Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

. %.1. a. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.1*. /o$ever. 2ress the knot do$n. .. + . leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. + . >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.'.epeat + . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.. + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.+ . by tying the knot in a retrace. Figure-$ight .0. . Checkpoints. . Figure 4-)..etrace /..* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses... b..oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. Tying the Knot.

forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. he finished knot is dressed loosely. + . Checkpoints %. !ith the $orking end. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.7. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.. Figure-eight retrace.).0.'.1.+ . Figure 4-)1. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. ake the $orking end around the anchor point.. + .emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. b. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope... .. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. + . and route the $orking end through the loop. + . . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse.

. + . -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. grasp the $orking end. he knot is tied. palms do$n $ith hands together. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. + .. /old the standing end in the left hand.1. + .* Middle of the Rope. !ith the right hand. /old rope in both hands. %0* End of the Rope. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*.0. /old the loop in the left hand.. + . + . and bring it in$ard.'*. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. + .. a. Tying the Knot.. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.. depending on ho$ it is tied. %. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. .%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.. reach under the horiAontal anchor.0. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.'...

(ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor..1. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. %.. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. . + . <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. b. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.+ ..7*.'.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. a. Tying the Knot. ake up the slack from the anchor. C!o2e hitch. !hen tying this knot.. It is a middle rope knot. 2ress do$n the knot. + . Figure 4-)4. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. !ith the right hand. Checkpoints.

Figure 4-)5. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. + .5.. b..+ .0. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.7.. and place it over the heel $rap.1. + . +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends..4.. . + . and fingertip.'. + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + .. palm.). + .. (ireman’s knot. + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. Checkpoints.8..

Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. !ith the $rap thus formed.0.)*.. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. + .%. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. . it lays in$ard. + ..1. !hen dressing the knot do$n. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.. Tying the Knot.'. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.. the tail and the bight must be together. a. Cake one $rap around the palm. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. + ..* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. It is a middle rope knot. + .

* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. b.Figure 4-)6. %0* he tail and bight must be together. . Checkpoints. %. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.4*. It is a middle rope knot. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . Directiona! #igure-eight.

. + ...4. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.. + ..a.1. + .. + .'. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. Tying the Knot. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.). + ... forming t$o loops.7. + . &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. ie an overhand knot on a bight. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. + . 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.0. . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.

%o+!ine-on-a. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.ight.* It is a middle rope knot. + .5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. Tying the Knot. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. a.. >sing a doubled rope.. Checkpoints. . %.Figure 4-)7.. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.5. b.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. form an .

Checkpoints. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.1. !ith the $orking end.'. %. 2ress the knot do$n.. /old the bight $ith the left hand.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot..0. It is a middle of the rope knot.+ . + .7.. + . + . . form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. Figure 4-)". %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. Tying the Knot.. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.8*. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. b. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. a.

form a loop in rope %standing part*.+ . !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. + .* he loop is the desired siAe.. .0. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. It is a specialty knot. a. + . Tying the Knot.1. Checkpoints. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. b. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. Figure-eight !oop. 2ress the knot tightly... !ith the bight as the $orking end. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. %.. Figure 4-)'. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.

1.. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. ..%. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope...*.. Figure 4-..epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.*. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. + . forming a bight. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. >sing an arm3s length of rope.0. + ...each do$n through the .1. . Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.*: + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. . and place it over the long rope. 2ouble the short rope. + . + ..0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.0.0(inch bight. + .. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. $ith the $orking ends even.

7. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. and not t$isted. parallel. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. . + .nsure they are tight..). 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.). Bay the $orking end under the long rope. %. b. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. + . &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. + . Checkpoints.'.+ . .4. Figure 4-. It is a specialty knot. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik..

%0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. Tying the Knot. + . &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.0. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.. + .. + . b. Figure 4-.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. %achman knot.a. Checkpoints. %. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! ..1..

%.. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. $ith a bight held in place by a loop.). place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. he standing portion is on the bottom. + . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. hen.4.. single coil. . Checkpoints.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. .7.. b.. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. Tying the Knot. + . dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. !ith the running end. not crossed.0. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. + .* A minimum of four $raps. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. /olding the bight loosely. + .1.. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. he running end is to the back of the body. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.'. + . tie an overhand around all coils. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. It is a specialty knot. a. + .. + . >sing the standing part.. bring a bight up through the loop.

1... + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. It is a specialty knot.Figure 4-.. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. + .. . a.. Tying the Knot. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. + . !ith the right hand. Bay the loops to the right. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. + . Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.0. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself..1.'.

a. It is a specialty knot. + . .* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.+ .0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot...4. b.7. Figure 4-.. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. %. Tying the Knot.. Three-!oop o+!ine. &orm a . Checkpoints.

standing end of the rope. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. b. + . /old the center of the bight in the right hand. + . + .). Figure-eight s!ip knot. + . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.5.. %.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.7.0. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . Checkpoints. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.+ . Figure 4-.:u!e Knot0 .. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.0 inches up the rope. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot..each through the bight and grasp the long. ..1.'. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight..

Check 9oints.0. b.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. It is simply an overhand slip knot. %. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. + . K!eimhiest Knot .. Transport knot.1.. %1* he bight is a minimum of . Tying the Knot. Figure 4-.6. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. a.. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.* here is a single overhand slip knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. + . -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.. + .0 inches long..

'. find the center of the rope and form a bight. a...0. . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. + . >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by ... It is a special( purpose knot. Tying the Knot.1. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.....7. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. easily adjustable. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. + . !rap at least four complete turns. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. pass them through the bight %see + .he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.0 inches. + . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .*. + . 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. !ith the ends offset. + .

Checkpoints. .* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. It is a special(purpose knot. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. + . It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.. K!eimhiest knot. a.. b. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.7... Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .0. %. Tying the Knot.Figure 4-. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.0 inches.: to . Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. + .

:unter -itch . <irth hitch. b. It is a special(purpose knot.Figure 4-. a. Checkpoints. b. + .1: Cinch the knot tightly. + . + . Figure 4-.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.. Checkpoint.: &orm a bight.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions..0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Tying the Knot..'. %. %. Frost knot.". %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot..

. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. /old the rope in both hands.. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. + . a. %0* he carabiner is locked. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. palms do$n about . !ith the right hand.. + . $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. + ..he munter hitch. Tying the Knot. Check 9oints. b.'..0 inches apart. %. + .* A bight passes through the carabiner.. /old the loop $ith the left hand.1. !ith the right hand.. Bock the locking mechanism.0. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.

1.. + .. It usually re#uires a sling rope . a. . :unter hitch. + . thus creating a loop around the $aist.'. .' feet or longer. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. .. + . ensuring they do not cross.. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. Tying the Knot. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.Figure 4-1*.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. + . <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.*.0...

-ull up on the ropes.7. + ..appe! seat.+ .. Check 9oints. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. Figure 4-1). tightening the seat.. . %. . &rom rear to front.4.). + . -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. b.

%1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. a.. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. + ... -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. . preferably ovals*.0. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. Tying the Knot. + .

rope can only be pulled in one direction. b.* !hen properly dressed. Although mountain operations have not changed. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. <uar&e knot.. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. Check 9oints. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts.Figure 4-1. %.

he proponent of this publication is /F . Weather and terrain combine to challenge .8:7(7781. and actions. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. -ersonnel using &C 1(84.+. anchors.). both men and $omen are included. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. ice climbing. Army Infantry +chool. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. e#uipment. sno$(covered mountains. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training.).< glaciers.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. tactics. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. A =: A +/(. $henever the masculine gender is used.A2DC. for training %see Appendi" A*. 9A 1. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. &ort < or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. illness and injury. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. Inclement $eather. and training. evacuation. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. movement on glaciers. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. >. >nless other$ise stated. rock climbing. Countain Dperations. and urban vertical environments. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II.). his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. ho$ever.

rehearsals. and $ell(led troops. Spring storms. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement.::: kno$n minerals. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. sno$fields. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. conditioning. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. Df the appro"imately 0. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. AcclimatiAation. glaciers. surprise. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. compartments. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. single ridges.

After long.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. . ho$ever. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. a. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. . found in limestone. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. f. <rassy S!opes.ockfall danger is high.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. . they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. and it is usually difficult to protect. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. . c. After a rain. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. ."cept for calcite. &ace climbing can be found. &ace climbing is possible. Bimestone has pockets. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. San&stone. and cracks. +topping a slide on small. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. ne$ sno$. d. Cha!k an& 8imestone. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. conglomerate type stones may be loose. face climbing. it cannot be protected. e. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. b. S!ate an& <neiss. <ranite. and de$. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. granite dries #uickly. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0.

$hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. . !hen the cooling occurs at depth. or. he magma may move up$ard. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". g.ock C!assi#ications . /o$ever.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . If possible. and over time.ocks. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. . Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. Ta!us. but smaller than boulders. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". making coarse(grained plutonic rock. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. Scree.ocks. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". h. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. internal heat. Ascending scree is a tedious task.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. a. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. %. under pressure. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. avoid scree $hen ascending. his results in an intrusive rock. =gneous .

<asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. $hen a ledge suddenly ends."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. Fuieter eruptions. forced bet$een sedimentary strata.ocks. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. Barge %. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. herefore. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. $hich cut across the strata. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. =orth Cascades.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. . A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. In the Alps. . may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads.and crystalliAing. %1* Cointing . this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. produce basalt. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. or clusters of segregated minerals. . +ierras.ockies.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. Adirondacks.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily.ocks. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. and dikes. Dccasionally. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. In plutonic rocks. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. it is called 6tuff.

* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. %. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. or oceans. $hich offers . in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. After sediments are solidified.ocks. and limestone to marble. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. Se&imentary . he Canadian . high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. especially in limestone. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. hese changes may be minimal. lakes.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite.ocks. %. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. <ecause of this cleavage.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. only slightly altering the sediments. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. In fact. +hale changes to slate or schist. but cleavage or foliation. :etamorphic . As sediments accumulate. c. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface.b. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing.

:ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. forming fault(block mountain ranges. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. and the /igh >intahs of >tah.$orld class climbing. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. . =evada. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. and to pull apart and crack. the Dlympics of !ashington.* Dome :ountains. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. . granitic continental crust. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. b. $hich results in fault(block mountains. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. &aulting. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. and mountain ridge systems. $hich also provides solid climbing. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. and heavier. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. e"posing the central igneous core. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. heaving up fold mountains. volcanoes. a. ocean trenches.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. 9!ate Tectonics. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. %. often accompanies up$arp. :ountain Structure. he breakage e"tends .rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers.

9eologists call folds geosynclines. the oldest. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. he best kno$n is the 6. Core often. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. central core is all that remains. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. it is faulted on one side only. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. ectonic of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. %1* Fo!& :ountains. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. ho$ever. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains.ainier and Count +aint /elens* .

and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. A mountain front may be formed from a single$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. there are folds measured by a rope length. In addition. Asian arc. a. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. he I2+ classes are: .ift Valley of . !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. . and the Cediterranean. and the . the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . and faulted. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. domed. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle.idge. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. the Caucasus region. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. .

* Class 7. his is the simplest form of free climbing.H Class . . Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*."posed positions. %1* Class 7. $hich may have some e"posure.—/iking trail. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary.. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling.'—Bittle difficulty.)—Cedium difficulty. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced."traordinary difficulty. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. hree points of contact are necessary.* H Class 7—&ree climbing.7—Coderate difficulty. often combined $ith small belay points. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. /ands are necessary to support balance. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. %)* Class 7. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up.:—.5—Very great difficulty. %4* Class 7. belay and emplace intermediate protection.8—.4—9reat difficulty. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. . and e"perience re#uired. climbing techni#ue. %0* Class 7. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*."tremely great difficulty. H Class '—<elayed climbing. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue.:(7. /igh physical conditioning. %'* Class 7. H Class 1—Climbing. %7* Class 7. .* b.

e"perience. if a fall $as e"perienced. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. re#uiring more climbing ability.* A:—M&rench(free. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7..:d*. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. 7. and d categories starting from 7. the 6. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.—. %0* A.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. ground fall $ould occur.. %&or e"ample. b.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. c.6 indicates periods of run(out $here.6 or 6L. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out.(7.. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. c.5J*..' %for e"ample. Additional classifications include the follo$ing..5.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. in a classification of 7. %5* Class 7.. d. 7.: to 7.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. . clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling.'—9reater increases of difficulty..asy aid.* Classes are further divided into a. %. and energy e"penditure. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6.

IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. such as A1J or A1(. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. III — About three(fourths of a day. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. %4* A)—. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. H H H H H H I — +everal hours.%1* A0—Coderate aid. V — . he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard."treme aid.5*. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. long fall potential does e"ist. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm.4*. %)* A7—. /o$ever. VI — 9reater than 0 days. hese falls. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. . e. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. =o serious fall danger.K0 days %usually not less than 7. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. ho$ever."tremely severe aid. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. . 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. %'* A1—/ard aid. All protection is sketchy at best. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. II — /alf of a day. %7* A'—+erious aid. If the leader falls.K0 to 0 .

.K.urope.:.1 IIIsup .8 IIsup . 'a severe.* easy %. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in ..)a 7. III .a.b.:a VII( . hard severe.b 7b.c )a..* easy %.c..:b VII . sho$s a comparison of these systems.b.b.7b 7.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup ...: 7.'... H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.b. H <raAilian—<raAil uses .1 7.a VIII( .oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.b.:c VII .1.'a 1b.b 0c. hard severe.a. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs. able .b VIII .:d VIIJ .c )a.b.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.5 VI( severe.5 .b.c VIII .7 ...) 7.0 7..c 7b. hard very 7. 'c 7. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.c )a.)a 7.c 'a.. DDS Class .1a 1b..c 7b.b 0a..4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.'.c .. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.'a 1b..8 0: 0.8 VI 7a 7..7b(7c 7.c 7b.1K... Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems..f.4 .)b .'a 'a.).c 7a.7 7.7b 7.* moderate %CD2* .(. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.c.c 0a.' 7.0..c.. 7.7b 7. 'b hard severe. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.0.c 7b. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.

and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.. A difficult and involved approach and descent. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.oman numerals. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. -ossibly days to approach the climb.)c 4a 05 .4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). easy climb near the road.7.)c 4a VIII 0) .atings.)K4. . H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation.0b 7. AI %alpine ice*. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.)K4.0d IL( IL IL ILJ . he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. H V — A long climb in a remote setting. . $ith sustained technical climbing.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent.. $ith little objective haAard. %. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*.7.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 . or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. and more of it. his route is subject to objective haAards. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. $ith objective haAards ever(present. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day.. H I — A short.)K4.. g. all in a remote area. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.7. H VII — .. possibly $ith a haAardous descent.)K4. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.ating systems..0a 7.. 2ifficult physically and mentally.* Commitment . . and the route might be prone to avalanche.verything a grade VI has. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .0c 7.7.

possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances.%0* Technica! . he pitch may be shorter. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. additional information may be needed about siAe. re#uiring agility and creativity. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. location. !hen planning mountain operations. . H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. a. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions.atings. strenuous pitch. An e"tremely tough pitch. but on featureless ice. erratic $eather. physically and mentally. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. H 7 — A long. — A froAen lake or stream bed. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. $ith places to rest. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. H .

%. H ?eep dry. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. and amounts of precipitation. stay $arm. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. c. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. if possible. H If lost. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. Co2er an& Concea!ment . dry. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. put on dry clothing.b. but do not overdress. during severe mountain storms. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. H 2o not rush. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. and calm. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. H ?eep $arm. types.

he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement.!hen moving in the mountains. b. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. rain. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. Conversely. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. dead space is a problem at short ranges. are e"cellent at long ranges. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. In alpine environments. boulders. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. . !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. in depth. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. /o$ever. +ome rock types. /o$ever. like observation. sno$. hail. In other areas. As in all operations. are easily e"cavated. and fog can limit visibility. outcroppings. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. sleet. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. heavy vegetation. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. a. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. such as volcanic tuff. .

. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. . It varies from stormy $inds to calm. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. If an une"pected $ind strikes. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. sno$ conditions. especially in $inter. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. b. rainfall. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. or a rise in temperature. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. and $eather factors. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. latitude. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. a.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point.

e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. such as those found in desert regions. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. the thinner. <ecause of this increased dryness. conse#uently. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. a.c. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. . (eather Characteristics .7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. he barometer usually drops 0. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. 2ue to the cold.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. d. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. b. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. +ome mountains. At higher altitudes. In tropical regions. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter.

::: feet. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. and the earth3s rotation. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. ho$ it is being moved. air pressure %barometric pressure*. the lo$er the pressure. !eather is a result of an atmosphere.. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . %.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. Bo$ pressure. a. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. and if it is being lifted or not. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. he higher the pressure. land masses. Associated $ith clear skies. b.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. the better the $eather $ill be. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas.1 millibars %mb*. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. In order to understand this. oceans.* -igh 9ressure. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. he higher in altitude. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. Associated $ith bad $eather. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. on the other . !ith lo$er air pressure.:. humidity %moisture content*. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6.

!inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. >sually. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. Above hot surfaces. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. =ormally. <ecause of these funneling effects. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. c.hand. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. !ith increasing $ind strength. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. 2uring the $inter season. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. dense clouds fill the air. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. . and sinks to the earth3s surface. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. or at high altitudes. a. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. b. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. c. Dn a $eather map.6 (in& In high mountains.

there are three prevailing $inds: %. has settled to the surface. Caritime ropical — $arm. In the =orthern /emisphere. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles.d. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. . f. $et air mass. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. e. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. Continental ropical — $arm. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. Caritime -olar — cold. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. dry air mass. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. dry air mass.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. due to the earth3s rotation. $et air mass. g. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold.

the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. sno$. b. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. de$. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. fog.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. the $armer the air.:: percent relative humidity. clouds are formed.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. and so on*.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer.%.. rain. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. $ind meter.:: percent relative humidity*. and thermometer. a. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has .. the more moisture it can hold. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. .

Fronta! 8i#ting. mid(.(0*. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. !hen temperatures are cold enough. it has no$here to go but up. 6rographic 8i#ting. and . 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. b. a. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. d.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures .a. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. c. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. Clouds can be described in many $ays. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. +ince air masses $ill not mi".(.7:: feet. . hey can be classified by height or appearance. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point.

Cumu!us C!ou&s. 3im ostratus C!ou&s.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures .(1 and .('*. Stratus C!ou&s.. %. . Figure )-1.Figure )-). Figure )-.

he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine.Figure )-4. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. especially if the cloud is more than 1. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds.::: feet . Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation.

(7 and . Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. .7:: to 0:. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. especially if they are rising over time.()*. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather.* b. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Figure )-6. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . 7!tocumu!us. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. 7!tostratus. Cold clouds. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. Figure )-5.thick.::: feet thick. though usually hours a$ay.

humidity rises. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus.(5*. !ith altostratus.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . Cirrus.(4 and &igure . at night. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. in a blue sky. . Figure )-7.%. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. emperatures are $arm. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. c. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. produces a ring of light around the moon. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. As the storm approaches.

::: feet.::: feet. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. As a result. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. or seemingly all tangled together. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. Cirrostratus. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. ?no$n for their flat bases and . high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. shaped like a comma. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. %. d. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. %. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. . releasing incredible amounts of energy.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds.Figure )-"."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. hey can be nearly straight.

>nder favorable conditions. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. . ho$ever. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure .vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. . !ithout a continued supply of rising air. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.(8*. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. damaging $inds. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. 9iven suitable conditions. large hail. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. As the air rises. an artifact of erosion. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. and tornadoes.distinct outlines.::: feet or higher. ice crystals dominate the composition.

. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. /o$ever.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. 6ther C!ou& Types. e. bad $eather can be e"pected. Cumu!onim us. hey are orographic clouds. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. %. If they gro$ and descend. !ith continued descent. Dnce the air returns to its original height. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . and cools. stable air encounters a mountain. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. similar to a 6flying saucer. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. >pon reaching the mountain top. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. lenticulars. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. is lifted up$ard. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. and contrails.(.Figure )-'.:*. Initially. $arming as it descends. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape.

especially if the sky is . Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Figure )-)). +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure .*. 8inticu!ar. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location.Figure )-)*.. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon.(. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. Contrai!s. f. C!ou& =nterpretation.

being more dense than $arm air. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. Stationary Front. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. (arm Front. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. d. Co!& Front. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. cumulus. Dccasionally. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. altostratus. there . he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. it becomes a stationary front. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. b. a. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. <ecause $arm air is less dense.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. cold. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. and nimbostratus. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. he four types of fronts are $arm. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. $ill force the $arm air up. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. cirrostratus.covered $ith cumulus clouds. 6cc!u&e& Front. and stationary. nimbostratus %producing rain*. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. to the local sky. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. c. and fog. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. Cold air. cirrostratus. occluded. . Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. it is a $arm occlusion.

+pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. the temperature of the air drops 1. subarctic. fog. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. clear. a.. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. . solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers.::: feet of elevation gain. and mid(latitudes. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming.. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. <esides permitting rapid heating. calm mornings. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. Temperature =ormally. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. the temperature of the air drops 7. due to convection currents..::: feet of elevation gain. sno$. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. Conse#uently. and precipitation*.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. b. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. At high typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . and heat loss through thermal radiation. his cooler.

(eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast.. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. a. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. temperature. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . including >+A&. >+=. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %.c. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. the amount of data available. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. thermometer. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. or the =ational !eather <ureau. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. and barometric pressure $ill all be different.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. o be effective. $ind meter. . . Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. if today $as hot and dry. b. are also helpful. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. but more slo$ly %1. herefore. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample.* 9ersistence :etho&. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope.

a. (in& Direction. . estimate the speed in knots. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map.* If an anemometer is available. high( and lo$(pressure centers. Aisi i!ity in :eters. %0* If no anemometer is available. bushes. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. this may not al$ays be the case. b. and so forth. &or e"ample. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. assess speed to the nearest knot. %'* 7na!og :etho&. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours.%0* Tren&s :etho&. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. c. tents. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. (in& Spee&. Assess $ind speed in knots. such as trees. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. %.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. under changing conditions. Ideally. are blo$ing. /o$ever. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. and clouds and precipitation. .

if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. . total cloud cover is 'K5. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • .d.* f. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. e. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. . 7 degrees C " .. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. &og. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times .ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. degrees &. heavy do$npours. degrees & Q 10 " . o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . . +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. Assess total cloud cover in eighths. Cei!ing -eight.5 times C plus 10.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain.* !ith a thermometer. $Bamp!e4 '. If clouds are not touching terrain. colder temperatures.77. then estimate to the best of your ability. %.5 J 10 P '. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. 9resent (eather. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. g. %&or e"ample. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. Temperature.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour.77 P 7 degrees C. =ote if bases are above all terrain. hail.. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths.

estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. 6 ser2e& (eather. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. %.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. 9ressure Tren&. Carked $ind speed increases. i. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. Carked cooler temperature changes.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. he closer the isometric lines are.%0* !ithout a thermometer. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. !ith a barometer or altimeter. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Increasing cloud coverage. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. Changes in obstructions to visibility. %. h. Carked increase in humidity. . Clearing of obstructions to visibility. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. assess the pressure trend. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. Increase in precipitation. as $ell as an estimated temperature. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise.

improper diet. rope in. If the possibility of falling e"ists. lightning. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. carelessness. or other reasons. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. companions. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. or as a combination %human trigger*. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. overe"ertion. bad $eather. man(made %caused by an individual. such as lack of preparation. or e"cessive use. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. heavy e#uipment. b. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. age. e#uipment misuse*. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. dehydration. . Increasing barometric pressure. avalanche run(out Aones. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. overestimating ability. and flooding %especially in gullies*. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. a hold breaking a$ay. $ind. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. and poor judgment. %i2ouac Site. over(fatigue.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. $quipment. tour. /umidity decreases. c. j. Ep&ate. choice of route. Fa!!ing. climbing above one3s ability. &alling can be caused by carelessness.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. a.

Cre2asses. it is best to rope up. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. <u!!ies. If you must move under these conditions. &og. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. At high altitudes %especially over ). -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. sno$. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. Avoid. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. 72a!anches. acclimatiAe slo$ly."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. %. c. +leep $ell. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses.ock. g. icefalls. stay hydrated. . >se a route sketch and march table.: kilograms %about 0. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. b.efer to paragraph . rain.ock#a!!. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Aisi i!ity. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. darkness. If you must cross these danger areas.* f. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. e. hanging glaciers and seracs.::: pounds*. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. storms. and so on. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. If ice is in the gully. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. endurance and concentration is reduced. rockfalls. a. 7!titu&e. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*.7:: feet*. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. d. As this slope increases .(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. . if at all possible. lightning. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock.

+eek shelter around dry. e. Bightning is fre#uent. herefore. fi"ed $ire installations. caves*. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. d.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. as a glacier makes a bend. haAardous icefalls can be formed. . and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. Bike$ise. and rock needles. violent. shallo$ overhangs. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly.::: feet. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. b. c. rock $alls. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. humming of metal objects.: kilometers apart. a. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. cracks filled $ith earth. %. A clear. the force #uadruples.from 07 to 1: degrees. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . hair standing on end. and a bluish light %+t. Above appro"imately 5. ridges. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. crackling. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. shallo$ depressions."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. .* Avoid peaks. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. cracks that guide $ater. but dehydration is of greater concern. isolated trees. . sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour.

!ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives.* . especially $hen combined $ith $ind. j. &or each . and debris being blo$n about. If half $ay up the rock face. If it is sno$ing. 2uring and after rain. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. $hich may bury the trail. h. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. and sno$. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. f. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope.5 inches@ ho$ever. the sno$ #uickly melts. i. g. 2rink plenty of fluids. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of ."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. even if overcast. rain.0 to . <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. % able . e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. $indburn.::(meter rise in altitude. . If already rappelling. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses.

* S!ope 7ng!e. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. S!ope Sta i!ity. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. %1* S!ope 7spect. %..7 degrees have avalanched. +lopes as gentle as . a. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on .Ta !e )-. but may occur on concave slopes. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter.

Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. . %'* (eight. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter .ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. %. Various factors trigger avalanches. At temperatures above freeAing. Sno+ 9its. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. . c. -assing helicopters. b. $arm days. %. %0* 9recipitation. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing.sunny. especially if temperatures rise #uickly.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. %1* (in&. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly.7 centimeters per hour or greater*.* Temperature. Triggers. %7* Ai ration. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. %'* <roun& Co2er. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. +ustained $inds of . /igh rates of sno$fall %0. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. the potential for avalanche is high. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. Dn grassy slopes or scree. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. e"plosions.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. %Dn at least one occasion. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. heavy e#uipment. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to.

6 Although they happen most fre#uently . here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. d. then t$ice. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. to the ground.pit across the fall line.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. s#uat once. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. Dnce the pit is complete. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. and so on. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. place the other foot on the block. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. =e"t. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column.utschblock test. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. through all the sno$. o isolate the rear of the column. Dnce above. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. If the block is still holding up. %. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. smooth the face $ith a shovel. o conduct the test. %1* Conduct a . his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength.

slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. a drop in temperature of .arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. settled sno$. %b* As slabs become harder. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. Dther measures include: . d. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. 9rotecti2e :easures. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. Barge avalanches of this type. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. Although any avalanche can kill you.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. +lab release is rapid. &or normal density.: degrees Celsius %. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer.during the $inter sno$ season. .

If you must traverse. as $ell as protect your spine. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. e. climb to the side of the avalanche path. %. 2eploy avalanche cord. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. -ut your hood on. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes.%. far from the bottom of slopes. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. avoid moving during these periods. -repare to discard e#uipment. >se them for lunch and rest stops.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. and not directly up the center. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. . ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. $hich is al$ays the best choice. . %0* <roup Sa#ety. . Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope.oute Se!ection. %. ridges.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. f. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas.

ID>. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. . %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %)* ry to rela". Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. If you feel yourself about to pass out. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. &I9/ &D.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. %. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. hold your breath. Sur2i2a!. no one can hear you scream. and the body temperature is lo$ered..* 2iscard e#uipment. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. do not fight it. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. shut your mouth. they $ould avoid the avalanche. %1* Soun&s. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. their pulse rate declines. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$.%0* Fracture 8ines. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$.* :ountain 8i2ing . g. BI&. If you feel your feet touch the ground.

&luids lost through respiration. locating $ater. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. /yperventilation and the cool. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations.(4)*. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. fire building. shelter considerations. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. communications. health haAards. #ormal activities $navigation. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. perspiration. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. raining should include: psychological preparation. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. Dne #uart of $ater. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. a.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. or the . preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence.

A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. .7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. and a loss of . no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. rain. e. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed.0 #uarts %. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. ho$ever. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. b. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. mountain streams. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. juices. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. &ruits. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. d. Conserve $ater for drinking. physical activity must be reduced.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . thirst should be satisfied in increments. c. severe cramping may result. +no$. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. springs. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater.e#uivalent.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. . If the $ater supply is insufficient. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. -urification must be accomplished. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use.

!ater that is unfit to drink. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*.::: feet*. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. !ater is scarce above the timberline. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*.'. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. defense*. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. . 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. b. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. assembly area. a. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. If possible. precautions must be taken. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. a $atering party should be employed. high mountain areas freeAe.(4)*. f. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. but other$ise not dangerous. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness.drinking $ater. After sundo$n. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly.

+ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. and loss of appetite. milk. Df the total daily caloric intake. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. milk. vitamins. amino acids. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. is 5 ounces for a . hese food components provide energy. metabolic changes.* 9rotein. fats. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. or milk proteins. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. he amino acids. %0* Fats. fish. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. regardless of physical activity.of cold rations. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. poultry. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. and carbohydrates. butter. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. fiber. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. and minerals. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. vegetables. . Cain sources of fats are meats. c. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. eggs. and cheese. resulting from digestion of protein. eggs. cheese. nuts.7'(pound man. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. energy. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. and legumes also provide amino acids. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. %. Dther foods such as cereals. and meats.

%1* Car ohy&rates. and Ainc. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. vegetables. d. and fruit. and meats.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. and ?. 2.. depending on the soldier. fruits. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. fruits*. .e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. . . A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. =utritionally. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . especially if this period is to e"ceed . If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . %. %'* Aitamins. $hich are found in cereals. vitamin supplements should be considered. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains.: days. phosphorous. %7* Cinerals. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. a balanced diet is a necessity. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. vegetables. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. In the form of glucose. iron. vegetables.

Commanders may consider supplementing C. shortness of breath."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. the cooking time may be doubled. thus releasing heat. and be eaten hot or cold. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C.7:: calories for garrison activity.$orks. At higher elevations.. and illness. metal containers. juices. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. are important in maintaining energy levels. cramps. %1* .s $ith breakfast bars. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. !hen cooking. cereal bars. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. herefore. juices. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. fruits. and hot chocolate are diuretics. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. marked. . the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. /ot beverages of soup. o conserve fuel. and chocolate. %About '. tea. Carbohydrates. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a .* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. fires. . >se stoves and heat . and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. candies. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. +ince coffee.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. and cider should also be considered. stoves. po$dered milk.. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food.::(pound man*. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition.

alcohol. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. and judgment of soldiers. %. nose. mainly during periods of cold $eather. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. perspiration. his is especially important in the high mountains. If possible. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. no trace of a unit should be detected. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. garbage should be burned or deep buried. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. and burial sites. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. hydration. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. %7* Certain drugs. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. In freeAing $eather. a. ahkios.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. 9ersona! -ygiene. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. !hen operating in areas . If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. As all missions are tactical. medications.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. and eyelids. herefore. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use.

but must be #uickly dried. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. digging latrines is usually difficult. it can . dried. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. the soldier in a designated. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. If laundering of clothing is difficult. b. !henever changing socks. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. In rocky or froAen ground. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. and kept as dry and clean as possible. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. Sanitation.6 +ince $aste freeAes. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. In tactical situations. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. blisters. and discoloration. cracks. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. &eet should be $ashed daily. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. If latrines are constructed. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation.$here resupply is not possible. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. $hich may cause blisters. If regular foot $ashing is impossible.

employment of the local population may be advantageous. At these altitudes.'. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain .::: to 5.::: feet. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . $here altitude illness is the rule.*. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. $aste may be covered $ith stones. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. Above 5.::: feet. /o$ever. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic.5.::: to . In rocky areas above the timberline. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes.'. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation.'. .5. Altitude illness is common here. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. Very high altitude is the region from . Areas above . some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. conditioning.::: feet. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC.::: feet and ending at .be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.4. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. /ere.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations.*.::: to .::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. he e"pectation that freshly deployed.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation.::: feet %high elevation*. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.::: to 5. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-.::: feet. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. starting at about 5. Coderate altitude is from 7. and training of soldiers.::: feet.

2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes.'.::: to .apid ascent to . he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . +lurred speech. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. b. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated.::: feet. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. nutrition and physical activity it is about .0 to . a. Increased irritability in some individuals.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. +leep disturbances. Boss of appetite.4. .::: feet*. . Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. /eadache. the rate of ascent.:.0. Irregular breathing.'.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).apid ascent to . Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. .::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel.apid ascent to elevations of . he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration.7:: feet causes severe. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. 2eterioration of memory.5 percent may have severe symptoms. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . operational unit. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.

. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. a. environment. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. -riorities of training must be established. >. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. herefore. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations.+. and enemy situation.+.+. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment.unacclimatiAed personnel. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. As $ith all military operations. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions.

taking an e"tended rest period. >nits can leapfrog. and. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. $ater purification supplies. . Additionally.::: feet per day..::: to 0. !ater. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. $ith the unit. a unit should ascend at a rate of . fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. these drugs are diuretics. mission. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest.* Above 5. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %.::: feet. food. time to ac#uire $ater. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. and rest must be considered as priorities. if in a $inter environment. c. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*.

climbing. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. $hile carrying D. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. $hich must be developed and hardened. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. d. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. e. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. and calisthenics. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. the soldier3s . A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. he better the physical condition of the soldier. . hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. f. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. .ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. At the same time. and special e#uipment loads. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. the metabolism becomes more efficient. A different group of muscles are used. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. his conditions the back and legs.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. his increases the soldier3s endurance. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness.

abdomen. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. g. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition.capacity for e"ertion is increased. to the point of instinctive reaction. . hypothermia. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. breathing management. As $ith any other injuries. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. and circulatory support. personnel can still become injured %sprains. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. abrasions. strains. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. . hese include sprains. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. contusions and fractures. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. lungs. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. frostbite. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. and trench foot*.epetitive practice. arms. legs. . fractures. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. >pon deploying to high elevations. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. he heart rate. conditioning. back. After acclimatiAation. strains. metabolism. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control.

%. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. In severe cases chills. If blisters do break. he . improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. Immediate first aid is given on site. Sun urn.:: and . . bandage.. and headaches may occur.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. burning. and seek medical attention. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. fever. 2ue to rough terrain. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. $ash thoroughly.* Contributing factors include fair skin. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. he skin may be $arm to the touch. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. 2o not pop blisters. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties.7::. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. %1* o treat sunburn. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. a. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light.

:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. red. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. an +-& of .tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. Avoid rubbing the eyes. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. -roper sunglasses should provide . +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. %1* o treat sno$blindness. %'* o prevent sunburn. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. %Currently. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes.* In an emergency.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . .* 2uring sustained activity. the >. %. ice. Sno+ !in&ness. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. %&or e"ample. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication.+. b. Administer pain medication if needed. and $ater. If still painful. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain.

b. and immersion foot. dissemination. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. dehydration. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. +imple tasks take longer to perform. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. but freeAing temperatures are not. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. .*. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. and nutrition.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. personnel.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. move. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. /o$ever. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body.0. a. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. rest. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . !armth and comfort become the top priorities. and fight in $inter conditions. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders.

ace. c. %0* . %. (in& chi!! chart.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit.-). he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. &or e"ample. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. %'* 7m ient Temperature. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians.Figure . Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. %1* <eographic 6rigin. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries.

Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts.6.8. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. D—2ry. ?eep dry. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. in mind. %5* C!othing. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. 6—Dverheating. • • • . he lo$er the $ind chill. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. %)* Type o# :ission. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. %4* Terrain. Avoid overheating. therefore. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. accumulation of perspiration.D. !et clothing loses insulation value. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces.danger Aone or beyond. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures.

!ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. age is not a significant factor. %. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. Individuals must retain their body fluids. %. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions..0* Fatigue. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. especially in higher elevations. %. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. %.a&ica! Changes in the (eather. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival.4* .)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. .%8* :oisture. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather.7* 3utrition. . d. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. %. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day.* 7ge.1* Concomitant =n>ury. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. %. %. %.:* Dehy&ration. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel.

Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. .a&iation. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving.%. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. %. Dn cold days. and careful.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. f. conduction. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. -erform emergency first aid. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. %0* Con&uction. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. convection. deliberate. . 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. e. or evaporation. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*.* .

cold skin. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. or feet. pain. Any illness or injury can produce shock. rapid and faint pulse. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. %b* 'reatment.levate the back and head. administer $ater. and e"cessive thirst. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. his is usually caused by . reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. . ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. %'* $2aporation. Clothing that ventilates. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. %a* Symptoms. his condition may digress into incoherence.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. slo$er heart beat. . 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. g. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. !ind chill is convection cooling. %0* Dehy&ration. %. s$eating.* Shock. fear. insulates. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. o treat shock.%1* Con2ection. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. and loss of blood. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. unconsciousness. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. shortness of breath. and possibly death.

overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. fainting. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. upset stomach. lack of appetite. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. in fact. %a* Contributing +actors. %b* Symptoms. higher temperature. Cold causes fre#uent urination. o distinguish bet$een them. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. dry mouth. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. mental sluggishness. /o$ever. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. hey may. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. the air is dry. he is probably dehydrated. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. At high altitudes. rapid heartbeat. headache. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. and unconsciousness. decreased amounts of urine being produced. diAAiness. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. If the stomach is cold. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. tiredness. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing.

Allo$ the victim to rest. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. 2ecreased physical activity. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. /igh $inds. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. Accidental immersion in $ater. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. .dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. %c* 'reatment. 2iarrhea. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. Change in $eather. %1* -ypothermia. In advanced cases. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. %a* Contributing +actors. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. -oor nutrition.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

rest. reatment of /A-. e. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. may become irreversible and cause death. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient.• -rogressive shortness of breath. if left untreated. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. /A-. using mannitol could be fatal. Crackling.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. >nconsciousness. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. hydration. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. is planned for every 1.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. /A-. $armth. and death results. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. given orally can also be effective.::: feet of altitude gained. A rest day.0: to . A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. If untreated. is prevented by good nutrition.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. . are prone to second attacks. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions.::: to 0. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. • • d. $hich is a diuretic. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. and o"ygen. rapid heartbeat %pulse . =ifidipine %-rocardia*. • • • .::: to 1. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber.):*. &urosemide %Basi"*..

/A-. can cause death. +upplemental o"ygen.apid descent and medical attention. is a severe headache. Beft untreated. immediate descent is mandatory. is the same as for /A-.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. /AC. he main symptom of /AC. -revention of /AC. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. and /AC. -reventive measures include good eating habits. and lack of coordination.. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. convulsions. decrease in urination. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. d. maintaining hydration. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation.. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. b. may occur in e"perienced. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. coma. . and using a gradual ascent to altitude. . vomiting. paralysis.est. reatment for /AC.. $armth. and unconsciousness. hallucinations.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. include mild personality changes. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. . c. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. +ymptoms of /AC. confusion. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. inability to concentrate. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. stupor. a. headaches.

the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. cause increased proteins in the plasma. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements.rovided all tactical concerns are met. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. and /AC. . which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. . the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. occurs. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. both cerebral and pulmonary. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. .-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. &rom this. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. therefore. edema. cools down and heats up differently. move faster. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. or the fluid portion of the blood. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and.

/o$ever. he inner boot provides support. as $ell as insulation against the cold. a lace( up configuration. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. he outer . c.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. %. b.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots.*.*. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. a. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. Foot+ear Currently. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions.

3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. %. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. ski bindings. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. Socks. !hen $orn improperly. and the outer most garments. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. !hen clothing is $orn properly. a. develops hypothermia or frostbite.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. the insulation layers. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. .egardless of climatic conditions. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. socks provide cushioning for the foot. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. at best. at $orst. if $orn correctly.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. uncomfortable and. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. As a system. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. he is. . remove e"cess moisture. Figure 1-).

%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. c. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. he primary material in this product is polyester. In colder environments. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. &or the most part. %a* In severe $et conditions. =nsu!ating 8ayers. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. b.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. If the user is $earing V< boots. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. he . En&er+ear. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. /o$ever. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. . A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing.

$Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. d. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers.C!C+ correctly. as $ell as mud. e.Figure 1-. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. <aiters. 6uter 8ayers. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system.. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. t$igs. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . and stones. he .

in most cases. hook(pile tape. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot.. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. %.C!C+ and. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. -an& (ear.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. . and snaps. $ill need to be locally purchased.ven during the best climatic conditions. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. f. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. Three types o# gaiters. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. . %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. Figure 1-1. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*.

he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. man( made fibers are preferred. predominately $ool. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity.Figure 1-4. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. -an& +ear. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. . as $ell as replacement liners for both. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. g. %. -ea&+ear. =atural fibers. As $ith clothes and hand $ear.

his covers the head. a balaclava can be added.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. . -e!mets. i. Figure 1-6. $ye+ear. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. neck. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. Figure 1-5. -e!mets. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. !hichever helmet is selected. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. &or e"treme cold. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. h. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*.

C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. j. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*.=*. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . &rance.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. . Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. cord. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. . and comprises several commissions. It is based in -aris. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . $ebbing. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. have been combined to make combined .uropean economy. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es.uropean norm %. :aintenance o# C!othing. heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use.urope. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness.urope %C. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness.uropean norm %C. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. Figure 1-7. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.=* and C. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. Community . he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. and harnesses.

(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . . impact force. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. called slings or runners.:. $hich is. essentially. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . &or most military applications..opes an& Cor&. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. If used for -rusik knots.* . similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*..opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. Kernmant!e construction. . Figure 1-". are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful.(mm rope. he . . All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. A static rope has very little stretch. and is best used in rope installations. b. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. (e ing an& S!ings. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. Its ability to stretch up to . 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths.7( or . %. a standard .. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension.a. it should be >IAA certified.egardless of the rope chosen. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. abrasion resistance. and elongation. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle.

(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. Figure 1-'. -arnesses.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. the rope.0 inches. .unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.) inch. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. . carabiners. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. and have less bulk than the tied version. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . are usually lighter.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. &or most military applications. . +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. . c. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. and 0' inches. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. and . a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. . hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K.unners are predominately made from either 8K. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. more durable.)(inch or .uses for these simple pieces are endless. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying.K. inch. and anchors.) inch. ' inches. %.. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. $hich is stronger. Tie& or se+n runners.

:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots.:*. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. are more restrictive. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. %.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the unavailable.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. .:*. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. %1* . !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. &itted properly. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. his type of harness. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn.:*. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. !hile these harnesses are safer.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. referred to as a seat harness. !ith the remaining $ebbing. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either .

Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. . Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted.*. the 2(shaped. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements.. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. Figure 1-)*. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. his rope. he oval. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. !hen using a carabiner. Cara iners. great care should be . but is not preferred for general mountaineering.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. +teel is still $idely used. given other options. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. a. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available.

Figure 1-).. Figure 1-)). 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. the load is .* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. %. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use.0*. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing.

A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. Dn vertical pitons. design. hey are described by their thickness. along its minor a"is. hey are made of malleable steel. and angle. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. b. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. vertical cracks. the blade and eye are aligned. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. specifically the locking version. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. Figure 1-)1. Aarious pitons. or other alloys. $afer. . 9itons. and length %&igure 1(.1*. and angles. hardened steel. hese pitons are used in flush. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. and $ith the gate open. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. %. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength.itons. %1* . he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. horiAontal.egardless of the type chosen. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner.* 1ertical . $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness.

flush cracks. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. %'* 2nife 3lade . hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place.itons.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . hese pitons are used in flush. c. ledges.(inch s#uare. hey are designed to bite into thin.%0* Horizontal .ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. shallo$ cracks. .itons.itons. %)* Angle . <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. metal. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons.itons. hey are small and fit into thin. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. $ebbing. Dn horiAontal pitons. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. %1* Wafer . or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(.itons.5 centimeters $ide. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. 9iton -ammers. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er.>. shallo$ cracks.'*. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. or leather is used to . he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. or flakes.itons. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. hese pitons are used in shallo$. %4* 3ong .

A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(.7*. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. to be used as anchors. into the rock.0 to 07 ounces. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. . Figure 1-)4. Chocks. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton.7 centimeters long and $eigh . 9iton hammer. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. d. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly.

$hen used in the camming mode.Figure 1-)5. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . Chocks. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. e. f. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices.)*. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. Figure 1-)6. Three-point camming &e2ice. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*.4* provide convenient.

they can be purchased or homemade. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. g. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. . hese are placed #uickly and easily. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements.5*. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices.semi(rigid point of attachment. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. Figure 1-)7. Cade from thin metal. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. . Chock 9icks. saving time and effort. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks.

bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. Chock picks. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer.8*. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. dirt. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. $hich is time(consuming. bolt driver. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. and $eights. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. and drilling anchor. brands. chips. <ecause of this re#uirement. %. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. corrosion.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. h.Figure 1-)". . and e"tremely noisy."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. Dnce emplaced. %o!ts. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. <urrs. e"hausting. and moisture. . <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. hese re#uire a hammer. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. $hich is driven into the rock. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss.

the tuber.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay.Figure 1-)'. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. i. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. %o!ts an& hangers. .egardless of the belay device choosen. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. %e!ay De2ices. . <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. %. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate.

Figure 1-. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. t$o ascenders $ork best. j. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. Descen&ers. &or lo$er angle movement. Figure-eights. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0.*. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. one ascender is sufficient. k. 7scen&ers. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices.Figure 1-.). S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction.*. &or difficult vertical terrain. .

l.Figure 1-. glaciers. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. froAen $aterfalls(can . and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. &or best results. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. and strong. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*.1. 7scen&ers. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. 9u!!ey.. 9u!!eys. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. Figure 1-. A pulley should be small. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope.. light$eight.

and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. It can be made of fiberglass. =ce$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. hollo$ aluminum. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. therefore safer for mountaineering. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". %0* As climbing becomes more technical. is perpendicular to the shaft. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. %. anchors. step cutting.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. self(arrest. a. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. probing. used for chopping. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. head %pick and adAe*. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. direct(aid climbing. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. . he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. belays. he adAe. %b* he head of the a". a shorter a" is much more appropriate. can have different configurations.

Figure 1-. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. Crampons. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. =ce aB an& ice hammers.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. inch of front point protruding. =ce -ammer. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe.b. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. . . and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.4. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. c. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. loose ends should be trimmed. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock.

but can be used on less vertical terrain. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment.Figure 1-. fle"ible boots.5. is rigid and does not fle".* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. as its name implies. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . It is designed to be used $ith soft. Crampons. %0* he rigid crampon. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. %.

centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*.mountaineering boots. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. Figure 1-.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. =ce scre+s.. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads.6.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. • • • ype I is . =ce Scre+s. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. %. . ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. .igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. d. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.

ho$ever. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . . bends. and fi"ed cables. hey can.7. If any cracks or bends are noticed. Figure 1-. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice.' centimeters. f. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. flanged sides. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. =ce 9itons. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. =ce piton. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. hey are available $ith bent faces. e. the scre$ should be turned in. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe.

having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. a. Figure 1-. broken $ire strands. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets.. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. If any cracks. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is .". Sno+ 9icket. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Sno+ Sa+. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. It can be used in step cutting. chips. and other deformities. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. movement. cracks.::: kilograms. he ends should be filed smooth. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. broken $ire strands. or slippage is noticed.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. he picket should be inspected for bends. $ands*. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. bivouacs. mushrooming ends. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. for removing froAen obstacles. If bent or cracked. the picket should be turned in for replacement. and for cutting . g. in shelter construction. and carrying gear.

and turns on sno$ and glaciers. bends. he shovel should be inspected for cracks.. it should be turned in. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. (an&s. 72a!anche rescue equipment. and stability. the $ands should be replaced. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. If the shovel is beyond repair. rust. to . security to the shaft. d. bends. he handle should be inspected for cracks. shelter construction. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. !ands are used to identify routes. and number of teams in the climbing party. Dn folding models. light$eight aluminum alloy. If any defects are discovered. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he handle should be inspected for cracks. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. he flag should be inspected for tears. A file can repair most defects. and missing or dull teeth.sno$ stability test pits. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. sno$(bridges. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. bends. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: .07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. he handle should be telescopic. cracks. the hinge and nuts should be secure. he blade should be inspected for rust. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. bends. crevasses. caches. $eather conditions %and visibility*. If the sa$ is beyond repair. it should not be used. and removing obstacles. folding. and stability. burrs. Sno+ Sho2e!. and deformities. c. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. !ands are . number of haAards identified. and discoloration. frays. b. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. $arping. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. step cutting. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. fading. and burrs.

* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. 72a!anche rescue equipment. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. e. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers.'.robe. %. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. . his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. hese are small. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. 9acks. %0* . but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode.* Avalanche . %. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris.Figure 1-. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame.

Sto2es. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. more harsh environment. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. and are simple and light$eight. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. f. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. !hen choosing a stove. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. and butane are the common fuels used. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. g. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. and its reliability. the better it $ill be.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. he fly protects against . and materials. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. %. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. kerosene. %. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. fuel availability. factors that should be considered are $eight. !hite gas. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. Tents. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. !hen selecting a tent. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. $eights.

6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. i. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. they create the shape of the tent. !hen carrying heavy packs. and carrying heavy packs. Skis. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. and become long and rigid. j. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. Ski po!es. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. h. <efore using a ne$ tent. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. sno$shoeing. +ome ski poles are . emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. connect. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. Sno+shoes.

can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. A flashlight can provide light. especially $hen hauling fuel. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. S!e&s. to the one(person sko$.egardless of the siAe. -ea&!amps. . %. +leds vary greatly in siAe.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. Figure 1-1*. . 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. k. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. on some models. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip.:(man arctic tent system. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. a component of the . !hichever sled is chosen.* !hen choosing a headlamp. l. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and.

. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. pressure bandage. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. the e"ception being hot. $ith canteens. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. magaAine pouches. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. sunglasses. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. food. map. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. foul $eather shells. s$eater.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. Stan&ar& <ear. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. if needed. fuel. -ocket items should include a knife. notebook $ith pen or pencil. $ater. desert. and $ater procurement material. $orn on the body. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. or jungle mountain environments.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. compass and or altimeter. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. Dbviously. first aid kits. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. !hen the light is being packed. Caution4 Cotton clothing. b. sunblock and lip protection. or lithium batteries. 9ersona! <ear. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. polypropylene top. fire starting material. $histle.conditions. ropes. stoves. food procurement material. $quipment 9acking . and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. nickel(cadmium. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. climbing e#uipment. a.

one per climbing team. Day 9ack. Cold $eather hat or scarf. one per climbing team. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . rain suit. +ling rope or climbing harness. Climbing rack. In the event of an injury. &irst aid kit. 9loves. . or s$eater.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. or poncho. Climbing rope. or unplanned bivouac.appelKbelay device. one per climbing team. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. Carabiners. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. pile top. e. one per climbing team. Ice a". !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. Bocking carabiner%s*. he carries a light day pack. . +urvival kit. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. Climbing rack. Crampons. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. d."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. Canteen. . . Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack.appelling gloves. Climbing rope. casualty evacuation. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs.c. &lashlight or headlamp. >tility cord%s*. =onlocking carabiners.

his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. injury. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. gloves or mittens. blouse. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. %7* ()tra Clothing. includes socks. . Altimeter. &or lip protection.• • • • +leeping bag. s$eater or fleece jacket. +leeping mat. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. boots.7 or higher. +#uad stove. $ashing.:: percent of ultraviolet light. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. and licking is best. and or 6. hey should filter 87 to . under$ear. or navigational error. +ide shields. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. %0* Compass. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. hat. %.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging.* 5ap. . %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . %'* ()tra +ood. pants. The Ten $ssentia!s. f. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. &uel bottle.S.

. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. . 2ecentraliAed operations. moleskin. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. cleanser. Ciniature flashlights can be used.%a* . /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. -ressure dressings. &inally. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. and blisters."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. butterfly bandages. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried."tra hats or balaclavas. $orking around the camp. serious sprain."tra pair of heavy socks. cutting the $ind. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. but commercially available headlamps are best. elastic compression $rap. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. gauAe pads. scissors. and employing $eapons systems. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. . and trapping essential body heat inside the sack."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. $hich is important $hile climbing. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. herefore."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. a broken bone. • • • • • . the mountain environment— steep. adhesive tape.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. small adhesive bandages. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. %4* +irst aid 2it. . sharp tools. . and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit.

he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. .* Water and Water Containers. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. or pack.ighter. /eavy(duty thread. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. Candles. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. -atches. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. +afety pins.%5* +ire Starter. 2uct tape. A$l and or needles. as $ell as for stream crossings. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. and canned heat all $ork. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt.:* 2nife. %8* 5atches and . but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. Dther repair items as needed. heat tabs. %. harness. g. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. %0* 7ce A). Bighters are handy for starting fires. Cord and or $ire. %1* 4epair 2it. %.

e"tra ammunition* on top. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. e. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. $ater. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. nearer the shoulder blades.epe!!ent. a. more compressible items %sleeping bag. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. rope. he ice a". emergency bivouac shelter. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. d. the load is held high and close to the back. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove.%'* =nsect . As much as possible. and be securely . thus placing the most $eight on the hips. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. . %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. <y packing the lighter. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. b. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. food. and $ater procurement. c. if not carried in hand. among others.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. In most cases. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. climbing hard$are. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back.

grasp the rope appro"imately . . as stated above. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. bring the hands together forming a loop. o start a mountain coil. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. meter from the end $ith one hand. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. care and maintenance procedures. :ountain Coi!. and knots later during deployment. . If not. . a.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. rappelling. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. he rope may be given a . and 0nots.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. f. his is repeated. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots .ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. . or building various installations. When climbing. and then tied in place. until the rope is completely coiled. serious in!ury may occur. management techni&ues. 9rasping the rope firmly.fastened.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. t$ists.

$rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. . using this length of the rope. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. slung across the chest. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. :ountain coi!. %utter#!y Coi!.* In finishing the mountain coil. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*.* Figure 4-1.%. b. -ull the running end of the bight tight. doubling it and placing it under the flap. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. securing the coil. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. >ncoil the last loop and.

nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. o start the double butterfly. . grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. -lace the doubled rope over the head. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. %. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. In this configuration . Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. and hold the center in one hand. . %0* Tie-off and Carrying. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself.Figure 4-4. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. !ith the bight in the left hand. .emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. %utter#!y coi!.* Coiling.

or for storage. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.* Figure 4-5. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . .ope. .0(inch bight is left. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. Cake three or more $raps. 2ress it do$n tightly. sling rope. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. c. !rap that bight around the coil. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together.

As soon as the rope leaves the hand. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. !ith the left hand.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. a. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. Dnce stacked. . %. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand.D-. and so on. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. !hen the rope is needed for use. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. hro$ up and out. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. A slight t$ist of the $rist. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. =e"t. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. A smooth follo$ through is essential. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first.e. Thro+ing the . feeding it to a lead climber.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls.

. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. and hitches is almost endless. Class II—anchor knots. Anchor. and Class IV—special knots. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate.1. Aiming just above the horiAon. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. . Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. It is a joining knot.0. up and out to$ard the horiAon. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . adjustments must be made. + .. Class III—middle rope knots. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment.0. a..b. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail.. c. back feed. + . bends.. + . he stronger the $ind.. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. /olding one $orking end in each hand. In a strong cross $ind. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. and stack the rope properly as described above. Tying the Knot. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. he variety of knots. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. bights. !ith e"perience and practice.

.. Square knot. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints.. Figure 4-6.'.+ . %. b. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. a.* here are t$o interlocking bights. + . It is a joining knot...

Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . %. Figure 4-7. + . standing part of the opposing rope. b..+ .nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. Fisherman’s knot. %1* .nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails.. Tying the Knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. a. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. .0. Checkpoints. It is a joining knot.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long.1.

!ith the $orking end of the other rope. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. + . Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight..nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails...* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight.. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. %1* .* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. !ith the $orking end of one rope.. $hich contains the standing part %+ .'. %..*. Figure 4-". four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.. + . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. Dou !e #isherman’s knot. and 0*.+ . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + .. Checkpoints.0. Insert the $orking end %+ . b.. ..-+ .1. + .

-lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight.'. !ith the other hand. 2ress the knot do$n..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. + . + . .. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end.. Figure-eight en&.7.0. race the original knot to the standing end. . + .1.... Tying the Knot.. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + .Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Figure 4-'.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. + . .

* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. a... 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. overhand retrace. Tying the Knot.. + . It is also called a ring bend..1. &eed the other end back through the knot. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. or tape knot. + . (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. .0.. %. Checkpoints.:*. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. + .b. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot.

<ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor.* here are t$o overhand knots. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. one retracing the other. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.*.. Tying the Knot. + . %0* here is no slack in the knot. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. (ater knot. .. %.. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. It is an anchor knot. Checkpoints. b..Figure 4-)*. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. a.

. b..'. %.1. + . + .* he bight is locked into place by a loop.0. . + .oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . Figure 4-)).. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight..7. %o+!ine knot. Checkpoints.+ .each through the loop and pull up a bight. and bring it back onto itself. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. =o$ dress the knot do$n. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.

and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.'.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. a. Figure-$ight . + . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.. 2ress the knot do$n. %. Checkpoints. . and one in the front*... It is an anchor knot...his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.. Figure 4-).epeat + .oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.0*. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. distributing the load over the anchor.. .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.1. b. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. + .etrace /. .eroute& Figure-$ight0 .0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. + .un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact. + . .. Tying the Knot.0.

). + . + . $rap the $orking end around the standing part. and route the $orking end through the loop.1.. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse..he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. + ..1*. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.0. /o$ever. . + . + . ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. a.. + . leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. ..'.. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. !ith the $orking end. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.7. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. Tying the Knot. he finished knot is dressed loosely. by tying the knot in a retrace.. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.

C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.. + . a. b. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.. . %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. palms do$n $ith hands together. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. %. Checkpoints %. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.'*.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. Tying the Knot.* Middle of the Rope. Figure-eight retrace.. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.Figure 4-)1. depending on ho$ it is tied. /old rope in both hands.

. + . 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.'. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. !ith the right hand. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.'. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.. he knot is tied. grasp the $orking end.... 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.+ . 2ress do$n the knot. and bring it in$ard. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. + . !ith the right hand. /old the standing end in the left hand.0. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.. + .1. %0* End of the Rope. .1.0. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. + .. assume that the anchor is horiAontal... reach under the horiAontal anchor. + . /old the loop in the left hand. + .

4. C!o2e hitch. %. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. ake up the slack from the anchor. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + ... (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. and fingertip.. !hen tying this knot.1. Checkpoints.. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. + . %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. + .0. + .7.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. and place it over the heel $rap. .7*. palm. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. b. a.'.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.Figure 4-)4.. + . +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.). It is a middle rope knot. Tying the Knot. + .. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. + .

Tying the Knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. (ireman’s knot. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. + .8.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.. Checkpoints. %. a. It is a middle rope knot.5. Figure 4-)5. b.)*.. .+ . %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.

+ . !hen dressing the knot do$n. b.+ . &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.1. Cake one $rap around the palm. Checkpoints.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. the tail and the bight must be together... it lays in$ard. + .0. Figure 4-)6. + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.. %.'.. !ith the $rap thus formed... . Directiona! #igure-eight.

7. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. ie an overhand knot on a bight. + . + .0.. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . + .. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. It is a middle rope knot..4. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.4*. Tying the Knot. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. + . + .'. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side... . forming t$o loops.. + .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip..1. a.). %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.%0* he tail and bight must be together.. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + .

T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. .5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.Figure 4-)7. Tying the Knot. a.5. %o+!ine-on-a.* It is a middle rope knot. Checkpoints.ight. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.. >sing a doubled rope. form an . %0* here are no t$ists in the knot... %. b. + .

* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.'. Tying the Knot.0. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. Checkpoints. /old the bight $ith the left hand. !ith the $orking end. 2ress the knot do$n. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.+ . b. It is a middle of the rope knot.7.1. + . . a. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. + . Figure 4-)".. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. %.. + .8*. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(..

+ .. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.* he loop is the desired siAe. Figure-eight !oop. . !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop.. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop..1. Figure 4-)'. %. !ith the bight as the $orking end.0. Tying the Knot. 2ress the knot tightly. b. Checkpoints.. + . It is a specialty knot. %1* he knot is tightly dressed.. a. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. + . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. form a loop in rope %standing part*.

0. $ith the $orking ends even. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.*: + .0. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .. . + . forming a bight. . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension...epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.1. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0..*.each do$n through the .0(inch bight.. + . Figure 4-.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. + . + .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:...%.*.. and place it over the long rope. >sing an arm3s length of rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. .. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. 2ouble the short rope.1. + ..

+ . . here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. parallel.nsure they are tight. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. It is a specialty knot. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. and not t$isted.+ . Checkpoints. Figure 4-.4.).).. b. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. . + . %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. + .'.7. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik.. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. %.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.

b.1.a. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . + .0. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. Figure 4-... make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. Tying the Knot.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. + . %achman knot. %. Checkpoints..* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. + .. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.

%0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. >sing the standing part. + . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. + .. . + .'. + . %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. It is a specialty knot. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. + ..he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. + .. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. he running end is to the back of the body..* A minimum of four $raps.0.. a. /olding the bight loosely. !ith the running end.7. tie an overhand around all coils. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.). +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. Tying the Knot. not crossed. %. single coil. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.. hen. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. . bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.1.. + . he standing portion is on the bottom.4.. b.. bring a bight up through the loop. Checkpoints.

. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. + . /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.1. !ith the right hand...1. Bay the loops to the right. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. + .. + . It is a specialty knot. Tying the Knot. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. .Figure 4-.. a. + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*..0. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.'.

0(inch bight in the end of the rope.. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.7. a..* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. b. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Tying the Knot. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. It is a specialty knot.4.. Three-!oop o+!ine. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.+ . %. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. + . &orm a . Figure 4-. . Checkpoints..

-ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. Figure-eight s!ip knot. Checkpoints.. + ..:u!e Knot0 .'.. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.0 inches up the rope. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. %. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. + .. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. . + . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. Figure 4-. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. standing end of the rope..1.0.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.each through the bight and grasp the long. b. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . + .7.+ .).5. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.

Figure 4-.. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope..1. a.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. Tying the Knot.0 inches long. %.* here is a single overhand slip knot. + . -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + . %1* he bight is a minimum of . -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.0. Check 9oints.. K!eimhiest Knot .6. b.. Transport knot. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. It is simply an overhand slip knot. + . +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight..

+ .*. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip ... find the center of the rope and form a bight.0. It is a special( purpose knot. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. easily adjustable.0 inches. + . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.'.. + ..1. pass them through the bight %see + .. Tying the Knot.. + . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.. + . !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. !ith the ends offset.7. . >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .. !rap at least four complete turns. a.

. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. It is a special(purpose knot. + .: to . Checkpoints.0 inches. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.. %. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. b. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. . a.7..0. + . K!eimhiest knot.. Tying the Knot. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .Figure 4-.

<irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. %. + .: &orm a bight. %. :unter -itch .. <irth hitch.1: Cinch the knot tightly. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. It is a special(purpose knot.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.. Frost knot. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-. + . + .Figure 4-.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.".* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. Checkpoint. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. a.. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.'. b.. Checkpoints. b.

+ . + .. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. !ith the right hand..1. a. !ith the right hand.0. /old the rope in both hands. + .0 inches apart..* A bight passes through the carabiner.. %.. Tying the Knot. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. . %0* he carabiner is locked. b. Check 9oints. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.. + .'. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. /old the loop $ith the left hand. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. Bock the locking mechanism. palms do$n about . $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.he munter hitch.

. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. a.Figure 4-1*.. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. thus creating a loop around the $aist. + . + . It usually re#uires a sling rope . Tying the Knot. . :unter hitch... + . ensuring they do not cross.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.*.1. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. . + .. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.'.0.. .' feet or longer.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.

b.appe! seat. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.7.4. . Check 9oints. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. + .. tightening the seat. Figure 4-1).* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.+ .. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. &rom rear to front. + . . -ull up on the ropes.). %.

+ . he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners... . preferably ovals*. Tying the Knot. a. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.0. + ..

+ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. <uar&e knot. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load.Figure 4-1. b. . %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. it will fail. Check 9oints.* !hen properly dressed. %.. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. or the e&uipment . 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. rope can only be pulled in one direction.

always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. /o$ever. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. /o$ever. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(.*. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. rees. . natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. When selecting or constructing anchors. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. boulders. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*.

Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted..Figure 5-). %ou!&ers use& as anchors. Figure 5-. Trees use& as anchors. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. b. security. Chockstones should be checked for strength. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. a. >se padding on soft. . In rocky terrain. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load.

hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. flakes. and spikes. their firmness is important. . +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. Chockstones. b. c.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. horns. If any of these signs e"ist. . hese include blocks. If rock projections are used. a. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. and clipping on a carabiner.ock 9ro>ections . tying a rope to it. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. the projection should be avoided.Figure 5-1.

. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. . As $ith trees. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*.Figure 5-4.ock pro>ections. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch.

Figure 5-5. . Correct!y oppose& cara iners. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. %ushes an& shru s. $rap. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. Drape. Figure 5-6. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. and girth. a. !hichever method is used.

Figure 5-". (rap. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*.Figure 5-7. . b. (rap. Drape.

7nchoring (ith . .:*.c. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. his re#uires less e#uipment. <irth. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. Figure 5-'. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. . <irth. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. . he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.

A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. to absorb the tension. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$.*.. . he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. Tension!ess anchor. more if necessary. Figure 5-)). A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)*.

Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. As $ith natural anchors. sno$shoes. In e"tremely hard. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. such as a railroad tie. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. $ould be ideal. he"centrics.#uipment. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. . can also be used if necessary. chocks. ice a"es. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. . Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. and +BC2s. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. such as skis. b. e#uipment.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable.* Barge boulders can be used.:: years. and ruck sacks. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. . local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. &or training planning. and the load to be placed on it. a. such as pitons and bolts. Although still available. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. he sling is attached to the anchor. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. %A hefty timber. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove.

should be studied. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. %0* !hile it is being driven. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. %. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. clear the loose rock. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. b. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. as $ith any artificial anchor. 7&2antages. dirt. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. 9iton 9!acement. c. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. practiced. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. %&igure 7(. !hen this type of rock must be used. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. Disa&2antages. a.

it $ill not be lost. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. . and on the type of rock. he piton should not spread the rock. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand.out of the crack. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. herefore.1*. because the piton is too long. Figure 5-).. Clip a carabiner into the loop. the firmer the anchor $ill be. thereby loosening the emplacement. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton.

-ero-!oop. .epeat these actions as many times as necessary. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. and $hen using chocks. Eerk vigorously up$ard. drive it into another place. e. then grasp the rope at least . Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. Testing. drive the piton in as far as possible. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure.'*. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. upon driving it. do$n$ard. to each side.Figure 5-)1. . the emplacement is probably safe. ry to be in a secure position before testing. d. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. o test pitons pull up about . If the pitch has changed greatly. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located.emo2ing 9itons.K0 meter from the carabiner. If the sound regains its original pitch. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. there is any #uestion of its soundness. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. .

vectors. <efore use. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. Also. removed. +oft iron pitons that have been used. . Bight to carry. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. unless severely damaged. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. Disa&2antages. but comple" in practice. 7&2antages. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. they may have been driven poorly the first time. >sually easy to retrieve and. b. .Figure 5-)4.eusing 9itons. having fallen and $edged in a crack. A natural chockstone. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. and straightened may be reused. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. a. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment.asy to insert and remove. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. are reusable. 9iton remo2a!. provides an e"cellent anchor point. f. In training areas. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. but they must be checked for strength.

7*. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. . %1* . A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. cord. then select a chock to fit it. Figure 5-)5. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. c. Avoid poor protection. +ome cracks may have loose rock. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . if possible. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. Book for a constriction point in the crack. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. Chock p!acements. grass. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. and dirt.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. %0* !hen selecting a chock. 9!acement. %. $hich may accept pitons. Dften provide only one direction of pull. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement.

then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. d. Testing. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. test it to ensure it remains in place.)*. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. use pairs of chocks in opposition. After seating a chock. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. . %a* . o test it. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced.

pull the retractor bar back. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. S8CD p!acements. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. it may rotate and pull out. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement.Figure 5-)6. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. a. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. place the device into a crack. b. %o!ts . and release the retractor bar. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe.

b.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. <olts should be used $ith carriers. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. and runners. a. or cracking. carabiners. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. . $hich bores the hole. since this permanently $eakens it. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. /o$ever.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. c. and should be tested $ith a hammer. . =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole.4*. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. !hen using bolts. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. . flaking. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole.

9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . his not only provides greater anchor strength.8*. b.5*. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. . An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling.Figure 5-)7. It is aimed in the direction of the load. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. a. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. Figure 5-)". A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail.

9re-equa!i@e& anchor. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. terrain hazards. therefore. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming.Figure 5-)'. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. and the enemy for the length of the climb. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes.

It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. or 6lines. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. +orward observers. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit.6 to the top looking for cracks. nubbins. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. . and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. . the climber studies all possible routes. using the hands primarily for balance.trained in the basics of climbing. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. he mentally climbs the route.*. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. reconnaissance personnel. !hen picking the line. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. ledges.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing.6 .ven before getting on the rock. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-.

In the training environment. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. such as a rock or climbing gear. falls from climbers above. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. C7ET=63 . In later lessons. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the .ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. /o$ever. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. If the soles are $et or damp. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . dry rock. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. the boot soles should be dry and clean. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope.

%&igure )(. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. $eight shift. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. left hand. or moving on to a more . resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. left foot. comfortable stance is essential. Stance or %o&y 9osition. If strained for too long. A rela"ed.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. and reduce the impact of a fall. kno$n as 6. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. helping to minimiAe fatigue. and movement. a. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. and body %trunk*. sho$s a correct climbing stance. lo$ering the heel. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. right foot. a$ay from the rock. b. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. and so on.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. his vibration. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. help the climber land feet first. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. Fi2e %o&y 9arts.

%. Figure 6-. Correct c!im ing stance. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. the hips and shoulders should be .a!ance& o2er oth #eet. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. Figure 6-).. he hands are used to maintain balance.* !henever possible. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold.restful position. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical.

he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. shift. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. as the climbing progresses. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet.: + .centered over both feet. he basic steps are $eight. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. and movement %movement being either the foot. $hen footholds are small. c. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. . he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. Dn steep rock. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. his is normally done on #uick. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. intermediate holds. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. In most cases. +ometimes. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1.D=. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. hand. Dn lo$(angle slopes.* + . or body*. Again. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. C!im ing Sequence. creating more stress. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue.

through 1 for remaining foot./. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs..+ . the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height.&IV.: + .&D>. + . leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7. 2uring this movement. If both legs are bent. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.: + . %.: +hift the $eight onto both feet.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.epeat steps . $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.. . &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms.

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence. .

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .

his type of lifting is inefficient. even painful. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s.Figure 6-1. these movements become more critical.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. Dther than being uncomfortable. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. Sa#ety 9recautions . %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. %. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. to rest on. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. not the arms. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. because the legs are much stronger.

. grasping for any possible hold available. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. e. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. If on a lo$(angle climb. >pon hearing the $arning. a spotter can be used for safety. do not do it. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. a fi"ed rope should be installed. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. tossing it do$n. +hould a climber fall. let the rope provide protection. d. c. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. and to reduce the impact of a fall. If conducting a roped climb.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. a. b. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. immediately shout the $arning 6. follo$ing the same line. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. If the rock $ill endanger your second.

C!im ing (ith The Feet . !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. !hen in doubt. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight.. g. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. b. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. a. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member.f. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. his may simply be a #uick. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. +ometimes. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. !hen leading a group of climbers. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. sedimentary(type rock.&D. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. !hen climbing. !hen the rock is $et. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. depending on it. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered.

ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. In this case. he principle of using full sole contact. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. a. easy or difficult.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. &ailure to climb any route. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. is usually the result of poor foot$ork.* Maximum Sole Contact. the entire foot cannot be used.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. In the early learning stages of climbing. %b* Dn some large holds. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms.* %a* +mooth. as in mountain $alking. . . like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. Also. b. %. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. . also applies in climbing. forgetting to use the feet properly.

turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. may be used. edging $ith the front of the boot. . or toe. %0* Edging. !henever possible. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact.Figure 6-4. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue.* %a* Dn smaller holds. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. $ell(defined ledges.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. . >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. Again. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. >sually. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock.

he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. $ith its softer sole. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. therefore. he stiffer the sole.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. intermediate holds.ounded. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. the better the edging capability. .%b* .* %a* . he Army mountain boot. Figure 6-5. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. %1* Smearing. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. . %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. .

until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. or the entire foot can be used.Figure 6-6. inside and $ithin reach. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. restful position. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. he toes. ball of the foot. +ome positions are more tiring. than others. resisting a do$n$ard pull. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. depending on the siAe of the crack. pockets. . Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. arms. the possibilities are endless. such as edges. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. like a camming device. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. and so on. %'* Jamming. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. and even more painful on the foot. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. hands.

$ith the $eight centered over the feet. Figure 6-7. $Bamp!es o# >amming. our body $eight is on our legs. b. As the individual climbs. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. Dn lo$er(angled rock. a. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. +econdly. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. As stated earlier. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. Dur hands grip. Core often though. +ometimes. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. !hen removing the boot from a crack. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. . Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance.

or 6pinching. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. Df course. the side of the palm. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. Ideally. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. -ushing side$ays. %. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela".* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock.our balance and footing on the ladder. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. .* Push olds. his is fine. Dn smaller holds. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. the fingers. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. and on occasion.

Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. Again. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. side$ays. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. therefore. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. or up$ard. . hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. -ull holds. pull holds are often over$orked. just good techni#ue. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold.Figure 6-". making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. and. %0* Pull olds. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. creating an unbalanced stance. also called 6cling holds.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. . these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for.* %a* Bike push holds.

forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. his helps to hold the finger tips in . he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. creating a stronger hold. Dn small holds. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. Figure 6-'. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. =ormally.

If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. %&igure )(. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. %'* Jam olds. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s.* Figure 6-)*. Bike foot jams. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. knuckles. ape also adds friction . his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin.: sho$s e"amples of pinch and reduces muscle strain in the hand. %1* Pinch olds. kno$n as a 6ring grip. his hand configuration. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever.

to the hand in jammed position. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. /o$ever. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. . or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. he leg can be used. o jam or cam an arm. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. only the fingers $ill fit. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. and body jams. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. he hand is then clenched as much as possible.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. or 6off $idths. &or off $idths. the principle is the same as for fingers. from the calf to the thigh. %b* In smaller cracks. is another techni#ue. and fle"ed to fit the crack.. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. leg. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. or body into an off $idth. %&igure )(.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. !hen the arm is straightened. . leg. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position.6 re#uiring the use of arm. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. hands.

. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. As the climber gains e"perience. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing.Figure 6-)). &rom these fundamentals. feet. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s.

Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. . It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. o make the move. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. b. even on an easy route. %. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. t$o solid handholds should be used. Combination possibilities are endless. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position.a. or other body parts tire.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. +till. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. %&igure )(. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. he change step. +hort of turning back. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. arms. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. yet #uickly. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. mantling begins $ith pull holds. %0* Mantling. $here the pull holds become push holds.otating . before the hands. o prevent an off balance situation. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. +ometimes. or hop step.* Change Step.

the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. momentarily. Dnce the arms are locked. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. Dnce balanced over the foot. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. . !ith the foot on the ledge. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. most individuals should be able to support their $eight.

he arms and legs . also. or body tension. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. :ant!ing sequence.1*. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. applying an up$ard pull. %1* !ndercling..Figure 6-). forming a bulge or small overhang. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds.

enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. Figure 6-)1. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. the climber $ill . creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. %'* "ie#ack. . he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. putting the body into an B( shaped position. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. more or less. he climber bends at the $aist. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. En&erc!ing.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands.

he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. Dften. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(.'*. or for a rest position. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. rather than muscle.likely fall. or vice versa. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. . he legs should be straightened $henever possible. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. Figure 6-)4. 8ie ack on a #ace. %7* Stemming.7*. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming.

Figure 6-)5. kno$n as chimneys. Stemming on a #ace. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. >sually. .)*. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. or body as an integral contact point. parallel cracks. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. legs. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction.

Figure 6-)6. . Chimney sequence.

if any holds. or a much narro$er crack irotection. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. . /o$ever. .4*. A slab is a relatively smooth.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. Chimney sequence /continue&0. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack.Figure 6-)6. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. %c* . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. face features. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. forcing the body against the opposing $all.

he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. or the . %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. Dften. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. S!a technique. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. Dn steeper slab. . .%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. Figure 6-)7. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. to increase friction.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. Also. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point.

Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. If the handholds are too high. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . and slips are more likely to occur. !hen in doubt. a$ay from the rock. %a* Dn easier terrain. !hen in doubt. C7ET=63S . the climber can face out$ard. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. he can often turn side$ays. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. !hatever the case may be. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. As the steepness and difficulty increase.abilities of others to follo$. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. use a roped descent. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. Dn the steepest terrain. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step.. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. use a roped descent. 0.

as in ascending. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. is usually best on steeper slab. facing out$ard or side$ays. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. and a tendency to move too #uickly. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. . %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. &acing the rock. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. %d* Dn steeper slab. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds.5*. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect.planned landing area. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. reducing friction. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet.

$here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. is highly unlikely in most instances. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. may induce further injuries. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall.. . . A severe fall. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. length. . they offer little support to the climber.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. ropes must be used to proceed. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered.ope Dver the years. .

9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. also. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. specialiAed e#uipment. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. $hen used correctly. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. a. including cost.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. it is not for a belay anchor. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. =o assembly is re#uired. -rese$n harness are bulky. Seat -arness. such as a prese$n harness. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. . /o$ever. %.

his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. gear loops. or ease of adjustment. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. S+ami %e!t. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends.b. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. Chest -arness. than an improvised chest harness. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. he s$ami belt is a simple. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. at the chest. %. such as padding. Dne(inch $ebbing .* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. c. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. a.

Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. !I /D> /. In a severe fall. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. Figure 6-)'. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*.$ill provide more comfort. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. %. raditionally.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. &ABB. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot.. any tie(in around the $aist only could .V.8*. b. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!.. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort.

he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. $rapping to the outside. Dff to one side. and comfortable.ven in a relatively short fall. A safe. . Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. $ith the knots to the front. like a parachute harness.* Bocate the center of the rope. . the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. c. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. and hold it in place on the hip. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. . %. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. 9rasping both ends. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping.

and drape the sling over the shoulders. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. or cross. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. Appro"imately ) to . just as you $ould put on a jacket. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. .: feet usually $orks. forming t$o loops. d. he t$ist. but remember that $ith $ebbing. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness.Figure 6-. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. .*. %.

C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. create a type of full(body harness. at the chest. or incorrectly. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. If using a chest harness. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. 7ttaching the . in effect.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. %.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness.I ICAB BI=?. e. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. f. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. the standing part of the rope is then . and comes off the harness in a fall. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly.

and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. rather than tying the rope to it. If using the three loop bo$line. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. %e!ay Techniques . 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. %. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. Figure 6-)". ensure the end.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. and possibly the e#uipment available.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. or third loop formed in the knot.

. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. . the procedure should become 6second nature. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. Dn steep terrain. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. if one person falls. • • • • . he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. independent. e"posed terrain. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t.6 can be applied to halt a fall. In some instances. ho$ever. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. Dne person climbs at a time. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. . sitting position $henever possible. and snug.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. for an up$ard pull. but $ith practice. >se a $ell braced. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. or a 6brake. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. +tack the rope properly. rope team members can often move at the same time. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs.

aking up rope. b.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. If the brake hand is removed. • • . re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . a. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. and apply the brake to halt a fall.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. or run through a friction device. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. guide carabiner %if applicable*. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. removed from the rope.• . otal control means the brake hand is =.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times.V.A9. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.BAI.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . !hen giving slack.nsure anchor attachments. ho$ever..BAI D=. the rope management procedure is basically the same. there is no belay. take up rope to remove e"cess slack.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.

$ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. . %. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. to the front of the brake hand. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.*. step ... step 0*. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0...epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. place it behind the back and around the hips. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. step )*.). %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. step 1*. slide the guide hand out. :anaging the rope.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands.. Figure 6-..brake hand remains on the rope at all times. %)* . step '*. he other hand is the brake hand. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended.

.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. especially for beginners. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. and froAen. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. %. +ometimes. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. re#uiring no special e#uipment. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. %o&y %e!ay. and the amount of load. he leg on the 6guide . and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. stiff. in its various forms. he body belay. using terrain to his advantage. or fall force. It is the simplest belay. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. a. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another.* Sitting 'ody 'elay.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. the belay may have to absorb. !hen perfectly aligned. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. It is best to sit in a slight depression. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. or both feet cannot be braced $ell.

.. Figure 6-. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. Sitting o&y e!ay. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay.

1. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. dumping the belayer out of position. If the rope runs too lo$. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. rendering the belay useless. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. . his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. If the rope runs too high. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips.Figure 6-. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly.

A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall.* Munter itch. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. &or the most part.4. is designed for the Cunter hitch. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. and of the proper design. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. attaching both to the carabiner. :echanica! %e!ay. As a climbing belay. %. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. -ut some . useless hitch. /o$ever. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. or pearabiner. $hich forms an obvious. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. he carabiner must be large enough. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. to allo$ this function.Figure 6-. b. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads.

5. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. to$ards the load. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. he hand on the rope running to the climber. As a belay device.+ =D change the function of the hands. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. . %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. though developed as a rappel device. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. rather than around the belayerUs body. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. or load.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. is al$ays the guide hand. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. :unter hitch. Figure 6-.

ope management is performed as in a body belay. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. . he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. >nlike the other devices. but have no moving parts.%a* As a climbing belay. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. A short. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. Figure-eight &e2ice. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. Figure 6-. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. . +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. %b* As a lo$ering belay.6. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner.

uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. Direct %e!ay. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. Also. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. slotted plate. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. If the belay is correctly established. he air traffic controller %A C*. if the second falls or $eights the rope. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. the most commonly used.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. b. Additionally. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. An indirect belay. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. the belayer is not locked into a position. =n&irect %e!ay. . the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. a. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices.

Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. c. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. b. rela"ed stance. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. a. !ith the belay position selected. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. and in line $ith the first protection placement. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. 7im the %e!ay. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. %. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. If this placement fails under load.* . Dnce the climbing line is picked. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. the belayer selects his position. .the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. .egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. sitting stance are preferred. 7nchor the %e!ay.

&ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. o accomplish this. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. his is not mandatory. say after a severe fall. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. reach back. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help.%0* . If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. saving the slings for the climb. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. and 6snug6. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. 6independent6. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. . &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements.

* Dn small ledges. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. he rope should be stacked on the ground.7. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. Stack the . he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay.ope. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. 7ttach the %e!ay. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings.Figure 6-. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. %. 7nchoring a e!ay. e. and applies the actual . %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. !ith the rope properly stacked. d. or on the ledge.

If using a body belay. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. Figure 6-. the anchor attachments. %. !hen belaying the 6second6. If the climber takes a fall.". %e!ay setup. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . the force. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. If the belay is set up correctly. guide carabiner if applicable.BAI D=W6. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. guide carabiner. final inspection of his belay. if any. he gives the signal.belay techni#ue. Anchor attachments. 6<. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith.* he belayer should make one #uick.

A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. C8=:%$. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber.* %$87D$. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. e"posed routes. or at the top at the anchor. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. . %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. A solid.7CT=63 T7K$3 . C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. Top-.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. :$73=3<. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch.

Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.6T$CT D6E. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.S$8F F.=( I( &IV. . Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. <elayer removes brakeKtension. 6 .6 6 !. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.D-. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. and hold me.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area.6<. the rope $ill be managed as necessary.DC?6 -roceed. If multipitch climbing.6 . 6+BAC?6 . <elayer takes in rope. 9. apply brake.DC?6 6.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. and again.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. 6 A?. I am falling. Climber selects a belay position. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. ensure climbers belo$ hear. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.

!ith the issue of this command.BAI D=. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . <elayer removes the belay and.=6 Iou have appro"imately . .emoves the 6D&& <. remains anchored. or at the back of a ledge. Ta !e 6-).ope comman&s. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. or $hen the climber is around a corner. the most important command is 6<. prepares to climb. anchoring and putting the second on belay.. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope.6 +et up the belay. Climber sets up the belay. above an overhang. 6&IV. use only one. b.7 feet of rope left. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. a. his is the signal for 6<. I have finished climbing and I am anchored.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. his is especially true in $indy conditions. . It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. Iou may remove the belay. !hile a lead climb is in progress.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. -repares to climb.6&I&( . the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& ..BAI6 belay. &or a rope tug command.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. +et up the belay position. . remaining anchored. Iou have no more rope. .

If you can easily access the top of a climb. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit.6 6pro.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. a.6 6pro placements. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. rope%s*. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above.In military mountaineering. Top-. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. . b. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. &or training. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer.6 6pieces of pro. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor.6 and so on. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 6pieces. a leader or climber. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. you can easily avoid the climb itself. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. As he climbs the route.ven if the climbing is for another purpose.

re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. belays.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. !hichever techni#ue is chosen.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers.established for other purposes. or other rope installations. taking on the role of lead climber. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. he belayer simply adjusts his position. b. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. +$inging leads. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. or 6leap frogging. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. a.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. ice. c. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. and is responsible for selecting the route. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. such as rappel points.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety.

he leader can then signal.BAI D=6. he double checks the belay. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. >nless told other$ise by the climber.. $hether by sight or feel. . and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. it can be called for. only as a courtesy. is responsible for belaying the leader. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. If he cannot see the climber. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. such as a piton hammer. 6CBIC<I=96. or 6rope drag6. %'* !hile belaying. 6<. !hen the leader is ready. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. %. nut tool. only as a courtesy. %1* <efore the climb starts. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the"t belay. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. removing the belay anchor. !hen the belay is ready. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. he leader then begins climbing. etc. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. again. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. to remove any protection that the leader may place. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. until the climber tells him other$ise. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. the belayer signals. thus minimiAing friction. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. %0* he other member of the climbing team. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements.

and $hat types. d.BAI D=6 is given. or the clip. each on a separate carabiner. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above.D-.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. &ive to ten standard length runners. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*.* he leader $ill assemble. $ith t$o carabiners on each. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. or 6rack. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. . he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. he must also determine ho$ much. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder.BAI6. the leader sets an anchor. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner.%7* As the leader protects the climb. !hen the leader has completed the connection. !hen the leader selects a particular route. Assorted he"entrics. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. %. the command 6 A?. . At this position. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. In this situation. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. each on a separate carabiner.

the necessary e#uipment. Bong -rusik sling. =ut tool.• • • $o to three double length runners. 0: feet of . • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. . • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*."tra carabiners. .(inch $ebbing. . %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear.(inch $ebbing. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. • .: feet of . $ith t$o carabiners on each. Cordellette. to some degree."tra carabiners. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. • • .

is re#uired. protection should be placed more fre#uently. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. during. As the leader begins this type of move. If the climbing becomes easier. moving past a difficult section. 9enerally. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second.&D. and upon completion of any traverse. or pendulum. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. and <. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. placement of protection. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. protection can be placed farther apart. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. saving hard$are for difficult sections. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber .e.. %.* Placing Protection. for both the leader and second if either should fall. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. If the climbing is difficult. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. kno$n as a traverse. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. Dnce an anchor is placed.

the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. $hen released. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. C7ET=63 . Dnce leaving that piece of protection. %a* If the route changes direction. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. !hen placing protection. in a . /o$ever. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. In addition. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. If the clip is made correctly.

his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made.leader fall. rotate the carabiner up$ards . <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. =o matter ho$ direct the route. C!ipping on to protection. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection.5: degrees. o prevent this possibility. Figure 6-. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to .'. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped.

causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. . Figure 6-1*. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. Ese o# s!ings on protection. inducing a fall.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. . or anchor. o prevent this. C7ET=63 . It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners.

*. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. All $ired chocks used for . Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. or runner. Figure 6-1). he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. even $hen used 6actively6. . 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. . As the climber moves above the placements. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction.

most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. ry to use the shortest runners possible. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams.. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. therefore. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. &urthermore. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. %e* . . Figure 6-1. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. +ome of the larger chocks.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner.

* h. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. !hen removing the protection. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. signal 6CBIC<I=9.6 he second. he can. g. !hen removing protection. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. or 6cleaning the pitch6. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. !hen the second is ready. as a courtesy. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. %.BAI6 to the belayer. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. +harp rocks. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb.BAI D=. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. he second has to issue commands to the leader.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. rock fall.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. no$ the climber.BAI D=. $hile the final preparations are taking place. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack.6 and the leader can. unless other$ise directed.f. &ollo$ing. If necessary. again as a courtesy. or seconding. reply $ith 6CBIC<. a leader has a variety of responsibilities.

6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb.6 he leader removes the belay. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. . Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. he should immediately connect to the anchor. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. $hile remaining attached to an anchor.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 .6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. . If removing a piton. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. If too much slack develops. or 6leap frogging. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. %. a.D-.BAI. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection.=+ID=.reaches a more secure stance.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. taking on the role of lead climber. $quipment. he should signal 6 A?. Dnce secured. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. +$inging leads. he belayer simply adjusts his position. the method of aid climbing . he can signal 6D&& <. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. Dnce the second completes the pitch. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. and is the simplest form of aid climbing.egardless of the type of protection used.

/o$ever. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. %0* 'olts. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. $ith or $ithout the hanger. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. the same.* Pitons. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. +ince pitons are multidirectional. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. bolts can be used for aid climbing. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics.

appro"imately every . %7* %aisy Chains. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. %4* (ifi ook.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. although in aid climbing. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches.* .asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into.0 inches. A fifi hook is a small. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. or steps. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. %'* Chocks. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. %5* -scenders. split(shaft rivets. %1* S"C%s. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. although in aid climbing.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. . and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. ..or -iders. . he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. %)* Etriers .

this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. If this happens. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. !ith the daisy chains. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. into the steps in the aider.b. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. &rom this height. you are no$ standing above your support. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. the climb continues as follo$s: %. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. he big difference is the movement up the rock. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. %4* . the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. again.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. Technique. one at a time. aiders. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling.

.. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. o prevent this possibility. move the ascenders. If the ascender is too high. !hen adjusted to the correct height. repeat this procedure. the arms need not support much body $eight. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners.:* .epeat entire process until climb is finished c. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. Secon&ing. one at a time. o ascend the route. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. Clear each knot as you unclip it. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. a serious fall could result. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. %. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. !hen the pitch is completed. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route.* >nlike lead climbing. above the piece. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. tie in short on the rope every . After ascending another 0: feet.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ .:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. o make this easier. 3otes4 .

the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. d. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. +BC2s. to get caught as you move up$ard. o make this safer and easier. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. he hook . e.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. hooks. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. 0. possibly resulting in the protection failing. !hile leading an aid traverse. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. do not tie into the end of the rope. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. %. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. and other protection placed easily by you ascend. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. his is in effect a self(belay. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. /o$ever.

$hich involves more difficulties. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. &or e"ample: a . Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. a. the methods $ill vary. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. a forty foot fall could result. although bolts can be used.::(foot climb $ith a . a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. belayed climb. only t$o are described belo$. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope.::(foot climb $ith a . If the climb is only one pitch. protected traverses . b. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. hese types of devices due to their passive application. 9iven one rope.

Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. he again sets up a ne$ belay.BAI6 from the leader. !hen the leader completes the pitch.$ill re#uire additional time.BAI D=. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. and number 1.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. he most e"perienced individual is the leader.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. or number . %. or number 0 climber. climber. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. If using one rope. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . !hen the leader completes this pitch. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. !hen number 1 receives 6<. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number ..Us . !hen using t$o ropes. he second. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. ascends belayed by number 0. !hen number .

he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. %d* In this method. number 1 performs no belay function. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. his $ould save time for a team of three. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. he remains anchored to the rock for security. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences .: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. such as the tuber type. %d* =ormally. !hen number 1 is not climbing. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team.belay is ready.. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay.

'hey can limit the battlefield and. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. . even worse. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. faster. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. but adds to total mission $eight. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. he use of harnesses. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. However.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. and safer.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. ascenders. =nsta!!ation . Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. H )i.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment.

the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. Dnce the anchor is rigged. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. Figure 7-). he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. . If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample.*. Esing a #iBe& rope. autoblock*. Dther$ise. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. If the leader placed protection. he $ill stack and manage the rope.o install a fi"ed rope. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. -rusik.

. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent.e!ay. If not.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. . Esing a se!#. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t..Figure 7-. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. FiBe& . the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.

actical considerations are met. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. a. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. . he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. avoids obstacles.Figure 7-1. ease of negotiation. he second sets up a standard belay. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. =nsta!!ation.

3ote4 . /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. %. !hen he reaches an anchor point. he temporarily anchors the rope. . and attaches the rope to the anchor.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. As the leader climbs the route. double figure(eight*.ope crossovers should be avoided. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. . %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

/e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. %o&y . he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. diagonally across the chest. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. and back over the opposite shoulder.appe! %&igure 4(7*. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. b. . the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. 9loves are $orn. and runs it around either hip. /e then pulls the rope from behind. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. and his back straight to reduce friction. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. the rope runs to the brake hand. -asty rappe!.Figure 7-4. o brake. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. &rom there.

3otes4 . Seat--ip .. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns.Figure 7-5.appe! %&igure 4()*. %o&y rappe!. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. 0. c. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. .

-lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. stand to one side of the rope. %. If using a right(hand brake.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. Seat-hip rappe!. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. stand to the right of the rappel rope. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner.Figure 7-6. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. and is fast and safe. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. If a single rope is used. /o$ever. his method has minimal friction. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled .

he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. Figure 7-7. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. .into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. %. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. d. &or this reason.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap.* o use the figure(eight descender. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. Figure-$ight Descen&er.

f. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate.Figure 7-". 6ther De2ices. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. d. . Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. Figure-eight &escen&er. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. hese include slots or plates and tubers. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*.) of an inch in siAe. e. $Bten&ing the . A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands.appe! De2ice. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. It also allo$s for easier self( belay.

.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. depends on the techni#ue. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#.e!ay. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. 6ne-. /o$ever. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about .Figure 7-'.

crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. the gates $ill be opposing. the s$immer must be belayed across. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. such as large trees and solid rock formations. . the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. c. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. are al$ays preferred. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor.:. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. At that time. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. If t$o carabiners are used. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. a. $iremanUs. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. Dnce across. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. If crossing a ravine or gorge.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. b. he anchor should be $aist high. =atural anchors. If crossing a stream.

Figure 7-)*.1*. d.. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.0*. .*. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. e. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. Transport tightening system. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.

. Figure 7-).oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.Figure 7-)).. Transport knot . .

b. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. Tension!ess anchor knot. the far side man anchors the rope. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. $eb $rap. a.:. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. . An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. 3ote4 2uring training. Dnce across. c.Figure 7-)1.

from inside to outside.d. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. and is run back to the near side anchor. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. . he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. f. Figure 7-)4. e. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. transport knot. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. g. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. As the rope is pulled tight. F-pu!!ey tightening system. here are several methods of accomplishing this. !hen the rope is tight. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope.

. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack.)*.a. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. :etho& o# Crossing. Figure 7-)5. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. -referably. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. and yrolean traverse. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. and pull the rucksack across. attach it to the bridge. %.7*. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. If dry crossing is impossible. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. Comman&o cra+!. he may $ear it over both shoulders. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. o recover if he falls over. monkey cra$l.

:onkey cra+!. Figure 7-)7. If crossing $ith rucksacks.appe! seat metho&. . a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. . /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. he rappel seat method is the preferred method.4*.Figure 7-)6. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(.

A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. Any special e#uipment. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. and carabiners. or supplies. -au!ing !ine. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. %0* -"0CE Packs. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops.igging Specia! $quipment. cordage %various siAes*. Construction. Figure 7-)". .may dictate the rigging of these items. a.* Machine /uns. &inally. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. A unit +D. . o rig machine guns.b. %. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. ABIC. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. All the slack is pulled to the near side. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. ammunition.5*. he other end is anchored on the near side. such as cre$(served $eapons. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(.

:o2ing 8itters.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. :o2ing . the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. he far side remains anchored. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. c.b. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. assembled on the far side. %'* A three(man pull team. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. a. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot.ucksacks. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. If the < C chooses the dry method. .etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. %. Dn each side of this carabiner. .

b. Figure 7-)'.%)* Dnce across. Suspension tra2erse. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. Site Se!ection . %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. removes the knots. chasms.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. inserts a carabiner. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. ravines. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. and then pulls the rope across. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. and up or do$n a vertal. %. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor.

+ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. and mark the ape" on both poles. %0* !ith a sling rope.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. b. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. Construction. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. %. $quipment. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. hree to five .* .ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. $o sturdy poles are needed.'(foot sling ropes are needed. -osition this knot on . ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles.0 feet long. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. . and suitable loading and off(loading platforms.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. a.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. 7-#rames. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. leaving about . c. an A(frame must be used. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to .

pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps.* Figure 7-. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. ensure it is in the same direction as the .*. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.*. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. . %+ee &igure 4(0:&.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other.

he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. d. . $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. If more than one sling rope is needed.*. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point.).* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. %4* If the ground is a hard surface. Adjust the A( . Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. the direction of kick. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. =nsta!!ation Construction. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. .emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. Figure 7-. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. . 7-#rame sprea&er.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. If the ground is soft. dig the legs in about ) inches. %. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.

his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. not forcing it in a lateral direction. . %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot..frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides.. Eoin the ends of a . his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position.0*. Figure 7-.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(.. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope.

Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions.Figure 7-.1. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. 2ue to the constant . his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame.

Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. use a relay man. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. use a mechanical belay. rucksacks. or supplies Figure 7-. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. herefore.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. . Aertica! hau!ing !ine. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*.tension maintained on the belayer. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment.4. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural .

tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. and anchor it. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". o maintain the . ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. a.0(inch bight.* Figure 7-. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. find the middle. .platforms that provide a safe $orking area. 2ouble one installation rope. if necessary. %+ee &igure 4(07.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. .5. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame.

Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . e.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. c. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. or to.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . belay from the top using the hauling line. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. . $hich is tied to the A(frame. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs.b. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. he angle should be . the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. f. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. o anchor the A(frame. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. d.0 inches apart. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. directional figure(eight. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. g. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms.

Construction. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. terrain.h.educe e"cessive friction on the system. .. e#uipment. a. . the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. pull the other side from belo$. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. and availability of anchors. Consi&erations. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. and the rope condition. !hen in use. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. c. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. Theory. Simp!e . b. !hen it is no longer needed. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. . If only e#uipment is being hauled up. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. $eather. . load $eight. the load rubbing against the rock $all.

Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. and run the hauling rope through the pulley.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+.* . then place the $orking end into the carabiner.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. . -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. place a pulley into the carabiner.%. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. .

$eather. a. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. d. F-pu!!ey system. and availability of anchors. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. load $eight. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. terrain. &or greater efficiency. Consi&erations. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation.6.Figure 7-. If the t$o pulleys touch. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. 6ther Factors. >se belays and backup safeties. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. . e#uipment.

-lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load.. . he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. his is the -C2.7. the load rubbing against the rock $all. and the rope condition. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load.* Anchor the hauling rope. Theory. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. c.b. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. Construction. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. E-pu!!ey system. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. %. Figure 7-. %7* Construct a second anchor. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available.

produces early fatigue. re#uires more rest halts. rappelling. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. empo. proper training. H In addition to proper techni#ue. technical roc0 and ice climbing. the need for rest halts decreases.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. and results in loss of climbing time. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. H <reaks are kept to a minimum.est. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. s0iing or snow shoeing. !hen a moderate pace is set. H he terrain. he more adverse the conditions. he mountaineer sets a tempo. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. he trained. pace is adapted to conditions. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. the slo$er the pace.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. acclimatiAation. even under ideal conditions. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. conditioning. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. good nutrition and hydration. pace. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. and a unit can cover a given . hen. or number of steps per minute. rugged terrain. . and light conditions affect the rate of climb. Coving too fast. $eather. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon.

rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. %'* After a climb. and higher elevations. breathe deeply. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery.. and snack on trail food. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone.distance in a minimal time. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. sno$fields. %1* his slo$. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. to . If possible. deeper inhale. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. hydrate. the soldier pauses briefly. <listers and . +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. %. he soldier e"hales strongly. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. enabling an easier. If possible. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. not muscle. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. steady. %. rock. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. soldiers lean against a tree.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken.7 hours. supports the $eight. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements.* After each step for$ard.

o turn at the end of each traverse.. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. and back pain may follo$. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. in lo$ brush or heather. !hile traversing. $ould be from $alking straight up. and on scree and talus slopes.* !hen ascending. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. H -ar& <roun&. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. /ard ground is firmly compacted. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step.efer to Chapter . ice a". employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. for techni#ues and use of the ice a".blackened toenails. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. %. to a herringbone step. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. A normal progression. back injury. knee damage. as the slope steepens. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. . &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. and loss of balance. through thick brush. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. try to s$itchback periodically. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. surface. A ski pole. If side hill travel is necessary. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. animal trails. %.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step.

he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. steps off. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. held in the uphill hand. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. $hich must be done in a positive. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. returning to the in(balance position. . he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. and plants his foot solidly. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints.. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. and they $ill not be as secure. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above .7:: meters in many mountainous areas. /.0 Step Kicking. he ice a". his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. he soldier performs a basic rest step. his is the in(balance position. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. simply $alk straight do$n. he soldier faces out. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. $hich take half of the boot. aggressive manner. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. each one improving the step as he ascends. and $eighting the trail leg.H Sno+ S!opes. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique.

but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope.* !hen ascending. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. &or the military mountaineer. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. H <rassy S!opes. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. brush is both a help and a hindrance. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. In this techni#ue. $here the ground is more level. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. !hen traversing. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. %. and the upper leg is used only for balance. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. trees. H Thick %rush./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$.

!hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. $eight is transferred to the upper leg.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. ascending or descending. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. !hen $alking in talus. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. and then repeats the process. back straight. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. o . but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. if possible. H Scree S!opes. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. %. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. After determining that the step is stable. feet pointed do$nhill. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. and heels dug in.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. H Ta!us S!opes.

he use of the map. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. knees and toes. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. navigation. and do not look up. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. .prevent rock fall injuries. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. Backing cover.ockW6 is shouted immediately. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. the $arning. digging into the slope $ith hands. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. and route finding. compass and identifiable terrain features. elbo$s. sno$. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. 6. is the foundation of good navigation. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. grass. the location of a target objective.

a loss of barometric pressure of . good judgement and sound tactical instincts. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. usually attached to a cord.::: feet of elevation. 7!timeters. checking progress and terrain identification. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. or millibars. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain.H . and bad $eather should be e"pected. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. %. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. Compasses. <y measuring air pressure. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. route planning. . the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. millimeters of mercury. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. a. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer.. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. b. $hich are reflected in the altimeter.1 inches has occurred. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. usually inches of mercury.

stream(trail intersections. It can determine the latitude. %4* . he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. %.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. causing them to give poor readings. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. . longitude and elevation of the individual user.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. c. his can result in faulty elevation readings. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. <!o a! 9ositioning System. he 9-+ is a space(based. survey monuments. and so forth* is reached. all($eather. global. saddles. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. it can provide position %accurate up to . Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated.

he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. 3a2igation Techniques. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map.idgelines. or plateaus are better. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. Dther$ise. Canyons."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. saddles. start point and objective. summits. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. open valleys. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. %4* .%1* 2uring route planning. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. but due . operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. . as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. &or navigation. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. spurs. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. deep valleys. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. or altimeter navigation. d. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. %'* +ince the 0. after choosing critical checkpoints. enter their coordinates as $ay points. terrain association. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. the better the system performs. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen.

/eavy fog. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. .ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. siAe. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. navigational corridors. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. catching features.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. elevation.* Dea& . and not a precise point. than as a primary navigational aid. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. glacier. %. checkpoints. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects.eckoning. slope %+D+. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. and attack points are all used. . orientation. bo"ing(in areas. he shape. !hen clear cut. burned(over. /andrails. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain.

H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. but not behind the object being vie$ed. dusk. open road or track. H !hen looking over a smooth. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. in resection. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. such as sno$. or desert. H !hen the object blends into the background. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. $ater. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. such as da$n. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. check the . $atercourse. hey aid in orientation. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. H !hen the light is poor. H !hen looking do$n a straight. and in $eather prediction. in computing rates of ascent or descent. uniform surface.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline.

sno$fields and glaciers. In this case. . and the physical condition of the team.altimeter. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. may present themselves. !atch the mountain during the approach march. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. cliffs. &ault lines. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. studying it for climbing routes.ates of travel. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. cliff bands. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. light conditions %time of day*. and crevasse Aones become visible. . H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. along $ith $eather conditions. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. e.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. gross bedding planes of rock. such as couloirs or gullies. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. In addition. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. %. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground.

+outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. (inter . %. constrain your choice of terrain. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. 2uring calm $eather. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. &or $eaker skiers. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. 2uring movement. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. and impact on your route choices. are often steeper. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. terrain relief. vegetation. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack.oute Se!ection. shovel tests. $ater features.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. g. f. and the siAe of the unit. sno$ pits. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. If you must cross one. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. pays off in more efficient travel. individual ski abilities. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. avalanche danger. because of more intense glaciation in past ages.

Avoid north. If the $eather turns bad. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high.danger is still present. and so on to get accurate readings. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. ice a". If $eak skiers are in the group. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. !eather and tactical situation permitting. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. east. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. . use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. %4* 2uring ski movements. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. H >se a steady. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. do not needlessly give up elevation gained.

%0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. short hours of daylight. sno$fall. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. trails. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. $hiteouts. hick vegetation and rough. and drifting sno$. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. Careful map reconnaissance. kno$ledge of the enemy . %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. 9ro !ems. fog. . caused by large ore deposits. bliAAards. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. At times. %'* /andling maps. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. compasses. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. drastically limit visibility.h. especially above tree line. .* In $inter. %.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements.

often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. even larger scale maps are desirable. pay close attention to the marginal information.econnaissance. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.:. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. clear cuts. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. terrain analysis of the operational area. obli#ue angle. Along $ith sketch maps.:07. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. Aerial. such facilities as ski lifts. a. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. %.::: map and should be used $henever possible. :ap . he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. Civilian . An . and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process.::: map depicts greater detail than a . documented information gathered from units previously in the area. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. cable and tram$ays are often found. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. In addition. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks.::: maps can be used if available.:7:. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues.situation. verbal descriptions. Areas above tree line. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area.0. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. A . Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units.

c. $eather permitting. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. . $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. impassable torrents. e"tractions. such as rivers and gorges. and large open areas above tree line. $nemy Situation. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . barns. are factored in. %0* Dbstacles. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. bridges. and plans made to avoid them. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. they have a marked advantage. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. . trails. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. roads. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. but should still be e"pected.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. %1* /elicopter support. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. b.uins. resupply and medevac.

* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain.*. good friction@ use of pitons. Time-Distance Formu!as. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. mountain structure and forms.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. . including the geology. %. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. smooth rock@ bolts. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. e. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . and ground cover. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. Enit 7ssessment.outes through granite rock %long cracks. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. d.success. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. %0* . camming units*. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment.

actical movements.0 kph 0 to 1. indicates.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. In order to do this. his distance plus . Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. helicopter support cannot be relied on. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. Add one hour for each . +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. $eights in order to obtain accurate.) to 1.. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel. %. should take this into account.0 kph 0 to 1.5 to 7.. . such as patrolling or deliberate assaults. Time-&istance #ormu!as. and clothing for mountain travel... %0* As able 5(. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.) kph '.' to .0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . to* $alking* Dn foot %less than . basic mountaineering gear. first measure the map distance. foot .::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance.::: feet of ascent or 0.) to 1.0 kph 1.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.0 to ' kph +kiing . it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. foot of . he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . realistic rates of march. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march.

Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. Se!ect a . and the likelihood of crevasses.equire& $quipment. avalanche probability. his includes degree of slopes. Consider the follo$ing: %. -lot start and end points. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. and trails accurately. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. sno$ condition reports. c. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. $eather reports. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. b. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. Additionally.. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. $idth of trails. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. avalanche probability. clearings. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. a. roads. sno$ depth. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. aerial photos.* Tra##ica i!ity. Se!ect a Current :ap. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. vegetation. %1* .oute. . Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation.

Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. ake into consideration their present health. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. !hen plotting a route on the map. %4* Checkpoints.econnaissance . 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. %)* Con&itions. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. >se all available information and plan accordingly. speed of the current. When rivers or streams must be crossed. swift. . 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated.%7* Communications.Contro! 9oints. . 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. its width.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. or deep. and depth of the water.Capa i!ities o# Enit. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. an alternate route should be used. depending upon the type of stream. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats.

Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. if . b. Figure '-). is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. a. A distant vie$. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. the closer you are to the source. perhaps from a ridge. depending on the distance from the source.*.econnaissance of the route %map. or ice melt during the day. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. or head$aters. for e"ample. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. If a dry crossing is unavailable. In a s$amp.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. As glaciers. 2epending upon the time of year. photo. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. Crossigs.. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. sno$. the rivers rise. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %.

Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. point of the river or stream. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. above the tree line for e"ample. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. contain sections $ith numerous channels. . especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. =atural anchors are not a necessity. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. and thus shallo$est.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. if any.made during the early morning. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. %1* Cany mountain streams. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. firm bottom. ho$ever. ho$ever. Dnce a log jam is formed. In some areas. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel.

stay $ell upstream from the log jam. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. !rap radios. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. as in the higher alpine Aones. temperature of the air and $ater*. if available. he could easily dro$n. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. +DI. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. All pockets are buttoned. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. H If you must cross on the upstream side. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. <oots should be $orn . b. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. %)* !hen possible. tactical situation. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. binoculars. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. papers. -reparation includes the follo$ing. a.

he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. d. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. socks and inner soles should be removed. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. At times. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. Dn the far side. e. f. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. a. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. c. /o$ever.

he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. d. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. and if available. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. deliberate steps. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. a long ice a". /e should take short. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. e.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. . If an obstacle is encountered. sturdy tree limb. b. he staff should be moved first. c. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. o increase balance. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip.

. &or chain crossing. but $ith the added support of each other. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*.Figure '-. a team crossing may be used. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. he line formed faces the far bank. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current.

escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately .K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. he stream at this point may be impassable. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. . a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side.Figure '-1. . $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. and the distance from the near and far anchors. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. height of the anchors above the $ater. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. Cany times though. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. a. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank.

as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. If this is impossible. /e should =. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. %. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. .* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner.. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency.V. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. should he fail to reach the far bank. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled.$ill pendulum back. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety.

%. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. An appropriate knot is tied into the . pulled tight. /ere again. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. and anchored on the near bank.Figure '-4. rather than straight across the stream. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired.

Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. %7* >nder most circumstances. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. . %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. $hichever appears easiest. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. Figure '-5.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long.

All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. and individual e"perience.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. . c. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. A lookout should be posted 7: to .iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. recoilless rifles. e. or choose another route. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. Sa#ety . stream bottom configuration. d. and so on. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. a. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. speed of the current. especially heavier $eapons. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place.%)* . use a different techni#ue. f. such as mortars. b. $idth of the stream. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely.

>se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. h. .g. e. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. 2o not try to fight the current. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. seek out the closest and safest spot. for assistance or rescue. d. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. facing do$nstream. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. If the shore is too difficult to reach. such as a sandbar. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. c. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. a. b. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. In either case.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

: and .degrees. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. Figure )*-)*.egardless of the techni#ue used. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . . assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". Dn steep terrain. and traverse..:(. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.*. As the slope steepens. d. descend straight do$n the fall line. !henever possible. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. . Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B.:(. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. F!at-#ooting in the cra position.

Ese o# ice aB in &escent. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. <acking up the slope %crab position*. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. e. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side.Figure )*-)). %0* =ce 7B. raverse $ith feet flat. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. /erringbone step straight up the slope.* Crampons. logical progression. . he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. &ront(pointing. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. 3orma! 9rogression. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue.

C!im ing sequence. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. Step Cutting.e. . +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to .:(.. >sing most of these positions.:(. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately. C!im ing Sequence.0*. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. f. and move the hand up the a" shaft.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. in some cases. .emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again.1*. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure . Figure )*-).

Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. In ascending. In descending. steps may be cut straight up the slope. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. =e"t. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. Dnce the step is formed. then cut one bet$een those t$o. %. If handholds are cut. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. they should be smaller than footholds. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice.* Sno+.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. a traverse is also the preferred method. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. %0* =ce. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. . he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. and angled more. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. %'* -an&ho!&s. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. !hen changing direction.

2uring movement on steep ice. a fall %&igure . possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury.Figure )*-)1. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*.:(.'*. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. Se!#-7rrest. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. . and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. g. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. or arrest.

Se!#-arrest technique.Figure )*-)4. .

H /ead upslope. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. %. and feet pointed upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope.Figure )*-)4. back to the slope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. stomach on the slope. H /ead do$nslope. and feet pointed upslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. H /ead upslope. the climber must first gain control of his body. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. and feet pointed do$nslope. stomach on the slope. back to the slope. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. . H /ead do$nslope.

%b* In the second position. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. stomach do$n position. stomach on the slope. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. could severely injure his ankles and legs. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. . he a" is held diagonally across the chest.:(.7*.%a* In the first position. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". e"cept skis .aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. 9lissading is similar to skiing. %'* !hen a fall occurs. controlled. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. rapid descent. %c* In the third position. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. %d* In the fourth position. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. If crampons are not $orn. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike.

he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. Squatting <!issa&e. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. Also. brake. Sa#ety. . but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. $hich serves as the rudder. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. Sitting <!issa&e. he same balance and control are necessary. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. as painful injury could result. pick.are not used. b. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. and the other hand on the shaft. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. c. and guide for the glissade. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$.

or any large items.Figure )*-)5. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. flukes. <!issa&ing techniques. and ice pitons. backpacks. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. a. . >sed singularly. sleds. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . %.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. deadman(type anchors.: inches in length. skis. =ce 9itons. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. ice scre$s.

$hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand.)*. Figure )*-)6. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed.4*. c. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. =ce piton pair. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. $hen placed correctly. !hen an ice piton is removed. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. making further use difficult. he pair of pitons. such as top roping. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. are multidirectional.:(. If it pulls out or appears $eak.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure .:( . he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. =ce Scre+s. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. move to another spot and replace it. or the ice may crack or soften.

he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. %. or the ice may crack or soften.* %'* As $ith ice pitons.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. such as top roping. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.%. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. . %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. must be removed before further use. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . Figure )*-)7. If repeated use is necessary for one installation.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in.

-orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. %. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. pickets. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. !hen constructed of sno$. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s.d. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location.: feet. depending on the strength of the ice.:(.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. In ice. Figure )*-)". or other e#uipment for added strength. . -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. the $idth should not be less than . %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed.5*. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. e.

If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. .* !henever possible.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid.%. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. A similar anchor. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. sno$shoes. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. frayed. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. such as a picket or a". he direction of pull on long items. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. ski poles. t$o or more anchors should be used. f. should be at a right angle to its length.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. .:(. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. or other fi"ed rope installations.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. also. rappel points. skis. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. %&igure . If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. %. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried.

for more information*. <y using this . =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary.e#ualiAed anchor. :o2ement. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. the tie(in is modified slightly. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall.:(4. all climbers move simultaneously. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. Covement on 9laciers. !hen crevasses are e"pected. Figure )*-)'. +hould any member fall. a. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. Tie-=n :etho&. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. b. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. a three(man rope team is recommended. %+ee paragraph . the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. .

9enerally. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a".method. . and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. %oot-aB e!ay. called the 6team arrest. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$.*. %. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. Figure )*-.* %oot-7B %e!ay. c.:(0:*.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. Dn steeper slopes.

portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. FiBe& .opes. ridgelines. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. or cliffs. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. %1* :unter -itch. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. As the movement continues. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. also. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. . H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. H .%0* %o&y %e!ay. d. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time.

sho$s a cross section of a glacier. Characteristics an& De#initions. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. %&igure .* Figure )*-. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. and &igure . <!acier cross section.:(00 depicts common glacier features.a.). .:(0.

Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall.. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.. %. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. .* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer.Figure )*-. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. <!acier #eatures.

hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. . As you approach this area. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. %.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. %. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier.. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. <e cautious. %. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. he firn line can change annually. . %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. %.

+no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . %. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. In $inter. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. o$ard the end of the summer. $hen visibility is poor. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. %. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. %. %0. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. icefalls. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %.%. and ice avalanches. b. %.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier.

Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure .:(01*. Figure )*-. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. . criss(crossed $ith crevasses. %. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer.:(0'*.in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall.1.

. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. use the -rusik to belay each other in.Figure )*-. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. assess the situation. o locate the positions. if three people are on a team. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. ie in to the bights and the ends. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse.4. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. he simplest and most common . If four people are on a team. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. the remaining members go into team arrest. If the team members need to assemble in one area.

%7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. c. A roped team of t$o. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . halting the fall. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges.ope& :o2ement. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. their security being the team arrest. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. . is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. $hile ideal for rock climbing. 9enerally.:(07*. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. he best combination is a three(man rope team. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. . -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions.

ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. he remaining 6thirds6 . his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes.Figure )*-. %0* . the rope should be divided into thirds.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. $hether improvised or premanufactured. <ecause of this. %. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope.* . he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. as for a four(person team. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people.5. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement.

Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. If necessary. &or safety reasons. /o$ever. e. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. !hen . Ese o# 9rusik Knots. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. attached to the rucksack. by itself. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. may be e"tremely difficult.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. $ith double fishermanUs knots.. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . If an individual should fall into a crevasse. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. Securing the %ackpack. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. if $arm clothing is needed.ucksack. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps.0(foot ropes. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. d. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. forming endless loops or slings. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. or carried over the head and shoulder. <efore movement. he ends of the ropes are tied together. the chance of it failing is much greater. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it.

melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. and icefalls. they only supplement. . An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. %. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$.* In the area of the firn line. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. Dpen crevasses are obvious. /o$ever. $hich covers glacier ice. connecting both sides of it. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. f. =arro$ cracks may be covered. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. Crossing Cre2asses. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. steep terminal or lateral moraines.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. the sno$. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. large crevasses remain open. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. heavily crevassed portions.outes. and do not take the place of. %. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. In this Aone. . g.hanging from the drop cord. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite.

but difficult to detect in flat light. a crevasse is probably present. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. the team may proceed. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. its detection is difficult. In such a situation. and may form firmer bridges. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. %. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. If he is. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. h. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. . <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. Sno+ %ri&ges. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. and gradually turn into glacier ice. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect.

7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . 2o not stamp the sno$.: feet back from the edge. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. =umber t$o belays number three across. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. i. he assumes the belay position. %c* he leader should move for$ard. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. Dnce the second is across. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. %1* In crossing crevasses. .

/o$ever.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. the rope is al$ays kept taut. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. if the person $as almost across. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. =umber 1 must al$ays be . the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. using the -rusik as a self belay. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. to anchor the rope. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. % his scenario is for a team of three. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension.. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope.%. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall.

as a minimum.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*.. =ormally. number . =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . close to number 0. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . j. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. onto the anchor. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number .Us anchor. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. if the middle person should fall through. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. $ould anchor the rope by himself. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . Cre2asse . and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the .escue Techniques. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. assumes the role of number 1. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to .

he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members.ope Teams. clips number 1Us rope to himself.ope. such as an ice a". ski pole.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. %0* FiBe& . 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously.edge. In order to reduce friction. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. If necessary. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. place padding. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. . ski. or backpackKrucksack.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . If the fallen climber is not injured. In some situations. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. on the edge of the ice. =umber . the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. As the assisting team pulls. %. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik.

the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. to ascend the rope. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. %&igure . he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . Dther times. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. or 6stirrup.person in the crevasse. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope.6 of the long sling. %f* he procedure is repeated. /o$ever.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor.

9rusik ascen&ing technique.::(pound load $ith this system. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. A pulley can be used here if available. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. and they have decided to install the V rig. Figure )*-. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System.:(04*.. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. In theory. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number .support. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. If additional rope teams are not immediately available.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . % his scenario is for a team of three.6 system. to the anchor. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. In actual field use.6. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . he follo$ing describes rigging of the system.

3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. he system is no$ ready for another haul.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. . C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0.6 system. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. H !ith the 61(to(. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul.

he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. =ormally. a. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. poles. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n.7.Figure )*-. a crevasse is present. at least eight feet in length. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. . Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. and so on. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers.

or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas.* &or block construction. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. d. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. by . or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. therefore. ry to find a solid platform. tactical situation. Air evacuation is preferred: however. In deep soft sno$. At a minimum. distance to be moved. 7t is. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. :ountain . the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site.b. If a dugout latrine is necessary. the weather. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. terrain. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. c. %. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . Under these conditions. Dccasionally $hile probing. $hich keeps tents closer together. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. probe again after digging. and e)isting installations. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. If a latrine area is needed. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. e. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. by 0 feet. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent.

&or a planned rescue. resume victimUs breathing. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. c. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. Dne person.* Assume command. . %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues.evel 7 and .2. physician/s assistant. . and maintain moderate body $armth. .escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. is overall in charge at all times. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. . hey are. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. . 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. b.nsure that the C. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. %. ho$ever. medic%. a. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay.evel 777 supervising. and one person only. control serious bleeding.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a .VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. /o$ever. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues.sufficient.

if available. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. .escue 6perations . avalanche run(out Aone. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. hanging glacier. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. environmental haAard. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. continually monitor pulse. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. a. vehicle. 9!anning . the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation.esist the urge for action. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. T-$ . and terrain at hand. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. or any other immediate haAard. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. or a change in $eather. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. should be used for evacuation. . +peed is less important than correct action. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment.If the victim is unconscious.$SCE$. possibility of falling rocks*.

Cake a realistic estimate of time available . his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. he task must be identified. and evacuation.* After identifying the task. treatment. $hen. and the nature of their injuries. d. c. $here. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. priority. routine. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. H Are additional personnel. H . H . Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. and ho$ the situation happened.b. tactical immediate*. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. $hy. security. In planning a rescue. H actical situation. H errain features and location of the casualties. medical. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. H -lan the action. rescue.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. $hat.

ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. $arm clothes. ropes. !ith all rescue techni#ues. $alking trails. reliable trails or roads is essential. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. and so on*. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. lo$ering lines. fi"ed lines.* In estimating time available. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. bivouac sacks. Age and physical condition may vary. blood pressure. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. ime becomes the critical element. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. . tents. drugs started. sleeping bags. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. stove. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. e. and the personnel and e#uipment available. Ca"imum use of secure. and rescue belay points*. and stretchers. anchor points. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. %c* !hen performing all rescues. pulse rate. If the victim is airlifted out. hot food and #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. the situation. %0* Consider altitude and visibility.

=6.=6. H 9. Specia! Training .T.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. b. H 9.D ST7<$4 . but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.=6.ST7<$4 . and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. . H S$C63D ST7<$4 . such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. .=6.ST ST7<$4 .otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.%1* .=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. H T-=. e"treme cold. separate stages are taken. H F=. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation. . H F6E.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. .vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. In high altitudes.=TD T-. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.=TD F6E.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. H 9. available time is drastically reduced. or gusting $inds. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. a.emove dead personnel.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.

* re#uires a '. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. %. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. four(hand.. . the best method of manual transportation is selected.ope Carry. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. t$o(hand. he sling(rope carry %&igure . it can be lost through carelessness. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. a. piggyback. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. herefore. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. rough handling. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. or inade#uate protection from the elements.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. before trying to move the $ounded soldier.* S!ing-. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. 6ne-:an Carries. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. difficult terrain. pistol belt. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours.(. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. saddleback. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid.

. and back around to the front of the bearer.K0( meter coiled rope. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. %0* . $hen available. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. S!ing-rope carry. -adding. %f* he rope must be tight. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. Figure ))-). %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. around the casualtyUs thighs. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim.ope Coi! Carry. crosses the ends.

%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. b. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. pulling the casualty onto his back. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation.appe!. . %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. In this case. the bearer carefully stands. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. If this is not done. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. %u&&y .

depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. . %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. from left to right. %0* A '. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. over his left shoulder. and back under the victimUs left armpit. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. from right to left. he victim straddles the carrier. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. %7* he rope is run diagonally.%. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. from right to left. across the victimUs back. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake.0(meter sling rope is used. across the carrierUs chest.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. he rope is run diagonally.

hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. easy to carry. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. over the shoulder. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. nature of injuries. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. behind the neck. If the litter must be carried. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. belayed.* he poleless. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. and then do$n along the other arm. a. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. It can be improvised $ith poles. $hich are se$n on one side. . and e#uipment available. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. depending on the terrain. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. and then routed up along the handling arm. as described above.%.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. and readily available. and then carried again. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. on traverse lines. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. %. he rope is folded in half. :anu#acture& 8itters.

!hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system.1. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. $hich is a potential breaking point. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. .(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations.5. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. .%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. %+ee &C 5(.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable.

shirts.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. scoop stretchers. benches. tarpaulin. A litter can be improvised from many different things. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment.6*-). ponchos. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. . . not dragging on the ground. If a poncho is used. these objects should be padded. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. a large item. skis. %..(0*. the hood must be up and under the victim. jackets.(0):(. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.. Figure ))-. tent supports.. bags. /o$ever. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. or mattress covers. +uch objects include boards.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. %0* If poles cannot be found.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . b. If possible. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. ladders. sacks. shelter halves.. cots. doors.0. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. $indo$ shutters. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. such as a blanket. and poles. and other similar items.

. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available.(1*. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). little material e"ists to construct litters. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches.ach clove hitch should be about .. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. make a clove hitch over each bight. centimeters long. . %b* !ith the remainder of the rope.ope !itter. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. sleeping bags. empty bo"es. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. . he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. 3ote4 Above the tree line. Figure ))-1.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete.

%7* -ull up on the rope.(meter poles. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. and place a carabiner into the loop. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles.* &irst. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. a. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. ake t$o . 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. 2o not remove the belay.7 centimeters. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . . ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider.escue Systems . %. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. %e!ay 7ssist. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. After placing the clove hitches over the bights. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. .

b. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. %e!ay $scape. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. o improve this system. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. .emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance.* After a climber has been injured. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. %5* . %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. %7* . he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. %.

%1* %ackup Sa#eties. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. %0* %e!ays. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. $hich must be surmounted.%)* . and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. and other variables. are often encountered along the evacuation path. a. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. . transferring the $eight to the anchor. %. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. hand $inches. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used.aising System. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. belays. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. rope(edge friction. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. backup safety -rusiks are used to . he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system.* . !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. . the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes.aising systems. . A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. In practice. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable.

( '*. c. if possible. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. he litter is prepared as already described.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. % his is the signalman or relay man.aising the 8itter.safeguard the system. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. Descen&ing S!opes. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. %. taking care not to jar the casualty.. b. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. . . %.

practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. if used. %1* he most direct. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*.Figure ))-4. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation .(7*: a.&escen&ing. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. clearance for the casualty along the route. and anchor points for the A(frame. many different techni#ues can be used. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. good loading and unloading platforms. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . b..

$o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. Figure ))-5. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. C!i## e2acuation &escent. c. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers.:1814 Inches . continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. d. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters .the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent.

robability of survival drops rapidly and.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.. chances of survival are remote. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. .< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .1814 ..:81) .:105.14 . If any indication of the location of the victim is found.)0. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search.05. 18. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately . and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. . <enera! 9roce&ures . after two hours. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.7.. random probing starts in that vicinity. if a member of your group is in an avalanche.14 1.

Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. b. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. >sing this and any other information. Book for skis. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. gloves. If the initial search reveals items from the victim.. . >nless other$ise indicated. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. A human body. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. packs. several factors influence the bodyUs location. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. poles. ice a"es. a. make an initial probe search in that area. . urbulence. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. If using avalanche beacons. . if enough personnel are available. boots. goggles. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. usually the toe of the slide. hats. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. and mark all clues.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. terrain.

he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. Conversely. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. 9ro e 9o!es. • .fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. Cany models of transceivers are available. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. a. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. the greater $ill be his burial depth. and other obstacles act as snares. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. Although this type of pole . especially in a high $ind. • Vegetation. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . .• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. All currently available transceivers are compatible. rocks. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. although they may operate differently in the search mode. In the case of large and violent avalanches. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area.

c. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. the number of personnel per line should be limited. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. %. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. coarse probing implies a . A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim.* . he probe is left in contact and the line continues. b."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. %0* If no probing poles are available. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. 9ro ing 8ines. As evidenced by their names. 9ro ing Techniques. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. he only sure check is by digging.performs best. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. &or the probing operation to be effective. $enty per line is satisfactory. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. . Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope.

6 <y using these commands.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. $ith feet about . %.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.&D.. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. $hile the fine probe has.. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness.D<. essentially.-. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.6 6+ . $hich almost guarantees finding the body. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -.7 inches apart.6 6>. +trict discipline and firm. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace.!A. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. he probers themselves $ork silently. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. a . he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.2.D<.::(percent chance of locating the body. clear commands are essential for efficient probing.. &ine probing is the concluding measure. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated.

.D<. $hich is then moved ahead .6 6>.D<.6 6>..6 6. %b* Dn command.6 6>.-. .-. .!A. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.D<.6 6+ .ach probe is made ...D<.6 6C. -. foot.= ..: inches from the adjacent one. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B..D<.D<.ach man probes in front of his left foot.. then in the center of his straddled position.&D.& -.-..I9/ -.2. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing. and finally in front of his right foot. foot and repeats the probing se#uence.%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe. the line advances . .

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