Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.1*. 2ress the knot do$n. %. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. by tying the knot in a retrace. Figure-$ight . Checkpoints. b. a. Figure 4-). <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. Tying the Knot. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith..0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. + . . + .0.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.1.. .. + .epeat + ...+ .'.etrace /.. /o$ever..

Figure 4-)1.'. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. + . ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. + .).+ .. + ..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.. Checkpoints %. + . Figure-eight retrace. !ith the $orking end..* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. . forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. he finished knot is dressed loosely.1. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope.7.0.. b. . and route the $orking end through the loop.

+lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. Tying the Knot. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right..1. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping..%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot....0.. /old rope in both hands.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. /old the standing end in the left hand. /old the loop in the left hand.. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. !ith the right hand. he knot is tied. a. grasp the $orking end. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.'*. + .* Middle of the Rope. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. . -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.. + . palms do$n $ith hands together. + .0. depending on ho$ it is tied. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. and bring it in$ard. reach under the horiAontal anchor.'. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. %0* End of the Rope. + . %. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. + . &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.

It is a middle rope knot.. !ith the right hand. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. !hen tying this knot.. 2ress do$n the knot.+ . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.1. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. Tying the Knot.. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull.. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.'. a.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. %. + . Checkpoints. Figure 4-)4. ake up the slack from the anchor. + .7*. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. C!o2e hitch. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. . b.

+ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. and place it over the heel $rap. + . ..). palm. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.'.4. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. + .. Figure 4-)5.+ .. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. Checkpoints.7. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + .1.8.5. + .. + ... + .. + .0.. and fingertip. b. (ireman’s knot.

!ith the $rap thus formed.. + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm..)*. . + . It is a middle rope knot... fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. !hen dressing the knot do$n. + .. Tying the Knot. the tail and the bight must be together. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.0. it lays in$ard. a.1. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. Cake one $rap around the palm.%..'. + .

Directiona! #igure-eight. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . It is a middle rope knot. b. %0* he tail and bight must be together. Checkpoints.Figure 4-)6. %. .4*.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.

&rom the end %ape"* of the bight. . + .4. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. ie an overhand knot on a bight. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.a. + ..'. + .1. Tying the Knot..... + . forming t$o loops. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be....).0. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.7. + .

>sing a doubled rope.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.Figure 4-)7. . + .* It is a middle rope knot.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.5. a.. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. b. Checkpoints. %.. %o+!ine-on-a. form an . Tying the Knot.ight. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot..

b.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. a.+ . + .1.7.0.. /old the bight $ith the left hand. + . Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. .. !ith the $orking end. Figure 4-)".'. Tying the Knot. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Checkpoints. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.8*. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. + . %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.. It is a middle of the rope knot. %. 2ress the knot do$n.

!rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. . Figure-eight !oop. It is a specialty knot. a. %. Tying the Knot. + . Checkpoints.. 2ress the knot tightly.. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other...+ . !ith the bight as the $orking end.* he loop is the desired siAe. Figure 4-)'. + .. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.1. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. b.0. form a loop in rope %standing part*.

0.0(inch bight. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. + .1. 2ouble the short rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps..*.*.%. + . $ith the $orking ends even.each do$n through the . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. + .. . =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. .. Figure 4-..... 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. forming a bight.. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.0. ... >sing an arm3s length of rope. + .*: + .1. and place it over the long rope.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. + .

'. It is a specialty knot. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.. . + .). Figure 4-. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.+ . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. and not t$isted. parallel.. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot... + . . &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. Checkpoints. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.4. b.). here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.7. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. + . &orm a complete round turn in the rope.nsure they are tight. %.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.

%achman knot.0.. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.1.a.. + . Checkpoints. b. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. + . + .. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing... !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . Figure 4-. Tying the Knot.

single coil. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied.). + . !ith the running end. he standing portion is on the bottom. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. + . + .1. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. hen.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. + .. + . $ith a bight held in place by a loop. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.'.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. /olding the bight loosely. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. bring a bight up through the loop. tie an overhand around all coils...* A minimum of four $raps.. a. + . bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. b. %.0. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. Tying the Knot.4. It is a specialty knot. he running end is to the back of the body. >sing the standing part.7. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. . leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. + . -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself... not crossed. Checkpoints. ...

-lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. + . It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. !ith the right hand. Tying the Knot..1. + .0.'. It is a specialty knot.. .1. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.. + . &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight..Figure 4-. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. + .. Bay the loops to the right. a.

%1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. Figure 4-. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. b. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. %. Tying the Knot. + . It is a specialty knot.. .. a.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. Three-!oop o+!ine. Checkpoints.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.7. &orm a .4.. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.+ ..

. + .0 inches up the rope. %.0. + .1. + .). !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope...* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.'. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. Checkpoints.+ . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.:u!e Knot0 . Figure 4-..each through the bight and grasp the long. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. + . /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .5. . Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. Figure-eight s!ip knot. standing end of the rope.7.. b. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.

It is simply an overhand slip knot.6. Transport knot..0 inches long. %1* he bight is a minimum of . K!eimhiest Knot . + .. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.1.0. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-. Check 9oints. b.. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + .* here is a single overhand slip knot. a..he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. + . %..

+ .0 inches.. find the center of the rope and form a bight. . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .0. + . !rap at least four complete turns.. a...7. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. + ..'. pass them through the bight %see + . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.. It is a special( purpose knot.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.*. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.. + . !ith the ends offset. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.. + . !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.1. easily adjustable. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. Tying the Knot.

%1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.0 inches..: to . %. + . ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly..7. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. b. a.. Checkpoints.0. It is a special(purpose knot.. + . K!eimhiest knot.Figure 4-.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Tying the Knot. . It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .

%0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. + . %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. <irth hitch. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.1: Cinch the knot tightly. Checkpoints.Figure 4-.'. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. b. Checkpoint.: &orm a bight.. It is a special(purpose knot. Frost knot. a. + . %.. %.. :unter -itch . Tying the Knot. + .".* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.. Figure 4-. b.

0 inches apart.. Tying the Knot.'. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. + .1. . Check 9oints. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. !ith the right hand. /old the loop $ith the left hand. + ..* A bight passes through the carabiner. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.. a. Bock the locking mechanism. /old the rope in both hands. !ith the right hand. palms do$n about .he munter hitch.0.. %. %0* he carabiner is locked. b. + . + ... is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.

ensuring they do not cross. + .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. .. . + .0. It usually re#uires a sling rope . + . &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.'.' feet or longer.*.. + .1. .. thus creating a loop around the $aist. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. :unter hitch.. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.. Tying the Knot.Figure 4-1*.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. a..

. %.+ . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.4. Figure 4-1). uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. + . pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips..7. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. . -ull up on the ropes.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. b. tightening the seat.. Check 9oints.appe! seat. + .. &rom rear to front.). bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.

%7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. preferably ovals*. a... + . -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. Tying the Knot. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. + . . ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.0.

%. rope can only be pulled in one direction. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. b. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. Check 9oints..* !hen properly dressed. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load.Figure 4-1. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. <uar&e knot. Although mountain operations have not changed. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts.

>.). anchors. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. Countain Dperations. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. 9A 1. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. illness and injury. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective.).A2DC. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander.+.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical ice climbing. and urban vertical or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. glaciers.<D. rock climbing. for training %see Appendi" A*. both men and $omen are included. sno$(covered mountains. e#uipment.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. $henever the masculine gender is used. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. Army Infantry +chool. and actions. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. &ort <enning. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. tactics. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. A =: A +/(. >nless other$ise stated. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. movement on glaciers. evacuation.). and training.8:7(7781. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. he proponent of this publication is /F . Inclement $eather. ho$ever. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build.

but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. single ridges. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. glaciers. rehearsals. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. sno$fields. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. AcclimatiAation. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. Df the appro"imately 0. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. surprise. and $ell(led troops. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. compartments.::: kno$n minerals. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. Spring storms. conditioning. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*.

Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. d. &ace climbing can be found.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut."cept for calcite. . Bimestone has pockets. . . he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. <rassy S!opes. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. Cha!k an& 8imestone. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. found in limestone. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. . !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. and it is usually difficult to protect. granite dries #uickly. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. and de$. +topping a slide on small. f. &ace climbing is possible. e.ockfall danger is high. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. After long. conglomerate type stones may be loose. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. <ranite. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. S!ate an& <neiss. ne$ sno$. it cannot be protected. face climbing. and cracks. . b. After a rain. c. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. San&stone.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. ho$ever.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. a.

Ascending scree is a tedious task. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. . he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. internal heat. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. but smaller than boulders.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. g. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. %. under pressure. !hen the cooling occurs at depth.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. Scree. h. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri".ocks.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. avoid scree $hen ascending.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . or. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. and over time. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. =gneous . -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell.ock C!assi#ications . Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. his results in an intrusive rock. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. Ta!us.ocks. a. /o$ever. he magma may move up$ard. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". If possible. .

ocks. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. produce basalt. Fuieter eruptions. . forced bet$een sedimentary strata.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. herefore. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. . !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. Barge %. and dikes. Adirondacks. In plutonic rocks.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. %1* Cointing . or clusters of segregated minerals. $hich cut across the strata. In the Alps.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. it is called 6tuff."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*.ockies. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill.ocks. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock.and crystalliAing. =orth Cascades. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. +ierras.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. . Dccasionally. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks.

$hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. hese changes may be minimal. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. +hale changes to slate or schist. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. but cleavage or foliation. and limestone to marble. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone.b. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. lakes. In fact. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. Se&imentary . <ecause of this cleavage. c. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. After sediments are solidified.ocks. :etamorphic . he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. %. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. $hich offers . %. or oceans. he Canadian . only slightly altering the sediments. As sediments accumulate. especially in limestone.ocks. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface.

he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. b. often accompanies up$arp. $hich results in fault(block mountains. ocean trenches. =evada. volcanoes. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. %. granitic continental crust.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. &aulting. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. :ountain Structure. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. he breakage e"tends . and mountain ridge systems. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. e"posing the central igneous core. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. . heaving up fold mountains.$orld class climbing. forming fault(block mountain ranges. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. a. and to pull apart and crack. and heavier. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. the Dlympics of !ashington. . and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. 9!ate Tectonics. $hich also provides solid climbing.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers.* Dome :ountains.

leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. he best kno$n is the 6. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . Core often. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. central core is all that remains. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. %1* Fo!& :ountains. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. ho$ever. the oldest. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. ectonic forces. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. it is faulted on one side only. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases.

In addition.idge. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. the Caucasus region. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines.ift Valley of . the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. a. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. Asian arc. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian($n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. he I2+ classes are: . and the . Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. . there are folds measured by a rope length. domed. and faulted. . Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. and the Cediterranean. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores.

H Class '—<elayed climbing."posed positions. climbing techni#ue. %'* Class 7. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure."tremely great difficulty. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. often combined $ith small belay points. belay and emplace intermediate protection. H Class 1—Climbing. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue.'—Bittle difficulty. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary.)—Cedium difficulty. his is the simplest form of free climbing. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %.:(7. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection.:—.. . Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. and e"perience re#uired. /ands are necessary to support balance.* b.7—Coderate difficulty. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. %0* Class 7. %1* Class 7. . -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. %4* Class 7. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. .—/iking trail.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition."traordinary difficulty.5—Very great difficulty.* Class 7.4—9reat difficulty.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. $hich may have some e"posure. /igh physical conditioning. hree points of contact are necessary. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. %7* Class 7.H Class . %)* Class 7.8—.

6 or 6L.'—9reater increases of difficulty.5J*. the 6. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. d. %0* A. 7..* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.:d*. c.5. c. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling. if a fall $as e"perienced. in a classification of 7. e"perience.' %for e"ample. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. %&or e"ample. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. ground fall $ould occur. %.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area..* A:—M&rench(free. re#uiring more climbing ability.. %5* Class 7.(7. and energy e"penditure.* Classes are further divided into a. 7.6 indicates periods of run(out $here.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level..asy aid..: to 7. b. and d categories starting from 7. . here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out... he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %.—.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample.

are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm.5*. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. III — About three(fourths of a day. such as A1J or A1(. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. %)* A7—. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement.%1* A0—Coderate aid. %7* A'—+erious aid. All protection is sketchy at best. %'* A1—/ard aid. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length.K0 days %usually not less than 7. ho$ever.4*. =o serious fall danger."treme aid. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. %4* A)—. long fall potential does e"ist. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. . VI — 9reater than 0 days. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. II — /alf of a day. e. hese falls. . IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing."tremely severe aid. /o$ever. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. If the leader falls.K0 to 0 . V — . H H H H H H I — +everal hours. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall.

c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.c 'a.b 7b. 'b hard severe. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it...5 VI( severe.f..b 0c.' 7. hard severe.1K.:.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.c 7b.c.c.: 7. hard severe.c ..'.1 7.b.:b VII .7b 7. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.:d VIIJ .1 IIIsup ..c 7b.c )a.b 0a.0 7. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.a VIII( ...a.1. 7. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .4 .c 0a.).b.7b 7..5 . DDS Class .c 7a. hard very 7.7b 7.'a 1b..:a VII( .7 ....b..) 7.)a 7. 'a severe.8 VI 7a 7.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup . H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.0.)b . Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems..)a 7.c VIII .'a 1b.b. 'c 7.c )a..oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.b VIII .(.7 7.0.8 IIsup ..'a 'a.1a 1b.urope. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.b...b.8 0: 0.c 7b.b.K. sho$s a comparison of these systems.* easy %. H <raAilian—<raAil uses .'.c )a.* moderate %CD2* . III ...a.c 7b..* easy %.:c VII .. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7. able .c.7b(7c 7.

easy climb near the road. and more of it. . H V — A long climb in a remote setting. $ith objective haAards ever(present..0d IL( IL IL ILJ . or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. AI %alpine ice*. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.0a 7.7. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent.0b 7. . his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards.. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. H I — A short.)c 4a 05 .7. all in a remote area. his route is subject to objective haAards. .7.. $ith little objective haAard.ating systems. g. 2ifficult physically and mentally. A difficult and involved approach and descent. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .)K4.)K4. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.)K4. %.atings. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-).verything a grade VI has. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. possibly $ith a haAardous descent. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. H VII — .)K4.. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.7. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.. and the route might be prone to avalanche..* Commitment .0c 7. $ith sustained technical climbing.oman numerals. -ossibly days to approach the climb.. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .)c 4a VIII 0) .

and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. H 7 — A long. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. physically and mentally. $ith places to rest. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. he pitch may be shorter. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. strenuous pitch. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. re#uiring agility and creativity. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. erratic $eather. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. H . but on featureless ice.atings. additional information may be needed about siAe. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. !hen planning mountain operations. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. An e"tremely tough pitch. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good.%0* Technica! . — A froAen lake or stream bed. a. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. location. .

%0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. H 2o not rush. put on dry clothing. %. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. stay $arm. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. during severe mountain storms. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. and amounts of precipitation. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. and calm. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. c.b. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. but do not overdress. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. H If lost. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. H ?eep $arm. Co2er an& Concea!ment .* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. types. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. if possible. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. dry. H ?eep dry.

boulders. /o$ever. hail. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. In alpine environments. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. outcroppings. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications.!hen moving in the mountains. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. sleet. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. and fog can limit visibility. a. +ome rock types. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. like observation. Conversely. sno$. /o$ever. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. . heavy vegetation. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. dead space is a problem at short ranges. b. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. in depth. In other areas. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. rain. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. are easily e"cavated. As in all operations. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. are e"cellent at long ranges. such as volcanic tuff. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. . positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection.

rainfall. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. or a rise in temperature. a. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. . Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. b. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. If an une"pected $ind strikes. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. and $eather factors. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. . latitude. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. sno$ conditions.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. especially in $inter. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. It varies from stormy $inds to calm.

lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. he barometer usually drops 0. +ome mountains. <ecause of this increased dryness. such as those found in desert regions. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. In tropical regions. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. At higher altitudes.c. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. d. the thinner. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. a. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. (eather Characteristics . especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. . he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. b. 2ue to the cold. conse#uently. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system.

Associated $ith bad $eather. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. oceans.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. humidity %moisture content*. the better the $eather $ill be. Bo$ pressure.::: feet.* -igh 9ressure. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Associated $ith clear skies. the lo$er the pressure. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. he higher in altitude. In order to understand this. !ith lo$er air pressure. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. %.. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun.1 millibars %mb*. and if it is being lifted or not. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. land masses. and the earth3s rotation.:. ho$ it is being moved.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. on the other . a. he higher the pressure.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. b. air pressure %barometric pressure*.

strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. <ecause of these funneling effects. >sually. . c. b. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. a. c. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. 2uring the $inter season. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. Dn a $eather map.hand. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. dense clouds fill the air. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. and sinks to the earth3s surface. !ith increasing $ind strength. =ormally. or at high altitudes. Above hot surfaces. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs.6 (in& In high mountains.

6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause.d.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. $et air mass. there are three prevailing $inds: %. due to the earth3s rotation. . his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. f. dry air mass. g. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. Caritime ropical — $arm. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. Caritime -olar — cold. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. Continental ropical — $arm. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. has settled to the surface. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. e. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. dry air mass. In the =orthern /emisphere. $et air mass. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude.

de$. b. . he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s.. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. If the air contains a great deal of $ater.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. the $armer the air. rain.:: percent relative humidity. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends.0 degrees &ahrenheit per .:: percent relative humidity*. sno$. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. fog. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. and so on*.%. clouds are formed. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. a. and thermometer. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. the more moisture it can hold. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. $ind meter.7 degrees &ahrenheit per .. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0.

Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. d. b. a. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. Fronta! 8i#ting. Clouds can be described in many $ays. . Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally.(. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. mid(. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting.(0*. !hen temperatures are cold enough. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation.a. c.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . +ince air masses $ill not mi". Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. Cyc!onic 8i#ting.7:: feet. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). hey can be classified by height or appearance. 6rographic 8i#ting. it has no$here to go but up. and .

.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . Cumu!us C!ou&s. 3im ostratus C!ou&s.. Figure )-.Figure )-).(1 and .('*. Stratus C!ou&s. %. Figure )-1.

especially if the cloud is more than 1.::: feet . <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation.Figure )-4. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation.

composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. 7!tocumu!us. though usually hours a$ay. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height.::: feet thick. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. .(7 and .::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.thick. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1.7:: to 0:. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. especially if they are rising over time. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. Figure )-6. Figure )-5. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. Cold clouds.()*. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). 7!tostratus.* b.

he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. As the storm approaches. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. . -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. produces a ring of light around the moon.(4 and &igure . a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. !ith altostratus. in a blue sky.%. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. emperatures are $arm. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. at night. Figure )-7. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. humidity rises. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or.(5*. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. Cirrus. c.

%. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. Cirrostratus. d. or seemingly all tangled together. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals.::: feet. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation.::: feet.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. . he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. shaped like a comma. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:.Figure )-". cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. As a result. releasing incredible amounts of energy. ?no$n for their flat bases and . Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. %. hey can be nearly straight.

>nder favorable conditions. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. an artifact of erosion. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. and tornadoes.(8*. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . . Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18.distinct outlines. damaging $inds. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. ice crystals dominate the composition. . large hail. 9iven suitable conditions. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. ho$ever. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface.::: feet or higher. As the air rises. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line.

is lifted up$ard. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. Cumu!onim us. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. stable air encounters a mountain.Figure )-'. . the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . hey are orographic clouds. and cools. If they gro$ and descend. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud.(. and contrails. %. >pon reaching the mountain top. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. !ith continued descent. bad $eather can be e"pected. e. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. similar to a 6flying saucer. /o$ever. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. Dnce the air returns to its original height. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. Initially. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. 6ther C!ou& Types. lenticulars.:*. $arming as it descends.

especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . especially if the sky is . f. 8inticu!ar. C!ou& =nterpretation.(. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. Contrai!s.. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate.*. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Figure )-)).Figure )-)*.

!hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. and stationary. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. . A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. cumulus. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. being more dense than $arm air. Cold air. occluded. 6cc!u&e& Front. $ill force the $arm air up. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. d. cirrostratus. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. nimbostratus %producing rain*. altostratus. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. Co!& Front. <ecause $arm air is less dense. c. cirrostratus. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts.covered $ith cumulus clouds. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. there . he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. a. b. to the local sky. cold. Stationary Front. (arm Front. it becomes a stationary front. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. and nimbostratus. he four types of fronts are $arm. Dccasionally. and fog. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. it is a $arm occlusion.

Temperature =ormally. a. b. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$.::: feet of elevation typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. clear. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. sno$. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. and precipitation*. calm mornings. . emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every .::: feet of elevation gain.. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. and heat loss through thermal radiation.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. <esides permitting rapid heating. the temperature of the air drops 7. due to convection currents. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. At high altitudes.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . fog. Conse#uently. the temperature of the air drops 1... his cooler. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. subarctic. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. and mid(latitudes.

are also helpful. if today $as hot and dry. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. herefore. but more slo$ly %1. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. temperature. including >+A&. the amount of data available. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience.c. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. $ind meter. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. b. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. thermometer. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. . a.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. . !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. or the =ational !eather <ureau. o be effective. >+=. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %.0 degrees &ahrenheit per ..* 9ersistence :etho&. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts.

%'* 7na!og :etho&. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. this may not al$ays be the case. /o$ever. (in& Direction. . his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. &or e"ample. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing.%0* Tren&s :etho&. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. are blo$ing. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. and so forth. Assess $ind speed in knots. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. a. %. (in& Spee&. tents. %0* If no anemometer is available. estimate the speed in knots.* If an anemometer is available. Ideally. . high( and lo$(pressure centers. under changing conditions. such as trees. assess speed to the nearest knot. b. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. Aisi i!ity in :eters. and clouds and precipitation. c. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. bushes.

haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. degrees &. %. g. hail..stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. total cloud cover is 'K5. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. $Bamp!e4 '.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm.77. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon.77 P 7 degrees C. e. then estimate to the best of your ability. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. 9resent (eather. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . . =ote if bases are above all terrain. colder temperatures.* !ith a thermometer. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds.. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P .5 J 10 P '. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . heavy do$npours. . Tota! C!ou& Co2er.d. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. 7 degrees C " . Temperature.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning.5 times C plus 10. Cei!ing -eight. If clouds are not touching terrain.* f. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. degrees & Q 10 " . Assess total cloud cover in eighths. . &og. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. %&or e"ample. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.

A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. !ith a barometer or altimeter.%0* !ithout a thermometer. 9ressure Tren&. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Increase in precipitation. as $ell as an estimated temperature. %. Changes in obstructions to visibility. Increasing cloud coverage. Carked $ind speed increases. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. he closer the isometric lines are. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. 6 ser2e& (eather. Carked cooler temperature changes. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. i. assess the pressure trend. %. . h. Carked increase in humidity. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction.

or as a combination %human trigger*. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s .opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. j. Increasing barometric pressure. e#uipment misuse*. and poor judgment. such as lack of preparation. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. climbing above one3s ability. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. a. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. over(fatigue. choice of route.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. bad $eather. and flooding %especially in gullies*. improper diet. Fa!!ing. carelessness. avalanche run(out Aones. b. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. %i2ouac Site. If the possibility of falling e"ists. $ind. age. lightning. dehydration. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. heavy e#uipment. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. tour. $quipment. overestimating ability. /umidity decreases. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. . man(made %caused by an individual. a hold breaking a$ay. or e"cessive use. overe"ertion. &alling can be caused by carelessness. Ep&ate. rope in. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. companions. or other reasons. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. c.

!hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. rockfalls. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. g. If you must cross these danger areas. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. acclimatiAe slo$ly. <u!!ies. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. sno$. icefalls. c. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8.7:: feet*. endurance and concentration is reduced. 7!titu&e. Aisi i!ity. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses.ock#a!!. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation.: kilograms %about 0. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. storms.ock. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. lightning. At high altitudes %especially over ). If ice is in the gully. b. it is best to rope up. a. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. 72a!anches.* f. e. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. +leep $ell. Cre2asses. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. hanging glaciers and seracs. %. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. and so on. darkness. >se a route sketch and march table. . &og. Avoid. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. If you must move under these conditions. rain. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*.efer to paragraph . stay hydrated. As this slope increases . d. .::: pounds*. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. if at all possible."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year.

A clear. isolated trees. shallo$ overhangs. but dehydration is of greater concern. . it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope.from 07 to 1: degrees. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. cracks that guide $ater. Bightning is fre#uent. Bike$ise. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. as a glacier makes a bend. ridges. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour.* Avoid peaks. the force #uadruples. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. c. e. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. cracks filled $ith earth. . . a. rock $alls. haAardous icefalls can be formed. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. and a bluish light %+t. hair standing on end. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. herefore. d. fi"ed $ire installations. shallo$ depressions. Above appro"imately 5. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. Air is dryer at higher altitudes.::: feet. humming of metal objects.: kilometers apart. crackling. and rock needles. %. +eek shelter around dry. caves*. b. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. violent.

being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. If it is sno$ing. . i. &or each .%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. $indburn. % able . touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place.0 to . gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. j. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. 2rink plenty of fluids. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. and debris being blo$n about. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit.::(meter rise in altitude.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. g. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. rain. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. 2uring and after rain. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope.5 inches@ ho$ever. h. If already rappelling. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together.* . especially $hen combined $ith $ind. f. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. even if overcast. the sno$ #uickly melts. If half $ay up the rock face. and sno$. $hich may bury the trail. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly.

2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. S!ope Sta i!ity. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. a. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e.* S!ope 7ng!e. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees.7 degrees have avalanched. %. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. %1* S!ope 7spect.. +lopes as gentle as .Ta !e )-. but may occur on concave slopes. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger.

%'* (eight.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. heavy e#uipment. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. %1* (in&. %. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. e"plosions. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. -assing helicopters. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. Various factors trigger avalanches. . %'* <roun& Co2er. c. $arm days. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. +ustained $inds of . %Dn at least one occasion. the potential for avalanche is high. b. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability.7 centimeters per hour or greater*.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. Dn grassy slopes or scree. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. %.sunny. At temperatures above freeAing.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. Triggers. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. %0* 9recipitation. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. especially if temperatures rise #uickly.* Temperature. . 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . %7* Ai ration. Sno+ 9its.

here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. Dnce the pit is complete. to the ground. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. then t$ice. through all the sno$. o conduct the test. If the block is still holding up. smooth the face $ith a shovel. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column.pit across the fall line. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. %1* Conduct a . d. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. place the other foot on the block. =e"t.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg.utschblock test. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. and so on. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. Dnce above. o isolate the rear of the column. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. s#uat once. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. %. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches.

settled sno$. Dther measures include: . lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. 9rotecti2e :easures. &or normal density. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. .during the $inter sno$ season. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. Barge avalanches of this type. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. +lab release is rapid. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. d.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. Although any avalanche can kill you. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. a drop in temperature of . %b* As slabs become harder. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify.: degrees Celsius %. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing.

%0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$.%. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. far from the bottom of slopes. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. >se them for lunch and rest stops.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. -repare to discard e#uipment. and not directly up the center. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. climb to the side of the avalanche path. . 2eploy avalanche cord. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. %.oute Se!ection. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. %. ridges. $hich is al$ays the best choice.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. %0* <roup Sa#ety. . Sta i!ity 7na!ysis.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. f. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. avoid moving during these periods. -ut your hood on. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. e. If you must traverse. as $ell as protect your spine. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. . Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer.

g. .* 2iscard e#uipment. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. %1* If your head goes under the sno$.%0* Fracture 8ines. and the body temperature is lo$ered. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. If you feel your feet touch the ground. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. If you feel yourself about to pass out. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. hold your breath. their pulse rate declines. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. %)* ry to rela". Sur2i2a!. %1* Soun&s. %. ID>. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche.* :ountain 8i2ing .#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. BI&. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. &I9/ &D. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. no one can hear you scream. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. shut your mouth. it may be impossible to dig yourself out.. they $ould avoid the avalanche. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. do not fight it.

and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. Dne #uart of $ater. fire building. or the . 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. #ormal activities $navigation. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. raining should include: psychological preparation.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. perspiration. &luids lost through respiration. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. health haAards. communications. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues.(4)*. /yperventilation and the cool. a. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. shelter considerations. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. locating $ater.

-otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. juices. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. severe cramping may result. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. c. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. rain. Conserve $ater for drinking. thirst should be satisfied in increments.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. +no$. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. springs. physical activity must be reduced. If the $ater supply is insufficient. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. d. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. ho$ever. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. &ruits. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. . and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*.e#uivalent. . Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. mountain streams. b. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. e. and a loss of . -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use.0 #uarts %. -urification must be accomplished. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater.

Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . assembly area. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0.'. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. !ater is scarce above the timberline. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. high mountain areas freeAe. defense*. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. . f. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. After sundo$n. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. a. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. If possible. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. !ater that is unfit to drink."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling.::: feet*. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. but other$ise not dangerous.drinking $ater. a $atering party should be employed. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available.(4)*. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. precautions must be taken. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. b.

and loss of appetite. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. fats. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. milk. butter. and meats. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. regardless of physical activity. Cain sources of fats are meats. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. and carbohydrates. or milk proteins. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. milk. is 5 ounces for a . &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. . Dther foods such as cereals. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. he amino acids. poultry. c. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. resulting from digestion of protein. metabolic changes. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. %. amino acids.of cold rations. eggs. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. fish. and legumes also provide amino acids. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. nuts. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. cheese. vegetables. %0* Fats. fiber. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. eggs. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. vitamins. and cheese.7'(pound man. and minerals. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. energy. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. hese food components provide energy. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. Df the total daily caloric intake. Although there is no physiological need for hot food.* 9rotein. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body.

vegetables. and meats. vegetables. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins.: days. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. . Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. =utritionally. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. d. and Ainc. and fruit. fruits*. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs.. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. vegetables. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. depending on the soldier. especially if this period is to e"ceed .%1* Car ohy&rates. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. vitamin supplements should be considered. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. and ?. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. .* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. phosphorous. a balanced diet is a necessity. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of .ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. fruits. %'* Aitamins. %. iron. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. 2. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. %7* Cinerals. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . In the form of glucose.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. $hich are found in cereals. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. .

At higher elevations. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition.. o conserve fuel. herefore.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. !hen cooking. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. fruits. and cider should also be considered. and chocolate. marked. juices. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. . &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. tea. . candies. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. %1* . and illness.::(pound man*.7:: calories for garrison activity.s $ith breakfast bars."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation.. fires. Commanders may consider supplementing C. are important in maintaining energy levels. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. and be eaten hot or cold. the cooking time may be doubled. thus releasing heat. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. >se stoves and heat . +ince coffee. metal containers.$orks. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. and hot chocolate are diuretics. stoves. %About '. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. cereal bars. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. juices. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. cramps.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. shortness of breath. po$dered milk. Carbohydrates. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. /ot beverages of soup. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.

the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. 9ersona! -ygiene. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. ahkios. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. medications. alcohol. hydration. nose. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. As all missions are tactical. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. and burial sites. In freeAing $eather. %. no trace of a unit should be detected. a. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. herefore. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. and eyelids. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. %7* Certain drugs. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. !hen operating in areas . mainly during periods of cold $eather.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. garbage should be burned or deep buried. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. and judgment of soldiers. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. If possible. perspiration. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. his is especially important in the high mountains. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation.

Sanitation. digging latrines is usually difficult. and discoloration. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. but must be #uickly dried. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. and kept as dry and clean as possible. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. blisters. cracks. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. !henever changing socks. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. &eet should be $ashed daily. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet.$here resupply is not possible. the soldier in a designated. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. $hich may cause blisters. In rocky or froAen ground.6 +ince $aste freeAes. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. In tactical situations. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. b. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. If laundering of clothing is difficult. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. dried. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. it can . If latrines are constructed. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$.

he e"pectation that freshly deployed. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. $here altitude illness is the rule.::: feet. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. Very high altitude is the region from . Altitude illness is common covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.::: feet.::: to . high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. $aste may be covered $ith stones.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures.::: to 5. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. Above 5.::: feet %high elevation*.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. .5.'. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. /ere. Areas above . Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation.::: feet. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . /o$ever. conditioning. Coderate altitude is from 7. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes.::: feet.*. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.'.::: to . unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. employment of the local population may be advantageous.::: feet.'.::: to 5. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories.::: feet and ending at . starting at about 5. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. In rocky areas above the timberline. and training of soldiers.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.5. At these altitudes.4.*.

incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.::: feet.5 percent may have severe symptoms. . only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. nutrition and physical activity it is about . Increased irritability in some individuals. Irregular breathing. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of .sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation.4.7:: feet causes severe. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations.'. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. +leep disturbances. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ).::: to .apid ascent to elevations of . +lurred speech. b. the rate of ascent. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. 2eterioration of memory. Boss of appetite.apid ascent to . Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. a.'. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . . en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.::: feet*. /eadache. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy.0.:. . Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms.0 to .apid ascent to . operational unit. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel.

e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. a. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . environment. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. >. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. -riorities of training must be established.+. As $ith all military operations. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache.. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. and enemy situation.unacclimatiAed personnel. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. herefore.+.+.

+ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. mission. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season.::: feet. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. $ater purification supplies. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. food. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. time to ac#uire $ater. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations.* Above 5. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. and rest must be considered as priorities. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*.::: to 0.. >nits can leapfrog. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. .::: feet per day. c. !ater. if in a $inter environment. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. these drugs are diuretics. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. and. Additionally. taking an e"tended rest period. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. $ith the unit. a unit should ascend at a rate of .

and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. the metabolism becomes more efficient.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. A different group of muscles are used. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. $hich must be developed and hardened. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. . he better the physical condition of the soldier. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. the soldier3s . his conditions the back and legs.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. At the same time. climbing. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. and calisthenics. his increases the soldier3s endurance. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. d. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. f. e. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. and special e#uipment loads. . he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. $hile carrying D.

metabolism. conditioning. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. fractures. strains. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control.capacity for e"ertion is increased. . here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. personnel can still become injured %sprains. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. abrasions.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. After acclimatiAation. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. strains. lungs. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. >pon deploying to high elevations. and trench foot*.epetitive practice. . caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. legs. contusions and fractures. to the point of instinctive reaction. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. and circulatory support. . there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. g. breathing management. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. frostbite. As $ith any other injuries. hypothermia. abdomen. he heart rate. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. back. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. hese include sprains. arms.

improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. and seek medical attention. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. burning.* Contributing factors include fair skin. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. bandage. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. Immediate first aid is given on site. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. %1* o treat sunburn. fever. In severe cases chills. he skin may be $arm to the touch. $ash thoroughly. %. a. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. he . So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of .Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. . red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling.7::. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. and headaches may occur.:: and . If blisters do break.. Sun urn. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. 2o not pop blisters. 2ue to rough terrain. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen.

>ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . b. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain.+. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. -roper sunglasses should provide . improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. If still painful. an +-& of . Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe.* In an emergency. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. Avoid rubbing the eyes. ice. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. %Currently. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. %. %&or e"ample. %'* o prevent sunburn. Sno+ !in&ness.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. Administer pain medication if needed.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. . %1* o treat sno$blindness. the >.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye.* 2uring sustained activity. red. and $ater. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache.

+oldiers must be prepared to survive. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. dehydration. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. and immersion foot.*. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. and fight in $inter conditions.0.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. a. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . dissemination. +imple tasks take longer to perform. /o$ever. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. but freeAing temperatures are not. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. rest. move. b. personnel. and nutrition. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. . !armth and comfort become the top priorities.

-). !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased .ace. (in& chi!! chart. %. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. If a soldier has had a cold injury before.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. %1* <eographic 6rigin. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. c. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. %'* 7m ient Temperature. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor.Figure . the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. &or e"ample. %0* . Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur.

!ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. !et clothing loses insulation value. %4* Terrain. • • • . &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. D—2ry. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. accumulation of perspiration. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. in mind.8. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. 6—Dverheating. %5* C!othing. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. %)* Type o# :ission. he lo$er the $ind chill. Avoid overheating. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less.danger Aone or beyond. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. ?eep dry.D. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and.6. therefore.

%. %. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. In cold $eather the human body needs special care.:* Dehy&ration. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder. %. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions.%8* :oisture. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. . the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. %. Individuals must retain their body fluids.1* Concomitant =n>ury. age is not a significant factor. %.0* Fatigue. d.7* 3utrition. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. especially in higher elevations.. $hich in turn can accelerate shock.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. .* 7ge. %."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. %.a&ica! Changes in the (eather.4* . and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. %.

a&iation.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. deliberate.%. conduction. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. e. or evaporation. . personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. %0* Con&uction. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. %. f. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. convection. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. and careful. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. Dn cold days. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. -erform emergency first aid.* . Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. . he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss.

If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. g. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. %0* Dehy&ration. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. cold skin. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. %. and loss of blood. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation.* Shock. shortness of breath. . fear. . %b* 'reatment.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. his is usually caused by . %'* $2aporation. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. Clothing that ventilates. and e"cessive thirst. o treat shock. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. !ind chill is convection cooling. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. s$eating.%1* Con2ection.levate the back and head. his condition may digress into incoherence. and possibly death. rapid and faint pulse. unconsciousness. administer $ater. pain. Any illness or injury can produce shock. or feet. slo$er heart beat. insulates. %a* Symptoms.

dry mouth. rapid heartbeat. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. tiredness. he is probably dehydrated. lack of appetite. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. hey may. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. At high altitudes. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. diAAiness. higher temperature. %b* Symptoms. the air is dry. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. mental sluggishness. fainting. decreased amounts of urine being produced. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. o distinguish bet$een them. in fact. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. Cold causes fre#uent urination. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. /o$ever. headache. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. If the stomach is cold. %a* Contributing +actors. and unconsciousness. upset stomach.

-oor nutrition. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. %1* -ypothermia. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. 2iarrhea.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. %a* Contributing +actors. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. Allo$ the victim to rest. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. %c* 'reatment. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. Change in $eather. . administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. 2ecreased physical activity. /igh $inds. Accidental immersion in $ater. In advanced cases. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

is prevented by good nutrition. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. $hich is a diuretic. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. may become irreversible and cause death. rapid heartbeat %pulse . immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment.• -rogressive shortness of breath. . $armth.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. reatment of /A-. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*.. is planned for every 1. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. Crackling. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. A rest day. • • • . decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. and o"ygen.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not.::: feet of altitude gained. If untreated.::: to 1. if left untreated. hydration.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. /A-. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0.0: to . /A-. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. &urosemide %Basi"*. given orally can also be effective. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion.):*. >nconsciousness. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. and death results. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. • • d. e.::: to 0. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. using mannitol could be fatal. rest. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . are prone to second attacks. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug.

+upplemental o"ygen. inability to concentrate. +ymptoms of /AC. Beft untreated. . -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. and lack of coordination. decrease in urination. coma... may occur in e"perienced. c. /AC. hallucinations. include mild personality changes. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. d. and /AC. /A-. stupor.apid descent and medical attention. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. vomiting.. headaches. . hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. is the same as for /A-. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. and unconsciousness. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. a. can cause death. $armth. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. -reventive measures include good eating habits. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. . b. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. he main symptom of /AC. convulsions.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. maintaining hydration. immediate descent is mandatory. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. reatment for /AC. confusion. -revention of /AC. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. paralysis. is a severe headache.est.

/ydration simply decreases viscosity. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. . Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. cools down and heats up differently. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. and /AC. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. move faster.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. both cerebral and pulmonary. &rom this. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. edema. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. or the fluid portion of the blood. . the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. occurs. . therefore. cause increased proteins in the plasma. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient.rovided all tactical concerns are met.

%. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. a.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. he inner boot provides support. Foot+ear Currently. as $ell as insulation against the cold.*. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. /o$ever. c. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system.*. he outer . allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. b. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. a lace( up configuration. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(.

As a system. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. socks provide cushioning for the foot. !hen clothing is $orn properly.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. . develops hypothermia or frostbite. ski bindings. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. at best. if $orn correctly. a. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. Figure 1-). +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. uncomfortable and. . he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. Socks. at $orst. %. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. and the outer most garments. the insulation layers.egardless of climatic conditions. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. he is. remove e"cess moisture. !hen $orn improperly. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole.

En&er+ear. he primary material in this product is polyester. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. %a* In severe $et conditions. If the user is $earing V< boots. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. /o$ever.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. .%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. c. =nsu!ating 8ayers. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. &or the most part. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. In colder environments. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. he . Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. b.

Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the .C!C+ correctly. d. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. and stones. as $ell as mud. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. 6uter 8ayers. <aiters. e. t$igs. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind.. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . he .Figure 1-.

temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot.C!C+ and. in most cases. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. -an& (ear..ven during the best climatic conditions.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. . %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. Three types o# gaiters. and snaps. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. f. . $ill need to be locally purchased. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. Figure 1-1. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. %. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. hook(pile tape. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary.

%0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. .Figure 1-4. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. man( made fibers are preferred. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. as $ell as replacement liners for both. %. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. g. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. =atural fibers. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. predominately $ool. -an& +ear. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. -ea&+ear. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times.

he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. !hichever helmet is selected. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. $ye+ear. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. his covers the head. neck. Figure 1-5. h. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. i. . a balaclava can be$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. Figure 1-6. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . -e!mets. &or e"treme cold. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. keeping the $earer drier and $armer.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. -e!mets.

and harnesses. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. Figure 1-7. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. cord. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. It is based in -aris. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld.=* and C. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. have been combined to make combined . to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. j. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances.uropean norm %. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. . :aintenance o# C!othing. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. &rance. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. . >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.uropean economy. Community . heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best.urope %C.urope.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness.uropean norm %C. and comprises several commissions. $ebbing.=*.

(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an .7( or . (e ing an& S!ings. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. $hich is.a. %. factors affecting rope selection include intended use.(mm rope. . Figure 1-". . called slings or runners. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. abrasion resistance.* . and is best used in rope installations.:. . b. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. essentially. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope.egardless of the rope chosen. he . Its ability to stretch up to .. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope.. it should be >IAA certified. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. &or most military applications.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. impact force. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. a standard .opes an& Cor&. A static rope has very little stretch. If used for -rusik knots.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. and elongation. Kernmant!e construction. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths..

)(inch or .) inch. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors.. . and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. and have less bulk than the tied version.unners are predominately made from either 8K. more durable. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. Tie& or se+n runners. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. carabiners. inch. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. %.K. . and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. . .0 inches.) inch.uses for these simple pieces are endless. -arnesses. and . hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. &or most military applications. ' inches. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. .(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. $hich is stronger. c. the rope. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . are usually lighter. and 0' inches.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope. Figure 1-'. and anchors.

Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing.:*. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. are more restrictive. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e" unavailable. %1* . . &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. &itted properly.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. his type of harness. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. !ith the remaining $ebbing. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. %. !hile these harnesses are safer. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall.:*. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn.:*. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. referred to as a seat harness. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.

yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. . <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. a. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism.. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. given other options.*.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. his rope. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. he oval. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. !hen using a carabiner. +teel is still $idely used. great care should be . the 2(shaped. Cara iners. Figure 1-)*. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman.

3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. Figure 1-). :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. the load is . %. Figure 1-))..taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(.0*.

all carabiners should be >IAA tested. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. Dn vertical pitons. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. %. Aarious pitons. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. hey are described by their thickness. b. hardened steel. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. along its minor a"is. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. $afer.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. vertical cracks. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. %1* . A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. horiAontal. Figure 1-)1. and $ith the gate open. and angle.itons.egardless of the type chosen. 9itons. specifically the locking version. or other alloys. and length %&igure 1(. the blade and eye are aligned. hese pitons are used in flush. design. .* 1ertical . and angles. hey are made of malleable steel.1*. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is.

. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset.'*. hey are small and fit into thin. A safety lanyard of nylon cord.itons. shallo$ cracks. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction.%0* Horizontal . metal. %)* Angle . hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1.>. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade.5 centimeters $ide. ledges. %'* 2nife 3lade . $ebbing. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. hey are designed to bite into thin. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality .itons. or flakes. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %.itons. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. hese pitons are used in flush. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. flush cracks. or leather is used to . %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. Dn horiAontal pitons. %4* 3ong . Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack.itons. hese pitons are used in shallo$.itons. 9iton -ammers.itons. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. shallo$ cracks. c. %1* Wafer . <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability.(inch s#uare. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about .

creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. 9iton hammer. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. Chocks. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons.7 centimeters long and $eigh .0 to 07 ounces. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. to be used as anchors. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode.7*. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. into the rock. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. Figure 1-)4. d. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. .

Three-point camming &e2ice. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . e. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. f. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. Chocks.Figure 1-)5.4* provide convenient. Figure 1-)6. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks.)*. $hen used in the camming mode. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.

. they can be purchased or homemade. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. Cade from thin metal. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. saving time and effort. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements.5*. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. Figure 1-)7. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. hese are placed #uickly and easily. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. g.semi(rigid point of attachment. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. Chock 9icks. .

e"hausting. h. Dnce emplaced. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. Chock picks. <ecause of this re#uirement. and drilling anchor.8*. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. $hich is time(consuming. %. <urrs. brands. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. and e"tremely noisy. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. chips. corrosion.Figure 1-)". A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. bolt driver. $hich is driven into the rock. %o!ts. dirt. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. and moisture. hese re#uire a hammer. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. ."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. and $eights. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. . a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer.

and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*.Figure 1-)'. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. %e!ay De2ices. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner.egardless of the belay device choosen.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. %. the tuber. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. %o!ts an& hangers. i. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. . <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. .

Figure 1-. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. &or lo$er angle movement. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice.*. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam.*. Descen&ers. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. &or difficult vertical terrain.Figure 1-. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. . 7scen&ers. k. one ascender is sufficient.). t$o ascenders $ork best. Figure-eights. j.

errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. 7scen&ers.Figure 1-. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain.. light$eight. l. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems.1. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. 9u!!ey. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. &or best results. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength.. A pulley should be small. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. Figure 1-. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. froAen $aterfalls(can . and strong. 9u!!eys. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. glaciers. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use.

anchors. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. %b* he head of the a". It can be made of fiberglass. he adAe. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. =ce 7B. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. belays.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. %. hollo$ aluminum. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. used for chopping. a. is perpendicular to the shaft. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. step cutting. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. . therefore safer for mountaineering. self(arrest. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. probing. direct(aid climbing. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. can have different configurations. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. head %pick and adAe*.

<oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. loose ends should be trimmed. Figure 1-.4. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. inch of front point protruding. c. =ce aB an& ice hammers. Crampons. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . . =ce -ammer. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid.b. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. . fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear.

he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. %. Crampons.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. It is designed to be used $ith soft. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. as its name implies. %0* he rigid crampon. fle"ible boots. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing.5. is rigid and does not fle".Figure 1-. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. but can be used on less vertical terrain. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots.

%. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. • • • ype I is . he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. .6.. Figure 1-. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. d.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. =ce Scre+s.mountaineering boots. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . . choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. =ce scre+s.

A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. If any cracks or bends are noticed.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. hey are available $ith bent faces. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. f. =ce 9itons. e. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. ho$ever.7. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. bends. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. and fi"ed cables. hey can. . Figure 1-. the scre$ should be turned in. flanged sides.' centimeters. =ce piton. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel.

. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. and for cutting . Sno+ 9icket. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. he picket should be inspected for bends.". or slippage is noticed. cracks. Sno+ Sa+. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . g. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. Figure 1-.::: kilograms. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. It can be used in step cutting. movement. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. a. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. chips. and carrying gear. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. he ends should be filed smooth.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. bivouacs. broken $ire strands. If bent or cracked. If any cracks. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. $ands*. the picket should be turned in for replacement. for removing froAen obstacles. broken $ire strands. in shelter construction. and other deformities. mushrooming ends. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets.

burrs. bends. (an&s. If the sa$ is beyond repair. $arping. !ands are . light$eight aluminum alloy. cracks. bends. and stability. It can be used for avalanche rescue. shelter construction. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. security to the shaft. Dn folding models. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. and burrs. and deformities. Sno+ Sho2e!.sno$ stability test pits. 72a!anche rescue equipment. crevasses. he handle should be inspected for cracks. and removing obstacles. to . and discoloration. $eather conditions %and visibility*. rust. it should be turned in. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. A file can repair most defects. it should not be used. sno$(bridges. bends. he blade should be inspected for rust. b. the hinge and nuts should be secure. d. If any defects are discovered. step cutting. c. folding. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. !ands are used to identify routes. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. he handle should be inspected for cracks. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. fading. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. caches.. If the shovel is beyond repair. frays. and missing or dull teeth. and number of teams in the climbing party. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. he flag should be inspected for tears. number of haAards identified.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. bends. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . the $ands should be replaced. he handle should be telescopic. and stability.

e. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. .Figure 1-. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. 9acks. hese are small.* Avalanche . he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris.'.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame.robe. %. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. %. 72a!anche rescue equipment. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. %0* . Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters.

f.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. %. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. and are simple and light$eight. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. !hen choosing a stove. and materials. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. !hite gas. %. $eights. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. kerosene. Sto2es. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. he fly protects against . $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. and butane are the common fuels used. more harsh environment. factors that should be considered are $eight. the better it $ill be. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. fuel availability. !hen selecting a tent. g. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. and its reliability. Tents. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder.

they create the shape of the tent. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. sno$shoeing.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. i. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. and carrying heavy packs. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. !hen carrying heavy packs. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. Sno+shoes. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. <efore using a ne$ tent. j. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. h. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. Skis. connect. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. +ome ski poles are . emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. and become long and rigid. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. Ski po!es. Countaineering skis are $ide and short.

but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. . he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas.* !hen choosing a headlamp. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. !hichever sled is chosen. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled.:(man arctic tent system. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. a component of the . A flashlight can provide light.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. to the one(person sko$. especially $hen hauling fuel. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. on some models. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. l. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. S!e&s. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. k.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front.egardless of the siAe. %. . All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. Figure 1-1*. -ea&!amps. +leds vary greatly in siAe.

and $ater procurement material. Dbviously. a. fuel. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. $quipment 9acking . and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. food. polypropylene top. b. food procurement material. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. desert. $ater. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. Stan&ar& <ear. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. or jungle mountain environments. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. compass and or altimeter. or lithium batteries. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. first aid kits. foul $eather shells. map. pressure bandage. s$eater. -ocket items should include a knife. the e"ception being hot. if needed. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. $histle. nickel(cadmium. 9ersona! <ear. $ith canteens. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. $orn on the body. Caution4 Cotton clothing. fire starting material. sunblock and lip protection. magaAine pouches. stoves. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. notebook $ith pen or pencil. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. sunglasses. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available.conditions. ropes. climbing e#uipment. . !hen the light is being packed. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline.

one per climbing team. rain suit. Carabiners. . :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. 9loves. >tility cord%s*. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. one per climbing team. +ling rope or climbing harness. Climbing rope. d. or s$eater. casualty evacuation.appelling gloves.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. &irst aid kit. one per climbing team. he carries a light day pack. =onlocking carabiners. Climbing rope. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. . Cold $eather hat or scarf. . pile top. Climbing rack. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site.c. Climbing rack. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. one per climbing team. Canteen. Crampons. . &lashlight or headlamp.appelKbelay device. or poncho. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. +urvival kit. In the event of an injury. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Day 9ack. Bocking carabiner%s*. Ice a". -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. e. or unplanned bivouac."tra insulating layer: polypropylene.

under$ear. +ide shields. or navigational error. &or lip protection. and licking is best.S. &uel bottle. gloves or mittens. +leeping mat. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. %7* ()tra Clothing. and or 6. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. %0* Compass. s$eater or fleece jacket. blouse.7 or higher. . f. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. boots.:: percent of ultraviolet light. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. $ashing. %'* ()tra +ood. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . The Ten $ssentia!s. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. includes socks. hey should filter 87 to . he clothing used during the active part of a climb. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. +#uad stove. pants. injury. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. hat.• • • • +leeping bag. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. %.* 5ap. Altimeter. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. .

elastic compression $rap. moleskin.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. the mountain environment— steep. cutting the $ind. . and blisters. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. • • • • • . $hich is important $hile climbing.%a* . and trapping essential body heat inside the sack."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. . gauAe pads. . &inally. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. and employing $eapons systems. a broken bone. adhesive tape. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. scissors. small adhesive bandages. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. but commercially available headlamps are best. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. cleanser. . bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. 2ecentraliAed operations. Ciniature flashlights can be used. -ressure dressings."tra pair of heavy socks. serious sprain. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. butterfly bandages. sharp tools. herefore. . inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability."tra hats or balaclavas. %4* +irst aid 2it. $orking around the camp. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter.

ighter. heat tabs. or pack. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. harness. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. -atches. A$l and or needles. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. as $ell as for stream crossings. 2uct tape. Candles. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. /eavy(duty thread. %0* 7ce A). a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. and canned heat all $ork. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations.:* 2nife. Bighters are handy for starting fires. Cord and or $ire. %8* 5atches and . 6ther $ssentia! <ear. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer.%5* +ire Starter. . %. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. %1* 4epair 2it. +afety pins.* Water and Water Containers. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. Dther repair items as needed. %. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. g.

In most cases. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. among others. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. he ice a". climbing hard$are. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies.epe!!ent. d. a. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. b. food. rope.%'* =nsect . clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. . he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. As much as possible. e. nearer the shoulder blades. and be securely . placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. c. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. e"tra ammunition* on top. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. $ater. <y packing the lighter. and $ater procurement. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. emergency bivouac shelter. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. if not carried in hand. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. the load is held high and close to the back. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. more compressible items %sleeping bag.

management techni&ues. When climbing. If not. rappelling. meter from the end $ith one hand. bring the hands together forming a loop.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. . grasp the rope appro"imately . he rope may be given a . Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . as stated above. care and maintenance procedures. t$ists. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. .ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. f. until the rope is completely coiled. or building various installations. o start a mountain coil. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . . a.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. his is repeated. . 9rasping the rope firmly. serious in!ury may occur. and knots later during deployment. :ountain Coi!. and then tied in place. and 0nots. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered.fastened.

:ountain coi!. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. >ncoil the last loop and. %utter#!y Coi!. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. slung across the chest.* In finishing the mountain coil. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. doubling it and placing it under the flap. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. b. securing the coil. -ull the running end of the bight tight. using this length of the rope. .%.* Figure 4-1. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*.

!ith the bight in the left hand. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. . !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. In this configuration . draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. o start the double butterfly. %. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. and hold the center in one hand. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight.Figure 4-4.* Coiling. %utter#!y coi!. . %0* Tie-off and Carrying. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. . ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. -lace the doubled rope over the head. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right.

opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. .* Figure 4-5. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. !rap that bight around the coil. 2ress it do$n tightly. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. . <ring the t$o ends of the rope together.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. Cake three or more $raps. c.ope. sling rope. or for storage. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.0(inch bight is left.

re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. Thro+ing the . Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. and so on. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. !hen the rope is needed for use. A slight t$ist of the $rist. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. %.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. a. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. Dnce stacked. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. .* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. A smooth follo$ through is essential. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. !ith the left hand. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. =e"t. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. feeding it to a lead climber. hro$ up and out. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired.D-.e.

the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand.. and hitches is almost endless. c.b. + .. + . Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand.. /olding one $orking end in each hand. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail.1. Class III—middle rope knots. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. and stack the rope properly as described above. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. Tying the Knot.0. adjustments must be made. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. . In a strong cross $ind. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. + . and Class IV—special knots. he stronger the $ind. up and out to$ard the horiAon. !ith e"perience and practice. Aiming just above the horiAon. Anchor.. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. It is a joining knot.0.. a.. bends. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Class II—anchor knots. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. bights. he variety of knots. back feed.

. Checkpoints. %. Tying the Knot. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied.'. + .. It is a joining knot.+ . b. a. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope.* here are t$o interlocking bights.. Figure 4-6. Square knot..

Fisherman’s knot. %. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.+ . standing part of the opposing rope. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . It is a joining knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.0. Figure 4-7. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. Tying the Knot.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. + . %1* ..nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. b. a.1.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. . Checkpoints..

* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. %1* . Insert the $orking end %+ .. Dou !e #isherman’s knot.+ . %. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . and 0*. !ith the $orking end of the other rope.0.*. !ith the $orking end of one rope. + . ..-+ . Figure 4-"...1.. $hich contains the standing part %+ . %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.'..* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. Checkpoints..nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. + . b. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.... + . Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight.

race the original knot to the standing end. + ..Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*..0. a.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. . -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight.1. . .'. Figure-eight en&. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight..... grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + . !ith the other hand. + . + ..oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. Figure 4-'.7. Tying the Knot. 2ress the knot do$n. + .

&eed the other end back through the knot. Tying the Knot. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot.. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ... (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. . overhand retrace. %. a.0. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + . Checkpoints. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. It is also called a ring bend.b. + . or tape knot..1.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot..:*.

one retracing the other. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %0* here is no slack in the knot.. (ater knot. %. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. Checkpoints. It is an anchor knot. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor.* here are t$o overhand knots..*. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. + .. Tying the Knot. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. . b. a.Figure 4-)*.. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*.

'. %o+!ine knot. =o$ dress the knot do$n. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight. Figure 4-)).0.. .each through the loop and pull up a bight.+ .7. b. %. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor.* he bight is locked into place by a loop.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . + . %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. Checkpoints. + . ... and bring it back onto itself. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight.1.. + .

. a.. Figure-$ight ... b. + . and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. %..0. . 2ress the knot do$n. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*...0*.eroute& Figure-$ight0 . Tying the Knot.'. .0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. Figure 4-). .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.epeat + . + . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.etrace /. Checkpoints..oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact. . and one in the front*. + . + . distributing the load over the anchor. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.1. It is an anchor knot.

+ . + .'.. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.. + . + . ake the $orking end around the anchor point.). leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. he finished knot is dressed loosely. ..7. a.0. Tying the Knot. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.. + . by tying the knot in a retrace. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. !ith the $orking end.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.1*.. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot..1.. /o$ever. and route the $orking end through the loop. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. + .. .

Figure 4-)1. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. Figure-eight retrace.* Middle of the Rope. a.'*. b... It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. %. Checkpoints %. + . /old rope in both hands. palms do$n $ith hands together.. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. . Tying the Knot. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. depending on ho$ it is tied.

1. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. and bring it in$ard. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. + . reach under the horiAontal anchor.. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. 2ress do$n the knot. . /old the loop in the left hand. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. + . !ith the right hand. %0* End of the Rope. + . -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. grasp the $orking end.+ .0. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. + .'. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. /old the standing end in the left hand...... + . he knot is tied.1. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.0. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.'.... + . &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. !ith the right hand.

. C!o2e hitch. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to.7*.. + . + .'.1. b.). !hen tying this knot. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.Figure 4-)4.4... . + .. a. and fingertip. %. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. Checkpoints.. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. It is a middle rope knot. and place it over the heel $rap. + . ake up the slack from the anchor..* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. + .7. Tying the Knot. + . (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. palm..0.. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.

(ireman’s knot.. Tying the Knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. %. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. .5. + . b. It is a middle rope knot.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.8. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. Checkpoints. a. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.)*.+ . Figure 4-)5.

.1.. Figure 4-)6. !hen dressing the knot do$n. + . + . &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. Cake one $rap around the palm. . b. it lays in$ard.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Directiona! #igure-eight.... Checkpoints. the tail and the bight must be together.+ . %.'.0. !ith the $rap thus formed. + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.

7.%0* he tail and bight must be together. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. + . a.4*. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.0. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.. + . + .1. + .).. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. ie an overhand knot on a bight.4..'.. forming t$o loops. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be.. + . + . %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.. It is a middle rope knot.. Tying the Knot. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. . + .

T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. . b.. Checkpoints.* It is a middle rope knot. + . %. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. >sing a doubled rope... form an . Tying the Knot.ight.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.Figure 4-)7. %o+!ine-on-a.5. a.

%1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot..7. /old the bight $ith the left hand. 2ress the knot do$n.'..+ . b.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. Tying the Knot.1.. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)". and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. + . also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.8*. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. %. + . form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. . a. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.. It is a middle of the rope knot.0. + . 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. !ith the $orking end.

2ress the knot tightly. !ith the bight as the $orking end. Tying the Knot. Figure-eight !oop. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop.. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. a. Checkpoints.. %.+ . %1* he knot is tightly dressed. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. Figure 4-)'. It is a specialty knot. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.* he loop is the desired siAe...1. + . form a loop in rope %standing part*. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. .0.. b. + .

2ouble the short rope.1... and place it over the long rope.0(inch bight.*. .0...each do$n through the . . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted... Figure 4-. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.0.. + . forming a bight.1. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.*: + .0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. + .. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. . $ith the $orking ends even. >sing an arm3s length of rope.*. + .%. + . Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. + ..

It is a specialty knot. . %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed..+ . b.'. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. Checkpoints. %. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. + . Figure 4-. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.). %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.). Bay the $orking end under the long rope.7. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. parallel. and not t$isted.. . $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.. + .4. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot..nsure they are tight.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. + . %0* he locking bar faces the climber.

%achman knot. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. Tying the Knot. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %. Checkpoints.1. + ..a. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner... %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. + .. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing..0.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . + . b.. Figure 4-.

9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. he standing portion is on the bottom. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. tie an overhand around all coils. + . + .nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. b.. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.0. It is a specialty knot. hen.. Checkpoints.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. . + .. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied.* A minimum of four $raps.. >sing the standing part. bring a bight up through the loop.. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. %. he running end is to the back of the body. $ith a bight held in place by a loop..). .'. + . %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. !ith the running end. + .7. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. single coil. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.1. + . Tying the Knot. a.. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. /olding the bight loosely. not crossed. + . +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.4.. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times..

!ith the right hand.. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.. Tying the Knot. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. + . ..'. + .Figure 4-. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. It is a specialty knot.. a. + .0. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.1. Bay the loops to the right. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.1. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body... form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. + .

4. Figure 4-. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts.+ . a.7. b. %.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. Tying the Knot..0(inch bight in the end of the rope. It is a specialty knot.. &orm a . Checkpoints. Three-!oop o+!ine. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.. + ..

+ . Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.5. + .* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. b.+ . ... Figure 4-.'.. + . -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight..0. Checkpoints.). %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight..7. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. standing end of the rope.1. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . Figure-eight s!ip knot.:u!e Knot0 . -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.each through the bight and grasp the long. %. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. + .0 inches up the rope.

Tying the Knot.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.0. It is simply an overhand slip knot..6. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.. K!eimhiest Knot . a. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. b. + .. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.0 inches long. + . -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. %1* he bight is a minimum of .1. Check 9oints.. Transport knot.. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. + .* here is a single overhand slip knot. %. Figure 4-.

'.. find the center of the rope and form a bight. !rap at least four complete turns. .*.. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.0 inches. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. + .0. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. Tying the Knot. + .. a. + .. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.1... + .he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . easily adjustable. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. + . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .. pass them through the bight %see + . It is a special( purpose knot.. !ith the ends offset. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.7.. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.

Tying the Knot. + . %. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.: to . K!eimhiest knot. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. b. a.0. + . Checkpoints. .Figure 4-. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.7.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull... It is a special(purpose knot.. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .0 inches.

Figure 4-. It is a special(purpose knot.. :unter -itch . <irth hitch.. Tying the Knot. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.: &orm a bight.1: Cinch the knot tightly. + . Figure 4-. + . %0* he knot is dressed tightly. + .". Checkpoints.'. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. b. b.. a. %. %. Checkpoint. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.. Frost knot.

Check 9oints.. b. a. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. /old the loop $ith the left hand. + . Tying the Knot. /old the rope in both hands. %0* he carabiner is locked. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. !ith the right hand.1.. palms do$n about . + .he munter hitch.0 inches apart.. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*... Bock the locking mechanism. . + .* A bight passes through the carabiner. %. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. + . !ith the right hand.0..'.

appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. .0. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. ... <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. + . ensuring they do not cross. thus creating a loop around the $aist...1.. + . a. + . + .'.' feet or longer.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.Figure 4-1*. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.. It usually re#uires a sling rope . Tying the Knot. . :unter hitch.*. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.

%. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.7. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.4. &rom rear to front. ... Check 9oints. + .+ . + . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. Figure 4-1). . b. tightening the seat.. -ull up on the ropes.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.appe! seat. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.). uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.

preferably ovals*. a.. ..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. + .0.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. + . alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. Tying the Knot. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip.. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.

or the e&uipment . 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. Check 9oints. rope can only be pulled in one direction. b. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice.. <uar&e knot. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point.Figure 4-1. %. it will fail. . 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing.* !hen properly dressed. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load.

*. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. . /o$ever. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. rees. /o$ever. boulders.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. When selecting or constructing anchors. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first.

Chockstones should be checked for strength. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded.. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. . and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. In rocky terrain. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. Figure 5-. security. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. b. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. Trees use& as anchors. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. >se padding on soft. a.Figure 5-).

c. hese include blocks. If rock projections are used. the projection should be avoided. and clipping on a carabiner.Figure 5-1. horns. If any of these signs e"ist. flakes. and spikes. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position.ock 9ro>ections . b.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. tying a rope to it. Chockstones. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. . a. their firmness is important. . +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness.

All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. . he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. As $ith trees. .Figure 5-4. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction.ock pro>ections. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor.

he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. %ushes an& shru s. Figure 5-6. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. . >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. !hichever method is used. and girth. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. $rap.Figure 5-5. a. Drape.

Drape. . b. Figure 5-". (rap. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*.Figure 5-7. (rap.

Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.:*. <irth. Figure 5-'. . . the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. <irth. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. . he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight.c. his re#uires less e#uipment.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. 7nchoring (ith .

Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. Tension!ess anchor. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. to absorb the tension. Figure 5-)).ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$.*. . A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner.Figure 5-)*. more if necessary.. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom.

e#uipment. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. sno$shoes.:: years. he sling is attached to the anchor. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. In e"tremely hard. %A hefty timber. 3ote4 Artificial anchors.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. . unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. and the load to be placed on it. such as pitons and bolts. . he"centrics. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. chocks. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles.* Barge boulders can be used. . such as a railroad tie. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. and +BC2s. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. a. can also be used if necessary. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. and ruck sacks. As $ith natural anchors. Although still available. b. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. $ould be ideal. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground.#uipment. ice a"es. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. such as skis. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. &or training planning. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical.

the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. %0* !hile it is being driven. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. dirt. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. Disa&2antages. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. %&igure 7(.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. as $ith any artificial anchor. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. b. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. c. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. %. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. clear the loose rock. should be studied. 9iton 9!acement. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. practiced. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. a. !hen this type of rock must be used.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. 7&2antages. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock.

it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. herefore. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock.. he piton should not spread the rock.out of the crack. because the piton is too long. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. it $ill not be lost. Clip a carabiner into the loop. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. Figure 5-). +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. and on the type of rock. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. thereby loosening the emplacement. the firmer the anchor $ill be. .1*.

and $hen using chocks. ry to be in a secure position before testing. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. Eerk vigorously up$ard.K0 meter from the carabiner. . e. to each side. . drive the piton in as far as possible. o test pitons pull up about . concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. -ero-!oop.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. drive it into another place.'*. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. do$n$ard. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. d. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. If the pitch has changed greatly. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. upon driving it. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. . there is any #uestion of its soundness. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. then grasp the rope at least .Figure 5-)1. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. the emplacement is probably safe. Testing. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations.emo2ing 9itons. If the sound regains its original pitch. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used.

vectors. Bight to carry. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. a. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. <efore use.eusing 9itons.asy to insert and remove. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. f. 7&2antages. provides an e"cellent anchor point. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. they may have been driven poorly the first time. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. but they must be checked for strength. . . Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. are reusable. but comple" in practice. A natural chockstone. unless severely damaged. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. +oft iron pitons that have been used. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . Also. >sually easy to retrieve and. and straightened may be reused. 9iton remo2a!. Disa&2antages. In training areas. removed. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. b. having fallen and $edged in a crack.Figure 5-)4.

-ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. . Avoid poor protection.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . grass. %. Dften provide only one direction of pull. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. Book for a constriction point in the crack. then select a chock to fit it. +ome cracks may have loose rock. %1* .• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. if possible. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. 9!acement. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes.7*. cord. $hich may accept pitons. Chock p!acements. and dirt. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. c. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. %0* !hen selecting a chock. Figure 5-)5. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction.

After seating a chock. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. test it to ensure it remains in place. Testing. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. use pairs of chocks in opposition.)*.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. %a* . Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. . It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. o test it. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. d.

and release the retractor bar. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. %o!ts . b. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. a. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. S8CD p!acements. it may rotate and pull out. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. pull the retractor bar back.Figure 5-)6. place the device into a crack. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement.

+urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. a. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. /o$ever.4*. flaking. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. $hich bores the hole. <olts should be used $ith carriers.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. carabiners. !hen using bolts. or cracking. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. and should be tested $ith a hammer. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. b. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. . c. . he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. and runners. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. .mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. since this permanently $eakens it.

. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail.8*. a. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. b.Figure 5-)7. It is aimed in the direction of the load. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor.5*. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. his not only provides greater anchor strength. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. Figure 5-)". %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e.

Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. and the enemy for the length of the climb. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. terrain hazards. therefore. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection.Figure 5-)'.

ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. using the hands primarily for balance. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. he mentally climbs the route.*. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. or 6lines. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. ledges. nubbins. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. the climber studies all possible routes. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. +orward observers.6 to the top looking for cracks.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. !hen picking the line. .6 . and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations.trained in the basics of climbing. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. reconnaissance personnel. .ven before getting on the rock. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor.

he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. If the soles are $et or damp. dry rock. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. In later lessons. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . /o$ever. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. C7ET=63 .oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. In the training environment. such as a rock or climbing gear. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. the boot soles should be dry and clean. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. falls from climbers above. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing.

helping to minimiAe fatigue. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. and so on. Stance or %o&y 9osition. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. his vibration. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. a$ay from the rock. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. and reduce the impact of a fall. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. or moving on to a more . he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. right foot.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. left foot.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. a. help the climber land feet first. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. lo$ering the heel. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. sho$s a correct climbing stance. kno$n as 6. and body %trunk*. and movement. comfortable stance is essential. %&igure )(. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. left hand. b. If strained for too long. $eight shift. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. A rela"ed. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance.

. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. Correct c!im ing stance. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. Figure 6-.restful position. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. %.a!ance& o2er oth #eet.* !henever possible. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. the hips and shoulders should be . Figure 6-). -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. he hands are used to maintain balance.

he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. and movement %movement being either the foot. hand. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. $hen footholds are small. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. creating more stress. C!im ing Sequence. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance.: + . %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. c. Dn steep rock. +ometimes. Again. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds.centered over both feet. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. intermediate holds. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. Dn lo$(angle slopes. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. or body*. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. In most cases. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. . $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make.* + . he basic steps are $eight. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. as the climbing progresses. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. his is normally done on #uick. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. shift.D=. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location.

/. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability.: + .&D>.. + . but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. %. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved.. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again. through 1 for remaining foot.+ . .&IV. If both legs are bent.epeat steps .: + . $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs. 2uring this movement. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.

.Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence.

. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.Figure 6-1.

%0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. these movements become more critical. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. because the legs are much stronger. not the arms. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. Dther than being uncomfortable. %. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. to rest on. even painful. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. his type of lifting is inefficient. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms.Figure 6-1. Sa#ety 9recautions . -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs.

he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. immediately shout the $arning 6. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. let the rope provide protection. . a. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. >pon hearing the $arning. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. If the rock $ill endanger your second. e. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. a spotter can be used for safety. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. a fi"ed rope should be installed. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. do not do it. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. and to reduce the impact of a fall. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. If conducting a roped climb. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. If on a lo$(angle climb. grasping for any possible hold available. b. d. tossing it do$n. +hould a climber fall. follo$ing the same line. c. +hould a rock become loose accidentally.

!hen leading a group of climbers. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. b. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions.&D. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. his may simply be a #uick. g. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. !hen in doubt. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards.. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. !hen climbing. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. sedimentary(type rock. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. a. +ometimes. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. depending on it.f. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. C!im ing (ith The Feet . he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. !hen the rock is $et.

he principle of using full sole contact. . even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot.* Maximum Sole Contact. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. also applies in climbing. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. In this case. the entire foot cannot be used. forgetting to use the feet properly. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact.* %a* +mooth.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. %. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. Also. . ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. easy or difficult. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. In the early learning stages of climbing. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. b. %b* Dn some large holds. as in mountain $alking.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. a. &ailure to climb any route. . the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock.

the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. may be used. or toe. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle.Figure 6-4. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. %0* Edging. >sually. Again. !henever possible. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. . Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue.* %a* Dn smaller holds. edging $ith the front of the boot. $ell(defined ledges. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. . %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue.

$ith its softer sole. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. he Army mountain boot. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. he stiffer the sole. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. .%b* .ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. Figure 6-5. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. intermediate holds. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. %1* Smearing.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. . $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. the better the edging capability. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. . %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue.ounded. therefore.* %a* . ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock.

$Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. and even more painful on the foot. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. inside and $ithin reach. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. depending on the siAe of the crack. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. . especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. and so on. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. ball of the foot. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. restful position. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. hands. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place.Figure 6-6. such as edges. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. pockets. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. the possibilities are endless. like a camming device. than others. %'* Jamming. he toes. arms. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. resisting a do$n$ard pull. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. or the entire foot can be used. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. +ome positions are more tiring.

. Dur hands grip. Core often though. our body $eight is on our legs. Dn lo$er(angled rock. !hen removing the boot from a crack. As stated earlier. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. $Bamp!es o# >amming. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. a. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. +econdly. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. Figure 6-7. +ometimes. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. As the individual climbs. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. b. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . $ith the $eight centered over the feet.

or 6pinching. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. the fingers.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. his is fine. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. Ideally. Df course. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. the side of the palm.* Push olds.our balance and footing on the ladder. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. . +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". he key is to move #uickly from the smaller.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. %. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. and on occasion. Dn smaller holds. -ushing side$ays. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance.

9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. creating an unbalanced stance. pull holds are often over$orked. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. side$ays. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. and. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. or up$ard.Figure 6-". also called 6cling holds. -ull holds. therefore. just good techni#ue. <ecause of this increased feeling of security.* %a* Bike push holds. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. . hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. %0* Pull olds. . are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. Again. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds.

he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. Figure 6-'. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. creating a stronger hold. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. Dn small holds.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. =ormally. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. his helps to hold the finger tips in . sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock.

knuckles. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more.* Figure 6-)*.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. Bike foot jams. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. his hand configuration. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. %1* Pinch olds. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. %&igure )(. ape also adds friction . and the back of the hand@ ho$ever.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. kno$n as a 6ring grip. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. %'* Jam olds. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger.

or 6off $idths. %b* In smaller cracks. o jam or cam an arm.6 re#uiring the use of arm. leg. !hen the arm is straightened. and fle"ed to fit the crack. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross the hand in jammed position. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. the principle is the same as for fingers. leg. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. sho$s e"amples of jam holds.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. is another techni#ue. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. he leg can be used. . /o$ever. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. only the fingers $ill fit.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. . and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. or body into an off $idth. %&igure )(.. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. &or off $idths. hands. and body jams. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. from the calf to the thigh. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks.

Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. As the climber gains e"perience. . he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. feet.Figure 6-)). and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. &rom these fundamentals. numerous combination techni#ues are possible.

arms.otating . Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. before the hands. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. +till. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. b. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. or other body parts tire. Combination possibilities are endless.* Change Step. %&igure )(. yet #uickly. $here the pull holds become push holds. o prevent an off balance situation. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. +hort of turning back. mantling begins $ith pull holds. even on an easy route.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. %0* Mantling. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. +ometimes. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. t$o solid handholds should be used. %. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. o make the move. . ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. or hop step. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds.a. he change step. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet.

a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. . Dnce balanced over the foot.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. Dnce the arms are locked. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. momentarily. !ith the foot on the ledge.

:ant!ing sequence. also. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. or body tension. applying an up$ard pull. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard.Figure 6-). An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(.1*. %1* !ndercling. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. forming a bulge or small overhang. he arms and legs . he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce..

If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. more or less. the climber $ill . he climber bends at the $aist. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. Figure 6-)1. %'* "ie#ack. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. putting the body into an B( shaped position. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. . $hichever seems to produce the most friction. En&erc!ing.

a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. . 8ie ack on a #ace. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces.likely fall. or for a rest position. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. %7* Stemming. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. rather than muscle.7*. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. or vice versa. Figure 6-)4.'*. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. Dften. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming.

his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. legs. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. parallel cracks.)*. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . or body as an integral contact point. kno$n as chimneys. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. . foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. Stemming on a #ace.Figure 6-)5. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. >sually.

Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence. .

or a much narro$er crack irotection. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( .4*.Figure 6-)6. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. /o$ever. %c* . the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. . %)* Sla# Techni$ue. forcing the body against the opposing $all. . Chimney sequence /continue&0. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. A slab is a relatively smooth. face features.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. if any holds. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys.

. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. .%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. S!a technique. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. Dn steeper slab. Dften. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. Figure 6-)7. or the . %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. Also. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. to increase friction. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance.

use a roped descent. C7ET=63S . 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . still having a good vie$ of the descent route. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. !hen in doubt. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold.abilities of others to follo$. 0. %a* Dn easier terrain. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. As the steepness and difficulty increase. he can often turn side$ays. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. the climber can face out$ard. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. use a roped descent. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. If the handholds are too high. and slips are more likely to occur. a$ay from the rock. Dn the steepest terrain. !hatever the case may be.. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. !hen in doubt.

%d* Dn steeper slab. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. facing out$ard or side$ays. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue.5*. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. &acing the rock.planned landing area. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. as in ascending. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. is usually best on steeper slab. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. . reducing friction. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. and a tendency to move too #uickly. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate.

+ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . A severe fall. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely.. . climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. . Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. may induce further injuries.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. is highly unlikely in most instances. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. they offer little support to the climber.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. ropes must be used to proceed. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope.ope Dver the years. . length. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. . and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing.

%. -rese$n harness are bulky. /o$ever. =o assembly is re#uired. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. Seat -arness. $hen used correctly. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. . prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. such as a prese$n harness. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. a.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. also. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. it is not for a belay anchor. including cost. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. specialiAed e#uipment.

reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. c. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. S+ami %e!t. he s$ami belt is a simple. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. Chest -arness. gear loops. a. %. such as padding. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to.b. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. or ease of adjustment. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. than an improvised chest harness. Dne(inch $ebbing . at the chest. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall.

he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist.8*. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap.. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs.$ill provide more comfort. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material.. raditionally. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. !hen the terrain becomes steeper.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. !I /D> /. any tie(in around the $aist only could . b. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!.V. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. In a severe fall. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. Figure 6-)'. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. &ABB. %.

. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. 9rasping both ends. A safe. $rapping to the outside.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material.* Bocate the center of the rope. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. %. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. and hold it in place on the hip. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths.ven in a relatively short fall. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. Dff to one side. $ith the knots to the front. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. c. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. . . %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. and comfortable. like a parachute harness. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit.

$ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. Appro"imately ) to . %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. d. in the sling should be in the middle of the back.Figure 6-. he t$ist.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. but remember that $ith $ebbing. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. . =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. forming t$o loops. just as you $ould put on a jacket.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length.*. %. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. and drape the sling over the shoulders.: feet usually $orks. . or cross. making a sling 1 to ' feet long.

A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. %.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. the standing part of the rope is then .* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. create a type of full(body harness. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. 7ttaching the . &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. in effect. e. and comes off the harness in a fall.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. If using a chest harness. f. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*.I ICAB BI=?. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. at the chest. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. or incorrectly. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece.

and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. If using the three loop bo$line. %. ensure the end. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. or third loop formed in the knot. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. %e!ay Techniques . his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. rather than tying the rope to it. and possibly the e#uipment available. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. Figure 6-)". Descen&ing s!a in the cra position.clipped into the chest harness carabiner.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner.

Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. +tack the rope properly. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. Dn steep terrain. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. . >se a $ell braced.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. Dne person climbs at a time. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. but $ith practice.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. . independent. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. . $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. and snug. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. the procedure should become 6second nature. rope team members can often move at the same time. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. sitting position $henever possible. e"posed terrain. or a 6brake. if one person falls. • • • • .emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. ho$ever. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. for an up$ard pull. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. In some instances.6 can be applied to halt a fall.

A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. ho$ever. !hen giving slack..nsure anchor attachments. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body.A9. b. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays.V. removed from the rope. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. If the brake hand is removed. • • .6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand.BAI D=.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. a. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. guide carabiner %if applicable*. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. there is no belay. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. and apply the brake to halt a fall.• . he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. aking up rope. or run through a friction device. the rope management procedure is basically the same.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. take up rope to remove e"cess slack.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the .6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the .BAI. otal control means the brake hand is =.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing.

. place it behind the back and around the hips... step 1*.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. %. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. :anaging the rope. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure... e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. step '*. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. step 0*. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. slide the guide hand out. %)* . to the front of the brake hand..*..brake hand remains on the rope at all times. step )*. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. step . he other hand is the brake hand.). It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. Figure 6-.

ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. It is best to sit in a slight depression. !hen perfectly aligned. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. especially for beginners. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. +ometimes. It is the simplest belay. or fall force. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. using terrain to his advantage. and froAen. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. and the amount of load. %. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. stiff. . %o&y %e!ay. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. re#uiring no special e#uipment. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. he body belay. a.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. the belay may have to absorb. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. he leg on the 6guide . It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. in its various forms. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers.

hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.. .. Sitting o&y e!ay. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. Figure 6-. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible.

1. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. If the rope runs too lo$. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. dumping the belayer out of position.Figure 6-. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. . the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. If the rope runs too high. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. rendering the belay useless. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer.

attaching both to the carabiner. $hich forms an obvious. to allo$ this function. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay.* Munter itch. /o$ever. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads.4. useless hitch. %. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. As a climbing belay. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. :echanica! %e!ay. &or the most part. he carabiner must be large enough. -ut some . the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route.Figure 6-. is designed for the Cunter hitch. b. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. and of the proper design. or pearabiner. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate.

%b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope.5. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. is al$ays the guide hand. As a belay device. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. though developed as a rappel device. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. . Figure 6-. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. rather than around the belayerUs body.+ =D change the function of the hands. he hand on the rope running to the climber.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. or load. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. :unter hitch. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. to$ards the load. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls.

Figure 6-. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber.%a* As a climbing belay. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. Figure-eight &e2ice. . he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. . A short. %b* As a lo$ering belay. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this.6. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. but have no moving parts.ope management is performed as in a body belay. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. >nlike the other devices. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body.

the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. =n&irect %e!ay. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. Additionally. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. if the second falls or $eights the rope. slotted plate. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. he air traffic controller %A C*. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. An indirect belay.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. a. the belayer is not locked into a position. b. If the belay is correctly established. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. Also. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. the most commonly used. . Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. Direct %e!ay. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if .

the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. . Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. 7nchor the %e!ay. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. rela"ed stance. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. If this placement fails under load. a. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever.* . A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. 7im the %e!ay. Dnce the climbing line is picked. and in line $ith the first protection placement. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. . b. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. c. sitting stance are preferred. the belayer selects his position.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. !ith the belay position selected. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. %. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C.

ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. 6independent6. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. . and 6snug6. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. o accomplish this. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. reach back. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance.%0* . <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. saving the slings for the climb. say after a severe fall. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. his is not mandatory. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position.

Stack the .* Dn small ledges.7. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. %. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. !ith the rope properly stacked. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. he rope should be stacked on the ground. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. 7ttach the %e!ay.Figure 6-. and applies the actual . Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. or on the ledge. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. e. d. 7nchoring a e!ay.ope. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile.

%e!ay setup. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. the anchor attachments. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. %. the force. If the belay is set up correctly. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. 6<.". he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake.BAI D=W6. final inspection of his belay. !hen belaying the 6second6. he gives the signal.* he belayer should make one #uick. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. guide carabiner. Anchor attachments. guide carabiner if applicable. Figure 6-. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same .belay techni#ue. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. if any. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. If the climber takes a fall. If using a body belay.

A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. :$73=3<. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear.7CT=63 T7K$3 . he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. . As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. C8=:%$. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. Top-. or at the top at the anchor. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. e"posed routes. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. A solid. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer.* %$87D$.

6 . 6 A?. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. 9. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route. If multipitch climbing.6T$CT D6E. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. ensure climbers belo$ hear.DC?6 -roceed.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. .6<.DC?6 6. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. apply brake.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.S$8F F. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. 6 .=+ID=6 ake all the slack.6 6 !.D-. 6+BAC?6 . <elayer takes in rope. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. and again. and hold me. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left. I am falling. Climber selects a belay position.=( I( &IV. <elayer removes brakeKtension. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.

BAI6 belay. above an overhang. anchoring and putting the second on belay. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. Iou have no more rope.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. Climber sets up the belay. Ta !e 6-).7 feet of rope left.ope& C!im ing :etho&s .BAI D=. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. b.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing.6 +et up the belay. . 6&IV. a. +et up the belay position. <elayer removes the belay and. I have finished climbing and I am anchored.ope comman&s. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . Iou have 7 feet of rope left.emoves the 6D&& <. remaining anchored. prepares to climb. . o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands.. his is especially true in $indy conditions. his is the signal for 6<. . It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. the most important command is 6<.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. use only one.=6 Iou have appro"imately . Iou may remove the belay. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. . or $hen the climber is around a corner. &or a rope tug command. !hile a lead climb is in progress. !ith the issue of this command.6&I&( . or at the back of a ledge.. -repares to climb. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. remains anchored.

the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. b. &or training.6 6pieces of pro. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. rope%s*. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection.6 and so on. As he climbs the route. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. a. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. Top-. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. a leader or climber. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. If you can easily access the top of a climb.6 6pro placements. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. . If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. you can easily avoid the climb itself.6 6pieces. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 6pro. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb.In military mountaineering. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock.

$ill be referred to as 6anchors. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. taking on the role of lead climber. such as rappel points. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. belays. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. c. a. ice. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. he belayer simply adjusts his position.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. or other rope installations. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup.established for other purposes. +$inging leads. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. b. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. and is responsible for selecting the route. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. or 6leap frogging. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains.

etc. he double checks the belay. he leader can then signal. thus minimiAing friction. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. !hen the belay is ready. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. until the climber tells him other$ise. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the"t belay. the belayer signals. removing the belay anchor. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. %. only as a courtesy. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. is responsible for belaying the leader.BAI D=6. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. If he cannot see the climber. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. such as a piton hammer. again. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. nut tool. $hether by sight or feel. it can be called for. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. . and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. !hen the leader is ready. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. only as a courtesy. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. %0* he other member of the climbing team. he leader then begins climbing.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. %1* <efore the climb starts. 6CBIC<I=96.. %'* !hile belaying. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. or 6rope drag6. to remove any protection that the leader may place. >nless told other$ise by the climber. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. 6<.

* he leader $ill assemble. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. At this position. !hen the leader selects a particular route. .D-. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. &ive to ten standard length runners. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. $ith t$o carabiners on each. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. he must also determine ho$ much. In this situation. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. and $hat types.BAI6. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. the leader sets an anchor.BAI D=6 is given. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. Assorted he"entrics. or 6rack. d.%7* As the leader protects the climb. %. each on a separate carabiner. the command 6 A?.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. !hen the leader has completed the connection. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. or the clip. each on a separate carabiner. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. .

$ith t$o carabiners on each. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. • .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. Cordellette. . 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. the necessary e#uipment.(inch $ebbing. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. Bong -rusik sling.: feet of . =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling."tra carabiners. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear."tra carabiners. to some degree. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. 0: feet of . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route.(inch $ebbing. . . =ut tool.• • • $o to three double length runners. • • .

the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*.. for both the leader and second if either should fall. and upon completion of any traverse.e. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. placement of protection.&D. protection can be placed farther apart. kno$n as a traverse. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. If the climbing becomes easier. or pendulum.* Placing Protection. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. moving past a difficult section. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. is re#uired. during. As the leader begins this type of move. %. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. protection should be placed more fre#uently. 9enerally. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. and <. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. saving hard$are for difficult sections. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. If the climbing is difficult. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. Dnce an anchor is placed.

Dnce leaving that piece of protection. If the clip is made correctly.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. In addition. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. in a . $hen released. !hen placing protection. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. %a* If the route changes direction. C7ET=63 .moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. /o$ever. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope.

his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. =o matter ho$ direct the route. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped.'. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. C!ipping on to protection. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. Figure 6-.5: degrees. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. rotate the carabiner up$ards . <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement.leader fall. o prevent this possibility. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made.

Ese o# s!ings on protection. o prevent this. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. C7ET=63 .ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. Figure 6-1*. . or anchor. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. .some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. inducing a fall.

All $ired chocks used for . . %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. Figure 6-1). even $hen used 6actively6. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. . it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements.*. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. As the climber moves above the placements.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. or runner.

Figure 6-1. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. ensuring they are long enough to function properly.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. ry to use the shortest runners possible. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. +ome of the larger chocks. &urthermore. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position.. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. therefore. . or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. %e* . rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected.

or 6cleaning the pitch6. If necessary.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands.f. signal 6CBIC<I=9. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. reply $ith 6CBIC<. !hen removing protection. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing.BAI D=. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. +harp rocks. !hen removing the protection.6 he second. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. as a courtesy.6 and the leader can. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position.BAI D=. he second has to issue commands to the leader. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. again as a courtesy. or seconding. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . a leader has a variety of responsibilities.* h. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. unless other$ise directed. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. rock fall. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. g. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. $hile the final preparations are taking place. no$ the climber.BAI6 to the belayer. &ollo$ing. !hen the second is ready. he can. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. %.

. he should immediately connect to the anchor. Dnce the second completes the pitch.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he should signal 6 A?.BAI. Dnce secured. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. If removing a piton. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. he can signal 6D&& <. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 .reaches a more secure stance. If too much slack develops.=+ID=.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. he belayer simply adjusts his position. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. a.egardless of the type of protection used. $hile remaining attached to an anchor.6 he leader removes the belay. $quipment. %. . if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection.D-. taking on the role of lead climber. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. the method of aid climbing . +$inging leads. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. or 6leap frogging. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb.

-lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. +ince pitons are multidirectional. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. %. %0* 'olts. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications.* Pitons. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. /o$ever. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. $ith or $ithout the the same. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. bolts can be used for aid climbing. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position.

. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. %7* %aisy Chains. appro"imately every . %1* S"C%s. split(shaft rivets. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. . and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. or steps. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. . +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.0 inches.* . but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate.or -iders. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. %4* (ifi ook. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. although in aid climbing. . %5* -scenders. although in aid climbing.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. %'* Chocks. A fifi hook is a small. %)* Etriers . A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook.

aiders. %4* . and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. !ith the daisy chains. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. into the steps in the aider. the climb continues as follo$s: %. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. If this happens.b. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. &rom this height. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. again. you are no$ standing above your support. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. Technique. one at a time.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. he big difference is the movement up the rock. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you .

you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. . o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. tie in short on the rope every .epeat entire process until climb is finished c.. move the ascenders. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. After ascending another 0: feet.* >nlike lead climbing. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. !hen adjusted to the correct height. Secon&ing. o prevent this possibility. a serious fall could result. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route.:* . o ascend the route. o make this easier. !hen the pitch is completed. If the ascender is too high.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. the arms need not support much body $eight.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. above the piece. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. repeat this procedure. %. 3otes4 . one at a time. Clear each knot as you unclip it. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners.

the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. hooks. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. possibly resulting in the protection failing. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. o make this safer and easier. %. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. his is in effect a self(belay.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. d. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. to get caught as you move up$ard. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile you ascend. do not tie into the end of the rope. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. he hook . the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. and other protection placed easily by hand. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. +BC2s. e. /o$ever. !hile leading an aid traverse. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. 0. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it.

protected traverses . b. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope.::(foot climb $ith a . At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. 9iven one rope. belayed climb. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. &or e"ample: a . are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. a forty foot fall could result. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. hese types of devices due to their passive application. the methods $ill vary. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. $hich involves more difficulties. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. only t$o are described belo$. a.::(foot climb $ith a . although bolts can be used. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. If the climb is only one pitch. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope.

.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes.BAI6 from the leader. or number 0 climber. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. !hen the leader completes the pitch. and number 1. or number . If using one rope.$ill re#uire additional time. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. climber. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. !hen number . !hen the leader completes this pitch. he second. he again sets up a ne$ belay. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. he most e"perienced individual is the leader.Us . !hen number 1 receives 6<. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number .BAI D=. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. !hen using t$o ropes. ascends belayed by number 0. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. %. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers.

or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . such as the tuber type. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. %d* In this method. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . number 1 performs no belay function. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences .belay is ready. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. %d* =ormally. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. he remains anchored to the rock for security. !hen number 1 is not climbing. his $ould save time for a team of three. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope.. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes.

he use of harnesses. H )i. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. .ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. but adds to total mission $eight. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. faster. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. =nsta!!ation . and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. ascenders. and safer. even worse.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . 'hey can limit the battlefield and. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. However. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations.

the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. If the leader placed protection. -rusik. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. autoblock*. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. Figure 7-).o install a fi"ed rope. Dther$ise. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. . Esing a #iBe& rope. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. he $ill stack and manage the rope. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. Dnce the anchor is rigged. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope.*.

Esing a se!#. FiBe& . If not.e!ay. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope.Figure 7-. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. .etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. . he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope..

. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*.Figure 7-1. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. a. ease of negotiation. =nsta!!ation. avoids obstacles. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. he second sets up a standard belay. actical considerations are met. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb.

!hen he reaches an anchor point. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. As the leader climbs the route. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. and attaches the rope to the anchor. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process.ope crossovers should be avoided.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. double figure(eight*. %. 3ote4 . . he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. . he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. he temporarily anchors the rope.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. and back over the opposite shoulder. and runs it around either hip. /e then pulls the rope from behind. %o&y . the rope runs to the brake hand. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. b. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground.appe! %&igure 4(7*. and his back straight to reduce friction. diagonally across the chest. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. o brake. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. -asty rappe!. 9loves are $orn. &rom there. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times.Figure 7-4. . and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks.

9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. 0. 3otes4 . Seat--ip . /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. c. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.Figure 7-5. %o&y rappe!. ..appe! %&igure 4()*. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller.

%0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake.Figure 7-6. %. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . hen run the rope through the single carabiner. If a single rope is used. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. his method has minimal friction. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. stand to the right of the rappel rope. /o$ever. stand to one side of the rope.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. If using a right(hand brake. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. Seat-hip rappe!. and is fast and safe. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness.

-lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. &or this reason. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. Figure 7-7.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. he brake hand goes on the slack rope.* o use the figure(eight descender. d. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. %. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. Figure-$ight Descen&er. .

preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. . $Bten&ing the . he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. d. f.appe! De2ice. e. hese include slots or plates and tubers. Figure-eight &escen&er. 6ther De2ices.) of an inch in siAe. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques.Figure 7-".

e!ay. 6ne-.Figure 7-'. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . .( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays. /o$ever.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. depends on the techni#ue. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*.

If t$o carabiners are used. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. Dnce across. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. the gates $ill be opposing. he anchor should be $aist high. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample.:. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. If crossing a ravine or gorge. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. =atural anchors. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. If crossing a stream. $iremanUs. a. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. b. At that time. the s$immer must be belayed across.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. are al$ays preferred. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. c. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. such as large trees and solid rock formations. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. .

*. Transport tightening system. e. . >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation.. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope.Figure 7-)*. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.1*. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(. d. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope.0*.

Transport knot . Figure 7-). .Figure 7-)).oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight. ..

he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. Tension!ess anchor knot. $eb $rap. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. Dnce across. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. . $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot.:. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. a.Figure 7-)1. b. 3ote4 2uring training. c. the far side man anchors the rope.

g. Figure 7-)4. transport knot. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. !hen the rope is tight. F-pu!!ey tightening system. As the rope is pulled tight. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. f. from inside to outside. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. and is run back to the near side anchor. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system.d. e. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. here are several methods of accomplishing this. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. .

the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. monkey cra$l. :etho& o# Crossing. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. and pull the rucksack across. o recover if he falls over. he may $ear it over both shoulders. and yrolean traverse. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope.)*. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. -referably. attach it to the bridge.7*. Comman&o cra+!. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. Figure 7-)5. . If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance.a. %. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. If dry crossing is impossible.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(.

/e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. Figure 7-)7. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(.appe! seat metho&. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.Figure 7-)6. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. If crossing $ith rucksacks. . .4*. :onkey cra+!.

Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon.igging Specia! $quipment.b. ammunition. Construction. %. Figure 7-)". Any special e#uipment. cordage %various siAes*. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. -au!ing !ine. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. &inally. %0* -"0CE Packs. A unit +D. . hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. or supplies. . he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. ABIC. such as cre$(served $eapons. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(.may dictate the rigging of these items. All the slack is pulled to the near side. and carabiners. he other end is anchored on the near side. a.* Machine /uns. o rig machine guns.5*.

a. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. %.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. If the < C chooses the dry method.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. c. :o2ing 8itters. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. he far side remains anchored. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. %'* A three(man pull team. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. . he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method.b. :o2ing . takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. assembled on the far side. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. . Dn each side of this carabiner.ucksacks. . then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across.

%'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. removes the knots. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. Suspension tra2erse. b. Figure 7-)'. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. inserts a carabiner. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers.%)* Dnce across. Site Se!ection . and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. and then pulls the rope across. ravines. chasms. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. %. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. and up or do$n a vertal.

he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. $o sturdy poles are needed.'(foot sling ropes are needed. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. %. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. a. %0* !ith a sling rope.* . It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. Construction.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. and mark the ape" on both poles. 7-#rames. -osition this knot on . ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. hree to five . an A(frame must be used. $quipment. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. leaving about .0 feet long.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. . -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. c. b. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking.

*. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot.* Figure 7-.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. ensure it is in the same direction as the . he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps.*. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. . 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.

Adjust the A( . tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. %. . he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. If the ground is soft.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. =nsta!!ation Construction. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off.).*. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. the direction of kick.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. If more than one sling rope is needed. Figure 7-. . %4* If the ground is a hard surface. 7-#rame sprea&er. d. .%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. dig the legs in about ) inches. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs.

%'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. not forcing it in a lateral direction.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot.0*. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope. Figure 7-. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. Eoin the ends of a . +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides... ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. .. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope.

1. 2ue to the constant . Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground.Figure 7-. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions.

etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. . rucksacks.tension maintained on the belayer. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. use a mechanical belay. or supplies Figure 7-. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . Aertica! hau!ing !ine. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons.4. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. herefore. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. use a relay man.

tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. .platforms that provide a safe $orking area. if necessary. a. o maintain the .* Figure 7-. 2ouble one installation rope. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. find the middle. and anchor it. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside.5.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. %+ee &igure 4(07. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment.0(inch bight.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. .

Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the .0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. f. belay from the top using the hauling line. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. he angle should be . g. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load.b. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame.0 inches apart. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. d. c. o anchor the A(frame. directional figure(eight. or to.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. $hich is tied to the A(frame. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. e. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. . ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line .

a. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. . pull the other side from belo$. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. Theory. b. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. the load rubbing against the rock $all. and availability of anchors.. load $eight. terrain. . o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. and the rope condition.h. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. .educe e"cessive friction on the system. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. !hen in use. Construction. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. . c.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. Simp!e .etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. Consi&erations. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. e#uipment. !hen it is no longer needed. $eather.

then place the $orking end into the carabiner. place a pulley into the carabiner. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. . . Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed.%.* . Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope.

>se belays and backup safeties. . the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load.6. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. load $eight. &or greater efficiency. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. 6ther Factors. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. and availability of anchors. a. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. $eather. d. terrain. If the t$o pulleys touch. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. Consi&erations. e#uipment.Figure 7-. F-pu!!ey system. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage.

>se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. and the rope condition. Theory. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage.b. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. his is the -C2. %. c. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. E-pu!!ey system.. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. . +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. Construction.* Anchor the hauling rope. the load rubbing against the rock $all. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. %7* Construct a second anchor. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. Figure 7-.7.

re#uires more rest halts. he mountaineer sets a tempo. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. he trained. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. or number of steps per minute. technical roc0 and ice climbing. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. the need for rest halts decreases. acclimatiAation. and a unit can cover a given . H <reaks are kept to a minimum. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. produces early fatigue. H In addition to proper techni#ue. he more adverse the conditions.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. good nutrition and hydration. the slo$er the pace. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. rugged terrain. pace. H he terrain. and results in loss of climbing time. s0iing or snow shoeing. . conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps.est. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. !hen a moderate pace is set. conditioning. empo. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. Coving too fast. pace is adapted to conditions. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. hen. rappelling. $eather. proper training. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. even under ideal conditions. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace.

!hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. he soldier e"hales strongly. hydrate. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. %. breathe deeply. the soldier pauses briefly. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one.distance in a minimal time. steady. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. <listers and . deeper inhale. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. %. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. and snack on trail food. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. not muscle.. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. rock. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. %1* his slo$. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. supports the $eight. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. %'* After a climb. soldiers lean against a tree. If possible. If possible. and higher elevations.* After each step for$ard. enabling an easier. sno$fields.7 hours. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. to .

and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route.blackened toenails.. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. surface. $ould be from $alking straight up. A ski pole. in lo$ brush or heather. animal trails. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. and loss of balance. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. /ard ground is firmly compacted. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. and back pain may follo$. knee damage. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. %. If side hill travel is necessary. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks.* !hen ascending. try to s$itchback periodically. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. and on scree and talus slopes. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. o turn at the end of each traverse. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. ice a". through thick brush.efer to Chapter . o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. H -ar& <roun&. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. back injury. A normal progression. as the slope steepens. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. %. !hile traversing. . to a herringbone step. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles.

and plants his foot solidly. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle.. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. each one improving the step as he ascends. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. $hich take half of the boot. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. . +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. $hich must be done in a positive. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. steps off. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above .H Sno+ S!opes. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. simply $alk straight do$n. his is the in(balance position. and $eighting the trail leg. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier.0 Step Kicking. held in the uphill hand. aggressive manner. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. he soldier faces out. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. /. he soldier performs a basic rest step. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. he ice a". Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. returning to the in(balance position. and they $ill not be as secure. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard.

!hen looking for a firmer travel surface. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. H <rassy S!opes. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. trees. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. !hen traversing. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs.* !hen ascending. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. In this techni#ue. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. brush is both a help and a hindrance. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. and the upper leg is used only for balance. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. H Thick %rush. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. &or the military mountaineer. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. $here the ground is more level. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. %.

feet pointed do$nhill. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. !hen $alking in talus. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. back straight. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. if possible. H Ta!us S!opes. ascending or descending. H Scree S!opes. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. After determining that the step is stable. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. o . !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. and heels dug in. and then repeats the process. %. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot.

=avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. sno$. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. compass and identifiable terrain features. he use of the map. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest.ockW6 is shouted immediately. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. the location of a target objective. the $arning. . he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. elbo$s.prevent rock fall injuries. navigation. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. and do not look up. grass. is the foundation of good navigation. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. Backing cover. 6. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. digging into the slope $ith hands. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. knees and toes. and route finding.

%0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. Compasses. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. and bad $eather should be e"pected. checking progress and terrain identification. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. 7!timeters.H . good judgement and sound tactical instincts. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . or millibars.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. . it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. a loss of barometric pressure of . a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. <y measuring air pressure. millimeters of mercury.. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. usually attached to a cord. usually inches of mercury. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. route planning. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. a. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. b. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation.::: feet of elevation.1 inches has occurred.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. %. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet.

longitude and elevation of the individual user. saddles. and so forth* is reached. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. it can provide position %accurate up to . all($eather. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. causing them to give poor readings. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. <!o a! 9ositioning System. his can result in faulty elevation readings. c. . It can determine the latitude.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. he 9-+ is a space(based. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. survey monuments. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. global. %4* . %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. stream(trail intersections. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. %. continuously available radio positioning navigation system.

Dther$ise. start point and objective. the better the system performs. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. or plateaus are better. or altimeter navigation. open valleys. spurs. 3a2igation Techniques."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning.idgelines. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. %4* . he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. &or navigation. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. d. but due . deep valleys. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. %'* +ince the 0. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. after choosing critical checkpoints. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. Canyons. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. terrain association. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. saddles. summits. . enter their coordinates as $ay points. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation.%1* 2uring route planning.

/eavy fog. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. bo"ing(in areas. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature.* Dea& . %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. elevation. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. slope %+D+. and attack points are all used. /andrails. %. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. checkpoints. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. siAe. . he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. he shape. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. and not a precise point.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively.eckoning. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. navigational the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. catching features. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. glacier. !hen clear cut. than as a primary navigational aid. . burned(over. orientation. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. %0* Terrain 7ssociation.

in resection. open road or track. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. or desert.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. but not behind the object being vie$ed. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. such as da$n. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. check the . in computing rates of ascent or descent. and in $eather prediction. $ater. dusk. H !hen looking do$n a straight. $atercourse. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H !hen looking over a smooth. uniform surface. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. H !hen the light is poor. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. hey aid in orientation. such as sno$. H !hen the object blends into the background. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes.

%. gross bedding planes of rock. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. .ates of travel. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear.altimeter. light conditions %time of day*. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. In this case. cliff bands. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. e. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. and the physical condition of the team. cliffs. In addition. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. and crevasse Aones become visible. along $ith $eather conditions. . sno$fields and glaciers. !atch the mountain during the approach march. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. such as couloirs or gullies. studying it for climbing routes. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. may present themselves.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. &ault lines.

2uring calm $eather. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. individual ski abilities. and the siAe of the unit. pays off in more efficient travel. $ater features. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. If you must cross one. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. avalanche danger. and impact on your route choices. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. are often steeper.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. sno$ pits. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. (inter . cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. f. 2uring movement. g. shovel tests. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. %. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . constrain your choice of terrain. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. terrain relief. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. vegetation. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. &or $eaker skiers.oute Se!ection. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather.

>nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. and so on to get accurate readings. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. ice a".danger is still present. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. . %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. east. !eather and tactical situation permitting. If $eak skiers are in the group. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. %4* 2uring ski movements. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. If the $eather turns bad. Avoid north. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. H >se a steady. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs.

hick vegetation and rough. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. %. especially above tree line. short hours of daylight. and drifting sno$. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. kno$ledge of the enemy . outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. caused by large ore deposits. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. .emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. fog. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. trails. At times. compasses.* In $inter. Careful map reconnaissance. drastically limit visibility.h. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. %'* /andling maps.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. 9ro !ems. bliAAards. . $hiteouts. sno$fall. %1* Cagnetic disturbances.

* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance.:7:. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. Areas above tree line. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme.::: maps can be used if available. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. cable and tram$ays are often found. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. Civilian . often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. even larger scale maps are desirable. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. A . +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. terrain analysis of the operational area. verbal descriptions. clear cuts.:07.::: map and should be used $henever possible. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. such facilities as ski lifts.:.situation. An . pay close attention to the marginal information.0. In addition. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. obli#ue angle.econnaissance. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. Along $ith sketch maps. Aerial. :ap . <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. a. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.::: map depicts greater detail than a . %.

2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. such as rivers and gorges. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. . and route selection must be scrutiniAed. roads.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. %0* Dbstacles. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . %1* /elicopter support. and plans made to avoid them. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. trails. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. impassable torrents. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. are factored in. b. and large open areas above tree line. c. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. resupply and medevac.uins. $eather permitting. e"tractions.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. $nemy Situation. barns. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. . they have a marked advantage. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. bridges. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. but should still be e"pected.

camming units*. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. smooth rock@ bolts. Time-Distance Formu!as. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. mountain structure and forms. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. Enit 7ssessment. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. . chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. including the geology.success. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. d. %. and ground cover. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult.outes through granite rock %long cracks. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. %0* .* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain.*. good friction@ use of pitons. e.

to 7. helicopter support cannot be relied on. %0* As able 5(. actical movements. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. Time-&istance #ormu!as. should take this into account. realistic rates of march. his distance plus .::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. In order to do this. foot . %1* Individual loads also affect march rates. basic mountaineering gear.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than .0 kph 0 to 1. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. indicates..) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-).0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing ... first measure the map distance. and clothing for mountain travel. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.0 kph 0 to* $alking* Dn foot %less than .' to .. Add one hour for each .0 to ' kph +kiing . foot of .K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units.0 kph 1.) kph '.::: feet of ascent or 0. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.) to 1. %. $eights in order to obtain accurate. .) to 1. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.5 to 7.

ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. Se!ect a Current :ap. Consider the follo$ing: %. vegetation. a. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. $eather reports. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. $idth of trails. avalanche probability.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. Se!ect a . Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. sno$ condition reports. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. b. his includes degree of slopes. avalanche probability. Additionally. and trails accurately. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission.. roads. c. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. . and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help.* Tra##ica i!ity. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. -lot start and end points. and the likelihood of crevasses. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. aerial photos. sno$ depth. clearings. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*.equire& $quipment. %1* . he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential.oute.

and depth of the water. depending upon the type of stream. %)* Con&itions. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. . speed of the current. its width. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams.%7* Communications. swift. %4* Checkpoints. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. !hen plotting a route on the map. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. >se all available information and plan accordingly. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly.Contro! 9oints. or deep.Capa i!ities o# Enit. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. ake into consideration their present health.econnaissance . an alternate route should be used. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. . When rivers or streams must be crossed.

Figure '-). depending on the distance from the source. a. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. As glaciers. A distant vie$.. for e"ample. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. the rivers rise. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. if . the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. perhaps from a ridge. b. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. or ice melt during the day. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. If a dry crossing is unavailable. or head$aters.*. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. photo. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. 2epending upon the time of year. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. In a s$amp. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. the closer you are to the source.econnaissance of the route %map. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. Crossigs. sno$. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor.

Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. =atural anchors are not a necessity. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. if any. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. firm bottom. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. . or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. above the tree line for e"ample. and thus shallo$est.made during the early morning. Dnce a log jam is formed. In some areas. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. ho$ever. %1* Cany mountain streams. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. point of the river or stream. ho$ever. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. contain sections $ith numerous channels. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day.

A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. if available. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. %)* !hen possible. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. binoculars. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. papers. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. as in the higher alpine Aones. All pockets are buttoned. he could easily dro$n. tactical situation. H If you must cross on the upstream side. temperature of the air and $ater*. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. !rap radios.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. <oots should be $orn . !hen cover and concealment is minimal. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. -reparation includes the follo$ing. +DI. a. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. b. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items.

a. Dn the far side. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. /o$ever. c. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. f. e. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. he may choose to face more side$ays as this .to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. socks and inner soles should be removed. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. At times. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. d.

or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. c. If an obstacle is encountered. a long ice a". deliberate steps. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. o increase balance. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. /e should take short. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. b. and if available. e. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. he staff should be moved first. d. sturdy tree limb. . Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.

. he line formed faces the far bank. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings.Figure '-. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. a team crossing may be used. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. &or chain crossing. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. but $ith the added support of each other..

escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . . 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. a. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately .ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. and the distance from the near and far anchors. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. he stream at this point may be impassable. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party.Figure '-1. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. height of the anchors above the $ater. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. Cany times though. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. .

A -&2 may also be used by the last man across.$ill pendulum back.V. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. . /e should =. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. If this is impossible. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. should he fail to reach the far bank. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. %. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b.. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*.

%'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. An appropriate knot is tied into the . Stream crossing using a han&!ine. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. /ere again.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. %. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. pulled tight. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired.Figure '-4. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. and anchored on the near bank. rather than straight across the stream.

he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. $hichever appears easiest. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. Figure '-5. %7* >nder most circumstances. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. .

It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. c.%)* . such as mortars. d. a. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. use a different techni#ue. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. .ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. speed of the current. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. stream bottom configuration. e. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. Sa#ety . and individual e"perience. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. $idth of the stream. recoilless rifles. b. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. and so on. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. or choose another route. A lookout should be posted 7: to . f. especially heavier $eapons. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site.

2o not try to fight the current. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. for assistance or rescue. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. b. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. a. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system.g. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. such as a sandbar. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. facing do$nstream. e. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. d. c. . >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. seek out the closest and safest spot. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. h. In either case. If the shore is too difficult to reach. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

As the slope steepens. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting.degrees. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope.. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. Dn steep terrain. . If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. .egardless of the techni#ue used. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . Figure )*-)*. F!at-#ooting in the cra position.*.:(.: and . descend straight do$n the fall line. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending.:(. and traverse. d. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. !henever possible. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.

. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. logical progression. e. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. raverse $ith feet flat. &ront(pointing. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. /erringbone step straight up the slope.* Crampons.Figure )*-)). A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. <acking up the slope %crab position*. %0* =ce 7B. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. 3orma! 9rogression. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue.

. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately. C!im ing sequence..epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .:(.e. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . Step Cutting. and move the hand up the a" shaft.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. . Figure )*-).1*. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. C!im ing Sequence. in some cases.:(. f. >sing most of these positions.0*. save the $eight of the crampons altogether.

+teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. %0* =ce. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. steps may be cut straight up the slope. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. and angled more. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. then cut one bet$een those t$o. !hen changing direction.* Sno+. a traverse is also the preferred method. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. =e"t. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. In ascending. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. %'* -an&ho!&s. %. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. Dnce the step is formed. . If handholds are cut. In descending. they should be smaller than footholds. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step.

the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved.Figure )*-)1. g. 2uring movement on steep ice. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. or arrest. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting.:(. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. a fall %&igure . . A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs.'*. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. Se!#-7rrest.

Se!#-arrest technique. .Figure )*-)4.

H /ead do$nslope. H /ead do$nslope. back to the slope. %. and feet pointed upslope. back to the slope. . %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. and feet pointed do$nslope. stomach on the slope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. H /ead upslope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. the climber must first gain control of his body. stomach on the slope.Figure )*-)4. and feet pointed do$nslope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed upslope. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force.

the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. %b* In the second position. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side.:(. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. stomach do$n position. . 9lissading is similar to skiing. stomach on the slope. rapid descent. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a".7*. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested.%a* In the first position. %d* In the fourth position. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . could severely injure his ankles and legs. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. If crampons are not $orn. controlled. %'* !hen a fall occurs. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". he a" is held diagonally across the chest.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. e"cept skis . %c* In the third position.

he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". Squatting <!issa&e. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. $hich serves as the rudder. and guide for the glissade. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. Sitting <!issa&e. he same balance and control are necessary. Sa#ety. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. b. . A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. as painful injury could result. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. pick. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. c. brake. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*.are not used. and the other hand on the shaft. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. Also.

>sed singularly. %. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. and ice pitons. skis. deadman(type anchors. backpacks.Figure )*-)5. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . <!issa&ing techniques. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. ice scre$s. =ce 9itons. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. .* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. sleds. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor.: inches in length. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. flukes. a. or any large items.

are multidirectional.4*.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure .:(. $hen placed correctly. =ce piton pair. such as top roping. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. !hen an ice piton is removed. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. c. making further use difficult. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.)*. If it pulls out or appears $eak. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. move to another spot and replace it. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. he pair of pitons. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. =ce Scre+s. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand.:( . -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . or the ice may crack or soften. Figure )*-)6. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed.

%.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. Figure )*-)7. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. . such as top roping. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. or the ice may crack or soften. %. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. must be removed before further use.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to .

It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. the $idth should not be less than . -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s.: feet. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. Figure )*-)". his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure .* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. !hen constructed of sno$. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. .:(. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. depending on the strength of the ice. %. e. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. In ice. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. or other e#uipment for added strength. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$.d. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. pickets.5*. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes.

f.:(. t$o or more anchors should be used. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. rappel points. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. sno$shoes. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. A similar anchor. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. or other fi"ed rope installations. ski poles. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. . !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . . frayed. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. %.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface.%. also. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor.* !henever possible. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. should be at a right angle to its length. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. skis. he direction of pull on long items.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. %&igure . such as a picket or a".6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried.

&or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. Figure )*-)'. !hen crevasses are e"pected. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. a three(man rope team is recommended.e#ualiAed anchor. Tie-=n :etho&. a. the tie(in is modified slightly. . =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. +hould any member fall. :o2ement. Covement on 9laciers. all climbers move simultaneously. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. %+ee paragraph .6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. <y using this . $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. b. for more information*. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight.:(4.

%oot-aB e!ay. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce.*. c. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. Dn steeper slopes. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. %. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. 9enerally. Figure )*-. .:(0:*.method.* %oot-7B %e!ay. called the 6team arrest. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a".

he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. FiBe& . A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. also. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions.%0* %o&y %e!ay. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. or cliffs. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. H . H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. As the movement continues. %1* :unter -itch. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. .opes. d. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. ridgelines. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor.

and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers.a. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. <!acier cross section. .* Figure )*-.).:(0. %&igure . sho$s a cross section of a glacier. Characteristics an& De#initions. and &igure .:(00 depicts common glacier features.

Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. <!acier #eatures.Figure )*-. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt..* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier.. %. . %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.

hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. . As you approach this area. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. . he firn line can change annually.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse.. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. <e cautious.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. %. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. %. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. %. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. %. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice.

icefalls. In $inter. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. %.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. o$ard the end of the summer.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. %.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. %. b. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. and ice avalanches.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier.%. %. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. $hen visibility is poor. %0. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. %. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it.

he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers. . Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Figure )*-. criss(crossed $ith the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers.:(0'*. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .:(01*.1.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. %.

keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. use the -rusik to belay each other in. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. If the team members need to assemble in one area. he simplest and most common . %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. if three people are on a team. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. ie in to the bights and the ends.4. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. . If four people are on a team.Figure )*-. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. %0* !hen conditions $arrant.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. the remaining members go into team arrest. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. assess the situation. o locate the positions.

:(07*. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. A roped team of t$o. . c. he best combination is a three(man rope team. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. $hile ideal for rock climbing. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. their security being the team arrest. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. halting the fall. . he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. 9enerally.ope& :o2ement.

he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. he remaining 6thirds6 .ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes.* . %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people.5. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. the rope should be divided into thirds. as for a four(person team. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness.Figure )*-. <ecause of this. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. %. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. %0* . the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. $hether improvised or premanufactured.

0(foot ropes. or carried over the head and shoulder. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. by itself. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. e. the chance of it failing is much greater. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. If necessary. d. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. forming endless loops or slings. if $arm clothing is needed. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. &or safety reasons. <efore movement. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. Securing the %ackpack. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. $ith double fishermanUs knots.. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. attached to the rucksack. !hen .ucksack. may be e"tremely difficult. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. he ends of the ropes are tied together. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. /o$ever. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by .

on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. %. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. large crevasses remain open. . they only supplement. . !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. and do not take the place of. /o$ever. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. Dpen crevasses are obvious. the sno$.* In the area of the firn line. connecting both sides of it. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. and icefalls. =arro$ cracks may be covered. heavily crevassed portions. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. f. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. g. In this Aone. steep terminal or lateral moraines. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. Crossing Cre2asses. $hich may be major obstacles to progress.outes. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. $hich covers glacier ice. %. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections.hanging from the drop cord. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse.

+no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. a crevasse is probably present. and may form firmer bridges.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. If he is. %. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. . for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. the team may proceed. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". its detection is difficult. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. Sno+ %ri&ges. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. and gradually turn into glacier ice. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. h. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. In such a situation. but difficult to detect in flat light.

=umber t$o belays number three across. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. . 2o not stamp the sno$. he assumes the belay position. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. Dnce the second is across. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. i. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side.: feet back from the edge. %1* In crossing crevasses. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. %c* he leader should move for$ard.

If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader..%. the rope is al$ays kept taut. to anchor the rope. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. using the -rusik as a self belay. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. if the person $as almost across. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. =umber 1 must al$ays be . It generally is safer to retain the rucksack.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. /o$ever. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. % his scenario is for a team of three. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough.

and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . if the middle person should fall through.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . =ormally. close to number 0. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. onto the anchor. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in.. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. Cre2asse .Us anchor. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. as a minimum. number .escue Techniques. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. $ould anchor the rope by himself. j. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . assumes the role of number 1. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number .

on the edge of the ice. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. =umber . +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. If the fallen climber is not injured. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. such as an ice a".edge. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. In order to reduce friction.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . place padding. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. As the assisting team pulls. %.ope Teams. In some situations. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . clips number 1Us rope to himself. ski. or backpackKrucksack. ski pole. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. .ope. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. If necessary. %0* FiBe& . he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge.

he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. %f* he procedure is repeated. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. Dther times. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n.6 of the long sling. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. /o$ever. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. or 6stirrup. %&igure . Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . to ascend the rope.person in the crevasse.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord.

* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . % his scenario is for a team of three. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. and they have decided to install the V rig. In actual field use. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik.6 system. Figure )*-. In theory. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup.6. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a .::(pound load $ith this system. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. A pulley can be used here if available. to the anchor. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. 9rusik ascen&ing technique. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.:(04*. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious.. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse.

he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . . =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. he system is no$ ready for another haul. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. H !ith the 61(to(. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible.6 system.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0.

at least eight feet in length. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. . a. a crevasse is present. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system.7. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. and so on. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large.Figure )*-. =ormally. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. poles.

ry to find a solid platform. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. e. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. probe again after digging. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. c.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. by 0 feet. therefore. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site.* &or block construction. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . :ountain . Dccasionally $hile probing. Under these conditions.b. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. tactical situation. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. 7t is. d. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. At a minimum. Air evacuation is preferred: however. If a latrine area is needed. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. In deep soft sno$. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . If a dugout latrine is necessary. by . or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. terrain. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. $hich keeps tents closer together. %. the weather. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. distance to be moved. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. and e)isting installations.

hey are.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations.evel 7 and . 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a .sufficient. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake.* Assume command. &or a planned rescue. resume victimUs breathing. ho$ever. Dne person. c. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. control serious bleeding. . . is overall in charge at all times. . there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. . and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. b.evel 777 supervising. and maintain moderate body $armth. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay.2. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. a.nsure that the C. /o$ever. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. and one person only. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. physician/s assistant. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. medic%. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. %. . e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used.

very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. and terrain at hand. if available. . %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action.$SCE$. avalanche run(out Aone. or any other immediate haAard. a. possibility of falling rocks*. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. . hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. hanging glacier. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. or a change in $eather. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. vehicle.If the victim is unconscious.esist the urge for action. continually monitor pulse.escue 6perations . T-$ . +peed is less important than correct action. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. environmental haAard. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. should be used for evacuation. 9!anning .

In planning a rescue. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. priority. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. H actical situation.* After identifying the task. $hen. $hat. H .valuate the circumstances of the rescue. medical. and evacuation. tactical immediate*. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. rescue. routine. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . $here. H . that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. d. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. security.b. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. $hy. H -lan the action. c.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. and the nature of their injuries. H Are additional personnel. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. he task must be identified. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. treatment. and ho$ the situation happened. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. H errain features and location of the casualties.

and so on*. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. If the victim is airlifted out. Ca"imum use of secure. pulse rate. sleeping bags. ropes. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. and rescue belay points*. Age and physical condition may vary.* In estimating time available. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. and the personnel and e#uipment available. the situation. . e. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. $arm clothes. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. ime becomes the critical element. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. tents. stove. reliable trails or roads is essential. $alking trails. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. blood pressure. bivouac sacks. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. fi"ed lines. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. lo$ering lines. and stretchers. hot food and drinks. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. !ith all rescue techni#ues. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. anchor #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. %c* !hen performing all rescues. drugs started. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital.

=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.ST ST7<$4 . .=6. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. H T-=.=TD T-. H 9.%1* . H F6E.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. .emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation.=6.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. a. H F=.T.=6.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.D ST7<$4 .emove dead personnel. In high altitudes. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . or gusting $inds.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites. .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. b. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. separate stages are taken. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.=6. H 9. available time is drastically reduced. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. Specia! Training .=TD F6E. H 9. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. e"treme cold. . %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.ST7<$4 .

litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. pistol belt. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated.* S!ing-.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep.ope Carry. . he sling(rope carry %&igure . herefore. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. or inade#uate protection from the elements..* re#uires a '. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. the best method of manual transportation is selected. t$o(hand. %. 6ne-:an Carries. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. it can be lost through carelessness. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours.(. rough handling. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. saddleback. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. difficult terrain. four(hand. piggyback. a. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. before trying to move the $ounded soldier.

should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. S!ing-rope carry. $hen available.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. and back around to the front of the bearer. crosses the ends. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. %f* he rope must be tight. Figure ))-). -adding. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. . %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) .K0( meter coiled rope. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. %0* . %a* -lace the casualty on his back.ope Coi! Carry. around the casualtyUs thighs.

the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. %u&&y . A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. pulling the casualty onto his back. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. b. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. In this case. the bearer carefully stands.appe!. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. If this is not done. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. .%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg.

%0* A '.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. across the carrierUs chest. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. %7* he rope is run diagonally. across the victimUs back. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. from right to left. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. he victim straddles the carrier. and back under the victimUs left armpit. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back.%. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. over his left shoulder. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. from left to right. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided.0(meter sling rope is used. . he rope is run diagonally. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. from right to left.

depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. and e#uipment available.* he poleless. he rope is folded in half. on traverse lines. nature of injuries.%. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. as described above. and then routed up along the handling arm. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. . belayed. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. It can be improvised $ith poles. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. behind the neck. :anu#acture& 8itters. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. $hich are se$n on one side. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. and then do$n along the other arm. easy to carry. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. over the shoulder. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. %. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. If the litter must be carried. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. a. and readily available. and then carried again. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. depending on the terrain.

!heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. . the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. .* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it.5. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters.1. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. $hich is a potential breaking point. %+ee &C 5(.

+ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. %. $indo$ shutters. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. If possible. jackets. If a poncho is used. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. /o$ever. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. a large item. or mattress covers. and poles. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. cots. . b. ladders. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. benches. such as a blanket. doors.6*-). the hood must be up and under the victim. not dragging on the ground.. sacks. tent supports.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. tarpaulin. skis. bags.0.(0*. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . these objects should be padded. and other similar items. shelter halves. scoop stretchers. ponchos.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. %0* If poles cannot be found. +uch objects include boards.. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters.. .(0):(. Figure ))-. A litter can be improvised from many different things. shirts..

%a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ).. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. . 3ote4 Above the tree line. sleeping bags. empty bo"es. .ach clove hitch should be about . %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. Figure ))-1. . centimeters long. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. make a clove hitch over each bight. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available.ope !itter. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter.(1*. little material e"ists to construct litters. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure .

%e!ay 7ssist. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. . %7* -ull up on the rope.* &irst. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. %. 2o not remove the belay.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends.7 centimeters.(meter poles. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. ake t$o . slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. a. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. . tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. and place a carabiner into the loop.escue Systems . After placing the clove hitches over the bights.

%4* After the climber can continue climbing. %e!ay $scape. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. . he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. %7* . %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. o improve this system. %. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. b. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay.* After a climber has been injured. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. %5* . and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally.

It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. rope(edge friction.aising systems. backup safety -rusiks are used to .aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. %. and other variables.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. . the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. a. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations.%)* . +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes.aising System. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. are often encountered along the evacuation path. belays. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction.* . . %0* %e!ays. . and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. In practice. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. $hich must be surmounted. hand $inches. transferring the $eight to the anchor. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation.

he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. b. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. if possible. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.( '*. Descen&ing S!opes.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. . %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure .* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. taking care not to jar the casualty. %. % his is the signalman or relay man. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. he litter is prepared as already described. assisting him in lo$ering the litter.safeguard the system.aising the 8itter..* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. %. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. . %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. c.

b.(7*: a. %1* he most direct. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel.. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. clearance for the casualty along the route. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best.Figure ))-4. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. good loading and unloading platforms. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. if used. and anchor points for the A(frame. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. many different techni#ues can be used. As long as safety principals are follo$ed.&escen&ing. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders.

:easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated.:1814 Inches . ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. C!i## e2acuation &escent. d. Figure ))-5. c.

.14 .)0.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.:81) .05. after two hours. .1814 . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search. 18. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. random probing starts in that vicinity. <enera! 9roce&ures .robability of survival drops rapidly and. .Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots .< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately . chances of survival are remote.:105. if a member of your group is in an avalanche. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but.14 1. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .. If any indication of the location of the victim is found.7..

several factors influence the bodyUs location. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. boots. If using avalanche beacons. if enough personnel are available. packs. make an initial probe search in that area. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. gloves. terrain. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. start the coarse probe at the deposition area.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. usually the toe of the slide. . >nless other$ise indicated. goggles. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. A human body. urbulence. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. >sing this and any other information. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. hats. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. . b. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. a. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. . Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. Book for skis.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim.. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. ice a"es. poles. and mark all clues.

9ro e 9o!es. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. Cany models of transceivers are available. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. Although this type of pole .• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. the greater $ill be his burial depth. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . especially in a high $ind. In the case of large and violent avalanches. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. although they may operate differently in the search mode. .fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. Conversely. a. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. • . • Vegetation. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. All currently available transceivers are compatible. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. and other obstacles act as snares. rocks. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed.

he probe is left in contact and the line continues. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. the number of personnel per line should be limited. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. As evidenced by their names. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. $enty per line is satisfactory. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %0* If no probing poles are available. c. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. o ensure systematic and orderly probing.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. coarse probing implies a . it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. 9ro ing 8ines."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. . %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe.performs best. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. 9ro ing Techniques. %. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. he only sure check is by digging. b. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. %. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles.* . A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. &or the probing operation to be effective. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access.

&ine probing is the concluding measure.2.D<. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. he probers themselves $ork silently. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: .&D.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.7 inches apart. essentially. %.. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. +trict discipline and firm. $hile the fine probe has. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.6 6>.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness.6 6+ .::(percent chance of locating the body. a . %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. $hich almost guarantees finding the body.!A.. $ith feet about .D<.. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.-.6 <y using these commands. clear commands are essential for efficient probing. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string.

%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.6 6>.ach man probes in front of his left foot. -... %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe. %b* Dn command.6 6C. .D<.6 6>.2.ach probe is made .D<.& -.D<. then in the center of his straddled position.. $hich is then moved ahead .I9/ -..&D.= .. the line advances . .: inches from the adjacent one.D<.-.6 6+ . foot and repeats the probing se#uence. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.6 6..-.6 6>.!A. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe. .D<. and finally in front of his right foot.. foot..-.D<.

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