Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.etrace /. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. Figure 4-). .. Checkpoints. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. + . forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. a.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.. /o$ever.1*. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.epeat + . %...1. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.. + . Tying the Knot. b..oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.0.'. + . Figure-$ight ... 2ress the knot do$n. .+ . >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. by tying the knot in a retrace. .

'. Figure-eight retrace. Figure 4-)1. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. + . leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.)..* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.. + .0.1..7. and route the $orking end through the loop.. Checkpoints %. !ith the $orking end. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. + .emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. b. + .+ .. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. he finished knot is dressed loosely. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. . $rap the $orking end around the standing part. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.

he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. a.* Middle of the Rope.0. + . /old the standing end in the left hand. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right.. /old the loop in the left hand.. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop... !ith the right hand. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. + . &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. grasp the $orking end.. he knot is tied. and bring it in$ard. /old rope in both hands.. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(..%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. + . reach under the horiAontal anchor.0. palms do$n $ith hands together. %0* End of the Rope. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. depending on ho$ it is tied.. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. Tying the Knot. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. + . &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. .1. + . %.'.'*. + ..

reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.... It is a middle rope knot.1. a.. !hen tying this knot. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. Figure 4-)4.7*. ake up the slack from the anchor. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. C!o2e hitch.'. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. b. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. Tying the Knot. !ith the right hand. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. %. . and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.+ . 2ress do$n the knot. + . Checkpoints.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. + .. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.

and fingertip. palm. + .. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. Checkpoints.). . +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + . and place it over the heel $rap. + ..1. (ireman’s knot. + . -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot.. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. + .8.'. + ..0.. + .+ .. b.5.. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.7. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.4. Figure 4-)5.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.

tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. !ith the $rap thus formed. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied..)*. Cake one $rap around the palm. It is a middle rope knot.%. the tail and the bight must be together.0... Tying the Knot. + . + .. + .1. a.'. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. + . it lays in$ard... !hen dressing the knot do$n. .

Directiona! #igure-eight. %0* he tail and bight must be together. Checkpoints. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. It is a middle rope knot.Figure 4-)6. %. . b. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .4*.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.

ie an overhand knot on a bight. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. forming t$o loops.. + .. + . &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.). + .a.4.. + .. . + .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.7.0. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be.'. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.. + . Tying the Knot....1.

>sing a doubled rope.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. .. form an . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %o+!ine-on-a.ight. Tying the Knot..* It is a middle rope knot. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. %. Checkpoints. a.. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.5. b.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left.Figure 4-)7. + .

is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Tying the Knot. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. . b. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. a. Checkpoints. + . 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. Figure 4-)". also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. %. + . T+o-!oop #igure-eight.8*.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.1. It is a middle of the rope knot...0. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.'. !ith the $orking end. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop..7. 2ress the knot do$n.+ . /old the bight $ith the left hand. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.. + .

&orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.0..1. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. %. b.* he loop is the desired siAe. Checkpoints. Figure-eight !oop. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. It is a specialty knot. . form a loop in rope %standing part*. Tying the Knot.. a.. + . + . !ith the bight as the $orking end.. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. 2ress the knot tightly. Figure 4-)'.+ . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.

. + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.. .0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. >sing an arm3s length of rope. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. 2ouble the short rope.0. $ith the $orking ends even. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.0.*. + .0(inch bight. . + ...*.*: + .%.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.1.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. . + . forming a bight..each do$n through the . Figure 4-.... + .. and place it over the long rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.1..

parallel.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. %. + .+ . b. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. Checkpoints. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension... and not t$isted.7.).. Figure 4-. + .4. . %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. . It is a specialty knot.'. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.).nsure they are tight. + . the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.

.. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.1. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. Figure 4-.a... + . 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.0.. + . %. Tying the Knot. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. b. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.. %achman knot. + .* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. Checkpoints.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.

/olding the bight loosely. + .4. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. + . $ith a bight held in place by a loop. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.* A minimum of four $raps. + .. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand.1. >sing the standing part.). not crossed.. tie an overhand around all coils..0. !ith the running end.'. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. single coil. ..7. Tying the Knot. he standing portion is on the bottom. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. a. .nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. + . It is a specialty knot. he running end is to the back of the body. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. + . + . Checkpoints. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times.. %.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. hen. b. + ... bring a bight up through the loop.

Tying the Knot. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. .'..1. !ith the right hand. + . + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.0.. + .1. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. + .Figure 4-.. It is a specialty knot. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. a. Bay the loops to the right..

.. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. Three-!oop o+!ine. .. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Checkpoints. + . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.. b.+ .7. Tying the Knot. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. %.4. Figure 4-. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. a.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. &orm a .* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. It is a specialty knot.

+ .0. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.each through the bight and grasp the long.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. %.. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.5.. . t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. + . !ith the center of the bight in the right hand.. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .1.. Figure-eight s!ip knot.). %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.0 inches up the rope. Checkpoints. + . Figure 4-. standing end of the rope. b.+ .7.. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.'. + .:u!e Knot0 .

he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. a.* here is a single overhand slip knot.. Check 9oints. + .. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. b. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. %. %1* he bight is a minimum of ..0 inches long.1. + . + ..0. Figure 4-. K!eimhiest Knot . It is simply an overhand slip knot. Transport knot. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. Tying the Knot.. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.6. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.

7. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . + ..0.. easily adjustable.. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. + . + . !ith the ends offset. + . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. It is a special( purpose knot. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. Tying the Knot. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. !rap at least four complete turns.'.. find the center of the rope and form a bight. . pass them through the bight %see + ... !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. + ..*.0 inches. a. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.1...

. + .. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.. Checkpoints. a.7.Figure 4-. K!eimhiest knot. b. %.: to . %0* All $raps are tight and touching.0 inches. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. Tying the Knot.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull.0.. It is a special(purpose knot. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. + ..

".* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.. Tying the Knot. + . %. <irth hitch. a. %. b. Frost knot. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*..Figure 4-.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions... Checkpoints. :unter -itch . b. Checkpoint. + .1: Cinch the knot tightly. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. It is a special(purpose knot.: &orm a bight. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. Figure 4-.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. + . %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.'.

. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.... is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. palms do$n about . . a.1. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. %.0. %0* he carabiner is locked. + . + . + .. /old the loop $ith the left hand.. !ith the right hand. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.he munter hitch. /old the rope in both hands.* A bight passes through the carabiner.'. Check 9oints.0 inches apart. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. !ith the right hand. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. + . b. Tying the Knot. Bock the locking mechanism.

a. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.'. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. thus creating a loop around the $aist. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. ensuring they do not cross. + . ...appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.0..*. + .... .' feet or longer. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. Tying the Knot. + . + .Figure 4-1*. It usually re#uires a sling rope .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. .1. :unter hitch.

b. Figure 4-1).). tightening the seat.+ .4. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. . . + . pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. &rom rear to front. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. -ull up on the ropes.appe! seat. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers... + .7. Check 9oints. %.

.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. + . -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. + . %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.0. a. preferably ovals*. Tying the Knot. . alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.

he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . b.. %. Although mountain operations have not changed. Check 9oints. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts.Figure 4-1. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. rope can only be pulled in one direction. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations.* !hen properly dressed. <uar&e knot. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities.

>nless other$ise stated. A =: A +/(. and urban vertical environments. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. and training. tactics. anchors. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. e#uipment. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. and actions.A2DC. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. both men and $omen are included. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. sno$(covered mountains.army. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. &ort <enning. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. $henever the masculine gender is used. ho$ever. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II.). ice climbing. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. Army Infantry +chool. Inclement $eather. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. evacuation.8:7(7781. he proponent of this publication is /F .unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing.). :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. illness and injury.+. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. 9A 1. glaciers.). for training %see Appendi" A*.<D. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. movement on glaciers. Countain Dperations. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. rock climbing. >. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective.

Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. glaciers. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. and $ell(led troops. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. AcclimatiAation. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. sno$fields. surprise.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. single ridges. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. rehearsals. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. Spring storms. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement.::: kno$n minerals. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. Df the appro"imately 0. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. compartments. conditioning.

S!ate an& <neiss. +topping a slide on small.ockfall danger is high. c. <rassy S!opes. it cannot be protected. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. <ranite. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. San&stone. and de$. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. conglomerate type stones may be loose. and it is usually difficult to protect. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. a. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. . . dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. After long. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. After a rain. b."cept for calcite. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. &ace climbing can be found. found in limestone. Bimestone has pockets. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. and cracks. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. &ace climbing is possible. ne$ sno$. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. d. e. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. f. granite dries #uickly. Cha!k an& 8imestone. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. face climbing. . Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. . +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. ho$ever. .and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks.

unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . propelled by its o$n lo$er density. avoid scree $hen ascending. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. Ta!us. %.ocks. internal heat. If possible. /o$ever. his results in an intrusive rock. and over time. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". !hen the cooling occurs at depth. a. but smaller than boulders. Scree.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. he magma may move up$ard. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. g. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. h. under pressure. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. . !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. or. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. =gneous . Ascending scree is a tedious task. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. .ock C!assi#ications .ocks.

. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. .ocks. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures.ocks. +ierras. $hich cut across the strata. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. In plutonic rocks. and dikes. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. Dccasionally. or clusters of segregated minerals. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. produce basalt.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. it is called 6tuff."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged.and crystalliAing. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. %1* Cointing . %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . =orth Cascades. . In the Alps. Adirondacks. herefore. Barge %.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family.ockies. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. Fuieter eruptions.

hese changes may be minimal. especially in limestone. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. :etamorphic . %. c. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. and limestone to marble. Se&imentary . $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. lakes. $hich offers . he Canadian . In fact. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. +hale changes to slate or schist. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater.ocks. As sediments accumulate. but cleavage or foliation.b. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. or oceans.ocks. only slightly altering the sediments. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. %. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. After sediments are solidified. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. <ecause of this cleavage.

ocean trenches. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. forming fault(block mountain ranges. $hich also provides solid climbing. =evada. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. e"posing the central igneous core. 9!ate Tectonics.* Dome :ountains. :ountain Structure. often accompanies up$arp. . hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. and mountain ridge systems. volcanoes. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. the Dlympics of !ashington. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks.$orld class climbing. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. granitic continental crust. heaving up fold mountains. and heavier. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. %. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. and to pull apart and crack. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. . &aulting. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. a.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. $hich results in fault(block mountains. b. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. he breakage e"tends .

%1* Fo!& :ountains. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. ho$ever. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. he best kno$n is the 6. ectonic forces. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. Core often. the oldest. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. it is faulted on one side only. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. central core is all that remains.

do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. and the . he I2+ classes are: . and have the skills to accomplish the plan. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. domed. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. and faulted. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. In addition. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. Asian arc. and the Cediterranean. .oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. there are folds measured by a rope length.idge.ift Valley of . ."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. a. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. the Caucasus region. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent.

%0* Class 7.4—9reat difficulty.5—Very great difficulty. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure."traordinary difficulty. often combined $ith small belay points.8—. /igh physical conditioning.'—Bittle difficulty. .)—Cedium difficulty. hree points of contact are necessary. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. . Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %.7—Coderate difficulty. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. %)* Class 7. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. climbing techni#ue. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. and e"perience re#uired.:(7. H Class '—<elayed climbing.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. %4* Class 7.* b.—/iking trail. /ands are necessary to support balance.* Class 7."tremely great difficulty. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. H Class 1—Climbing. %7* Class 7. $hich may have some e"posure.H Class . /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. . -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions.* H Class 7—&ree climbing.:—. %1* Class 7."posed positions. his is the simplest form of free climbing. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. %'* Class 7.. belay and emplace intermediate protection.

his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. %0* A.:d*.* A:—M&rench(free. c. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. %5* Class 7. if a fall $as e"perienced. re#uiring more climbing ability. c. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. %&or e"ample.'—9reater increases of difficulty.. b. 7.5J*. and energy e"penditure.6 indicates periods of run(out $here. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. 7. ground fall $ould occur..6 or 6L. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out.: to 7. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. the 6.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable.5.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area..(7. %. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling..asy aid.* Classes are further divided into a.' %for e"ample. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %.. d.—. e"perience. and d categories starting from 7. in a classification of 7... .

4*. ho$ever. /o$ever. such as A1J or A1(.5*. long fall potential does e"ist. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. . It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. III — About three(fourths of a day. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. %)* A7—. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall.K0 to 0 . >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. All protection is sketchy at best. =o serious fall danger.%1* A0—Coderate aid. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. V — . %4* A)—. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7.K0 days %usually not less than 7."treme aid. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. %7* A'—+erious aid. %'* A1—/ard aid. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. VI — 9reater than 0 days. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. II — /alf of a day."tremely severe aid. If the leader falls. hese falls. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. e. . >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous.

'b hard severe.1 7.c 0a.'a 1b. III .c VIII .)a 7.b VIII .:b VII .: 7. DDS Class .b 7b..a.a.b.8 VI 7a 7.a VIII( .. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.:.)b ..c )a.c.) 7.1K.c 7b.urope..* easy %.c 7b.b.* easy %..1.)..1 IIIsup . hard very 7.7b 7..7b 7.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.)a 7.0.c . H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .* moderate %CD2* .b..' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup ..'.c )a.. H <raAilian—<raAil uses . sho$s a comparison of these systems. 'c 7.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.'a 1b..7 .1a 1b.8 0: 0.b 0a.'a 'a. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it. 'a severe. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.7b(7c 7.7b 7.c 7b.b.b. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7. 7.' 7.:a VII( .7 7.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5. hard severe..c 7a.c 'a. able ..:d VIIJ .'.c.0. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.5 VI( severe..4 .(. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.:c VII ..c 7b.. hard severe.. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs..c )a.b.K..b 0c.c.f.0 7.8 IIsup . 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe...5 .b..

.ating systems. easy climb near the road. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .. and the route might be prone to avalanche.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .)K4. H I — A short. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.. possibly $ith a haAardous descent. H V — A long climb in a remote setting. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.7. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. 2ifficult physically and mentally.)K4. g. A difficult and involved approach and descent.oman numerals. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. his route is subject to objective haAards..4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.7. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. all in a remote area..verything a grade VI has.7.)c 4a VIII 0) ..0a 7.atings. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. %. $ith objective haAards ever(present.0c 7.* Commitment . he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors. -ossibly days to approach the climb. . H VII — .)K4. $ith sustained technical climbing. .)K4.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.)c 4a 05 . H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. $ith little objective haAard. and more of it..0b 7. .7. AI %alpine ice*.0d IL( IL IL ILJ . or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*.

erratic $eather. — A froAen lake or stream bed. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. H 7 — A long. additional information may be needed about siAe. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. physically and mentally.atings. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. . but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. strenuous pitch. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. a. H . Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. location. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. !hen planning mountain operations. $ith places to rest.%0* Technica! . H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. he pitch may be shorter. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. An e"tremely tough pitch. re#uiring agility and creativity. but on featureless ice. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection.

H ?eep dry.b. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. stay $arm. types. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. H ?eep $arm. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. but do not overdress. if possible. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. put on dry clothing. H 2o not rush. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. c. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. during severe mountain storms. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. and amounts of precipitation. dry. and calm. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. Co2er an& Concea!ment . %.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. H If lost. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms.

and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. . and fog can limit visibility. heavy vegetation. like observation. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. a. hail. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. In alpine environments. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. boulders. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. outcroppings. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. sno$. dead space is a problem at short ranges. rain. b. +ome rock types.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. /o$ever. sleet. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced.!hen moving in the mountains. in depth. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. are easily e"cavated. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. Conversely. In other areas. . As in all operations. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. such as volcanic tuff. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. are e"cellent at long ranges. /o$ever. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency.

A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. sno$ conditions. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. a. latitude. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. or a rise in temperature. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. b. . and $eather factors. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. rainfall. If an une"pected $ind strikes. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. especially in $inter. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. .

he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. 2ue to the cold. such as those found in desert regions. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. <ecause of this increased dryness. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. the thinner. At higher altitudes. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. . most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. +ome mountains. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. conse#uently. (eather Characteristics . In tropical regions. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. d. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. he barometer usually drops 0. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. a. b.c.

80 inches of mercury %hg* or . Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. In order to understand this. !ith lo$er air pressure. humidity %moisture content*. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. and if it is being lifted or not. he higher the pressure. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. the better the $eather $ill be. Associated $ith bad $eather. and the earth3s rotation. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. Bo$ pressure. ho$ it is being moved. %. he average air pressure at sea level is 08.:. air pressure %barometric pressure*. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere.1 millibars %mb*.. on the other . 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. a. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid.6 his layer reaches as high as ':.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. b. oceans.* -igh 9ressure. he higher in altitude. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. Associated $ith clear skies.::: feet. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. land masses. the lo$er the pressure.

his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. b. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. c. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. and sinks to the earth3s surface. <ecause of these funneling effects. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. dense clouds fill the air. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. Dn a $eather map. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. c. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. or at high altitudes.6 (in& In high mountains. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. >sually. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. . a. 2uring the $inter season. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. !ith increasing $ind strength. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. =ormally. Above hot surfaces. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more.hand. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons.

. f. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. dry air mass. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. $et air mass. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. Caritime ropical — $arm. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. dry air mass. Continental ropical — $arm. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold.d. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. g. Caritime -olar — cold. there are three prevailing $inds: %. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. $et air mass. due to the earth3s rotation. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. has settled to the surface. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. e. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. In the =orthern /emisphere. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater.

he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6.. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. b. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has .0 degrees &ahrenheit per . he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. and thermometer. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions.%.::: feet of elevation gained or lost.:: percent relative humidity. fog. . Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever.:: percent relative humidity*. the more moisture it can hold. sno$. and so on*. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. de$. the $armer the air. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. $ind meter. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds.. a. clouds are formed. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. rain. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds.

!hen temperatures are cold enough. mid(. +ince air masses $ill not mi". it has no$here to go but up. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. hey can be classified by height or appearance. Fronta! 8i#ting. Clouds can be described in many $ays. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. c. . Con2ecti2e 8i#ting.(.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures .a. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. and . Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. b. 6rographic 8i#ting. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. a. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached.7:: feet. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the .arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation.(0*. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. d. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$.

Figure )-).(1 and . %. . Figure )-. Stratus C!ou&s. 3im ostratus C!ou&s.('*. Figure )-1..* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . Cumu!us C!ou&s.

%0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. especially if the cloud is more than 1. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds.::: feet . Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky.Figure )-4.

Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height.::: feet thick. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ).(7 and . %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. . Figure )-6.7:: to 0:. 7!tocumu!us. Figure )-5. though usually hours a$ay. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. especially if they are rising over time.* b. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather.thick. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. Cold clouds.()*. 7!tostratus. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets.

emperatures are $arm. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even.%. As the storm approaches. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. c.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. produces a ring of light around the moon. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. . -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit.(5*. Cirrus. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . at night. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines.(4 and &igure . he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. Figure )-7. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. in a blue sky. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. !ith altostratus. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. humidity rises.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day.

::: feet. hey can be nearly straight. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. %. releasing incredible amounts of energy. or seemingly all tangled together. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front.::: feet. ?no$n for their flat bases and . %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. . Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. d. shaped like a comma. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. %.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon.Figure )-". the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. As a result. Cirrostratus.

an artifact of erosion. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. large hail.::: feet or higher. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line.distinct outlines. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. As the air rises. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. ho$ever. . making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . !ithout a continued supply of rising air. damaging $inds. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts.(8*. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing. >nder favorable conditions. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. 9iven suitable conditions. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. . harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. ice crystals dominate the composition. and tornadoes.

If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. hey are orographic clouds. is lifted up$ard. If they gro$ and descend. e. and cools. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height.:*. /o$ever.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. and contrails. Cumu!onim us. !ith continued descent. >pon reaching the mountain top. %. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . $arming as it descends. Dnce the air returns to its original height. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. lenticulars. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. Initially. 6ther C!ou& Types. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. similar to a 6flying saucer. stable air encounters a mountain. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard.Figure )-'. bad $eather can be e"pected.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. . Cloud caps $ith a lens shape.(.

8inticu!ar. f. especially if the sky is .*..Figure )-)*. Contrai!s. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. C!ou& =nterpretation. Figure )-)). %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure .(.

$ill force the $arm air up. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. cold. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. Co!& Front. it becomes a stationary front. there . (arm Front. c. <ecause $arm air is less dense. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. cumulus. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus.covered $ith cumulus clouds.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. Stationary Front. he four types of fronts are $arm. and fog. . b. a. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. cirrostratus. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. occluded. and nimbostratus. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. d. 6cc!u&e& Front. cirrostratus. it is a $arm occlusion. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. being more dense than $arm air. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. altostratus. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. to the local sky. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. Dccasionally. nimbostratus %producing rain*. and stationary. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Cold air. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months.

due to convection currents. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. sno$.::: feet of elevation gain. <esides permitting rapid heating.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . At high altitudes. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. . the temperature of the air drops 7.::: feet of elevation gain. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. his cooler.. a. fog. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. the temperature of the air drops 1. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. subarctic.. calm mornings. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. clear. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. and mid(latitudes. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every .::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. and precipitation*. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. b. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. and heat loss through thermal radiation.. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . Conse#uently. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. Temperature =ormally. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset.

$hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents.eports from other localities and from any $eather service.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. if today $as hot and dry. or the =ational !eather <ureau. temperature. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. b. including >+A&. thermometer. are also helpful. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. o be effective.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. herefore. >+=. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. but more slo$ly %1.c. the amount of data available. a. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops.* 9ersistence :etho&. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. . this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. $ind meter.. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. . Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain.

Aisi i!ity in :eters. /o$ever. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. bushes. %'* 7na!og :etho&. this may not al$ays be the case. tents. estimate the speed in knots. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. (in& Direction. c. and clouds and precipitation. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. Assess $ind speed in knots. (in& Spee&. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. &or e"ample. %. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. and so forth. b. Ideally. under changing conditions. such as trees. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. %0* If no anemometer is available. .%0* Tren&s :etho&. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. . $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. are blo$ing. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. a. high( and lo$(pressure centers. assess speed to the nearest knot. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult.* If an anemometer is available.

%&or e"ample. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. total cloud cover is 'K5. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. e. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. colder temperatures. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. . %. Assess total cloud cover in eighths. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour.5 times C plus 10. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm.. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots.* f. then estimate to the best of your ability.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. Temperature. 7 degrees C " . hail.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. g. heavy do$npours. If clouds are not touching terrain. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*.* !ith a thermometer. degrees & Q 10 " . . =ote if bases are above all terrain. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. $Bamp!e4 '. Cei!ing -eight. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. degrees &. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.77. 9resent (eather.77 P 7 degrees C. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P .d.5 J 10 P '. . he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • .ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. &og..

as $ell as an estimated temperature. assess the pressure trend. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. %. 6 ser2e& (eather.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. h. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. 9ressure Tren&. Changes in obstructions to visibility. .%0* !ithout a thermometer.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. Increase in precipitation. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. i. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. !ith a barometer or altimeter. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. Carked cooler temperature changes. he closer the isometric lines are. Carked increase in humidity. Increasing cloud coverage. %. Carked $ind speed increases.

&alling can be caused by carelessness. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. Ep&ate. or other reasons. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . emperature changes slo$ly $armer. heavy e#uipment. improper diet. If the possibility of falling e"ists. choice of route. %i2ouac Site. Fa!!ing. and flooding %especially in gullies*. j. or as a combination %human trigger*. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. $ind. a. man(made %caused by an individual. /umidity decreases. Increasing barometric pressure. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. age. $quipment. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. bad $eather. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. avalanche run(out Aones. c. e#uipment misuse*. lightning. or e"cessive use. tour. rope in. overe"ertion. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. b. climbing above one3s ability. a hold breaking a$ay. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. over(fatigue. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. and poor judgment. such as lack of preparation. dehydration. companions.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. overestimating ability. carelessness. .

and so on. rockfalls. endurance and concentration is reduced. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. darkness. stay hydrated. If ice is in the gully. Avoid. b.ock#a!!. a. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. g. d. acclimatiAe slo$ly. 72a!anches. storms.7:: feet*. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Cre2asses. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. At high altitudes %especially over ). Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. If you must move under these conditions. rain. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. c. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall.ock. . %. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. &og. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. if at all possible. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. <u!!ies. icefalls.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. lightning. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. hanging glaciers and seracs. >se a route sketch and march table. As this slope increases . Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. sno$.* f. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. it is best to rope up. e.::: pounds*. 7!titu&e.efer to paragraph . . If you must cross these danger areas.: kilograms %about 0. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. +leep $ell. Aisi i!ity. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year.

isolated trees. . cracks filled $ith earth. c. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. d."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. a. shallo$ depressions. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. and a bluish light %+t. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening.::: feet. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . . hair standing on end. as a glacier makes a bend. violent. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. . shallo$ overhangs. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. Bike$ise. ridges. but dehydration is of greater concern.: kilometers apart. cracks that guide $ater. the force #uadruples. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. and rock needles. Bightning is fre#uent. crackling.* Avoid peaks. herefore. Above appro"imately 5. e. +eek shelter around dry. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. fi"ed $ire installations. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. humming of metal objects.from 07 to 1: degrees. b. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. A clear.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. haAardous icefalls can be formed. rock $alls. caves*. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. %.

even if overcast. g. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. rain.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit.0 to . 2rink plenty of fluids. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . If already rappelling. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. $indburn.::(meter rise in altitude.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. i. and sno$. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. % able . !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. $hich may bury the trail. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. the sno$ #uickly melts. f. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. 2uring and after rain. If it is sno$ing. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. &or each . and debris being blo$n about."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. h. .* . especially $hen combined $ith $ind. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*.5 inches@ ho$ever. If half $ay up the rock face. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. j. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened.

S!ope Sta i!ity. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist.Ta !e )-. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on ..* S!ope 7ng!e. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. +lopes as gentle as . but may occur on concave slopes.7 degrees have avalanched. a. %. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. %1* S!ope 7spect. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees.

the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. c. +ustained $inds of . settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes.* Temperature. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. %1* (in&. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . $arm days. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. %.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. e"plosions. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. Dn grassy slopes or scree. heavy e#uipment. %Dn at least one occasion. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. At temperatures above freeAing. the potential for avalanche is high. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. -assing helicopters. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. . b. %'* <roun& Co2er. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations.sunny.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. %7* Ai ration. %. Sno+ 9its. Triggers. %'* (eight. . Various factors trigger avalanches.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. %0* 9recipitation.

%1* Conduct a .utschblock test. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. place the other foot on the block. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength.pit across the fall line. s#uat once.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. through all the sno$. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. to the ground. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. =e"t. o isolate the rear of the column. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. Dnce above. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. and so on. smooth the face $ith a shovel. d. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. Dnce the pit is complete. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. %. then t$ice.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. o conduct the test. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. If the block is still holding up. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear.

%1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. Although any avalanche can kill you. %b* As slabs become harder. 9rotecti2e :easures. a drop in temperature of . they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches.: degrees Celsius %.during the $inter sno$ season. . settled sno$. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. &or normal density. d. +lab release is rapid. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. Dther measures include: . Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. Barge avalanches of this type. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify.

2eploy avalanche cord. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. . !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. ridges. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. $hich is al$ays the best choice. %. e. as $ell as protect your spine. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. avoid moving during these periods. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. %. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. and not directly up the center. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. climb to the side of the avalanche path. -ut your hood on. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. . +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas.oute Se!ection. far from the bottom of slopes. . Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. %0* <roup Sa#ety.%. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. -repare to discard e#uipment. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. f.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. >se them for lunch and rest stops. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. If you must traverse.

hold your breath. If you feel yourself about to pass out. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. do not fight it. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. and the body temperature is lo$ered. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. %. no one can hear you scream. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$.%0* Fracture 8ines. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. their pulse rate declines.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. Sur2i2a!. . Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. they $ould avoid the avalanche. &I9/ &D. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface.. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. shut your mouth. ID>. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues.* :ountain 8i2ing . %1* If your head goes under the sno$. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %)* ry to rela". BI&. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. g. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. If you feel your feet touch the ground.* 2iscard e#uipment. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. %1* Soun&s.

/yperventilation and the cool. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. perspiration. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. shelter considerations. communications. raining should include: psychological preparation. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. a. Dne #uart of $ater. #ormal activities $navigation. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. fire building.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. health haAards. &luids lost through respiration. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. locating $ater. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence.(4)*. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. or the .

and a loss of . b. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. If the $ater supply is insufficient. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. physical activity must be reduced. +no$. c.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. severe cramping may result. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. springs. mountain streams. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. . If he is hot and the $ater is cold. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. . A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. -urification must be accomplished. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. d. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable.0 #uarts %. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. thirst should be satisfied in increments.e#uivalent. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . ho$ever. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. rain. juices. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. &ruits. Conserve $ater for drinking.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. e. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater.

or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. high mountain areas freeAe. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. . +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. but other$ise not dangerous. precautions must be taken. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. !ater that is unfit to drink. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling.(4)*. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. b. After sundo$n.drinking $ater. defense*. If possible.::: feet*. a. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. a $atering party should be employed. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. assembly area. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. f. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. !ater is scarce above the timberline. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness.'.

hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. eggs. resulting from digestion of protein. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. milk.* 9rotein. fats. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. fiber. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. %. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. vitamins. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. milk. butter. Dther foods such as cereals. c. metabolic changes. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. cheese. and minerals. and meats. vegetables. energy. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. regardless of physical activity. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. he amino acids. and cheese. poultry. or milk proteins. Cain sources of fats are meats. %0* Fats. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. and carbohydrates. . Df the total daily caloric intake. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. fish. eggs. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. nuts. hese food components provide energy. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. is 5 ounces for a . and legumes also provide amino acids. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available.of cold rations. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. and loss of appetite. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. amino acids.7'(pound man. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats.

* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. and Ainc. d. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. . and meats. %. .: days. and fruit. phosphorous. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. vegetables. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . =utritionally. %7* Cinerals. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. depending on the soldier. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. $hich are found in cereals. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. iron.%1* Car ohy&rates. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. fruits*. . A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. a balanced diet is a necessity. and ?. vitamin supplements should be considered. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. In the form of glucose. vegetables. especially if this period is to e"ceed . the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats.. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. vegetables. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. fruits. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. %'* Aitamins. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. 2. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of .

"tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. and illness."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. and be eaten hot or cold. juices. +ince coffee. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. and hot chocolate are diuretics. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.. fires. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver.::(pound man*. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. /ot beverages of soup. po$dered milk. . stoves. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . . -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity.. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. cramps.s $ith breakfast bars. Carbohydrates. marked. and cider should also be considered. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. are important in maintaining energy levels. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. At higher elevations. Commanders may consider supplementing C. o conserve fuel. herefore. and chocolate.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. !hen cooking. %1* .* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. candies. fruits. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. the cooking time may be doubled. >se stoves and heat . he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon.7:: calories for garrison activity. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. juices. %About '. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. thus releasing heat. metal containers.$orks. cereal bars. shortness of breath. tea.

%. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. medications. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. As all missions are tactical. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. alcohol. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. mainly during periods of cold $eather. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. and burial sites. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. hydration. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. herefore. no trace of a unit should be detected. ahkios. !hen operating in areas . !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. garbage should be burned or deep buried. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. nose. his is especially important in the high mountains. and eyelids. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. If possible. a. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. 9ersona! -ygiene. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. In freeAing $eather. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. %7* Certain drugs. and judgment of soldiers. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. perspiration.

the soldier in a designated. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. If laundering of clothing is difficult. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. In rocky or froAen ground. dried. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein.6 +ince $aste freeAes. digging latrines is usually difficult. $hich may cause blisters. Sanitation. If latrines are constructed. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. In tactical situations.$here resupply is not possible. but must be #uickly dried. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. blisters. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. and kept as dry and clean as possible. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. &eet should be $ashed daily. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. and discoloration. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. b. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. it can . cracks. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. !henever changing socks. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated.

If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7.::: feet and ending at . 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes.::: to 5.::: feet.'. Coderate altitude is from 7.::: feet %high elevation*. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent. and training of soldiers.::: to .::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. he e"pectation that freshly deployed.be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.::: to .::: to 5.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. conditioning. Very high altitude is the region from .::: feet. $aste may be covered $ith stones. /o$ever. .'. employment of the local population may be advantageous.5.*. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. At these altitudes.::: feet. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . Areas above . $here altitude illness is the rule.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations.*. starting at about 5. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic.::: feet. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . /ere. Above 5. Altitude illness is common here.5. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. In rocky areas above the timberline. /igh altitude e"tends from 5.4.::: feet.'.

he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.'. operational unit.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. Increased irritability in some individuals. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of .::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. 2eterioration of memory.apid ascent to elevations of . b. Boss of appetite.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. the rate of ascent. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. Irregular breathing.'.7:: feet causes severe. +leep disturbances.::: feet*.0. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. +lurred speech. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated.apid ascent to .apid ascent to .0 to . a. nutrition and physical activity it is about . . . en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ). 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude.4. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.:. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). .::: feet. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy.::: to . and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. /eadache.5 percent may have severe symptoms.

he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . >. the total impact still results in errors of judgment.+.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. and enemy situation. a. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain.. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. As $ith all military operations. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >.+. environment. herefore.unacclimatiAed personnel. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions.+. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. -riorities of training must be established. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment.

$ater purification supplies.::: feet.* Above 5. and rest must be considered as priorities. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel.. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. if in a $inter environment. these drugs are diuretics. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. a unit should ascend at a rate of . $ith the unit. taking an e"tended rest period. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season.::: feet per day. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. Additionally. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. !ater. c. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. . time to ac#uire $ater. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. mission. food.::: to 0. >nits can leapfrog. and.

%'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. he better the physical condition of the soldier.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. At the same time. . +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. f. $hile carrying D. the metabolism becomes more efficient. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. A different group of muscles are used. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. . the soldier3s . A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. $hich must be developed and hardened. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. and calisthenics. his conditions the back and legs. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. e. his increases the soldier3s endurance.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. and special e#uipment loads. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. d. climbing. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs.

Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. breathing management. lungs. hypothermia. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. hese include sprains. to the point of instinctive reaction. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb.epetitive practice. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. conditioning. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. g. fractures.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. >pon deploying to high elevations. back. arms. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. strains. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. abrasions. frostbite. strains. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. personnel can still become injured %sprains.capacity for e"ertion is increased. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. . he heart rate. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. and trench foot*. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. metabolism. As $ith any other injuries. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. and circulatory support. legs. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. abdomen. . contusions and fractures. After acclimatiAation. .

cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. fever. a. Immediate first aid is given on site. 2ue to rough terrain. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. and seek medical attention.7::. %1* o treat sunburn. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. he skin may be $arm to the touch. 2o not pop blisters. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation.. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. bandage. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . he . burning. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. and headaches may occur. Sun urn. $ash thoroughly. . Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. %. If blisters do break. In severe cases chills. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen.:: and .* Contributing factors include fair skin.

red. Avoid rubbing the eyes. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T .:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. Sno+ !in&ness. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. %'* o prevent sunburn. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. %. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. %Currently. %1* o treat sno$blindness.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. ice.+.* 2uring sustained activity. -roper sunglasses should provide .* In an emergency. and $ater. the >. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. .7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. If still painful. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. b.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. an +-& of . Administer pain medication if needed. %&or e"ample. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain.

and nutrition. /o$ever. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. personnel. and immersion foot. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. but freeAing temperatures are not. .0.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. and fight in $inter conditions. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. +imple tasks take longer to perform. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. dissemination. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. dehydration. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. +oldiers must be prepared to survive.*. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. rest. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. b. a. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. move. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(.

<lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit.-). (in& chi!! chart. %. c. &or e"ample.Figure . %1* <eographic 6rigin. %'* 7m ient Temperature. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. %0* . Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates.ace. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor.

8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. 6—Dverheating.D. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. %4* Terrain. he lo$er the $ind chill. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries.danger Aone or beyond. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. D—2ry.8. !et clothing loses insulation value. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. Avoid overheating. • • • . !ind chill is the rate of cooling. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. therefore. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. ?eep dry.6. in mind. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. %5* C!othing. %)* Type o# :ission. accumulation of perspiration.

In cold $eather the human body needs special care. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. %. age is not a significant factor. %.4* . %. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et.7* 3utrition. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. %.a&ica! Changes in the (eather."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. . Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. Individuals must retain their body fluids. %. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.:* Dehy&ration. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. especially in higher elevations.%8* :oisture..* 7ge.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. d. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. %. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. %. %. .'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience.0* Fatigue.1* Concomitant =n>ury. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day.

and careful. %. f. or evaporation. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. -erform emergency first aid.%. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. %0* Con&uction. conduction. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. convection. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. e. . deliberate. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. Dn cold days.* .a&iation. . %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries.

2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. and possibly death. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. g. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. and loss of blood. his is usually caused by . +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. . he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin.levate the back and head. shortness of breath. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. administer $ater. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. %a* Symptoms. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly.%1* Con2ection. %0* Dehy&ration. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. %'* $2aporation. insulates. rapid and faint pulse. pain. fear. %. his condition may digress into incoherence. unconsciousness. . reat the injury and control hemorrhaging.* Shock. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. or feet. o treat shock. cold skin. s$eating. Clothing that ventilates. Any illness or injury can produce shock. %b* 'reatment. !ind chill is convection cooling. and e"cessive thirst. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. slo$er heart beat.

and unconsciousness. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. rapid heartbeat. mental sluggishness. %a* Contributing +actors. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. Cold causes fre#uent urination. If the stomach is cold. hey may. headache. higher temperature. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. dry mouth. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. lack of appetite. tiredness. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. fainting. in fact. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. o distinguish bet$een them. /o$ever. %b* Symptoms. the air is dry. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. At high altitudes. upset stomach. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. decreased amounts of urine being produced. he is probably dehydrated. diAAiness.

-revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. 2ecreased physical activity. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. In advanced cases. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. Accidental immersion in $ater. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. . Allo$ the victim to rest. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. 2iarrhea. /igh $inds. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. Change in $eather.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. %1* -ypothermia. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. -oor nutrition. %a* Contributing +actors. %c* 'reatment. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

::: to 1. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. using mannitol could be fatal. • • d. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold.::: feet of altitude gained. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. may become irreversible and cause death. if left untreated. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload.• -rogressive shortness of breath. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. and death results. >nconsciousness. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. are prone to second attacks. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. rest.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. /A-. given orally can also be effective. is prevented by good nutrition. . is planned for every 1. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. and o"ygen. A rest day.::: to 0. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*.. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. &urosemide %Basi"*. hydration. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation.0: to . and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. • • • . It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. rapid heartbeat %pulse .est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available.):*. e. If untreated. reatment of /A-. Crackling. $hich is a diuretic. $armth. /A-. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand.

. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed... is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. +ymptoms of /AC. confusion. and unconsciousness. -reventive measures include good eating habits. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. headaches. b. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. convulsions. . Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5.apid descent and medical attention. reatment for /AC. hallucinations. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. d. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. coma. is the same as for /A-.. /AC. and lack of coordination. Beft untreated. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. inability to concentrate. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. is a severe headache. vomiting. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC.est. paralysis. decrease in urination. immediate descent is mandatory. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. a. he main symptom of /AC. . $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. /A-. c. and /AC. $armth.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. include mild personality changes. can cause death. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. -revention of /AC. stupor. +upplemental o"ygen. may occur in e"perienced. maintaining hydration.

the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. move faster. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. &rom this. . cause increased proteins in the plasma. occurs. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. cools down and heats up differently. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. or the fluid portion of the blood. and /AC. edema. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. . .eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. therefore.rovided all tactical concerns are met. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. both cerebral and pulmonary.

c. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. he outer . Foot+ear Currently.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. /o$ever. b. as $ell as insulation against the cold.*. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. a lace( up configuration. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. %. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. a.*. he inner boot provides support. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper.

C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. remove e"cess moisture. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. . As a system. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers.egardless of climatic conditions. . $hich protect the soldier from the elements. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. develops hypothermia or frostbite. !hen clothing is $orn properly. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. a. Socks. ski bindings. the insulation layers. Figure 1-). at best. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. uncomfortable and. at $orst. %. !hen $orn improperly. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. and the outer most garments. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. socks provide cushioning for the foot. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. he is. if $orn correctly.

a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. In colder environments.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. c. he primary material in this product is polyester. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. En&er+ear. &or the most part. %a* In severe $et conditions. . todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. If the user is $earing V< boots.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. b. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. he . /o$ever. =nsu!ating 8ayers.

e. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice.. d. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. 6uter 8ayers. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. as $ell as mud.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the .Figure 1-. and stones. he .C!C+ correctly. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. t$igs. <aiters. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard .

%. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. Figure 1-1. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. in most cases. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper.ven during the best climatic conditions. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. -an& (ear.C!C+ and. hook(pile tape. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. $ill need to be locally purchased. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. .. and snaps. Three types o# gaiters. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. . !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. f.

are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. -ea&+ear.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. man( made fibers are preferred. g. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. . Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. %. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area.Figure 1-4. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. as $ell as replacement liners for both.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. predominately $ool. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . -an& +ear. =atural fibers. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat.

Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the .up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. . he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. -e!mets. $ye+ear. Figure 1-6. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. i. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. -e!mets. &or e"treme cold. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. a balaclava can be added. Figure 1-5. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. !hichever helmet is selected. neck. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. his covers the head. h.

heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use.=* and C.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness.uropean norm %C.urope. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. Figure 1-7. . have been combined to make combined .urope %C. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. and comprises several commissions. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. j. It is based in -aris. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. :aintenance o# C!othing. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. cord. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . and harnesses.uropean norm %. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. All mountaineering specific e#uipment.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. &rance. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. Community .=*. . >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.uropean economy. $ebbing.

(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient.7( or . a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance.. Its ability to stretch up to . . perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. called slings or runners. and elongation.a. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . A static rope has very little stretch. it should be >IAA certified. $hich is.(mm rope. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. (e ing an& S!ings. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful.. impact force. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains.. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. a standard . . A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths. Figure 1-". %.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall.opes an& Cor&. Kernmant!e construction. b. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. . &or most military applications.:. abrasion resistance. If used for -rusik knots. and is best used in rope installations. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope.egardless of the rope chosen.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment.* . he . essentially.

uses for these simple pieces are endless. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. carabiners. Figure 1-'. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. -arnesses.K. the rope. $hich is stronger. inch.unners are predominately made from either 8K. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. more durable. and anchors. . and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. . Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. . .. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . ' inches. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches.0 inches.)(inch or . . and . c. and have less bulk than the tied version.) inch. %. Tie& or se+n runners. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. and 0' inches. &or most military applications.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra.) inch. are usually lighter. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger.

his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. &itted properly. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(.is unavailable. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops.:*. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. are more restrictive. !hile these harnesses are safer. . %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. %1* . he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. !ith the remaining $ebbing.:*. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. %. his type of harness. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. referred to as a seat harness. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(.:*.

his rope. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. . Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. +teel is still $idely used. Cara iners. !hen using a carabiner.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. he oval. given other options. a. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. the 2(shaped. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. Figure 1-)*.*. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer.. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. great care should be .

Figure 1-).. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. %. the load is .* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. Figure 1-)).0*. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.

and angles. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. b. and $ith the gate open. horiAontal. %1* . %. hese pitons are used in flush. design.egardless of the type chosen. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. . %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. vertical cracks. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. hey are made of malleable steel. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. Figure 1-)1. the blade and eye are aligned. specifically the locking version. 9itons. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. Dn vertical pitons.* 1ertical . hey are described by their thickness. and angle. or other alloys. all carabiners should be >IAA tested.1*.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. and length %&igure 1(.itons. Aarious pitons. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. hardened steel. $afer. along its minor a"is.

he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability.itons. or flakes.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%.itons.itons. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. %4* 3ong .5 centimeters $ide.itons. Dn horiAontal pitons.%0* Horizontal . %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality .>. shallo$ cracks. c. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. hey are small and fit into thin. 9iton -ammers.'*. hese pitons are used in flush. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. metal. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. shallo$ cracks. . %'* 2nife 3lade . %)* Angle . or leather is used to . hey are designed to bite into thin. ledges. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. $ebbing. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. flush cracks. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. %1* Wafer . hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset.itons.itons.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %.(inch s#uare. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. hese pitons are used in shallo$.

Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. to be used as anchors. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock.7*. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. . into the rock. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. Figure 1-)4.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. 9iton hammer. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use.7 centimeters long and $eigh . d. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. Chocks.0 to 07 ounces. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement.

+pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. Chocks. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.4* provide convenient.Figure 1-)5. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. Figure 1-)6. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*.)*. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. e. $hen used in the camming mode. f. Three-point camming &e2ice.

. they can be purchased or homemade.5*. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. Figure 1-)7. Cade from thin metal. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. Chock 9icks. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. . hese are placed #uickly and easily. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops.semi(rigid point of attachment. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. g. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. saving time and effort.

/and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. %o!ts. e"hausting. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. h. and e"tremely noisy. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. hese re#uire a hammer. . A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. Dnce emplaced. chips."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. <urrs. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. $hich is time(consuming. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. Chock picks. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust.Figure 1-)". bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull.8*. %. . $hich is driven into the rock. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. and moisture. brands. dirt. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. bolt driver. and drilling anchor.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. <ecause of this re#uirement. corrosion. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. and $eights.

%0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. %e!ay De2ices. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. i. .Figure 1-)'. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot.egardless of the belay device choosen. the tuber. %. %o!ts an& hangers. . <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate.

.*. Figure-eights. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. j. k. Figure 1-. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. &or lo$er angle movement. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. t$o ascenders $ork best. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*.Figure 1-. one ascender is sufficient. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice.). &or difficult vertical terrain. Descen&ers.*. 7scen&ers.

and strong. l. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. glaciers. 9u!!eys. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain.Figure 1-. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems.. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use.. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. 9u!!ey. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. froAen $aterfalls(can . -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. light$eight. &or best results. 7scen&ers.1. Figure 1-. A pulley should be small.

used for chopping. probing. is perpendicular to the shaft. anchors. a. head %pick and adAe*. . It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. therefore safer for mountaineering. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. he adAe. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. %b* he head of the a". can have different configurations. self(arrest. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. hollo$ aluminum. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. %. step cutting. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". belays. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. direct(aid climbing. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. =ce 7B. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. It can be made of fiberglass.

4. =ce aB an& ice hammers.b. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. Crampons. . he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . loose ends should be trimmed. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. c. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. . +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. Figure 1-. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. inch of front point protruding. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. =ce -ammer.

%.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. but can be used on less vertical terrain. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. %0* he rigid crampon.5. Crampons. It is designed to be used $ith soft. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. fle"ible boots. as its name implies. is rigid and does not fle".Figure 1-. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself.

Figure 1-. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. .6. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube.mountaineering boots. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. =ce scre+s. . he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. d. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. • • • ype I is .* !hen selecting ice scre$s. =ce Scre+s. %. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from .

. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . and other deformities that may impair strength or function. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. Figure 1-. bends. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. the scre$ should be turned in. hey are available $ith bent faces.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. =ce piton.' centimeters. ho$ever. If any cracks or bends are noticed. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. =ce 9itons. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. flanged sides. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice.7. hey can. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. f. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. and fi"ed cables. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. e.

cracks. and for cutting . having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. a. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. for removing froAen obstacles. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . $ands*. broken $ire strands. and other deformities. he ends should be filed smooth. chips. If any cracks. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. and carrying gear. Sno+ 9icket.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. It can be used in step cutting. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. Sno+ Sa+. the picket should be turned in for replacement. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. Figure 1-. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. mushrooming ends. or slippage is noticed. broken $ire strands. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. he picket should be inspected for bends. bivouacs.". in shelter construction. If bent or cracked.::: kilograms. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. g.. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. movement.

he blade should be inspected for rust. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. and burrs. !ands are . (an&s. he handle should be telescopic. fading. d. Sno+ Sho2e!. $arping. A file can repair most defects. and stability. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. it should be turned in. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. it should not be used. sno$(bridges. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. folding. Dn folding models. number of haAards identified. step cutting. bends. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. he handle should be inspected for cracks. and deformities. light$eight aluminum alloy. to . he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. caches. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. the $ands should be replaced. and removing obstacles. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. 72a!anche rescue equipment. and stability. and discoloration. cracks. he handle should be inspected for cracks. frays. and number of teams in the climbing party.sno$ stability test pits. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. shelter construction. !ands are used to identify routes. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. he flag should be inspected for tears.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. bends. rust. burrs. b. $eather conditions %and visibility*. If the sa$ is beyond repair. bends. bends. If the shovel is beyond repair.. the hinge and nuts should be secure. If any defects are discovered. and missing or dull teeth. security to the shaft. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . crevasses. c.

hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy.robe. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. %0* . %.'. 72a!anche rescue equipment. 9acks. %. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather.* Avalanche . e. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode.Figure 1-.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. . +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. hese are small."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering.

and are simple and light$eight. Tents. $eights. and butane are the common fuels used. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. g. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. %. he fly protects against . the better it $ill be.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. factors that should be considered are $eight. !hen choosing a stove. %. !hen selecting a tent. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. fuel availability. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. and materials. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. and its reliability. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. !hite gas. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. f. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. more harsh environment. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. Sto2es. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. kerosene. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater.

+ome ski poles are . +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. i.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. sno$shoeing. connect. h. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. and become long and rigid. and carrying heavy packs. Ski po!es. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. they create the shape of the tent. Sno+shoes. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. Skis. !hen carrying heavy packs. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. <efore using a ne$ tent. j. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing.

it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. k. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. -ea&!amps. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. +leds vary greatly in siAe. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. Figure 1-1*. on some models. S!e&s. a component of the . he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas.egardless of the siAe. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel.* !hen choosing a headlamp. especially $hen hauling fuel.:(man arctic tent system. to the one(person sko$. A flashlight can provide light. l. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. %. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. . Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. . he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. !hichever sled is chosen. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed.

a. notebook $ith pen or pencil. stoves. sunglasses. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. b. $ith canteens.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. or lithium batteries. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. if needed. or jungle mountain environments. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. pressure bandage. food procurement material. s$eater. magaAine pouches. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. $histle. the e"ception being hot. first aid kits. polypropylene top. desert. Caution4 Cotton clothing. climbing e#uipment. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. Dbviously. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. foul $eather shells. nickel(cadmium. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. !hen the light is being packed.conditions. sunblock and lip protection. ropes. -ocket items should include a knife. $orn on the body. fire starting material. 9ersona! <ear. $quipment 9acking . the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. . or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. Stan&ar& <ear. fuel. is virtually useless in most mountain climates.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. and $ater procurement material. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. $ater. map. compass and or altimeter. food. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life.

:ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. Canteen. . Carabiners. Crampons. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. Climbing rack. ."tra insulating layer: polypropylene.c. or unplanned bivouac. &lashlight or headlamp. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . d. rain suit. one per climbing team. or poncho. Cold $eather hat or scarf. Ice a". Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. +ling rope or climbing harness.appelKbelay device. Climbing rack. e. Day 9ack. pile top. Climbing rope. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. +urvival kit. >tility cord%s*. 9loves. &irst aid kit. one per climbing team. one per climbing team.appelling gloves. he carries a light day pack. casualty evacuation. or s$eater. Climbing rope. . one per climbing team. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. =onlocking carabiners. . !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. In the event of an injury. Bocking carabiner%s*.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission.

At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. pants. includes socks.S.• • • • +leeping bag.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. %0* Compass. The Ten $ssentia!s. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. Altimeter. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. gloves or mittens. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. +leeping mat. &uel bottle. f. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. %. boots. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. . Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather.7 or higher. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of .:: percent of ultraviolet light. . $ashing. or navigational error. hat. hey should filter 87 to . +ide shields. %7* ()tra Clothing. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. %'* ()tra +ood. &or lip protection. blouse. and licking is best. and or 6.* 5ap. +#uad stove. s$eater or fleece jacket. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. injury. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. under$ear. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*.

$hich is important $hile climbing. butterfly bandages. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. $orking around the camp. . A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. and blisters."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. . moleskin. the mountain environment— steep. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. %4* +irst aid 2it. 2ecentraliAed operations. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. scissors."tra hats or balaclavas. Ciniature flashlights can be used. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. . • • • • • . &inally.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding."tra pair of heavy socks. . and employing $eapons systems. elastic compression $rap. cleanser. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. serious sprain. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. adhesive tape. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. but commercially available headlamps are best. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. cutting the $ind. sharp tools. gauAe pads. a broken bone. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. herefore. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. -ressure dressings. . small adhesive bandages.%a* .

+mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. Bighters are handy for starting fires. %1* 4epair 2it. %8* 5atches and . 2uct tape. harness. and canned heat all $ork. -atches. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires.* Water and Water Containers. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. g. %. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. Dther repair items as needed. as $ell as for stream crossings. A$l and or needles. Cord and or $ire.ighter. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock.%5* +ire Starter. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. %. . or pack. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. %0* 7ce A). /eavy(duty thread. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. heat tabs. +afety pins. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. Candles. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper.:* 2nife.

%'* =nsect . clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. more compressible items %sleeping bag. <y packing the lighter.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. e. As much as possible. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. if not carried in hand. climbing hard$are. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. emergency bivouac shelter. d. among others. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. food. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. he ice a". should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. c. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. e"tra ammunition* on top. b.epe!!ent. a. In most cases. nearer the shoulder blades. the load is held high and close to the back. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. and be securely . and $ater procurement. . $ater. rope. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back.

management techni&ues. If not. :ountain Coi!. or building various installations. and 0nots. . When climbing. f. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. a. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. . Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . serious in!ury may occur. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. . o start a mountain coil. his is repeated.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. and then tied in place.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. 9rasping the rope firmly. meter from the end $ith one hand. bring the hands together forming a loop. as stated above. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction.fastened. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . t$ists. care and maintenance procedures. . until the rope is completely coiled.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. grasp the rope appro"imately . and knots later during deployment. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. rappelling. he rope may be given a .

or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. %utter#!y Coi!. >ncoil the last loop and. -ull the running end of the bight tight. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight.* In finishing the mountain coil. . begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. slung across the chest.* Figure 4-1. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. doubling it and placing it under the flap. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. securing the coil. using this length of the rope. b. :ountain coi!. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil.%. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*.

. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders.* Coiling. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps.Figure 4-4. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. !ith the bight in the left hand. . -lace the doubled rope over the head. %utter#!y coi!. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. %.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. o start the double butterfly. . dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. and hold the center in one hand. In this configuration .

sling rope. . Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. c. . 2ress it do$n tightly. !rap that bight around the coil.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. or for storage. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. Cake three or more $raps. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##.0(inch bight is left.* Figure 4-5.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together.ope. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body.

%0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. . he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. and so on. feeding it to a lead climber. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. a. !hen the rope is needed for use. A slight t$ist of the $rist. %.D-. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. Dnce stacked. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. =e"t. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. Thro+ing the . it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment.e. A smooth follo$ through is essential. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. hro$ up and out. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. !ith the left hand. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6.

bends. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots.. + . and hitches is almost endless. c. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced.. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. . back feed. and stack the rope properly as described above. he variety of knots. + . bights. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. !ith e"perience and practice.. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*.. Class III—middle rope knots. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. Aiming just above the horiAon. a. he stronger the $ind.b. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target.0. /olding one $orking end in each hand. up and out to$ard the horiAon. Tying the Knot.. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. Class II—anchor knots. and Class IV—special knots. It is a joining knot. adjustments must be made. + . Anchor. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance..1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope.0. In a strong cross $ind.

%1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Figure 4-6. %. It is a joining knot.'..* here are t$o interlocking bights. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*.. + . Checkpoints. b.. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. . Tying the Knot. Square knot.+ . ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. a..

Fisherman’s knot. Tying the Knot.+ . Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. %1* . Figure 4-7...1. %. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. . b. + . Checkpoints. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. standing part of the opposing rope.

-+ . + . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. !ith the $orking end of one rope.1. . + ... Dou !e #isherman’s knot. and 0*. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together... Insert the $orking end %+ . four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.*.* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight.+ . Checkpoints. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. %. + . !ith the $orking end of the other rope..'. %1* . Figure 4-".nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails....* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart.0.. $hich contains the standing part %+ . b.

+ .. Figure-eight en&. race the original knot to the standing end. + .. . a. Tying the Knot.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers.Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. . + . !ith the other hand. .. + . + .'..7.0. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. Figure 4-'. 2ress the knot do$n..1.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end.. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end.

ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. It is also called a ring bend. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. or tape knot. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. . + ..* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(... &eed the other end back through the knot. overhand retrace. Checkpoints. %. Tying the Knot. a. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot.0. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + .1.. + ..b.:*.

+ . %0* here is no slack in the knot. %. (ater knot. It is an anchor knot.*. b. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor.Figure 4-)*. a. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions.. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. Checkpoints... . one retracing the other. Tying the Knot.* here are t$o overhand knots.

%0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. + . %. and bring it back onto itself. %o+!ine knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. Checkpoints.7. b.+ . + . &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight. + .1. .oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches .0.'... =o$ dress the knot do$n. Figure 4-)). ..each through the loop and pull up a bight. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight..

a. + . . + . Checkpoints.. Figure-$ight . <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.. + . and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. %.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.0*.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.etrace /. .'. . b. Figure 4-)..oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.1.. Tying the Knot. + ..his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.0... It is an anchor knot. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. and one in the front*.. .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.eroute& Figure-$ight0 . distributing the load over the anchor.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.epeat + . 2ress the knot do$n.

insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. a. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.0.). It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. .. + . it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith... leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.'. Tying the Knot. /o$ever. by tying the knot in a retrace. + ...7. .he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. he finished knot is dressed loosely.1. + . + . + . and route the $orking end through the loop... + . !ith the $orking end. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. ake the $orking end around the anchor point..1*.

. + . Tying the Knot.. %. b. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.* Middle of the Rope. a.'*. . depending on ho$ it is tied. Checkpoints %.Figure 4-)1. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. /old rope in both hands.. palms do$n $ith hands together. Figure-eight retrace. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.

... assume that the anchor is horiAontal. he knot is tied. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. + . <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. !ith the right hand.. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.. /old the standing end in the left hand. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*.0. grasp the $orking end. reach under the horiAontal anchor..0. 2ress do$n the knot.1. + .+ . -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. /old the loop in the left hand. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. + . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.'. !ith the right hand. %0* End of the Rope. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. .1. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand... -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.. + . + . and bring it in$ard. + . -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.'.

0. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.. C!o2e hitch. !hen tying this knot. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.Figure 4-)4.. ake up the slack from the anchor.. Tying the Knot. + .* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. palm. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.. .. + . %.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. + .4. a. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop.. It is a middle rope knot.'. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.7. + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to.1. Checkpoints. + . and fingertip. b.). + . + . %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. and place it over the heel $rap...7*.

2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.. Checkpoints. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. + . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.. a. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.8. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. . It is a middle rope knot. (ireman’s knot.5. %. Figure 4-)5. b.)*.+ . Tying the Knot.

...1. + . !ith the $rap thus formed.. it lays in$ard.. Figure 4-)6.. !hen dressing the knot do$n. . b. Directiona! #igure-eight. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. Cake one $rap around the palm. %. the tail and the bight must be together. + . tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. Checkpoints.0. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. + .'.+ .* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.

%1* he figure eight is tied tightly.. ie an overhand knot on a bight.. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side..%0* he tail and bight must be together.). It is a middle rope knot. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. + .7. + . + . + ..0. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.. .1.. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( ..4*. Tying the Knot. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + . + . a.. + . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.'. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.4. forming t$o loops.

form an . %o+!ine-on-a. ..5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. + . %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.Figure 4-)7. Tying the Knot.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.ight. b.5. %.. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. a. Checkpoints.* It is a middle rope knot.. >sing a doubled rope.

+ .0. Checkpoints.7. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. a. %. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight... + . form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.+ . 2ress the knot do$n. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. Figure 4-)". !ith the $orking end. + . Tying the Knot. b. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop..1. /old the bight $ith the left hand. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.8*. It is a middle of the rope knot.'. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. .

. form a loop in rope %standing part*. %. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. 2ress the knot tightly. Figure 4-)'. + . It is a specialty knot.+ . b. Figure-eight !oop.. !ith the bight as the $orking end. . 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system...* he loop is the desired siAe. Tying the Knot.. Checkpoints. + .0. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.1. a.

+ . forming a bight. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.1. + .. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. >sing an arm3s length of rope.*. and place it over the long rope. . =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope..0.*: + . $ith the $orking ends even. + .0(inch bight.. 2ouble the short rope. ...0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. Figure 4-. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .. + .each do$n through the . he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.0..%. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension..*. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. + . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.1..* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. .

+ . Bay the $orking end under the long rope. + .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.. parallel. Checkpoints. . b. and not t$isted.. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.. + . It is a specialty knot.. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.). .). %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.4. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.7.nsure they are tight. %. Figure 4-.+ .'. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik.

%1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner..0. Figure 4-..a.. b.1. %. Checkpoints. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. + . + . %achman knot. + .... -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. Tying the Knot. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.

+ . leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. + ..7. .. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. tie an overhand around all coils. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.. bring a bight up through the loop. + . he running end is to the back of the body. + .* A minimum of four $raps. %. >sing the standing part. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. It is a specialty knot.. + . not crossed. a. !ith the running end. he standing portion is on the bottom. /olding the bight loosely. b. single coil. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. Checkpoints. + . hen. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. .1.. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.).. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.0. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.. + . $ith a bight held in place by a loop. Tying the Knot. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.4.'. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder..

Bay the loops to the right. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. Tying the Knot.. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*..Figure 4-.'.. + . + ... !ith the right hand.1. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. a. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.1. + . + . It is a specialty knot. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.0. .

4.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. b. Tying the Knot.+ . It is a specialty knot. Figure 4-... %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. a. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. &orm a . %.. + .7. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. Three-!oop o+!ine. .. Checkpoints.

+ .. Figure 4-. %..'. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. + .1.. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.7. b. standing end of the rope.:u!e Knot0 . !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.). + .5. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.each through the bight and grasp the long..+ . + . Figure-eight s!ip knot. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system..0 inches up the rope.0. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. Checkpoints.

&orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.0..he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.. b. Check 9oints.* here is a single overhand slip knot. + . %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. + . K!eimhiest Knot . -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.0 inches long.. Transport knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. %1* he bight is a minimum of . + ... %. Tying the Knot. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.1. a. It is simply an overhand slip knot. Figure 4-.6.

Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. + .... find the center of the rope and form a bight..7. + . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . + . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.. pass them through the bight %see + . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. a. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. Tying the Knot. easily adjustable. . It is a special( purpose knot..0..0 inches..'.1. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . !ith the ends offset.*.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. + . + .. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. !rap at least four complete turns.

0.0 inches.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Tying the Knot. + ... b. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.: to . Checkpoints..7. . + . Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . It is a special(purpose knot. a. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.Figure 4-. K!eimhiest knot. %.

+ .Figure 4-. b. Tying the Knot..0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Frost knot.. %.: &orm a bight. + .* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.'.". b.. Figure 4-. :unter -itch . + .. %. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Checkpoints. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. a. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.1: Cinch the knot tightly. Checkpoint. <irth hitch. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. It is a special(purpose knot.

....0 inches apart. !ith the right hand.'. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.. b.1. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. %0* he carabiner is locked. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*... a. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. Bock the locking mechanism. Check 9oints.0. /old the loop $ith the left hand. palms do$n about . + . $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.* A bight passes through the carabiner. %.he munter hitch. !ith the right hand. /old the rope in both hands. Tying the Knot. + . + . + . $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.

+ .. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight..0. ensuring they do not cross.1. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. . + . Tying the Knot.*.' feet or longer. + . <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.'. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. a..appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.. :unter hitch.Figure 4-1*. thus creating a loop around the $aist. . . + .. It usually re#uires a sling rope .

. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. %.4. tightening the seat. Figure 4-1)..7. -ull up on the ropes.appe! seat. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.). Check 9oints. + .+ . b. + . .. &rom rear to front.

Tying the Knot.. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. preferably ovals*. . ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners..0. + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. a. + . he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.

or the e&uipment .* !hen properly dressed. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. rope can only be pulled in one direction. Check 9oints. it will fail.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. <uar&e knot. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. %.Figure 4-1. b. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. .. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point.

trees must be carefully checked for suitability.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. rees. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. . natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. /o$ever. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. /o$ever. When selecting or constructing anchors. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. boulders. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof.*.

security. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. a. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. Chockstones should be checked for strength. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. . treesusually have a shallo$ root system. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid.. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. In rocky terrain. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. Figure 5-. b. >se padding on soft. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. Trees use& as anchors.Figure 5-). +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable.

Chockstones. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. their firmness is important. . horns. c. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner.Figure 5-1. flakes. tying a rope to it. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. and clipping on a carabiner. and spikes. If rock projections are used. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position.ock 9ro>ections . . If any of these signs e"ist. b. hese include blocks. a.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. the projection should be avoided.

the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*.ock pro>ections. .Figure 5-4. . he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. As $ith trees.

Correct!y oppose& cara iners.Figure 5-5. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. %ushes an& shru s. !hichever method is used. . $rap. Drape. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. and girth. a. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. Figure 5-6.

(rap. . Drape. b. Figure 5-".Figure 5-7. (rap. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*.

A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. 7nchoring (ith . Figure 5-'. <irth.:*. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. <irth. his re#uires less e#uipment. .ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. . it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.c. .

he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. . Figure 5-)). to absorb the tension. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.*.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. Tension!ess anchor.Figure 5-)*.. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. more if necessary.

sno$shoes. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. and the load to be placed on it. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. . and ruck sacks. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. Although still available. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. . b.ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. a. &or training planning. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. he"centrics. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. $ould be ideal. As $ith natural anchors. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. and +BC2s. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. can also be used if necessary. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. such as a railroad tie. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. he sling is attached to the anchor. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor.#uipment. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. %A hefty timber.* Barge boulders can be used. . hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. e#uipment. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. chocks.:: years. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. such as pitons and bolts. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . ice a"es. such as skis. In e"tremely hard.

the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. %&igure 7(. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. %. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. %0* !hile it is being driven. 9iton 9!acement. practiced. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. clear the loose rock.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. dirt. !hen this type of rock must be used. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. b. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. should be studied. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. c. as $ith any artificial anchor. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. 7&2antages. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. pitons can support multiple directions of pull.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. a. Disa&2antages.

$Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(.1*. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. the firmer the anchor $ill be. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. Clip a carabiner into the loop. herefore. and on the type of rock. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. . because the piton is too long. thereby loosening the emplacement. he piton should not spread the rock. it $ill not be lost.. Figure 5-). Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack.out of the crack.

to each side. drive it into another place. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. drive the piton in as far as possible.emo2ing 9itons. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)1. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. If the sound regains its original pitch. . -ero-!oop. If the pitch has changed greatly. Testing. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. do$n$ard. d. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. upon driving it. there is any #uestion of its soundness. Eerk vigorously up$ard. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. e. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. o test pitons pull up about . the emplacement is probably safe. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used.'*. then grasp the rope at least . ry to be in a secure position before testing. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling.K0 meter from the carabiner. . and $hen using chocks. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. .

vectors. and straightened may be reused. but comple" in practice. In training areas. Disa&2antages. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. Bight to carry. 9iton remo2a!. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. having fallen and $edged in a crack. <efore use. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. a. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time.eusing 9itons. they may have been driven poorly the first time. removed. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. >sually easy to retrieve and. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . +oft iron pitons that have been used. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. . b. Also. f. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. unless severely damaged. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory.Figure 5-)4. are reusable. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. . provides an e"cellent anchor point. 7&2antages. but they must be checked for strength.asy to insert and remove. A natural chockstone.

choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. c. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. if possible. $hich may accept pitons. grass. then select a chock to fit it. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. %0* !hen selecting a chock. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. Dften provide only one direction of pull.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes.7*.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. and dirt. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. Figure 5-)5. %1* . Chock p!acements. %. Book for a constriction point in the crack. cord. Avoid poor protection.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. 9!acement. +ome cracks may have loose rock. .

It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. d.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. . since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. test it to ensure it remains in place. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out.)*. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. o test it. After seating a chock. %a* . %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. use pairs of chocks in opposition. Testing. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug.

o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. it may rotate and pull out. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. a. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. b. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. and release the retractor bar. pull the retractor bar back. S8CD p!acements. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. place the device into a crack. %o!ts .Figure 5-)6.

c. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. . the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. and runners. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. flaking. or cracking. carabiners. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes.4*. a. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. . he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. /o$ever. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. and should be tested $ith a hammer. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. !hen using bolts. <olts should be used $ith carriers.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. $hich bores the hole. since this permanently $eakens it. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. . b.

$qua!i@ing 7nchors . his not only provides greater anchor strength. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails.8*. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. b. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. It is aimed in the direction of the load. a. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel.5*. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually.Figure 5-)7. . Figure 5-)". Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor.

An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. therefore. and the enemy for the length of the climb. terrain hazards.Figure 5-)'. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be .

oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. !hen picking the line.6 . It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder.6 to the top looking for cracks. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing.*. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. he mentally climbs the route. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues.ven before getting on the rock. . and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. or 6lines. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. . ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit.trained in the basics of climbing. using the hands primarily for balance. the climber studies all possible routes. +orward observers. nubbins. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. reconnaissance personnel. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. ledges.

9reparation In preparation for climbing. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. /o$ever. the boot soles should be dry and clean.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. C7ET=63 . but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. In the training environment. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . In later lessons.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. If the soles are $et or damp. such as a rock or climbing gear. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. dry rock. falls from climbers above.

If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. a. and reduce the impact of a fall. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. b. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. and so on. right foot. comfortable stance is essential. and movement. lo$ering the heel. %&igure )(. $eight shift. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. left hand. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. Stance or %o&y 9osition. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. a$ay from the rock. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. help the climber land feet first. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. left foot. or moving on to a more .lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. his vibration. and body %trunk*. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. helping to minimiAe fatigue. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. If strained for too long. A rela"ed. sho$s a correct climbing stance. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. kno$n as 6. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand.

* !henever possible. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. he hands are used to maintain balance. the hips and shoulders should be . %.. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. Correct c!im ing stance. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical.a!ance& o2er oth #eet.restful position. Figure 6-). ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. Figure 6-.

creating more stress. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. Dn lo$(angle slopes. c. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. hand. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. and movement %movement being either the foot.centered over both feet. Again. C!im ing Sequence. he basic steps are $eight. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. intermediate holds. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. his is normally done on #uick. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. Dn steep rock.: + . shift. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. +ometimes. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back.D=. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. as the climbing progresses. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. or body*. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. In most cases.* + . the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. $hen footholds are small. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. .

+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.epeat steps . Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. 2uring this movement./. %. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs.: + . Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7. + . If both legs are bent. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs. .&IV.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.: + ..&D>. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms.+ . through 1 for remaining foot.

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence. .

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .

to rest on. even painful. Sa#ety 9recautions . re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. his type of lifting is inefficient. not the arms. these movements become more critical. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. %. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs.Figure 6-1. because the legs are much stronger. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. Dther than being uncomfortable.

let the rope provide protection. do not do it. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. a. follo$ing the same line. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. >pon hearing the $arning. e. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. If the rock $ill endanger your second. a fi"ed rope should be installed. d. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. If on a lo$(angle climb. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. immediately shout the $arning 6. b.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. If conducting a roped climb.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. and to reduce the impact of a fall. c. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. a spotter can be used for safety. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. grasping for any possible hold available. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. tossing it do$n. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. +hould a climber fall. . Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock.

visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. a. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. sedimentary(type rock. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. his may simply be a #uick. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. +ometimes. C!im ing (ith The Feet . <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. !hen leading a group of climbers. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight.. !hen the rock is $et. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. g. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member.&D. depending on it. !hen climbing. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability.f. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. b. !hen in doubt.

as in mountain $alking. &ailure to climb any route. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. easy or difficult.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. . lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. the entire foot cannot be used. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. . Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. %b* Dn some large holds. . he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. b. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms.* Maximum Sole Contact. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. he principle of using full sole contact.* %a* +mooth. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. a. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. %. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. Also. also applies in climbing. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. forgetting to use the feet properly. In this case. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. In the early learning stages of climbing.

Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. may be used.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot.Figure 6-4. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. >sually.* %a* Dn smaller holds. $ell(defined ledges. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. . he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. or toe. edging $ith the front of the boot. . Again. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. %0* Edging. !henever possible. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue.

therefore. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick.ounded. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. the better the edging capability. intermediate holds. $ith its softer sole. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. he stiffer the sole. he Army mountain boot. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain.* %a* . !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. . Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. . usually $orks better for smearing than for edging.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. . he leg should be kept straight $henever possible.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. Figure 6-5. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. %1* Smearing.%b* .

ball of the foot.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. arms. hands. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. than others. depending on the siAe of the crack. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. like a camming device. +ome positions are more tiring. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure.Figure 6-6. . inside and $ithin reach. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. restful position. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. or the entire foot can be used. and so on. the possibilities are endless. pockets. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. resisting a do$n$ard pull. such as edges. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. %'* Jamming. and even more painful on the foot. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. he toes. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement.

As stated earlier. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. b. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. As the individual climbs. . the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. a. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. our body $eight is on our legs."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. Dn lo$er(angled rock. !hen removing the boot from a crack. Dur hands grip. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. Core often though. +econdly. +ometimes. Figure 6-7. $Bamp!es o# >amming.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position.

this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing.our balance and footing on the ladder. Df course.* Push olds. the side of the palm. Ideally.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. -ushing side$ays. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. his is fine. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. and on occasion. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. . the fingers. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. or 6pinching. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. Dn smaller holds. %. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela".

emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. <ecause of this increased feeling of security.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. -ull holds. creating an unbalanced stance.* %a* Bike push holds. . $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. %0* Pull olds. therefore. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. .Figure 6-". pull holds are often over$orked. also called 6cling holds. or up$ard. just good techni#ue. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. and. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. Again. side$ays. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for.

he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. Dn small holds.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. Figure 6-'. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. creating a stronger hold. his helps to hold the finger tips in . =ormally.

his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. ape also adds friction . %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. Bike foot jams. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever.* Figure 6-)*.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. knuckles. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. his hand configuration. kno$n as a 6ring grip.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. %&igure )(. %'* Jam olds. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. %1* Pinch olds.

he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. /o$ever. leg. . his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. and fle"ed to fit the crack. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. or 6off $idths. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. !hen the arm is straightened. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. or body into an off $idth. he leg can be used. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. only the fingers $ill fit. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. &or off $idths. the principle is the same as for fingers.to the hand in jammed position.. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. . is another techni#ue.6 re#uiring the use of arm. from the calf to the thigh. hands. %&igure )(. leg. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. and body jams. o jam or cam an arm. %b* In smaller cracks.

he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. &rom these fundamentals. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance.Figure 6-)). $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. . feet. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. As the climber gains e"perience.

$ithout lunging or groping for holds. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily.a.otating . $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. $here the pull holds become push holds. %. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. he change step. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. or other body parts tire.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. or hop step. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. yet #uickly. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. before the hands.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. even on an easy route. %0* Mantling. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. +hort of turning back. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. b.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. o make the move. %&igure )(. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. mantling begins $ith pull holds. +ometimes. . arms. t$o solid handholds should be used. +till.* Change Step. o prevent an off balance situation. Combination possibilities are endless.

most individuals should be able to support their $eight. Dnce the arms are locked. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. . a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. momentarily. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. Dnce balanced over the foot. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. !ith the foot on the ledge.

he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(.. forming a bulge or small overhang.Figure 6-). he arms and legs . or body tension. applying an up$ard pull.1*. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. %1* !ndercling. also. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. :ant!ing sequence.

If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. he climber bends at the $aist. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. putting the body into an B( shaped position. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. Figure 6-)1. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. . the climber $ill . %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. En&erc!ing.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. %'* "ie#ack. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. more or less. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring.

%7* Stemming. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. or vice versa. Figure 6-)4. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. rather than muscle. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces.'*. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming.likely fall. Dften. . he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. or for a rest position. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. 8ie ack on a #ace.7*.

his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. kno$n as chimneys. Stemming on a #ace.)*. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. legs.Figure 6-)5. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . or body as an integral contact point. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. parallel cracks. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. . >sually.

. Chimney sequence.Figure 6-)6.

4*.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. %c* . face features. if any holds. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. Chimney sequence /continue&0. /o$ever. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . A slab is a relatively smooth. forcing the body against the opposing $all. .emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. or a much narro$er crack irotection.Figure 6-)6. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain.

.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. S!a technique. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. . a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. %4* %o&n Clim#ing.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. Figure 6-)7. Dften. Dn steeper slab. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. Also. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. to increase friction. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. or the . do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces.

%a* Dn easier terrain. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. !hatever the case may be. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. C7ET=63S . 0. As the steepness and difficulty increase. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. the climber can face out$ard. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. use a roped descent. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available.abilities of others to follo$. a$ay from the rock. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . use a roped descent. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. !hen in doubt. Dn the steepest terrain. If the handholds are too high. and slips are more likely to occur. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. !hen in doubt. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself.. he can often turn side$ays. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing.

and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds.planned landing area. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. as in ascending. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. and a tendency to move too #uickly. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. and leading to the likelihood of a slip.5*. &acing the rock. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. facing out$ard or side$ays. %d* Dn steeper slab. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. reducing friction. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. is usually best on steeper slab. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. . 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate.

Tying-=n to the C!im ing .ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. may induce further injuries. A severe fall. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. length. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. . especially for most personnel involved in military climbing.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. is highly unlikely in most instances.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered.ope Dver the years. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. ropes must be used to proceed. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. they offer little support to the climber. . $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. . ..oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock.

also. such as a prese$n harness. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. it is not for a belay anchor. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. -rese$n harness are bulky.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. . connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. including cost. =o assembly is re#uired. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. Seat -arness. specialiAed e#uipment. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. a.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. %. /o$ever. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. $hen used correctly.

at the chest. or ease of adjustment. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. Chest -arness. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. %. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. he s$ami belt is a simple. a. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. such as padding. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. Dne(inch $ebbing . gear loops. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. S+ami %e!t. c. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. than an improvised chest harness.b. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope.

. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist.V. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. raditionally. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap.$ill provide more comfort. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*.8*. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. any tie(in around the $aist only could .* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. b. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. &ABB.. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. Figure 6-)'. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. %. In a severe fall. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. !I /D> /. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot.

adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. . and comfortable.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. . if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. $ith the knots to the front. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. 9rasping both ends. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region.ven in a relatively short fall. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. . $rapping to the outside. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. c. and hold it in place on the hip. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. Dff to one side. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. like a parachute harness. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*.* Bocate the center of the rope. %. A safe. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon.

=mpro2ise& Chest -arness.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. just as you $ould put on a jacket. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. and drape the sling over the shoulders. . forming t$o loops. in the sling should be in the middle of the back.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. or cross. but remember that $ith $ebbing. d. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness.: feet usually $orks.*. %.Figure 6-. . he t$ist. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. Appro"imately ) to . %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist.

he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. If using a chest harness. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. at the chest. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. e. f.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. the standing part of the rope is then . &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. and comes off the harness in a fall. %.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. or incorrectly. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. in effect. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does.I ICAB BI=?. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. create a type of full(body harness. 7ttaching the . C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall.

and possibly the e#uipment available. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. or third loop formed in the knot. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. rather than tying the rope to it. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. Figure 6-)". C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. %. %e!ay Techniques . If using the three loop bo$line. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. ensure the end. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard.

$hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. but $ith practice. independent.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. rope team members can often move at the same time. . or a 6brake. and snug. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. for an up$ard pull. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*.6 can be applied to halt a fall. the procedure should become 6second nature. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. ho$ever. +tack the rope properly. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. . and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. . if one person falls. sitting position $henever possible. >se a $ell braced. Dn steep terrain. Dne person climbs at a time.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. • • • • . e"posed terrain. In some instances. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope.

the rope management procedure is basically the same.. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. and apply the brake to halt a fall. If the brake hand is removed. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. a. aking up rope.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. removed from the rope. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the .6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.• . C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying.nsure anchor attachments. guide carabiner %if applicable*. !hen giving slack. b. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the .V. there is no belay.BAI D=.BAI. or run through a friction device. otal control means the brake hand is =. take up rope to remove e"cess slack.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. ho$ever.A9.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. • • .

he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. step . %. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. he other hand is the brake hand. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. place it behind the back and around the hips.. step 1*.. %)* . step )*. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. slide the guide hand out.*. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope.. :anaging the rope.brake hand remains on the rope at all times. step '*.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. .. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended.). %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands.. to the front of the brake hand. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. Figure 6-.. step 0*. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.

the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. a. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. !hen perfectly aligned. and froAen.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. in its various forms. %. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. +ometimes. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. It is best to sit in a slight depression. he leg on the 6guide . and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. especially for beginners. %o&y %e!ay. the belay may have to absorb. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. he body belay.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. stiff. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. or fall force. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. It is the simplest belay. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. using terrain to his advantage. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. . and the amount of load. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. re#uiring no special e#uipment.

he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. Figure 6-. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay.. .. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. Sitting o&y e!ay. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.

the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage.Figure 6-. If the rope runs too lo$. rendering the belay useless. dumping the belayer out of position. . It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. If the rope runs too high. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*.1.

as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. or pearabiner. As a climbing belay. he carabiner must be large enough. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads.4. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. /o$ever. -ut some . and of the proper design. $hich forms an obvious. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. b. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. :echanica! %e!ay. &or the most part. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. useless hitch.* Munter itch. %. attaching both to the carabiner.Figure 6-. to allo$ this function. is designed for the Cunter hitch. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice.

tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. to$ards the load.5. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. though developed as a rappel device. As a belay device. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. :unter hitch. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. rather than around the belayerUs body. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. he hand on the rope running to the climber. . he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. is al$ays the guide hand. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. Figure 6-. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice.+ =D change the function of the hands. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. or load.

he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. >nlike the other devices. .6. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. Figure 6-. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. but have no moving parts. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased.%a* As a climbing belay. . A short. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness.ope management is performed as in a body belay. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. Figure-eight &e2ice. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. %b* As a lo$ering belay. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice.

he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. a. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. if the second falls or $eights the rope.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. he air traffic controller %A C*. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. Also. If the belay is correctly established. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. =n&irect %e!ay. the most commonly used. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. Additionally. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. Direct %e!ay. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. An indirect belay. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. the belayer is not locked into a position. slotted plate. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . . creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. b. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope.

7im the %e!ay. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof.* .6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. 7nchor the %e!ay. %. Dnce the climbing line is picked. . A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. If this placement fails under load. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. the belayer selects his position. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. !ith the belay position selected. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. a. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. b. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. .ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. c. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. rela"ed stance. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. sitting stance are preferred. and in line $ith the first protection placement.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal.

and 6snug6. 6independent6. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. his is not mandatory. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. reach back. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. . %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. o accomplish this. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. saving the slings for the climb. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted.%0* . say after a severe fall. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors.

he rope should be stacked on the ground. %. e. 7nchoring a e!ay. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. !ith the rope properly stacked. or on the ledge. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile.7.* Dn small ledges. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. and applies the actual . If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber.ope.Figure 6-. d. Stack the . 7ttach the %e!ay.

guide carabiner. If the belay is set up correctly. If using a body belay. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner.". he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. the force. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. If the climber takes a fall. 6<. if any. !hen belaying the 6second6. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. %e!ay setup. the anchor attachments. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. guide carabiner if applicable.BAI D=W6. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. he gives the signal. Anchor attachments. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. %. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same .belay techni#ue. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock.* he belayer should make one #uick. final inspection of his belay. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. Figure 6-.

hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. A solid. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. C8=:%$. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. Top-.7CT=63 T7K$3 .side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. e"posed routes. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. or at the top at the anchor. :$73=3<. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing.* %$87D$. .

6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. . If multipitch climbing. <elayer takes in rope.DC?6 -roceed.D-. ensure climbers belo$ hear. 6 . 9.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. <elayer removes brakeKtension. I am falling. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left. apply brake. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. and hold me.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope.DC?6 6.6T$CT D6E.S$8F F. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. 6+BAC?6 . Cy $eight $ill be on the rope.=( I( &IV.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS.6 6 !. Climber selects a belay position. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.6<. and again.6 . 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. 6 A?. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.

6 +et up the belay. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. remaining anchored.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. -repares to climb. . +et up the belay position. anchoring and putting the second on belay. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. I have finished climbing and I am anchored.7 feet of rope left. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands.BAI D=.. Ta !e 6-). remains anchored. &or a rope tug command. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. or $hen the climber is around a corner.. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb.=6 Iou have appro"imately .ope& C!im ing :etho&s . Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. !hile a lead climb is in progress. b. above an overhang. Iou have no more rope.ope comman&s. his is the signal for 6<. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . the most important command is 6<.BAI6 belay. his is especially true in $indy conditions. a. use only one.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. Climber sets up the belay. .6&I&( . 6&IV.emoves the 6D&& <. . +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. prepares to climb. or at the back of a ledge. !ith the issue of this command. . <elayer removes the belay and. Iou may remove the belay.

Top-. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors .ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. a leader or climber. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams.6 6pro.6 6pieces of pro. b.6 6pro placements. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. you can easily avoid the climb itself. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. . 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall.6 and so on.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb.In military mountaineering. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. rope%s*. &or training. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. If you can easily access the top of a climb.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. As he climbs the route. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. a.6 6pieces. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication.

or other rope installations. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. c. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. ice. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. a. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. or 6leap frogging. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. and is responsible for selecting the route. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. belays. b.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. taking on the role of lead climber. he belayer simply adjusts his position. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. such as rappel points. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain.established for other purposes. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. +$inging leads.

>nless told other$ise by the climber. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. only as a courtesy. %'* !hile belaying. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. he leader then begins climbing. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. such as a piton hammer. $hether by sight or feel. 6CBIC<I=96. If the climber $ants a tighter rope.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route.. the belayer signals. %. thus minimiAing friction. it can be called for. until the climber tells him other$ise. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. or 6rope drag6. 6<. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements.BAI D=6. he leader can then signal. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. removing the belay anchor. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. !hen the leader is ready. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. %0* he other member of the climbing team. to remove any protection that the leader may place. etc. . he double checks the belay. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope.ne"t belay. If he cannot see the climber. %1* <efore the climb starts. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. again. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. only as a courtesy. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. is responsible for belaying the leader. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. nut tool. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. !hen the belay is ready.

* he leader $ill assemble. Assorted he"entrics. or the clip. each on a separate carabiner.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<.%7* As the leader protects the climb. each on a separate carabiner. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. the leader sets an anchor. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. &ive to ten standard length runners. $ith t$o carabiners on each. . &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. !hen the leader selects a particular route. At this position. In this situation. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. d. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. %. or 6rack.BAI D=6 is given. . the command 6 A?.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <.BAI6. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope.D-. and $hat types. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. he must also determine ho$ much. !hen the leader has completed the connection.

(inch $ebbing. • • .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*.• • • $o to three double length runners. . • . .(inch $ebbing. =ut tool. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. to some degree. . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear.: feet of . =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*."tra carabiners. the necessary e#uipment. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. $ith t$o carabiners on each. Cordellette. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route."tra carabiners. 0: feet of . 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. Bong -rusik sling.

his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. 9enerally. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. %. or pendulum. moving past a difficult section. protection can be placed farther apart. for both the leader and second if either should fall. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. is re#uired.* Placing Protection. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. As the leader begins this type of move. kno$n as a traverse. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this.e. during. Dnce an anchor is placed. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. placement of protection. protection should be placed more fre#uently. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. and upon completion of any traverse. saving hard$are for difficult sections. If the climbing becomes easier. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. As a carabiner hangs from the protection.&D. and <. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him.. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. If the climbing is difficult.

the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. in a . he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. %a* If the route changes direction. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. $hen released. If the clip is made correctly. In addition. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. /o$ever. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. C7ET=63 . !hen placing protection.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that.

<ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection.'. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. =o matter ho$ direct the route. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. rotate the carabiner up$ards . here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped.5: degrees. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. Figure 6-. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. C!ipping on to protection. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement.leader fall. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. o prevent this possibility. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made.

C7ET=63 . Figure 6-1*. . causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. inducing a fall. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. o prevent this.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. or anchor. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. Ese o# s!ings on protection.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. .

even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1.*. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. . All $ired chocks used for . Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. Figure 6-1). or runner. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. . 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. even $hen used 6actively6. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. As the climber moves above the placements.

Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. %e* . therefore. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag.. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. Figure 6-1. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. ry to use the shortest runners possible. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. . +ome of the larger chocks. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. &urthermore.

and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second.BAI D=. no$ the climber.BAI6 to the belayer. !hen removing the protection.BAI D=. !hen the second is ready. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. or seconding.6 and the leader can. +harp rocks.f. $hile the final preparations are taking place. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. unless other$ise directed. or 6cleaning the pitch6. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. he second has to issue commands to the leader. as a courtesy.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. %. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position.* h. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. signal 6CBIC<I=9. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. If necessary. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. reply $ith 6CBIC<. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. he can. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second .6 he second. rock fall. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. again as a courtesy. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. !hen removing protection. &ollo$ing.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. g. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. a leader has a variety of responsibilities.

=+ID=. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece.BAI. Dnce secured. If too much slack develops. the method of aid climbing . giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb.egardless of the type of protection used.reaches a more secure stance. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. taking on the role of lead climber. he can signal 6D&& <. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. a.6 he leader removes the belay. he belayer simply adjusts his position. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. . he should signal 6 A?.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. $quipment. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. Dnce the second completes the pitch. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. .* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . +$inging leads. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. he should immediately connect to the anchor. If removing a piton. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.D-. %. or 6leap frogging. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.

-iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands.* Pitons. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. %0* 'olts. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. /o$ever. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. +ince pitons are multidirectional. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. $ith or $ithout the hanger. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed.is the same. %. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. bolts can be used for aid climbing. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled.

!hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. appro"imately every . Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. or steps.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. split(shaft rivets. %4* (ifi ook.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. . %1* S"C%s. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders.0 inches. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. A fifi hook is a small.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. . %5* -scenders. although in aid climbing. . full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. %7* %aisy Chains. although in aid climbing. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. %'* Chocks. %)* Etriers . place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*.. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook.* .or -iders. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains.

into the steps in the aider. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. If this happens. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. !ith the daisy chains. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you .* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. Technique.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. the climb continues as follo$s: %. aiders. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. again. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. he big difference is the movement up the rock. &rom this height. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain.b. you are no$ standing above your support. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. one at a time. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. %4* .

2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. %. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. repeat this procedure.. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. o prevent this possibility. Secon&ing. !hen adjusted to the correct height. tie in short on the rope every . a serious fall could result. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. move the ascenders. If the ascender is too high. 3otes4 .epeat entire process until climb is finished c. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. o make this easier. the arms need not support much body $eight. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. above the piece.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ .may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. o ascend the route. one at a time. !hen the pitch is completed.:* .* >nlike lead climbing. Clear each knot as you unclip it. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. . After ascending another 0: feet. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %.

the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. %. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. +BC2s. 0. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. he hook . the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. and other protection placed easily by hand. /o$ever. possibly resulting in the protection failing. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. his is in effect a self(belay. e. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. d. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. to get caught as you move up$ard. !hile leading an aid traverse. hooks. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. do not tie into the end of the rope.as you ascend. o make this safer and easier.

hese types of devices due to their passive application. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. only t$o are described belo$. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. 9iven one rope. b. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. If the climb is only one pitch. protected traverses . If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. a. belayed climb. &or e"ample: a .7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. a forty foot fall could result. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. although bolts can be used. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three.::(foot climb $ith a .7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers.::(foot climb $ith a . some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. $hich involves more difficulties. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. the methods $ill vary.

he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. !hen number 1 receives 6<. or number . he second. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. he again sets up a ne$ belay. ascends belayed by number 0. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. !hen number . he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0.. !hen using t$o ropes. If using one rope.$ill re#uire additional time. !hen the leader completes the pitch. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. %. climber. and number 1.Us .* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends.BAI D=.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. !hen the leader completes this pitch. or number 0 climber. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors.BAI6 from the leader.

he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. number 1 performs no belay function.. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. such as the tuber type. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. %d* =ormally. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . %d* In this method.belay is ready. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . !hen number 1 is not climbing. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. his $ould save time for a team of three.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. he remains anchored to the rock for security.

he use of harnesses.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. =nsta!!ation . Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. faster. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. even worse. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. However.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. and safer.in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. H )i. but adds to total mission $eight. ascenders. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . . he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second.

he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. -rusik. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. Dnce the anchor is rigged. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. the leader $ill establish the top anchor.o install a fi"ed rope. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. Figure 7-). additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. Esing a #iBe& rope. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope.*. Dther$ise. If the leader placed protection. autoblock*. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. . An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. he $ill stack and manage the rope. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope.

he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. If not. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. FiBe& .. Esing a se!#. .Figure 7-. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel.e!ay.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. . his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope.

. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. actical considerations are met.Figure 7-1. ease of negotiation. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. he second sets up a standard belay. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. =nsta!!ation. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. avoids obstacles. a.

• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. !hen he reaches an anchor point.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. and attaches the rope to the anchor. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. . As the leader climbs the route. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. . his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. double figure(eight*. %. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom.ope crossovers should be avoided. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. 3ote4 . /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. he temporarily anchors the rope. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

&rom there. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. and back over the opposite shoulder.appe! %&igure 4(7*. diagonally across the chest. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. b. %o&y . and runs it around either hip. and his back straight to reduce friction. the rope runs to the brake hand. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. /e then pulls the rope from behind. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. o brake. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks.Figure 7-4. -asty rappe!. 9loves are $orn. .

3otes4 . %o&y rappe!. c. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods.. Seat--ip . /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.appe! %&igure 4()*.Figure 7-5. . 0. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact.

repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. and is fast and safe. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. %. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . hen run the rope through the single carabiner.Figure 7-6. If a single rope is used. stand to the right of the rappel rope. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. If using a right(hand brake. Seat-hip rappe!. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. his method has minimal friction. /o$ever. stand to one side of the rope.

into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. Figure 7-7. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. d. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. &or this reason. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor.* o use the figure(eight descender. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. Figure-$ight Descen&er. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. . %.

$Bten&ing the .appe! De2ice. e. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate.Figure 7-". he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. 6ther De2ices. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. f.) of an inch in siAe. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. . he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. Figure-eight &escen&er. hese include slots or plates and tubers. d.

depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*.Figure 7-'. /o$ever. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . . !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. depends on the techni#ue. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. 6ne-.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope.e!ay.

soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. If t$o carabiners are used. b. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. Dnce across. c. If crossing a ravine or gorge. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. he anchor should be $aist high. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. $iremanUs. are al$ays preferred. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. =atural anchors. the gates $ill be opposing. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. the s$immer must be belayed across. At that time. a.:. such as large trees and solid rock formations. . the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. If crossing a stream. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side.

. e. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. d.0*.*.. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope.1*. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.Figure 7-)*. Transport tightening system.

.Figure 7-)). .. Figure 7-).oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight. Transport knot .

Figure 7-)1. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. Tension!ess anchor knot. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. . a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. 3ote4 2uring training. the far side man anchors the rope. $eb $rap.:. Dnce across. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. a. c. b.

d. from inside to outside. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. g. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. f. e. and is run back to the near side anchor. Figure 7-)4. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. transport knot. !hen the rope is tight. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. here are several methods of accomplishing this. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. . As the rope is pulled tight. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. F-pu!!ey tightening system.

/e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. :etho& o# Crossing. o recover if he falls over.a. Comman&o cra+!.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. If dry crossing is impossible. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. %. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. Figure 7-)5. monkey cra$l. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l.)*. and pull the rucksack across. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross.7*. and yrolean traverse. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. . soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. he may $ear it over both shoulders. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. -referably. attach it to the bridge. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l.

he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(.Figure 7-)6. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. . he rappel seat method is the preferred method. If crossing $ith rucksacks. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. .appe! seat metho&. :onkey cra+!. Figure 7-)7. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.4*.

cordage %various siAes*.b. Figure 7-)". . and carabiners. -au!ing !ine. a. or supplies.* Machine /uns.igging Specia! $quipment. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. such as cre$(served $eapons. Construction.may dictate the rigging of these items. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. . %.5*. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. ammunition. he other end is anchored on the near side. &inally. o rig machine guns. %0* -"0CE Packs. Any special e#uipment. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. All the slack is pulled to the near side. A unit +D. ABIC.

and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. :o2ing 8itters. assembled on the far side. If the < C chooses the dry method. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. c. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. %'* A three(man pull team. .etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. a. :o2ing .* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot.ucksacks.b. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. . the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. he far side remains anchored. %. Dn each side of this carabiner. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side.

and up or do$n a vertal. Site Se!ection . /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop.%)* Dnce across. ravines. Figure 7-)'. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. Suspension tra2erse. %. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. inserts a carabiner. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. removes the knots. b. chasms. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. and then pulls the rope across.

depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame.'(foot sling ropes are needed.* . -osition this knot on .ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. and mark the ape" on both poles.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. $quipment. Construction. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. c. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. leaving about . 7-#rames. b. an A(frame must be used.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. . %0* !ith a sling rope. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. %. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. a. hree to five . he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. $o sturdy poles are needed. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied.0 feet long. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line.

.*. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps.* Figure 7-. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps.*. ensure it is in the same direction as the . he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. Cake the $raps as tight as possible.

If the ground is soft. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg.). he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. . tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. . he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. dig the legs in about ) inches. %4* If the ground is a hard surface.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. . $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. Figure 7-. If more than one sling rope is needed. Adjust the A( . Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. d. 7-#rame sprea&er.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. %.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. the direction of kick. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.*. =nsta!!ation Construction.

7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope.. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. . %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. Eoin the ends of a . +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*.0*. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot... Figure 7-.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . not forcing it in a lateral direction. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope.

his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. 2ue to the constant . 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope.1. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor.Figure 7-.

It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. herefore. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . or supplies Figure 7-. use a mechanical belay. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. rucksacks. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. . use a relay man.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge.tension maintained on the belayer. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load.4. Aertica! hau!ing !ine.

platforms that provide a safe $orking area.5. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. a. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. %+ee &igure 4(07. . tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. . 2ouble one installation rope. o maintain the . and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. and anchor it.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. find the middle. if necessary.* Figure 7-.0(inch bight. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame.

$ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. o anchor the A(frame. $hich is tied to the A(frame. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. c. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. e. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . g. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. . -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position.b. directional figure(eight. d.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. f. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame.0 inches apart. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. belay from the top using the hauling line. he angle should be . Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. or to.

and availability of anchors. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. c.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. a. pull the other side from belo$. Theory. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. . easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. e#uipment. Simp!e . terrain. !hen it is no longer needed. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. $eather.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. . load $eight. b.educe e"cessive friction on the system. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. If only e#uipment is being hauled up.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. Consi&erations. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. . 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. and the rope condition.h. .. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. the load rubbing against the rock $all. Construction. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. !hen in use.

place a pulley into the carabiner.* .%. . ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. . %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. then place the $orking end into the carabiner.

Consi&erations. &or greater efficiency. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load.6. . Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. load $eight. terrain. e#uipment. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. >se belays and backup safeties. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. 6ther Factors. $eather. and availability of anchors. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.Figure 7-. F-pu!!ey system. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. a. d. If the t$o pulleys touch. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors.

he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. his is the -C2.b. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner.* Anchor the hauling rope. and the rope condition. Construction. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system.7. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. %. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. c. Theory. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. %7* Construct a second anchor. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. .. the load rubbing against the rock $all. Figure 7-. E-pu!!ey system.

conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. conditioning. even under ideal conditions. good nutrition and hydration. pace. he trained. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. $eather. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened.est. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. H he terrain. rappelling.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. he mountaineer sets a tempo. . and a unit can cover a given . proper training. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. acclimatiAation. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. the slo$er the pace. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. H In addition to proper techni#ue. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. he more adverse the conditions. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. and results in loss of climbing time. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. hen. pace is adapted to conditions. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. !hen a moderate pace is set. Coving too fast. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. produces early fatigue. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. technical roc0 and ice climbing. empo. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. or number of steps per minute. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. re#uires more rest halts. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. s0iing or snow shoeing. the need for rest halts decreases. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. rugged terrain. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides.

hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. breathe deeply. %. If possible. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. to . +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. he soldier e"hales strongly. supports the $eight. hydrate. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. rock.7 hours. soldiers lean against a tree. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. enabling an easier. and higher elevations. and snack on trail food. %'* After a climb. <listers and .* After each step for$ard. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. %. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. sno$fields. the soldier pauses briefly. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. %1* his slo$. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue.distance in a minimal time. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. deeper inhale.. steady. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . not muscle. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. If possible.

and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. to a herringbone step.. %. and loss of balance. through thick brush. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. animal trails.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. try to s$itchback periodically.* !hen ascending. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. back injury. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up.blackened toenails. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. H -ar& <roun&. and back pain may follo$. knee damage. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. $ould be from $alking straight up. ice a". surface. A normal progression. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*.efer to Chapter . !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. /ard ground is firmly compacted. . %. If side hill travel is necessary. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. as the slope steepens. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. A ski pole. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. in lo$ brush or heather. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. !hile traversing. and on scree and talus slopes. o turn at the end of each traverse.

placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. each one improving the step as he ascends. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. he ice a". /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. simply $alk straight do$n. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. returning to the in(balance position. held in the uphill hand.. $hich must be done in a positive. . +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above .7:: meters in many mountainous areas. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. his is the in(balance position. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps.0 Step Kicking. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. $hich take half of the boot. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. he soldier faces out.H Sno+ S!opes. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. and $eighting the trail leg. /. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. aggressive manner. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. he soldier performs a basic rest step. and plants his foot solidly. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. and they $ill not be as secure. steps off.

the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. $here the ground is more level.* !hen ascending. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. brush is both a help and a hindrance. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. &or the military mountaineer. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. trees. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. H Thick %rush. In this techni#ue. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. %. and the upper leg is used only for balance. H <rassy S!opes. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. !hen traversing.

Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. After determining that the step is stable. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. H Scree S!opes. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. ascending or descending. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. o . the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. and heels dug in. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. H Ta!us S!opes. and then repeats the process. if possible. $eight is transferred to the upper leg.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. back straight. !hen $alking in talus. %. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. feet pointed do$nhill. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot.

. and route finding. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. grass. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. and do not look up. knees and toes. is the foundation of good navigation. the location of a target objective. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. the $arning. elbo$s. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. he use of the map. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective.ockW6 is shouted immediately. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. navigation. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers.prevent rock fall injuries. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. 6. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. sno$. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. digging into the slope $ith hands. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. Backing cover. compass and identifiable terrain features.

or millibars. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. <y measuring air pressure. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. 7!timeters. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. usually inches of mercury. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale.. Compasses.::: feet of elevation. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. a loss of barometric pressure of . b. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. a. . marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. route planning. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes.1 inches has occurred. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location.H .* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. millimeters of mercury. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. usually attached to a cord. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . and bad $eather should be e"pected. checking progress and terrain identification. %.

or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. %4* . %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. all($eather. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. c. %.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. global. survey monuments. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. it can provide position %accurate up to . rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. It can determine the latitude. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. he 9-+ is a space(based. <!o a! 9ositioning System. saddles. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. his can result in faulty elevation readings.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. and so forth* is reached. stream(trail intersections. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. . It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. longitude and elevation of the individual user. causing them to give poor readings. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system.

enter their coordinates as $ay points. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. deep valleys. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. summits.(satellite constellation is not yet complete."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. terrain association. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. Dther$ise. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. the better the system performs. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. saddles. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. or plateaus are better. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. 3a2igation Techniques. &or navigation. after choosing critical checkpoints. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld.%1* 2uring route planning. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. Canyons.idgelines. but due . due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. %'* +ince the 0. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. open valleys. or altimeter navigation. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. %4* . d. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. start point and objective. spurs. .

bo"ing(in areas. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. navigational corridors. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. /eavy fog. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. elevation. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. burned(over. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. than as a primary navigational aid. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. catching features. .ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. slope %+D+. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. glacier. %. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. !hen clear cut.* Dea& . orientation.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. . he shape. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. /andrails. checkpoints. and attack points are all used. siAe.eckoning. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. and not a precise point.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively.

H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. but not behind the object being vie$ed.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. and in $eather prediction. uniform surface. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. dusk. H !hen looking do$n a straight. in resection. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. such as da$n. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. in computing rates of ascent or descent. $atercourse. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. such as sno$. open road or track. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. $ater. H !hen the light is poor. check the . or desert. hey aid in orientation. H !hen looking over a smooth. H !hen the object blends into the background. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background.

9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. along $ith $eather conditions. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. cliffs. &ault lines. and crevasse Aones become visible. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. . studying it for climbing routes. !atch the mountain during the approach march. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. gross bedding planes of rock. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. cliff bands. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. In addition. sno$fields and glaciers. may present themselves. such as couloirs or gullies.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale.ates of travel. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. In this case. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear.altimeter. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. . %. e. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. light conditions %time of day*. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. and the physical condition of the team.

(inter .%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. avalanche danger. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. individual ski abilities. and impact on your route choices.oute Se!ection. and the siAe of the unit. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. pays off in more efficient travel. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. terrain relief. sno$ pits. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. are often steeper. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. f. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. 2uring calm $eather. vegetation. &or $eaker skiers. constrain your choice of terrain. 2uring movement. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . $ater features. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. g. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. If you must cross one. %. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. shovel tests.

and so on to get accurate readings. If $eak skiers are in the group. !eather and tactical situation permitting. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. H >se a steady. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. . H Cake fre#uent compass checks. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$.danger is still present. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. %4* 2uring ski movements. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. Avoid north. east. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. ice a". If the $eather turns bad. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines.

and drifting sno$. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. fog. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. short hours of daylight. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. . %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. trails. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. %. hick vegetation and rough. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. drastically limit visibility.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. 9ro !ems.* In $inter. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. . are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. sno$fall. kno$ledge of the enemy . %'* /andling maps. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult.h. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. bliAAards. Careful map reconnaissance. especially above tree line. caused by large ore deposits. $hiteouts. At times. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. compasses.

+tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. Civilian . cable and tram$ays are often found. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. %.situation.0. Aerial. pay close attention to the marginal information. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. :ap . A . Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.:07. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units.::: map and should be used $henever possible. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. An .:. obli#ue angle.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. Areas above tree line. verbal descriptions. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale.::: map depicts greater detail than a .::: maps can be used if available. a. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. even larger scale maps are desirable. clear cuts. terrain analysis of the operational area. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. Along $ith sketch maps. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. In addition. such facilities as ski lifts. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain.:7:. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process.econnaissance.

impassable torrents. are factored in. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . such as rivers and gorges. and plans made to avoid them. %0* Dbstacles. barns. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. . Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. $nemy Situation. trails. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. bridges. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. they have a marked advantage. resupply and medevac. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. but should still be e"pected. %1* /elicopter support. c. e"tractions. roads.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. . sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. and large open areas above tree line. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground.uins. b. $eather permitting.

Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. d. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. good friction@ use of pitons. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets.*.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. %.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. Time-Distance Formu!as. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training.success. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. . mountain structure and forms. including the geology. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. e. camming units*. and ground cover. %0* . smooth rock@ bolts. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain.outes through granite rock %long cracks. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. Enit 7ssessment. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed.

. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC.. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. should take this into account.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance.5 to 7. foot of . to 7. indicates. In order to do this. $eights in order to obtain accurate. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons.0 to ' kph +kiing .) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). %0* As able 5(. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.' to . %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains. foot . %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. his distance plus .0 kph 1.) kph '. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically..) to 1.::: feet of ascent or 0. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. %.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than . realistic rates of march.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. Add one hour for each . basic mountaineering gear. helicopter support cannot be relied on.) to 1..0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . . sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. Time-&istance #ormu!as. first measure the map distance.0 kph 0 to 1. actical movements. and clothing for mountain travel.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units.0 kph 0 to 1.

<ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. avalanche probability.equire& $quipment. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation.oute. and the likelihood of crevasses. -lot start and end points. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. roads. . %1* .. his includes degree of slopes. Se!ect a Current :ap. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. sno$ depth. a. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. sno$ condition reports. and trails accurately.* Tra##ica i!ity. clearings. $idth of trails. Consider the follo$ing: %. aerial photos. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. Additionally. Se!ect a . c. b. vegetation. $eather reports. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. avalanche probability.

. its width. ake into consideration their present health. and depth of the water. swift. depending upon the type of stream. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. %)* Con&itions. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. speed of the current. !hen plotting a route on the map. >se all available information and plan accordingly. When rivers or streams must be crossed. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. .%7* Communications. %4* Checkpoints. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. or deep. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. an alternate route should be used. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence.Capa i!ities o# Enit. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen.Contro! 9oints. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from.econnaissance . All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement.

recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. the closer you are to the source. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. depending on the distance from the source. Crossigs. b. perhaps from a ridge. a. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. for e"ample. photo. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. or head$aters. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. 2epending upon the time of year. the rivers rise. In a s$amp. if . As glaciers. or ice melt during the day.econnaissance of the route %map. sno$. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. If a dry crossing is unavailable. Figure '-). is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. A distant vie$. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle..*. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing.

A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. and thus shallo$est. contain sections $ith numerous channels. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. point of the river or stream. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. ho$ever. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. above the tree line for e"ample. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. if any. In some areas. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. ho$ever. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. . along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. %1* Cany mountain streams. Dnce a log jam is formed. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. firm bottom. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. =atural anchors are not a necessity.made during the early morning.

if available. he could easily dro$n. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. H If you must cross on the upstream side. as in the higher alpine Aones. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. a. temperature of the air and $ater*. <oots should be $orn . !aterproof $ater(sensitive items.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. papers. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. binoculars. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. !rap radios. tactical situation. All pockets are buttoned. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. -reparation includes the follo$ing. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. +DI. %)* !hen possible. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. b.

It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. /o$ever.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. Dn the far side. At times. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. e. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. c. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. a. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. socks and inner soles should be removed. f. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. d. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. he may choose to face more side$ays as this .

he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. a long ice a". then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. . thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. /e should take short. sturdy tree limb. b. o increase balance. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he staff should be moved first. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. If an obstacle is encountered.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. c. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. and if available. deliberate steps. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. d. e.

=n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. . &or chain crossing. but $ith the added support of each other. he line formed faces the far bank. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group.. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle.Figure '-. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. a team crossing may be used. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing.

someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. height of the anchors above the $ater. .K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. . he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. Cany times though. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed.Figure '-1. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. he stream at this point may be impassable. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . a. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. Chain metho& #or stream crossing.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. and the distance from the near and far anchors.

he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. /e should =.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. then a rope bridge should be installed as such.$ill pendulum back. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. . tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. %. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. should he fail to reach the far bank.V. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. If this is impossible.. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b.

* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor.Figure '-4. %. rather than straight across the stream. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. An appropriate knot is tied into the . shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. /ere again. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. pulled tight. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. and anchored on the near bank. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*.

the handline should be crossed one person at a time. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. $hichever appears easiest. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. %7* >nder most circumstances. . he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. Figure '-5.

and so on. d. a.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. e. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. .%)* . then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. $idth of the stream. c. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. and individual e"perience. Sa#ety . especially heavier $eapons. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. use a different techni#ue. or choose another route. f. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. such as mortars. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. speed of the current.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. A lookout should be posted 7: to . then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. recoilless rifles. b. stream bottom configuration.

. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across.g. If the shore is too difficult to reach. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. a. c. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. In either case. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. for assistance or rescue. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. d. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. seek out the closest and safest spot. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. h. b. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. such as a sandbar. e. 2o not try to fight the current. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. facing do$nstream.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

egardless of the techni#ue used. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". As the slope steepens. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting.: and . Figure )*-)*. F!at-#ooting in the cra position.:(. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. Dn steep terrain. !henever possible. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. descend straight do$n the fall line. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . and traverse. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending.*. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B..:(. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. .degrees. d. . gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.

/ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. 3orma! 9rogression. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. e. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. logical progression. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. raverse $ith feet flat.* Crampons. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground.Figure )*-)). 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. . /erringbone step straight up the slope. %0* =ce 7B. <acking up the slope %crab position*. &ront(pointing. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual.

f. C!im ing sequence. and move the hand up the a" shaft. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . .0*.:(.:(.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure .epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a".1*.e. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure . in some cases. Step Cutting. >sing most of these positions. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. C!im ing Sequence. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. .. Figure )*-). +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.

As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. %0* =ce. Dnce the step is formed. !hen cutting steps in a traverse.* Sno+. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. steps may be cut straight up the slope. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. and angled more. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. In descending. %'* -an&ho!&s. a traverse is also the preferred method. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. . !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. !hen changing direction. If handholds are cut. In ascending. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. then cut one bet$een those t$o. =e"t. %. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. they should be smaller than footholds. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made.

$hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. 2uring movement on steep ice. . or arrest. a fall %&igure . g. Se!#-7rrest. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent.:(. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice.Figure )*-)1. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury.'*.

. Se!#-arrest technique.Figure )*-)4.

H /ead upslope. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force.Figure )*-)4. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. stomach on the slope. and feet pointed do$nslope. and feet pointed do$nslope. and feet pointed upslope. back to the slope. . %. and feet pointed upslope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. H /ead do$nslope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. H /ead do$nslope. stomach on the slope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. back to the slope. the climber must first gain control of his body. H /ead upslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions.

increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. %b* In the second position. Dne hand grasps the head of the a".7*. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. If crampons are not $orn. stomach do$n position. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. %'* !hen a fall occurs.%a* In the first position. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. controlled.:(. %d* In the fourth position. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. stomach on the slope. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. %c* In the third position. . 9lissading is similar to skiing. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. could severely injure his ankles and legs. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. e"cept skis . lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. rapid descent. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional.

A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. Also.are not used. Squatting <!issa&e. brake. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. Sitting <!issa&e. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. Sa#ety. pick. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. c. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. b. and the other hand on the shaft. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. $hich serves as the rudder. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". as painful injury could result. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. he same balance and control are necessary. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. . and guide for the glissade.

=ce 9itons. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is .: inches in length. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. >sed singularly. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. or any large items. deadman(type anchors. ice scre$s. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. . he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. backpacks. <!issa&ing techniques. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. a. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice.Figure )*-)5. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. %. sleds. and ice pitons. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. skis. flukes.

Figure )*-)6. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: .:(. are multidirectional. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position.:( . %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. =ce Scre+s. c. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. If it pulls out or appears $eak. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. =ce piton pair.)*.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. he pair of pitons. making further use difficult. move to another spot and replace it. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. or the ice may crack or soften. such as top roping. $hen placed correctly. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.4*. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . !hen an ice piton is removed.

or the ice may crack or soften. the ice that has accumulated in the tube.%. .* %'* As $ith ice pitons. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. must be removed before further use. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. If repeated use is necessary for one installation.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. Figure )*-)7.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. %. such as top roping.

or other e#uipment for added strength.: feet. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. !hen constructed of sno$. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. Figure )*-)". &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. e. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s.d. . depending on the strength of the ice. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. the $idth should not be less than . pickets.:(.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. %. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor.5*. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. In ice.

Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. he direction of pull on long items. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. t$o or more anchors should be used. %&igure .:(. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. or other fi"ed rope installations. such as a picket or a". he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. . skis. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. rappel points. ski poles. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy.* !henever possible. %. A similar anchor.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. sno$shoes. also. should be at a right angle to its length. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. .%. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. f. frayed.

&or climbing on sno$ and ice. . a. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers.:(4. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. %+ee paragraph . Covement on 9laciers. the tie(in is modified slightly. !hen crevasses are e"pected. +hould any member fall. :o2ement. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. Tie-=n :etho&. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. a three(man rope team is recommended. all climbers move simultaneously. <y using this . =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. Figure )*-)'.e#ualiAed anchor. b. for more information*. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock.

9enerally. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce.*.:(0:*. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. Dn steeper slopes. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. Figure )*-. c. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. called the 6team arrest. %oot-aB e!ay.method. . and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. %.* %oot-7B %e!ay. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure .

ridgelines. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. FiBe& . d. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area.opes. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. or cliffs. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. H . !hen using the hitch off of the anchor.%0* %o&y %e!ay. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. As the movement continues. %1* :unter -itch. also. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. .etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions.

<!acier cross section.:(0.:(00 depicts common glacier features. .a. %&igure .* Figure )*-.). and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. sho$s a cross section of a glacier. and &igure . his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. Characteristics an& De#initions.

%0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall. <!acier #eatures..Figure )*-. . &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer.. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. %. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year.

<e cautious. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. %. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. %. As you approach this area. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. he firn line can change annually. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. %. .* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse.. %. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. .%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. Cost of these are formed by the $ind.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone.

hese can be large enough for a human to slip into.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. In $inter. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %0. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier.%.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. o$ard the end of the summer.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. and ice avalanches.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. %. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . b. icefalls. %. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. %. %.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. %. $hen visibility is poor. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses.

:(01*. %. Figure )*-.in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .1. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . . criss(crossed $ith crevasses.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.:(0'*. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall.

form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully.Figure )*-. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. the remaining members go into team arrest. if three people are on a team. If the team members need to assemble in one area. assess the situation. . If four people are on a team.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. ie in to the bights and the ends. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. he simplest and most common .4. use the -rusik to belay each other in. o locate the positions. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even.

their security being the team arrest. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. 9enerally. . the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. halting the fall. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. $hile ideal for rock climbing.ope& :o2ement. A roped team of t$o. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope.:(07*. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . he best combination is a three(man rope team. c. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. . but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier.

ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness.5. he remaining 6thirds6 . the rope should be divided into thirds. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. $hether improvised or premanufactured. %.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. %0* . leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. as for a four(person team. <ecause of this. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope.Figure )*-. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness.* . he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people.

Securing the %ackpack. <efore movement. d. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. he ends of the ropes are tied together.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. or carried over the head and shoulder. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations.. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse.ucksack. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals.0(foot ropes. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. the chance of it failing is much greater. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. /o$ever. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. by itself. $ith double fishermanUs knots. forming endless loops or slings. &or safety reasons. may be e"tremely difficult. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. If necessary. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . attached to the rucksack. !hen . e. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. if $arm clothing is needed. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible.

they only supplement. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. heavily crevassed portions. g. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. and icefalls. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. large crevasses remain open. $hich covers glacier ice. Crossing Cre2asses. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. f. =arro$ cracks may be covered. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. . Dpen crevasses are obvious. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. %. In this Aone. steep terminal or lateral moraines. the sno$.* In the area of the firn line. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections.outes. %. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. . though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. /o$ever.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams.hanging from the drop cord. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. connecting both sides of it. and do not take the place of.

such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. . he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. a crevasse is probably present.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. If he is. and may form firmer bridges. h. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. the team may proceed. but difficult to detect in flat light. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. %. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. In such a situation. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. Sno+ %ri&ges. and gradually turn into glacier ice. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. its detection is difficult. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect.

$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. %1* In crossing crevasses. he assumes the belay position. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary.: feet back from the edge. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. =umber t$o belays number three across. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. 2o not stamp the sno$. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. . Dnce the second is across. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. i. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. %c* he leader should move for$ard. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues.

=umber 1 must al$ays be . !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. if the person $as almost across. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. % his scenario is for a team of three. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. to anchor the rope. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. the rope is al$ays kept taut. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. /o$ever. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0.. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall.%. using the -rusik as a self belay. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest.

and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. j. onto the anchor. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. if the middle person should fall through. assumes the role of number 1. =ormally.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. as a minimum. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him.. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. $ould anchor the rope by himself. Cre2asse .Us anchor. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number .escue Techniques. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. number . %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. close to number 0. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber.

%1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. %.edge. As the assisting team pulls. ski. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. place padding.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . If necessary. on the edge of the ice. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . =umber . he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. clips number 1Us rope to himself. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. %0* FiBe& . or backpackKrucksack. If the fallen climber is not injured. ski pole. In some situations.ope. such as an ice a". /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. .ope Teams. In order to reduce friction. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge.

it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. Dther times. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . %d* he individual stands in the foot loop.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. or 6stirrup. /o$ever. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. to ascend the rope.person in the crevasse. %f* he procedure is repeated. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. %&igure .6 of the long sling. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue.

6 system. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. to the anchor. 9rusik ascen&ing technique. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line.support. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. In actual field use. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system.6.::(pound load $ith this system. Figure )*-. A pulley can be used here if available. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number .. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.:(04*. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. and they have decided to install the V rig. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. In theory. % his scenario is for a team of three.

C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. H !ith the 61(to(. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. he system is no$ ready for another haul. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. .6 system. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue.

Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. a crevasse is present. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. and so on.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system.7. poles. =ormally. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. a.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. . <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. at least eight feet in length.Figure )*-. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface.

%0* Cut blocks appro"imately . build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. tactical situation. the weather.b. Air evacuation is preferred: however. At a minimum. In deep soft sno$. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation.* &or block construction. d. therefore. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self .escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. Dccasionally $hile probing. by . If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. %. by 0 feet. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. :ountain . If a dugout latrine is necessary. distance to be moved. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. and e)isting installations. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. c. If a latrine area is needed. 7t is. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. ry to find a solid platform. e. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. Under these conditions. terrain. $hich keeps tents closer together. probe again after digging.

ho$ever. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life.evel 777 supervising.sufficient.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue.* Assume command. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. b. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. a. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed.evel 7 and . .2. and maintain moderate body $armth. %. &or a planned rescue. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. is overall in charge at all times. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. c.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. control serious bleeding. Dne person. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. hey are. resume victimUs breathing. . 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. . . 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. and one person only. /o$ever. physician/s assistant. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation.nsure that the C. medic%. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. . 'o perform most of the high angle rescues.

evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. and terrain at hand. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. T-$ . he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. should be used for evacuation. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. or a change in $eather. hanging glacier. environmental haAard. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. continually monitor pulse. 9!anning . . !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. .esist the urge for action. if available. possibility of falling rocks*. avalanche run(out Aone. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established.escue 6perations . !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people.If the victim is unconscious.$SCE$. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. or any other immediate haAard. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. vehicle. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. a. +peed is less important than correct action. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help.

and evacuation. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. $hen. H . priority. medical.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task.* After identifying the task. H -lan the action. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. H actical situation. d. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . and the nature of their injuries. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. tactical immediate*. security. $here. H Are additional personnel. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. routine. H . H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. $hat. and ho$ the situation happened. rescue. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. H errain features and location of the casualties. treatment. he task must be identified.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation.b. In planning a rescue. c. $hy.

the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety.* In estimating time available. %c* !hen performing all rescues. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. $arm clothes. Ca"imum use of secure. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. fi"ed lines. pulse rate. $alking trails. ropes. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. blood pressure. drugs started. stove. . the situation. hot food and drinks. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. sleeping bags. lo$ering lines. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. !ith all rescue techni#ues. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. anchor points. e. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. Age and physical condition may vary. bivouac sacks. and stretchers. ime becomes the critical element. If the victim is airlifted out. and the personnel and e#uipment available.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. tents. and so on*. reliable trails or roads is essential. and rescue belay points*. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber.

In high altitudes.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. . H 9.ST ST7<$4 .emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. or gusting $inds. b. H 9. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. separate stages are taken. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.=6.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all.=6.=6.D ST7<$4 .ST7<$4 .elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. . available time is drastically reduced.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.=TD T-. H S$C63D ST7<$4 .emove dead personnel. H F6E. a. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. . H 9. e"treme cold.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.%1* .=TD F6E. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. H T-=.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. Specia! Training .=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation.=6. . an orderly rescue may involve further planning. H F=.T.

2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. a. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. difficult terrain. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. he sling(rope carry %&igure . and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported.ope Carry. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. .* S!ing-. the best method of manual transportation is selected.* re#uires a '. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. %. 6ne-:an Carries. pistol belt. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. it can be lost through carelessness. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points.(. rough handling. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. or inade#uate protection from the elements. herefore. t$o(hand.. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. piggyback. saddleback. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. four(hand. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment.

forming t$o almost e#ual groups.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. S!ing-rope carry. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. %0* . around the casualtyUs thighs. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. and back around to the front of the bearer. %f* he rope must be tight. $hen available. Figure ))-).K0( meter coiled rope. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. -adding. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. . It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . crosses the ends.ope Coi! Carry.

3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. pulling the casualty onto his back. b. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. In this case. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. .%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. If this is not done. %u&&y . the bearer carefully stands. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops.appe!. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope.

% his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. across the carrierUs chest. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. over his left shoulder. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. and back under the victimUs left armpit. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. he victim straddles the carrier.0(meter sling rope is used. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. he rope is run diagonally.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. %0* A '. from left to right. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. from right to left. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. across the victimUs back. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. . and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip.%. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. from right to left. %7* he rope is run diagonally.

depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. . :anu#acture& 8itters. and then routed up along the handling arm. and e#uipment available.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. $hich are se$n on one side. nature of injuries. and then carried again. and then do$n along the other arm. If the litter must be carried. he rope is folded in half. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. depending on the terrain. %. It can be improvised $ith poles. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. easy to carry. on traverse lines. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. belayed. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. and readily available. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. a.%. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. over the shoulder. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used.* he poleless. behind the neck.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. as described above. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps.

5.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. . %+ee &C 5(. $hich is a potential breaking point. . %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.1. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported.

ponchos. . bags. %0* If poles cannot be found.(0*. not dragging on the ground. scoop stretchers. +uch objects include boards..000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . %. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. b. A litter can be improvised from many different things. $indo$ shutters. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. a large item..(0):(. tarpaulin. doors. and other similar items. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. Figure ))-. tent supports. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim.. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. the hood must be up and under the victim.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. benches.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. and poles. or mattress covers. If a poncho is used. If possible.0. these objects should be padded. shirts. such as a blanket. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. shelter halves. skis. sacks.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. ladders. /o$ever. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe.. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center. jackets. -oles can be improvised from strong branches.6*-). . cots.

. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. 3ote4 Above the tree line. little material e"ists to construct litters. . .%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. empty bo"es. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches.ach clove hitch should be about . sleeping bags. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches.(1*.ope !itter. Figure ))-1. . centimeters long. make a clove hitch over each bight.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time.

escue Systems . ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. %7* -ull up on the rope.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. %. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. and place a carabiner into the loop.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. After placing the clove hitches over the bights. . %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . %e!ay 7ssist.7 centimeters. ake t$o . A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side.(meter poles.* &irst. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. a. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. 2o not remove the belay. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. .%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider.

he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. %. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. %7* .* After a climber has been injured. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. %4* After the climber can continue climbing.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. o improve this system. %e!ay $scape. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. b. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. . %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. %5* . he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber.

it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. %0* %e!ays. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. %. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. backup safety -rusiks are used to . are often encountered along the evacuation path.aising systems. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*.aising System. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. In practice. . rope(edge friction. a. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. . $hich must be surmounted. belays.* .elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. transferring the $eight to the anchor. .%)* . !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. hand $inches. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. and other variables. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. %1* %ackup Sa#eties.

the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . taking care not to jar the casualty.safeguard the system. . %. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. b. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. assisting him in lo$ering the litter.( '*.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. % his is the signalman or relay man. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. c. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system.. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. %. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.aising the 8itter. . another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. Descen&ing S!opes. if possible. he litter is prepared as already described.

practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure .vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope.&escen&ing.(7*: a. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. b. and anchor points for the A(frame. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. many different techni#ues can be used. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . clearance for the casualty along the route. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. good loading and unloading platforms. %1* he most direct.Figure ))-4. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*.. if used. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points.

:1814 Inches . d. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. Figure ))-5. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. c. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. C!i## e2acuation &escent.

7.05. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent.. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. random probing starts in that vicinity.14 .Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search.:81) . Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .robability of survival drops rapidly and. if a member of your group is in an avalanche. <enera! 9roce&ures ..)0.. chances of survival are remote. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately . 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. 18.:105. If any indication of the location of the victim is found. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. .1814 . .14 1. after two hours.

Book for skis. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. hats. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. if enough personnel are available. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. and mark all clues.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. packs. ice a"es. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. If using avalanche beacons. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. urbulence. A human body. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. usually the toe of the slide. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. terrain. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. boots. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. gloves. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. a. . >sing this and any other information. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. goggles.. make an initial probe search in that area.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. poles. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. . +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. b. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. . >nless other$ise indicated. several factors influence the bodyUs location.

fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. . the greater $ill be his burial depth. • Vegetation.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. a. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. 9ro e 9o!es. Although this type of pole . he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. and other obstacles act as snares.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. • . &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. especially in a high $ind. Cany models of transceivers are available. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. rocks. although they may operate differently in the search mode. All currently available transceivers are compatible. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. In the case of large and violent avalanches. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. Conversely.

A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. &or the probing operation to be effective. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. $enty per line is satisfactory. 9ro ing 8ines. the number of personnel per line should be limited. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. b. %0* If no probing poles are available. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. coarse probing implies a . 9ro ing Techniques. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. As evidenced by their names. .* .ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. %. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily.performs best. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %. c. he only sure check is by digging. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. o ensure systematic and orderly probing.

-.&D.. $ith feet about . he probers themselves $ork silently.7 inches apart. a . he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass. $hile the fine probe has. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander..D<. essentially. $hich almost guarantees finding the body. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. &ine probing is the concluding measure.6 6+ .D<. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. +trict discipline and firm. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed.2. %.6 <y using these commands.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.6 6>. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.::(percent chance of locating the body.!A. clear commands are essential for efficient probing.

6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.6 6>... and finally in front of his right foot.I9/ -. %b* Dn command.D<.& -. foot.!A.= .. foot and repeats the probing se#uence. the line advances .D<.D<.D<..D<. then in the center of his straddled position..%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe..6 6.: inches from the adjacent one.ach probe is made .-. -. .-.&D.-. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.D<. . $hich is then moved ahead .6 6>.. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.6 6+ .2.6 6>.ach man probes in front of his left foot. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.6 6C. .

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