine. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. and carabiners. %0* -"0CE Packs. . hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. A unit +D. &inally. ammunition. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. ABIC. Construction. .may dictate the rigging of these items. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. he other end is anchored on the near side. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. a. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. o rig machine guns. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. %.* Machine /uns.

If the < C chooses the dry method. %'* A three(man pull team. c. he far side remains anchored. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. Dn each side of this carabiner. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. :o2ing . he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness.b.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. %. . a. :o2ing 8itters.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. assembled on the far side.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners.ucksacks. . then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge.

%. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. inserts a carabiner. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. removes the knots. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. chasms. ravines. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. Suspension tra2erse. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. b. Figure 7-)'.%)* Dnce across.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. Site Se!ection . and up or do$n a vertal. and then pulls the rope across.

tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots.'(foot sling ropes are needed. hree to five . $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. 7-#rames. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. leaving about .5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. Construction.* . he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . and mark the ape" on both poles. %0* !ith a sling rope.0 feet long. c. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. $quipment. $o sturdy poles are needed. . All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. -osition this knot on . and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. an A(frame must be used. %. a. b.

!hen starting the first vertical $rap. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. .* Figure 7-.*. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. Cake the $raps as tight as possible.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied.*. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. ensure it is in the same direction as the .

.). If more than one sling rope is needed.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. Adjust the A( .un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. d. 7-#rame sprea&er. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. Figure 7-. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope.*. . =nsta!!ation Construction. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. dig the legs in about ) inches. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor. . %4* If the ground is a hard surface.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. the direction of kick. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. If the ground is soft. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. %.

his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position..* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( .frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. .'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides.. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. Figure 7-.. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. Eoin the ends of a .0*. not forcing it in a lateral direction.

his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. 2ue to the constant . !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner.1. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse.Figure 7-. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*.

Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*.tension maintained on the belayer. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural .etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. or supplies Figure 7-. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. . rucksacks. use a mechanical belay. herefore. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons.4. use a relay man.

5.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. %+ee &igure 4(07.0(inch bight. find the middle. 2ouble one installation rope. if necessary. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. . he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. o maintain the .* Figure 7-. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". . and anchor it. a.

!hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. e. o anchor the A(frame.0 inches apart. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. . use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope.b. d. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. $hich is tied to the A(frame. f.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. or to. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. he angle should be . +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . belay from the top using the hauling line. g. directional figure(eight. c. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness.

the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. Construction. terrain. !hen it is no longer needed. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system.h. a. . .aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. the load rubbing against the rock $all. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*.. Consi&erations. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. load $eight. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. c. Theory. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. and availability of anchors. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. e#uipment.educe e"cessive friction on the system.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. b. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. and the rope condition. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. !hen in use. Simp!e . . 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. pull the other side from belo$. $eather. . If only e#uipment is being hauled up. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:.

%1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. . place a pulley into the carabiner. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. . Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed.* . -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. then place the $orking end into the carabiner.%.

Figure 7-. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. d. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. &or greater efficiency. e#uipment. load $eight. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. 6ther Factors. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. F-pu!!ey system. If the t$o pulleys touch. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. . a. >se belays and backup safeties. terrain. and availability of anchors. $eather. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. Consi&erations. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.6.

Construction. c. and the rope condition. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. %7* Construct a second anchor. Figure 7-.. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load.* Anchor the hauling rope. Theory. E-pu!!ey system. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor.b. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. %. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. his is the -C2. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. the load rubbing against the rock $all. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:.7. .

and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. $eather. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. the need for rest halts decreases. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. rappelling. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. acclimatiAation. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. pace. he trained. and a unit can cover a given . re#uires more rest halts. !hen a moderate pace is set. Coving too fast. rugged terrain. H In addition to proper techni#ue. empo. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. he more adverse the conditions. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. produces early fatigue. proper training. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. H he terrain. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. technical roc0 and ice climbing. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. even under ideal conditions. good nutrition and hydration. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. he mountaineer sets a tempo. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. or number of steps per minute. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. s0iing or snow shoeing. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. the slo$er the pace. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. conditioning. pace is adapted to conditions.est. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. and results in loss of climbing time. . hen.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep.

hydrate. soldiers lean against a tree. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. %. enabling an easier.7 hours.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. %'* After a climb. breathe deeply. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. deeper inhale. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. not muscle. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. to .. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. sno$fields. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step.distance in a minimal time. steady. and snack on trail food. the soldier pauses briefly. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. <listers and . H he rest step is used for steep slopes. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. he soldier e"hales strongly. If possible. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. If possible. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. and higher elevations. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one.* After each step for$ard. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. %. supports the $eight. rock. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. %1* his slo$.

to a herringbone step. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles.efer to Chapter . back injury. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. and on scree and talus slopes. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. If side hill travel is necessary.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. in lo$ brush or heather. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. H -ar& <roun&. %. as the slope steepens. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. try to s$itchback periodically. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. and loss of balance.. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. surface. A ski pole. and back pain may follo$. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. .* !hen ascending. ice a". +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. !hile traversing. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. /ard ground is firmly compacted. %. animal trails. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. knee damage. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. o turn at the end of each traverse. A normal progression. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". $ould be from $alking straight up.blackened toenails. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. through thick brush. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks.

$hich take half of the boot.H Sno+ S!opes. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. aggressive manner. and plants his foot solidly. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. and they $ill not be as secure.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. /10 Descen&ing Sno+.0 Step Kicking. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. returning to the in(balance position. his is the in(balance position. he soldier performs a basic rest step. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. $hich must be done in a positive. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. he soldier faces out.. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. . he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. /. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. simply $alk straight do$n. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. held in the uphill hand. each one improving the step as he ascends. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. and $eighting the trail leg. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. steps off. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. he ice a". /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard.

he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. $here the ground is more level. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. H Thick %rush. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. H <rassy S!opes. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. !hen traversing. %. brush is both a help and a hindrance. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere.* !hen ascending. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. In this techni#ue. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. &or the military mountaineer. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. and the upper leg is used only for balance. trees. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock.

they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. !hen $alking in talus. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. o . Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. H Scree S!opes. After determining that the step is stable. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. ascending or descending. if possible. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. feet pointed do$nhill. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. and heels dug in. and then repeats the process. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. %. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. H Ta!us S!opes. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. back straight.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes.

the $arning. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. 6.prevent rock fall injuries. is the foundation of good navigation. the location of a target objective. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. knees and toes. navigation. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. digging into the slope $ith hands. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. and do not look up. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. he use of the map. . personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. Backing cover. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. elbo$s. grass. and route finding. sno$. compass and identifiable terrain features. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle.ockW6 is shouted immediately. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position.

9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. a. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. %. <y measuring air pressure. usually inches of mercury. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. b.H .1 inches has occurred. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. a loss of barometric pressure of .oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. usually attached to a cord. checking progress and terrain identification. millimeters of mercury. route planning. Compasses. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet.. . he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation.::: feet of elevation. and bad $eather should be e"pected. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. or millibars. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. 7!timeters. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience.

Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. it can provide position %accurate up to . <!o a! 9ositioning System. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. survey monuments.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. he 9-+ is a space(based. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. It can determine the latitude. c. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. causing them to give poor readings. his can result in faulty elevation readings. saddles. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. %4* . It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. global. and so forth* is reached. . Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. stream(trail intersections. longitude and elevation of the individual user.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. all($eather. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. %.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature.

so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. d. after choosing critical checkpoints. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. open valleys. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. %'* +ince the 0. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. saddles. the better the system performs. . Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. Canyons. or plateaus are better.idgelines.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. spurs. &or navigation. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. but due . three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. 3a2igation Techniques. start point and objective."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. Dther$ise. %4* .%1* 2uring route planning. enter their coordinates as $ay points. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. or altimeter navigation. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. terrain association. summits. deep valleys. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots.

or large avalanche slide areas are the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. !hen clear cut. than as a primary navigational aid. and not a precise point. . sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. he shape.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. glacier.eckoning. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. and attack points are all used. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. catching features. bo"ing(in areas. %. /andrails. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. orientation. navigational corridors. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. siAe. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature.* Dea& . he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. slope %+D+. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. /eavy fog. elevation. burned(over. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. checkpoints. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. .

H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. such as sno$. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. H !hen looking over a smooth. such as da$n. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. hey aid in orientation. H !hen the object blends into the background. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. H !hen the light is poor. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. check the . in resection. dusk. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. $atercourse. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. in computing rates of ascent or descent. but not behind the object being vie$ed. or desert. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. open road or track. H !hen looking do$n a straight. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. $ater. and in $eather prediction. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. uniform surface.

In addition. such as couloirs or gullies. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. . A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls.ates of travel. In this case. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges.altimeter. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. cliffs. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. may present themselves. . If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. &ault lines. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. light conditions %time of day*. and crevasse Aones become visible. studying it for climbing routes. cliff bands. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. along $ith $eather conditions. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. gross bedding planes of rock. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. sno$fields and glaciers. !atch the mountain during the approach march. %. and the physical condition of the team. e.

A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. g. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. pays off in more efficient travel. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. If you must cross one. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. vegetation. &or $eaker skiers.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. %.oute Se!ection. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. avalanche danger. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. are often steeper. (inter . 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. 2uring calm $eather. and impact on your route choices. constrain your choice of terrain. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. and the siAe of the unit. shovel tests. individual ski abilities. $ater features. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. terrain relief. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. sno$ pits. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. 2uring movement. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. f. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route.

H -reset aAimuths on your compass. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. %4* 2uring ski movements. and so on to get accurate readings. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. east. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. ice a". >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. If the $eather turns bad. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. . efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. H >se a steady. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. If $eak skiers are in the group. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. Avoid north. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain.danger is still present. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. !eather and tactical situation permitting.

particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. trails. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer.* In $inter. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. At times. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. bliAAards. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. kno$ledge of the enemy . Careful map reconnaissance.h. and drifting sno$. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. . he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. %'* /andling maps. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. %. compasses. drastically limit visibility. hick vegetation and rough. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. $hiteouts. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. sno$fall. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. short hours of daylight. fog. .emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. 9ro !ems. especially above tree line. caused by large ore deposits. %1* Cagnetic disturbances.

A .:07. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. such facilities as ski lifts. Aerial. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks.::: map depicts greater detail than a . or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. Along $ith sketch maps. :ap . +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information.0.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. terrain analysis of the operational area. clear cuts. In addition. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. even larger scale maps are desirable. An . a. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields.:. Civilian . Areas above tree line. %. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. cable and tram$ays are often found. pay close attention to the marginal information. verbal descriptions. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations.::: map and should be used $henever possible.:7:. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area.econnaissance.::: maps can be used if available.situation. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. obli#ue angle.

potential bivouac sites are noted on the map.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. impassable torrents. . such as rivers and gorges. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. . Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. barns. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. are factored in. e"tractions. trails. b. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. resupply and medevac.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. %1* /elicopter support. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. c. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. and plans made to avoid them. they have a marked advantage. $eather permitting.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. $nemy Situation. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. roads. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . and large open areas above tree line.uins. but should still be e"pected. %0* Dbstacles. bridges. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites.

%1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. camming units*. smooth rock@ bolts. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. d. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. and ground cover.*. good friction@ use of pitons. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. Enit 7ssessment. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops.success. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . mountain structure and forms. e. %0* . . %. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed.outes through granite rock %long cracks.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. including the geology. Time-Distance Formu!as.

' to . %. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC.0 to ' kph +kiing .. his distance plus . he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.5 to 7. helicopter support cannot be relied on. foot . Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. In order to do this. . indicates.::: feet of ascent or 0.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-).0 kph 0 to 1.) to 1. Time-&istance #ormu!as. %0* As able 5(..* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. to 7. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. and clothing for mountain travel.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than .0 kph 1. basic mountaineering gear. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults. Add one hour for each .country* $alking* Dn foot %less than .0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . foot of .) to 1. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. realistic rates of march.) kph '.. first measure the map distance. $eights in order to obtain accurate. should take this into account..::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year.0 kph 0 to 1. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. actical movements.

%'* 8ocation o# $nemy.equire& $quipment. . he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. $eather reports. roads. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. vegetation. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. c.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. sno$ depth. b.. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. his includes degree of slopes. sno$ condition reports. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. and trails accurately. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. -lot start and end points. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help.oute. a. %1* . Consider the follo$ing: %. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. aerial photos. Additionally. $idth of trails.* Tra##ica i!ity. Se!ect a Current :ap. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. avalanche probability. clearings. Se!ect a . avalanche probability. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. and the likelihood of crevasses. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment.

swift. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. speed of the current. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. depending upon the type of stream. ake into consideration their present health. . %4* Checkpoints. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. or deep. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. an alternate route should be used.Capa i!ities o# Enit. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. its width. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. . >se all available information and plan accordingly. %)* Con&itions. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. When rivers or streams must be crossed. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area.%7* Communications. !hen plotting a route on the map. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues.econnaissance .Contro! 9oints. and depth of the water. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues.

the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. A distant vie$. photo. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. or head$aters.econnaissance of the route %map. depending on the distance from the source. 2epending upon the time of year.*. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. Figure '-). and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. As glaciers. sno$. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. a. In a s$amp. Crossigs. for e"ample. perhaps from a ridge. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. if .. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. the closer you are to the source. the rivers rise. or ice melt during the day. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. b. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. If a dry crossing is unavailable. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank.

It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. above the tree line for e"ample. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam.made during the early morning. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. . ho$ever. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. point of the river or stream. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. %1* Cany mountain streams. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam .ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. and thus shallo$est. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. contain sections $ith numerous channels. firm bottom. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. In some areas. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. Dnce a log jam is formed. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. if any. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. ho$ever. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. =atural anchors are not a necessity.

&inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. -reparation includes the follo$ing. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. binoculars. <oots should be $orn . as in the higher alpine Aones. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. H If you must cross on the upstream side. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. a. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. papers. All pockets are buttoned. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. +DI. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. if available. temperature of the air and $ater*. %)* !hen possible. he could easily dro$n. b. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. !rap radios. tactical situation. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing.

In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. f. e. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. At times. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. socks and inner soles should be removed. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. Dn the far side. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. d. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. c. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. a. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. /o$ever. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits.

the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. a long ice a".$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. o increase balance. c. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. sturdy tree limb. d. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. b. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. e. deliberate steps. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. If an obstacle is encountered. . he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. /e should take short. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. and if available. he staff should be moved first.

Figure '-. a team crossing may be used.. he line formed faces the far bank. but $ith the added support of each other. . Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. &or chain crossing.

!hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. height of the anchors above the $ater. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. .ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. . it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. a.Figure '-1. Cany times though. he stream at this point may be impassable. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. and the distance from the near and far anchors. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately .

should he fail to reach the far bank. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing.. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. If this is impossible. . tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing.$ill pendulum back.V. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. /e should =. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. %. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank.

* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. An appropriate knot is tied into the .Figure '-4. rather than straight across the stream. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. and anchored on the near bank. pulled tight. %. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. /ere again.

Figure '-5. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. %7* >nder most circumstances. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. .middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. $hichever appears easiest. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank.

f. recoilless rifles. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. b. A lookout should be posted 7: to . and so on. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. such as mortars. c. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. a. e.%)* . $idth of the stream.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. . stream bottom configuration. and individual e"perience. speed of the current. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. d. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. or choose another route. Sa#ety . he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. use a different techni#ue.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. especially heavier $eapons.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing.

and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. b. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$.g. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. a. 2o not try to fight the current. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. facing do$nstream. d. for assistance or rescue. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. such as a sandbar. c. . o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. e. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. h. seek out the closest and safest spot. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. If the shore is too difficult to reach. In either case.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.. descend straight do$n the fall line. Figure )*-)*.egardless of the techni#ue used. .degrees. . he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope.:(. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. !henever possible. d. and traverse. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. Dn steep terrain. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures .:(.*. As the slope steepens.: and .

he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. logical progression. . -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. <acking up the slope %crab position*. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. e. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. 3orma! 9rogression. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. %0* =ce 7B.Figure )*-)). raverse $ith feet flat. &ront(pointing.* Crampons. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. /erringbone step straight up the slope. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual.

1*. Figure )*-).e. in some cases. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . C!im ing sequence.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.:(. . and move the hand up the a" shaft.. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible.0*. C!im ing Sequence. >sing most of these positions. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure . +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure .emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again.:(. f. . Step Cutting.

Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. In descending. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. %. =e"t. a traverse is also the preferred method. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. !hen changing direction. . and angled more. Dnce the step is formed. steps may be cut straight up the slope. In ascending. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. %'* -an&ho!&s. they should be smaller than footholds. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. If handholds are cut. then cut one bet$een those t$o. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step.* Sno+. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. %0* =ce. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step.

Se!#-7rrest. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. or arrest.'*. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. 2uring movement on steep ice.:(.Figure )*-)1. g. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. a fall %&igure . he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. . the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice.

Figure )*-)4. Se!#-arrest technique. .

Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. . the climber must first gain control of his body. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force.Figure )*-)4.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. H /ead upslope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. and feet pointed do$nslope. back to the slope. stomach on the slope. and feet pointed do$nslope. and feet pointed upslope. back to the slope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. H /ead upslope. H /ead do$nslope. H /ead do$nslope. %. stomach on the slope. and feet pointed upslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions.

%c* In the third position. . It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. rapid descent. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. %'* !hen a fall occurs. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope.:(. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . 9lissading is similar to skiing. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. %d* In the fourth position. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. If crampons are not $orn. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. stomach do$n position. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. could severely injure his ankles and legs. stomach on the slope. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. e"cept skis . Dne hand grasps the head of the a". his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall.%a* In the first position. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. %b* In the second position. controlled.7*.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope.

a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin.are not used. as painful injury could result. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. Also. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". Sa#ety. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. brake. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. c. and guide for the glissade. $hich serves as the rudder. he same balance and control are necessary. and the other hand on the shaft. . since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. pick. b. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. Squatting <!issa&e. Sitting <!issa&e.

and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . or any large items. skis. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. ice scre$s. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. a. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. flukes. sleds. <!issa&ing techniques.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. backpacks. %.Figure )*-)5.: inches in length. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. and ice pitons. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. >sed singularly. =ce 9itons. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. deadman(type anchors. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. .

ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. $hen placed correctly. such as top roping.:(. are multidirectional. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation.4*. Figure )*-)6. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. or the ice may crack or soften. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited.)*.:( . c. he pair of pitons. =ce Scre+s.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . If it pulls out or appears $eak. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. move to another spot and replace it. !hen an ice piton is removed. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. making further use difficult. =ce piton pair. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure .

you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. must be removed before further use. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. Figure )*-)7. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. %. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. .%.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. such as top roping. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. or the ice may crack or soften. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch.

:(. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor.d. or other e#uipment for added strength. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$.: feet. e. depending on the strength of the ice. Figure )*-)". It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. pickets. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. In ice. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. %. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. the $idth should not be less than . !hen constructed of sno$. . this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet.5*.

!hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. %&igure .nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. sno$shoes.:(. such as a picket or a". A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. rappel points. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design.%.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. or other fi"ed rope installations.* !henever possible. frayed.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. he direction of pull on long items. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. A similar anchor. ski poles. should be at a right angle to its length. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. . also. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. %. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. . If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. f. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. $qua!i@e& 7nchors.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. skis. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . t$o or more anchors should be used. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded.

a. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. Covement on 9laciers. b.e#ualiAed anchor. %+ee paragraph . :o2ement. all climbers move simultaneously. +hould any member fall. a three(man rope team is recommended. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. for more information*. <y using this . Tie-=n :etho&.:(4. . the tie(in is modified slightly.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. !hen crevasses are e"pected.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. Figure )*-)'. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure.

and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. 9enerally.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". . his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$.* %oot-7B %e!ay. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. c. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. Dn steeper slopes. %oot-aB e!ay.*. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. Figure )*-. called the 6team arrest.:(0:*. %.method. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support.

H . he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area.opes. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. FiBe& . both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. also. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. As the movement continues. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. ridgelines.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice.%0* %o&y %e!ay. . or cliffs. %1* :unter -itch. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. d.

and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers.:(00 depicts common glacier features.a. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. Characteristics an& De#initions. and &igure . sho$s a cross section of a glacier. . %&igure .).:(0.* Figure )*-. <!acier cross section.

%1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.Figure )*-. ... <!acier #eatures. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. %.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year.

.. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. %.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. he firn line can change annually. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. As you approach this area. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. %. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. . %. <e cautious. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. %.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice.

4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. %. %. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . %. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. %. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. o$ard the end of the summer.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. icefalls. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. In $inter.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. %0. and ice avalanches. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. %. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. $hen visibility is poor. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. b.%. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer.

Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure . 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer.1. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.:(01*.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall.:(0'*. Figure )*-. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers. . Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . criss(crossed $ith crevasses. %.

Figure )*-. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. he simplest and most common . keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. if three people are on a team. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. use the -rusik to belay each other in. assess the situation. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. If four people are on a team. If the team members need to assemble in one area. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. . %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. ie in to the bights and the ends.4. the remaining members go into team arrest. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. o locate the positions.

If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. A roped team of t$o. he best combination is a three(man rope team. 9enerally. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. their security being the team arrest. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. . the other members immediately perform self(arrest. c. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker.:(07*. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. $hile ideal for rock climbing. halting the fall.ope& :o2ement. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. . he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier.

* . he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. %0* . the rope should be divided into thirds. <ecause of this. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope.5. as for a four(person team. %. $hether improvised or premanufactured. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement.Figure )*-. he remaining 6thirds6 . the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members.

attached to the rucksack. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. $ith double fishermanUs knots.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack.. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. or carried over the head and shoulder. If an individual should fall into a crevasse.0(foot ropes. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. /o$ever. If necessary. he ends of the ropes are tied together. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. forming endless loops or slings. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. Securing the %ackpack. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. e. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. &or safety reasons. the chance of it failing is much greater. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. d. !hen . and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . <efore movement. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. if $arm clothing is needed.ucksack. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. by itself. may be e"tremely difficult.

=arro$ cracks may be covered. /o$ever. they only supplement. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. g. $hich covers glacier ice.hanging from the drop cord. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. heavily crevassed portions. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course.* In the area of the firn line. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. . Dpen crevasses are obvious. f. %. and icefalls. %. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. large crevasses remain open. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. =arro$ cracks can be jumped.outes. steep terminal or lateral moraines. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. and do not take the place of. the sno$. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. In this Aone. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. connecting both sides of it. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. . provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. Crossing Cre2asses.

If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. h. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. Sno+ %ri&ges. its detection is difficult. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. . the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". a crevasse is probably present. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. the team may proceed. and may form firmer bridges. In such a situation. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. but difficult to detect in flat light.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. and gradually turn into glacier ice. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. If he is. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. %.

Dnce the second is across. he assumes the belay position. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. =umber t$o belays number three across.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. 2o not stamp the sno$. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. i. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. %1* In crossing crevasses. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. . %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position.: feet back from the edge. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. %c* he leader should move for$ard.

* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. /o$ever. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. to anchor the rope.%. the rope is al$ays kept taut. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. using the -rusik as a self belay. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. % his scenario is for a team of three. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest.. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. if the person $as almost across. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. =umber 1 must al$ays be . All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack.

$ould anchor the rope by himself. if the middle person should fall through. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. close to number 0.Us anchor. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber.escue Techniques. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor.. Cre2asse . onto the anchor.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. number . /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . as a minimum. j.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. assumes the role of number 1. =ormally. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . the procedure is the same e"cept that number . %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope.

the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. As the assisting team pulls. ski pole. place padding. If the fallen climber is not injured. In some situations.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. on the edge of the ice. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. In order to reduce friction.ope Teams. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. .ope. ski. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. %0* FiBe& . thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above.edge.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! .nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. such as an ice a". the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. or backpackKrucksack. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. If necessary. =umber . clips number 1Us rope to himself. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. %.

/o$ever. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . Dther times. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. to ascend the rope. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. or 6stirrup. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n.6 of the long sling. %&igure . the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. %f* he procedure is repeated.person in the crevasse. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop.

% his scenario is for a team of three. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. and they have decided to install the V rig. to the anchor. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system. A pulley can be used here if =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. In actual field use. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. Figure )*-. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( .6.:(04*. 9rusik ascen&ing technique.6 system.::(pound load $ith this system. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure .* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue.. In theory. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. If additional rope teams are not immediately available.

foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope.6 system. . %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. he system is no$ ready for another haul. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. H !ith the 61(to(.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope.

a crevasse is present.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. poles. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. at least eight feet in length. and so on.Figure )*-. a. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. =ormally. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. .7.

'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. Cultiple tent sites can be connected.b. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. d. tactical situation. Dccasionally $hile probing. e.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. %. ry to find a solid platform. and e)isting installations. :ountain . digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. If a dugout latrine is necessary. $hich keeps tents closer together. probe again after digging. At a minimum. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. Under these conditions. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . by . terrain. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. If a latrine area is needed.* &or block construction. the weather. therefore. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. Air evacuation is preferred: however. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. by 0 feet. 7t is. distance to be moved. c. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. In deep soft sno$.

!ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. c.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. b. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. medic%. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation.sufficient. .2. Dne person. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. %. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. physician/s assistant.evel 777 supervising. &or a planned rescue. resume victimUs breathing. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*.* Assume command.evel 7 and . . 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. hey are.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. . /o$ever. control serious bleeding.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. and maintain moderate body $armth. and one person only.nsure that the C. is overall in charge at all times. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. . %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. . and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. ho$ever. a.

If the victim is unconscious. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. continually monitor pulse. 9!anning . . possibility of falling rocks*. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. avalanche run(out Aone. or any other immediate haAard.escue 6perations . +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. if available. T-$ . a. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. hanging glacier. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. should be used for evacuation. . and terrain at hand. +peed is less important than correct action.$SCE$. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment.esist the urge for action. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. or a change in $eather. environmental haAard. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. vehicle. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles.

valuate the circumstances of the rescue. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . and the nature of their injuries.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. treatment. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. H Are additional personnel. $hen. he task must be identified. priority. H -lan the action.* After identifying the task. and ho$ the situation happened. H actical situation. and evacuation. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. rescue. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security.b. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. c. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. H . routine. d. H errain features and location of the casualties. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. $hy. In planning a rescue. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. $hat. medical. H . security. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. $here. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. tactical immediate*.

and so on*. $arm clothes. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. ime becomes the critical element. %c* !hen performing all rescues. reliable trails or roads is essential. and the personnel and e#uipment available. blood pressure. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. and stretchers. bivouac sacks. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety.* In estimating time available. tents. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. the situation. and rescue belay points*. anchor points. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. hot food and drinks. Age and physical condition may vary. pulse rate. !ith all rescue techni#ues. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. drugs started. lo$ering lines. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. sleeping #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. e. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. . $alking trails. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. If the victim is airlifted out. ropes. Ca"imum use of secure. stove. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. fi"ed lines. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital.

. H 9.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9. . .=6. or gusting $inds.=TD F6E. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time. .=TD T-. b.T.emove dead personnel.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning.D ST7<$4 .ST ST7<$4 . :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. a.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. available time is drastically reduced.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. H F=. Specia! Training .=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation.=6. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . separate stages are taken. e"treme cold. H T-=.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. H 9. In high altitudes.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel.%1* . %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all.ST7<$4 .=6.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. H 9.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance.=6. H F6E. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.

he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points.* S!ing-. saddleback. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. a. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. four(hand. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. rough handling.ope Carry. pistol belt. or inade#uate protection from the elements. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. the best method of manual transportation is selected. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. 6ne-:an Carries.* re#uires a '.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. he sling(rope carry %&igure . before trying to move the $ounded soldier. . herefore.. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. t$o(hand.(. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. piggyback. difficult terrain. it can be lost through carelessness. %.

%d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. forming t$o almost e#ual groups.ope Coi! Carry. around the casualtyUs thighs. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. crosses the ends.K0( meter coiled rope. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. %f* he rope must be tight. Figure ))-). he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . -adding. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. $hen available. and back around to the front of the bearer. S!ing-rope carry. . %0* .

the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer.appe!. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. . he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. In this case. pulling the casualty onto his back. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. If this is not done. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. the bearer carefully stands. %u&&y . using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. b. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*.

he victim straddles the carrier. from right to left. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. .* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. from right to left. %0* A '. and back under the victimUs left armpit. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip.%. from left to right. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. over his left shoulder. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip.0(meter sling rope is used. he rope is run diagonally. across the carrierUs chest. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. %7* he rope is run diagonally. across the victimUs back.

easy to carry. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. and then do$n along the other arm.* he poleless. nature of injuries. as described above. a. and then carried again. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. and e#uipment available. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. :anu#acture& 8itters. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. . he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used.%.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. over the shoulder. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. %. $hich are se$n on one side. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. he rope is folded in half. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. If the litter must be carried. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. belayed. behind the neck. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. on traverse lines. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. and readily available. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. depending on the terrain. It can be improvised $ith poles. and then routed up along the handling arm. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain.

%'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. . It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable.1. %+ee &C 5(. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment.5.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. $hich is a potential breaking point. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. . may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter.

ladders. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device.0. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. tent supports. such as a blanket. skis.6*-). the hood must be up and under the victim. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. If a poncho is used.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. b. %.. not dragging on the ground. /o$ever. $indo$ shutters.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets.. +uch objects include boards. tarpaulin. ponchos. shelter halves. these objects should be padded. sacks. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-..%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:.. . %0* If poles cannot be found. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. If possible. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. jackets. or mattress covers. a large item. A litter can be improvised from many different things. shirts.(0):(. Figure ))-. benches. cots. . scoop stretchers. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. bags. and other similar items. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. and poles. doors.(0*.

he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. centimeters long. . %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . empty bo"es.ach clove hitch should be about . 3ote4 Above the tree line. Figure ))-1. little material e"ists to construct litters. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). .(1*. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. make a clove hitch over each bight.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. . %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing..ope !itter. sleeping bags.

%1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. . he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. %e!ay 7ssist. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles.7 centimeters.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. ake t$o . and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. %7* -ull up on the rope. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. a. and place a carabiner into the loop. 2o not remove the belay. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord.escue Systems . . %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot.(meter poles. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. After placing the clove hitches over the bights.* &irst. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. %.

then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. %. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. .emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. b. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. %7* . transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. o improve this system.* After a climber has been injured. %e!ay $scape. %5* .

aising System. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. are often encountered along the evacuation path.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. $hich must be surmounted. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. backup safety -rusiks are used to . rope(edge friction. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems.%)* .aising systems. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. a. transferring the $eight to the anchor. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. belays.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. %0* %e!ays. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. In practice. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. . hand $inches. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. and other variables. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. . he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. . %.* .

%)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform.safeguard the system. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system.( '*. if possible. he litter is prepared as already described. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. . he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. Descen&ing S!opes.. % his is the signalman or relay man. taking care not to jar the casualty. %.aising the 8itter. b. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . %. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. .* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. c.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.

+ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points.(7*: a. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . clearance for the casualty along the route. many different techni#ues can be used. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions.&escen&ing. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered.Figure ))-4. if used. and anchor points for the A(frame. good loading and unloading platforms. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . %1* he most direct. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. b..

d.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. C!i## e2acuation &escent.:1814 Inches . continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. Figure ))-5. c.

. . they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. If any indication of the location of the victim is found..:105.05. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .. 18.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes.14 1.7. .escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.)0.robability of survival drops rapidly and. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. <enera! 9roce&ures . A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities. chances of survival are remote. after two hours. if a member of your group is in an avalanche.1814 . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. random probing starts in that vicinity.14 . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search.:81) . and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots .

if enough personnel are available.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. >sing this and any other information. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. make an initial probe search in that area. packs. poles. hats. gloves. If using avalanche beacons. A human body. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. Book for skis. . and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. urbulence. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. b. . a.. . goggles. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. >nless other$ise indicated. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. boots. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. terrain. several factors influence the bodyUs location. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. and mark all clues. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. usually the toe of the slide.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. ice a"es. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$.

In the case of large and violent avalanches. . Cany models of transceivers are available. a. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. 9ro e 9o!es. Although this type of pole . Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. the greater $ill be his burial depth. rocks. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. although they may operate differently in the search mode. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. • . Conversely. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. All currently available transceivers are compatible. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. especially in a high $ind. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. and other obstacles act as snares.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. • Vegetation. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center.

As evidenced by their names. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. %. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. . %0* If no probing poles are available. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. %. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. b. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. the number of personnel per line should be limited. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. 9ro ing Techniques. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. he only sure check is by digging.* . coarse probing implies a . Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. $enty per line is satisfactory. &or the probing operation to be effective. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. c.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made.performs best. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. 9ro ing 8ines."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact.

%0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: .. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.6 6>. $hich almost guarantees finding the body. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. $hile the fine probe has. $ith feet about . %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. %. clear commands are essential for efficient probing..!A. he probers themselves $ork silently. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. +trict discipline and firm. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace.&D. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.D<. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.6 6+ .$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed.6 <y using these commands. a . &ine probing is the concluding measure. essentially. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string.D<. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated.::(percent chance of locating the body.-.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.2.7 inches apart..

D<..6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.-. then in the center of his straddled position... foot.D<.& -.!A. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.D<.6 6+ .= . ..D<.%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.D<. %b* Dn command. -. foot and repeats the probing se#uence. the line advances . Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.2.&D.ach probe is made . .6 6C.6 6>.6 6.6 6>..I9/ -.6 6>.. and finally in front of his right foot.-. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B..D<. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.-..ach man probes in front of his left foot. $hich is then moved ahead . .: inches from the adjacent one.

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