Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

1. .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. by tying the knot in a retrace. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.etrace /. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor.1*. %. Figure-$ight . + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. Checkpoints. . forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.. + . b.0.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.. Tying the Knot. + . .'. a. 2ress the knot do$n. Figure 4-).eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop...+ .. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.epeat + .... /o$ever.

o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. + . + . . Checkpoints %. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.). Figure 4-)1. and route the $orking end through the loop.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. Figure-eight retrace.+ . ake the $orking end around the anchor point... . $rap the $orking end around the standing part. b. !ith the $orking end...7.0.'.1. + . forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. he finished knot is dressed loosely. + ..

'*. /old the loop in the left hand. + .%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.0.. grasp the $orking end. reach under the horiAontal anchor.. !ith the right hand. palms do$n $ith hands together. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.0. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. .'.. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. + .... 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters... + . -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. Tying the Knot. %0* End of the Rope. + . -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. %. he knot is tied. a. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.. /old the standing end in the left hand..1. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. and bring it in$ard. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. + . + .* Middle of the Rope. /old rope in both hands. depending on ho$ it is tied.

fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. It is a middle rope knot. .. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. b. !ith the right hand. + .. a. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. !hen tying this knot. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.'. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. + .* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. Figure 4-)4. C!o2e hitch.. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. Checkpoints. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. Tying the Knot. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. 2ress do$n the knot. ake up the slack from the anchor. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.+ ..1. %..7*.

.1. + ..).8. b. . + .7. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)5. + .. and place it over the heel $rap.. + . + .0.5. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + ..'.. + . and fingertip. palm.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot..4. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. (ireman’s knot. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.+ . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.

. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. the tail and the bight must be together. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.)*. it lays in$ard..'. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.%.. + .1. + .. !hen dressing the knot do$n. It is a middle rope knot. !ith the $rap thus formed. a. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. Tying the Knot. . + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.. Cake one $rap around the palm. + .0.

It is a middle rope knot. b. . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.4*. %.Figure 4-)6. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . Directiona! #igure-eight. Checkpoints. %0* he tail and bight must be together.

+ .). + .. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.. + ..0. ie an overhand knot on a bight. + . spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip... A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.. Tying the Knot... + .'.a. forming t$o loops. .1. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. + .7. + . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n..4. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.

* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. %. + . >sing a doubled rope. .ight.Figure 4-)7..* It is a middle rope knot.5.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. a. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %o+!ine-on-a. Checkpoints. b.. form an .. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. Tying the Knot.

!ith the $orking end.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.7. It is a middle of the rope knot. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.0.. /old the bight $ith the left hand.'. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.8*. + . form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. b.. Figure 4-)". a.1. 2ress the knot do$n.. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.+ . Tying the Knot. + .. %. . + . and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. Checkpoints.

. form a loop in rope %standing part*. 2ress the knot tightly.1. . !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop.. a. Figure-eight !oop. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-)'. %1* he knot is tightly dressed... 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. It is a specialty knot.* he loop is the desired siAe.. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. !ith the bight as the $orking end. b. + . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.0. + . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.+ . %. Checkpoints.

0. >sing an arm3s length of rope.*.0(inch bight. + .. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. and place it over the long rope. $ith the $orking ends even. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. + .0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart.. + .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik..1.... + . 2ouble the short rope.1..*: + . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. .0. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . + . .*. forming a bight. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. Figure 4-. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.. .. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:..each do$n through the .%.

%achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. + . &orm a complete round turn in the rope. b. . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.4.). %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.. .'.. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. Checkpoints. and not t$isted. It is a specialty knot. parallel.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.+ . here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. + . Figure 4-. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.nsure they are tight. + .).7.. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.. %.

&ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.1. Tying the Knot. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. b. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. + . 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.. Figure 4-. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.0.. + . Checkpoints..a. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner... %. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .. + . %achman knot..

.. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. %. !ith the running end.1.'. he running end is to the back of the body.* A minimum of four $raps. + . + . %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.4. tie an overhand around all coils.. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.7. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. + . +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. + . $ith a bight held in place by a loop.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. It is a specialty knot. bring a bight up through the loop. + . + . b.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. Tying the Knot. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times.).0.. /olding the bight loosely.. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. a. Checkpoints. + . >sing the standing part.. . bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.. not crossed. hen. he standing portion is on the bottom. single coil. .

+ . + . !ith the right hand. + .. .'. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.... + . It is a specialty knot. Bay the loops to the right.0.Figure 4-. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. Tying the Knot. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts..1. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system.. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. a.1.

Checkpoints.+ . Tying the Knot. %.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Figure 4-.4. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.7. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. Three-!oop o+!ine. a. b. It is a specialty knot... .. + . &orm a . +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.

1. + . /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .0.. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. . /old the center of the bight in the right hand. b.0 inches up the rope. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. %. + . %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.). Figure 4-. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. + .5. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. standing end of the rope.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.'..7. Figure-eight s!ip knot.:u!e Knot0 . -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.+ . t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. Checkpoints.. + . -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.each through the bight and grasp the long. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand...

%0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.. Figure 4-. Transport knot. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + . %.. K!eimhiest Knot .. Check 9oints..0. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. a. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. %1* he bight is a minimum of . +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight..1. + . It is simply an overhand slip knot.6. Tying the Knot. + .0 inches long. b.* here is a single overhand slip knot.

7. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .. find the center of the rope and form a bight. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.0 inches.*. + . It is a special( purpose knot. pass them through the bight %see + . 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.. a.0. + . Tying the Knot. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.. !ith the ends offset.. !rap at least four complete turns. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.. easily adjustable. + .'.... It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. + . + .1. .

.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull...0 inches. It is a special(purpose knot.. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.Figure 4-. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. K!eimhiest knot. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.: to .0. b. Checkpoints. a. Tying the Knot.7. %.. + . + .

<irth hitch. %. b.: &orm a bight. %. Figure 4-. Frost knot. Checkpoint.Figure 4-.. + .1: Cinch the knot tightly.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.". Tying the Knot.'. b. Checkpoints. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. %0* he knot is dressed tightly...* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. :unter -itch . + . It is a special(purpose knot.. a. + . %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.

palms do$n about . Tying the Knot. !ith the right hand. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. + . $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.0 inches apart.1. !ith the right hand.* A bight passes through the carabiner.. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. Bock the locking mechanism. + . Check 9oints. + . .he munter hitch. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. + . %0* he carabiner is locked.. /old the rope in both hands.. /old the loop $ith the left hand. b. a. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope..'..0. %..

. It usually re#uires a sling rope .*. thus creating a loop around the $aist. . ensuring they do not cross. :unter hitch.Figure 4-1*. a..' feet or longer.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. + .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. Tying the Knot. .0..'. + . .. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.. + .1. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. + . <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip..

. . uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. Check 9oints.. b. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. tightening the seat. Figure 4-1). + .+ . %.4.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. -ull up on the ropes.7.).appe! seat. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. + . &rom rear to front. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. .

alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. + .. preferably ovals*..0. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. . + .%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. Tying the Knot.. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. a.

rope can only be pulled in one direction. Although mountain operations have not changed. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. Check 9oints.. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations.* !hen properly dressed. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. <uar&e knot. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. b.Figure 4-1. %.

&ort <enning. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. glaciers. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. 9A 1. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build.8:7(7781.). >. Army Infantry +chool. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III.<D. >nless other$ise stated.+.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. A =: A +/(. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. Countain Dperations.A2DC. for training %see Appendi" A*. anchors. $henever the masculine gender is used. and training. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. ho$ever. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine.). <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. and urban vertical environments. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. evacuation. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. sno$(covered mountains. rock climbing. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. and actions. ice climbing. he proponent of this publication is /F . his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. both men and $omen are included. movement on glaciers.army. Inclement $eather. e#uipment. tactics. illness and injury.).

sno$fields. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . conditioning. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas.::: kno$n minerals. and $ell(led troops. surprise. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. glaciers. compartments. single ridges. Spring storms. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. Df the appro"imately 0. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. AcclimatiAation. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. rehearsals. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging.

and cracks. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. . -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. &ace climbing is possible. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. a. Cha!k an& 8imestone. . and it is usually difficult to protect. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. f. c. ne$ sno$. conglomerate type stones may be loose. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. S!ate an& <neiss. found in limestone. San&stone. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. face climbing. Bimestone has pockets.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. it cannot be protected.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. and de$. . ."cept for calcite. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. After a rain. <rassy S!opes. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. . ho$ever. +topping a slide on small. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. After long. &ace climbing can be found. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes.ockfall danger is high. <ranite. granite dries #uickly. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. e. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. b. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. d. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds.

the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate.ocks.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. under pressure. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. but smaller than boulders. %. . hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. . if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". If possible. g. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. Scree.ocks. a. avoid scree $hen ascending.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. h. or. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. and over time. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". /o$ever. Ta!us. Ascending scree is a tedious task. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds.ock C!assi#ications . internal heat. he magma may move up$ard. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri".* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. his results in an intrusive rock. =gneous . $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot.

this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. and dikes. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. Barge %. or clusters of segregated minerals. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. Fuieter eruptions. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged.ockies. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock.ocks. . +ierras. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks.and crystalliAing. . produce basalt. Dccasionally. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. . Adirondacks. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . %1* Cointing ."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. In the Alps. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. herefore.ocks. it is called 6tuff. $hich cut across the strata. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. In plutonic rocks. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. =orth Cascades.

sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. Se&imentary .* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. +hale changes to slate or schist. lakes. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. but cleavage or foliation.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. In fact. $hich offers . %. c. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks.ocks. and limestone to marble. :etamorphic . or oceans. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. <ecause of this cleavage. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. especially in limestone. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. only slightly altering the sediments. After sediments are solidified.b. hese changes may be minimal. As sediments accumulate. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. %.ocks. he Canadian .

their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. a. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. 9!ate Tectonics. %. the Dlympics of !ashington. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. volcanoes. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. and heavier. $hich also provides solid climbing.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. ocean trenches. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma.$orld class climbing. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. forming fault(block mountain ranges. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. he breakage e"tends . :ountain Structure. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. e"posing the central igneous core. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. . =evada. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. . and to pull apart and crack. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. &aulting.* Dome :ountains. heaving up fold mountains. b. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. and mountain ridge systems. granitic continental crust. $hich results in fault(block mountains. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. often accompanies up$arp.

$hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. ho$ever. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. he best kno$n is the 6. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. %1* Fo!& :ountains. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. ectonic forces. Core often. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. the oldest. it is faulted on one side only. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. central core is all that remains. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other.

ift Valley of . develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. domed. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . In addition. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. and the Cediterranean. and the . the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger.idge. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. . Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. he I2+ classes are: . and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded.do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. . there are folds measured by a rope length. and faulted. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. a. Asian arc. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. the Caucasus region.

)—Cedium difficulty. . H Class '—<elayed climbing. often combined $ith small belay points. %0* Class 7.7—Coderate difficulty.H Class .:—.8—.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. hree points of contact are necessary. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. climbing techni#ue. . belay and emplace intermediate protection. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.—/iking trail. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. %7* Class 7. H Class 1—Climbing. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up.. %'* Class 7."traordinary difficulty. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. %1* Class 7. /ands are necessary to support balance. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced.:(7."posed positions.* b. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*.'—Bittle difficulty. %)* Class 7. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection.4—9reat difficulty.* Class 7. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. /igh physical conditioning. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. %4* Class 7. and e"perience re#uired.5—Very great difficulty. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary."tremely great difficulty. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. . $hich may have some e"posure. his is the simplest form of free climbing. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule.* H Class 7—&ree climbing.

* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. d.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling. .'—9reater increases of difficulty. %5* Class 7.. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. ground fall $ould occur. b.:d*.. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6. in a classification of 7. 7. %.5.' %for e"ample. and d categories starting from 7. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %.6 indicates periods of run(out $here.asy aid.—. e"perience. and energy e"penditure...: to 7.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area.. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. c. 7.5J*. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. c.(7. re#uiring more climbing ability.. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.* Classes are further divided into a. %&or e"ample.* A:—M&rench(free. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. the 6.6 or 6L. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. if a fall $as e"perienced.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample.. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. %0* A.

are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm.5*.%1* A0—Coderate aid. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. e. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. H H H H H H I — +everal hours."tremely severe aid. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length.K0 to 0 . his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. long fall potential does e"ist. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard.4*. %4* A)—. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. =o serious fall danger. %'* A1—/ard aid. II — /alf of a day. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. . %7* A'—+erious aid. All protection is sketchy at best. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. If the leader falls. such as A1J or A1(. /o$ever. %)* A7—. hese falls."treme aid. V — . VI — 9reater than 0 days. . ho$ever. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories.K0 days %usually not less than 7. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. III — About three(fourths of a day.

: 7. able .7b 7.a.7b 7.4 .c.. 'a severe.5 . H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.f.c )a.' 7.c )a. DDS Class ..(...c 7b.. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.) 7.0.8 0: 0..7 .'. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.* easy %. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.c VIII .0 7.* moderate %CD2* . 'c 7..7b(7c 7.c 7a.)a 7.. 'b hard severe.:.b.8 VI 7a 7. hard very 7.)b .b.)a 7.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.8 IIsup .b.urope. III .b 0c. sho$s a comparison of these systems. hard severe.1 7.:a VII( ..* easy %.b.b 7b.0.5 VI( severe.b VIII .b.c 0a.:d VIIJ .. hard severe.b.c 'a..b 0a.1.:b VII .'a 1b.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .K.c 7b....7 7.:c VII .c 7b. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.'a 1b. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in ..oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty..c 7b.1a 1b.).a VIII( .a.c )a.. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.c .c ' 7 ) 4 II 5..c. H <raAilian—<raAil uses ..1K.c.7b 7.b.. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.'a 'a.. 7.1 IIIsup .. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.'.

.)K4.7.0c 7.)K4. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.atings. . H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. $ith little objective haAard. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent.. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*.0a 7.7..ating systems.. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.0d IL( IL IL ILJ . he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*.. H I — A short.7. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards.0b 7. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. 2ifficult physically and mentally. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation..e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.verything a grade VI has.)c 4a 05 . $ith sustained technical climbing..)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .7. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. possibly $ith a haAardous descent. his route is subject to objective haAards. H VII — .)K4..oman numerals. g. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete. AI %alpine ice*.)K4. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. and the route might be prone to avalanche. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. all in a remote area.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). -ossibly days to approach the climb.)c 4a VIII 0) . %. A difficult and involved approach and descent. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in . and more of it. $ith objective haAards ever(present. easy climb near the road. . H V — A long climb in a remote setting. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance.* Commitment .

— A froAen lake or stream bed. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. An e"tremely tough pitch. but on featureless ice. strenuous pitch. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. $ith places to rest. location.%0* Technica! . H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. !hen planning mountain operations. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. re#uiring agility and creativity. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. . physically and mentally. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain.atings. H . H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. H 7 — A long. erratic $eather. he pitch may be shorter. additional information may be needed about siAe. a. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion.

b. put on dry clothing. %. c. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. but do not overdress. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. and calm. stay $arm. H ?eep $arm. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. during severe mountain storms. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. types. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. dry. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. H 2o not rush. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. H If lost. if possible. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. Co2er an& Concea!ment . and amounts of precipitation. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. H ?eep dry. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations.

+oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. are easily e"cavated. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. Conversely. outcroppings. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. . sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. rain. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. such as volcanic tuff. /o$ever. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. As in all operations. a. In other areas. in depth. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. dead space is a problem at short ranges. /o$ever. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. are e"cellent at long ranges. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. In alpine environments. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. sno$. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. hail. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. b. boulders. sleet. and fog can limit visibility.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. . hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. heavy vegetation. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. +ome rock types. like observation. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops.!hen moving in the mountains.

b. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. . or a rise in temperature. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. rainfall. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. especially in $inter. a. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. If an une"pected $ind strikes. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. and $eather factors. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. sno$ conditions. latitude.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. .

lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. he barometer usually drops 0. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. (eather Characteristics . drier air has a reduced molecular content and. a.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. . he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. +ome mountains. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. b. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake.c. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. At higher altitudes. conse#uently. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. In tropical regions. <ecause of this increased dryness. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. d. the thinner. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. 2ue to the cold. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. such as those found in desert regions. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater.

and the earth3s rotation. b. air pressure %barometric pressure*.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. Associated $ith bad $eather. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. he higher in altitude. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. ho$ it is being moved.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. a. and if it is being lifted or not. %0* 8o+ 9ressure.. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. humidity %moisture content*. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Bo$ pressure. %. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. the better the $eather $ill be.* -igh 9ressure. land masses. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. !ith lo$er air pressure. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. Associated $ith clear skies.::: feet.:. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. oceans. In order to understand this. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in.1 millibars %mb*. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. the lo$er the pressure. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. he higher the pressure. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. on the other .

he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. c. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. dense clouds fill the air. .6 (in& In high mountains. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. 2uring the $inter season. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. <ecause of these funneling effects. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. !ith increasing $ind strength. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. Above hot surfaces. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. or at high altitudes. c. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. >sually. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. Dn a $eather map. a. =ormally. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. b. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. and sinks to the earth3s surface. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography.hand. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$.

hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. In the =orthern /emisphere. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air.* 9o!ar $aster!ies.d. dry air mass. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. e. Continental ropical — $arm. . due to the earth3s rotation. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. g. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. dry air mass. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. has settled to the surface. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. Caritime ropical — $arm. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. there are three prevailing $inds: %. Caritime -olar — cold. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. $et air mass. $et air mass. f.

7 degrees &ahrenheit per .::: feet of elevation gained or lost. the $armer the air. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. If the air contains a great deal of $ater... hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. $ind meter.%. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has .:: percent relative humidity*.:: percent relative humidity. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. a. . condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. b. de$. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. fog. and so on*.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. sno$. the more moisture it can hold. clouds are formed. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. rain. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. and thermometer. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7.

these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. and . Con2ecti2e 8i#ting.a. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). . Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. Fronta! 8i#ting. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point.(0*. b. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). Clouds can be described in many $ays.7:: feet. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. c. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. mid(. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . 6rographic 8i#ting. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. d. a. +ince air masses $ill not mi". !hen temperatures are cold enough. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. hey can be classified by height or appearance. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s.(.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. it has no$here to go but up. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather.

%. Figure )-. .Figure )-).('*. Stratus C!ou&s. Figure )-1.. Cumu!us C!ou&s.(1 and . 3im ostratus C!ou&s.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures .

Figure )-4. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. especially if the cloud is more than 1.::: feet . altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark.

Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. Figure )-6.::: feet thick. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &.* b. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. especially if they are rising over time.(7 and . Cid(level clouds %bet$een ).::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. Figure )-5.()*. 7!tostratus. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. 7!tocumu!us. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . . though usually hours a$ay. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. Cold clouds.thick.7:: to 0:.

at night. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even.(4 and &igure . ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . As the storm approaches. humidity rises. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. Figure )-7. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses.%. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. in a blue sky. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass.(5*. emperatures are $arm. Cirrus. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. produces a ring of light around the moon. c. .::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. !ith altostratus. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines.

+ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon.Figure )-". the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible.::: feet. As a result. %.::: feet. . releasing incredible amounts of energy. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. shaped like a comma. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. %.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. d. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. ?no$n for their flat bases and . Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. or seemingly all tangled together. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. Cirrostratus. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. hey can be nearly straight. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes.

::: feet or higher. large hail. ho$ever. damaging $inds. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. ice crystals dominate the composition. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning.distinct outlines. >nder favorable conditions. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. and tornadoes.(8*. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . an artifact of erosion. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. . !ithout a continued supply of rising air. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. As the air rises. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. 9iven suitable conditions. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. . hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts.

Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. If they gro$ and descend. 6ther C!ou& Types. and cools. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. %.:*. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. !ith continued descent. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. hey are orographic clouds. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. Initially. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. $arming as it descends. Cumu!onim us. lenticulars.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. stable air encounters a mountain. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure .Figure )-'. is lifted up$ard. similar to a 6flying saucer. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. e. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. >pon reaching the mountain top. /o$ever. and contrails. Dnce the air returns to its original height. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups.(. bad $eather can be e"pected. .

%1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover.Figure )-)*. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Figure )-)). especially if the sky is . 8inticu!ar. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. C!ou& =nterpretation. f. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon.(.*. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*.. Contrai!s.

$ill force the $arm air up. nimbostratus %producing rain*. b. d. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. and nimbostratus.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. altostratus. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. there . . Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. cold. Co!& Front. a. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. Dccasionally. (arm Front. occluded. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. c. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. it becomes a stationary front.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. cumulus. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. Stationary Front.covered $ith cumulus clouds. cirrostratus. <ecause $arm air is less dense. 6cc!u&e& Front. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. and fog. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. to the local sky. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. Cold air. he four types of fronts are $arm. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. cirrostratus. being more dense than $arm air. it is a $arm occlusion. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. and stationary. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface.

the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. Temperature =ormally. and mid(latitudes. and heat loss through thermal radiation. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . b. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. due to convection currents. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. At high altitudes. fog.. a. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. Conse#uently. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . calm mornings..::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. clear. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. the temperature of the air drops 1. the temperature of the air drops 7. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun.::: feet of elevation gain. subarctic. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. sno$. and precipitation*.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. <esides permitting rapid heating. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. .. his cooler.::: feet of elevation gain.

* 9ersistence :etho&. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast..::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. >+=. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. temperature. thermometer. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. o be effective. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. or the =ational !eather <ureau.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . . Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. are also helpful. including >+A&. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. the amount of data available. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. b. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. if today $as hot and dry.c. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. . a. but more slo$ly %1. $ind meter.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. herefore.

his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. such as trees. tents. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. (in& Spee&. Assess $ind speed in knots. estimate the speed in knots. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. Aisi i!ity in :eters. assess speed to the nearest knot. Ideally. b. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. %0* If no anemometer is available. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. %. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. /o$ever. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. c. (in& Direction. . his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. . his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. a. %'* 7na!og :etho&. high( and lo$(pressure centers.%0* Tren&s :etho&.* If an anemometer is available. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. &or e"ample. under changing conditions. and so forth. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. are blo$ing. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. and clouds and precipitation. this may not al$ays be the case. bushes.

5 J 10 P '. %&or e"ample. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times .stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. degrees &. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. 9resent (eather. $Bamp!e4 '.77 P 7 degrees C. . 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. . g. 7 degrees C " . haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • .* !ith a thermometer. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds.d. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . Temperature..5 times C plus 10.* f. . then estimate to the best of your ability. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. Cei!ing -eight.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. %. heavy do$npours. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. If clouds are not touching terrain. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. e. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. =ote if bases are above all terrain. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. colder temperatures. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. &og.77. degrees & Q 10 " . +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. hail. total cloud cover is 'K5. Assess total cloud cover in eighths..

Carked increase in humidity. he closer the isometric lines are. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. i. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. %. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. h. Carked cooler temperature changes. Carked $ind speed increases. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. 6 ser2e& (eather. assess the pressure trend. Increase in precipitation. !ith a barometer or altimeter. %. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. 9ressure Tren&. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. Changes in obstructions to visibility. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. as $ell as an estimated temperature. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. Bo$ering cloud ceilings.%0* !ithout a thermometer. Increasing cloud coverage.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. .

climbing above one3s ability. or e"cessive use. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. or other reasons. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. and flooding %especially in gullies*. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. over(fatigue. bad $eather. overestimating ability. a hold breaking a$ay. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. carelessness. man(made %caused by an individual. tour. e#uipment misuse*. dehydration. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. such as lack of preparation. j. avalanche run(out Aones. lightning. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. overe"ertion. a. If the possibility of falling e"ists. /umidity decreases. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. companions.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. b.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. Ep&ate. or as a combination %human trigger*. c. choice of route. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. %i2ouac Site. heavy e#uipment. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . 2ecreasing cloud coverage. Fa!!ing. Increasing barometric pressure. and poor judgment. age. rope in. . improper diet. $quipment. $ind. &alling can be caused by carelessness. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards.

do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. icefalls. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. if at all possible.* f. Cre2asses. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. e. acclimatiAe slo$ly.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. <u!!ies. rockfalls. stay hydrated. If you must move under these conditions. >se a route sketch and march table. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. it is best to rope up.: kilograms %about 0. and so on. sno$."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. 72a!anches. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. Avoid. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. g. darkness. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. At high altitudes %especially over ). . hanging glaciers and seracs. +leep $ell. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. rain. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. a.::: pounds*.efer to paragraph . ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. . If ice is in the gully. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. b.ock. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. As this slope increases .7:: feet*. Aisi i!ity. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. 7!titu&e. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. storms. endurance and concentration is reduced. c. d.ock#a!!. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. lightning. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. &og. If you must cross these danger areas. %. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall.

it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. . but dehydration is of greater concern. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . rock $alls. and a bluish light %+t. violent. humming of metal objects.: kilometers apart. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. ridges. Above appro"imately 5. hair standing on end. crackling. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. shallo$ overhangs. Bike$ise.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. the force #uadruples. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. caves*."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. %. and rock needles. shallo$ depressions. cracks filled $ith earth. b. Bightning is fre#uent. +eek shelter around dry. haAardous icefalls can be formed. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. a. d. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. cracks that guide $ater. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. herefore. . e. A clear. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls.from 07 to 1: degrees. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed.::: feet.* Avoid peaks. . Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. c. as a glacier makes a bend. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. isolated trees. fi"ed $ire installations. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear.

secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. and debris being blo$n about.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. f. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. rain. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. even if overcast. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. $hich may bury the trail. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. and sno$. h. $indburn. If half $ay up the rock face. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. If already rappelling. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. j.0 to .* . the sno$ #uickly melts.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. &or each . Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. 2rink plenty of fluids. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. % able . 2uring and after rain. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. i. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity.5 inches@ ho$ever. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. .::(meter rise in altitude. If it is sno$ing. g. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring.

%1* S!ope 7spect. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e.. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. but may occur on concave slopes. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. S!ope Sta i!ity. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . +lopes as gentle as . a.* S!ope 7ng!e. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter.Ta !e )-.7 degrees have avalanched. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. %. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger.

!hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. +ustained $inds of . %'* <roun& Co2er. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . %. heavy e#uipment. Triggers. %.* Temperature.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. %'* (eight.7 centimeters per hour or greater*.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. At temperatures above freeAing. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. -assing helicopters. %Dn at least one occasion. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. b. %7* Ai ration. Sno+ 9its. %1* (in&.sunny. %0* 9recipitation. e"plosions. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. the potential for avalanche is high. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. c. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. Dn grassy slopes or scree. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. $arm days. Various factors trigger avalanches. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. . . especially $hen accompanied by $ind. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early.

to the ground. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. then t$ice. o isolate the rear of the column. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. Dnce above. place the other foot on the block. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. s#uat once.pit across the fall line. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. %1* Conduct a . and so on. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. d. =e"t. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. If the block is still holding up. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. o conduct the test. smooth the face $ith a shovel. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. %. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches.utschblock test. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. Dnce the pit is complete.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. through all the sno$.

Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. 9rotecti2e :easures. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer.: degrees Celsius %. a drop in temperature of .arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. &or normal density. settled sno$. . Dther measures include: . slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. d. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true.during the $inter sno$ season. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. %b* As slabs become harder. Barge avalanches of this type. Although any avalanche can kill you. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. +lab release is rapid. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains.

All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. Iour pack can act as a flotation device.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. climb to the side of the avalanche path. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. ridges. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %. >se them for lunch and rest stops. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard.oute Se!ection. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. . -ut your hood on. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. far from the bottom of slopes. -repare to discard e#uipment. %0* <roup Sa#ety. avoid moving during these periods. f. 2eploy avalanche cord. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. . as $ell as protect your spine. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. %. . +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. $hich is al$ays the best choice. If you must traverse. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. and not directly up the center.%. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. e. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope.

%0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. they $ould avoid the avalanche. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. ID>. and the body temperature is lo$ered. BI&. it may be impossible to dig yourself out.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. If you feel yourself about to pass out. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. their pulse rate declines. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. no one can hear you scream. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. hold your breath. Sur2i2a!. %)* ry to rela". give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. .* 2iscard e#uipment.. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. do not fight it. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. %1* Soun&s. g. &I9/ &D. shut your mouth. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. %1* If your head goes under the sno$.* :ountain 8i2ing . 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people.%0* Fracture 8ines. If you feel your feet touch the ground. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. %. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche.

locating $ater. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. fire building. /yperventilation and the cool. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. or the . 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. Dne #uart of $ater. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. a. shelter considerations. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. raining should include: psychological preparation. perspiration. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. &luids lost through respiration. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. communications. #ormal activities $navigation. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption.(4)*. health haAards.

ven $hen $ater is plentiful. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. d. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. rain.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. physical activity must be reduced. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. c. &ruits.0 #uarts %. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. e.e#uivalent. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. severe cramping may result. b. thirst should be satisfied in increments. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. Conserve $ater for drinking. . +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. ho$ever. mountain streams. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. If the $ater supply is insufficient. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. juices. . +no$. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. springs. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. -urification must be accomplished. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. and a loss of .

::: feet*.(4)*. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. b. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. a $atering party should be employed. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. !ater is scarce above the timberline. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. f.drinking $ater. !ater that is unfit to drink."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. precautions must be taken. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. but other$ise not dangerous. . A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. defense*. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. assembly area. a.'. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . After sundo$n. If possible. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. high mountain areas freeAe. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. At progressively higher elevations %greater than .

eggs. and meats. fiber. milk. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. milk. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. resulting from digestion of protein. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. vegetables. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. hese food components provide energy. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. and cheese. %0* Fats. is 5 ounces for a .of cold rations. energy. cheese. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. vitamins. Df the total daily caloric intake. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. c. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. metabolic changes. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. and minerals. amino acids. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. or milk proteins. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. regardless of physical activity. nuts. eggs. %. such as fruit juices and sports drinks.* 9rotein. . fats. Cain sources of fats are meats. and legumes also provide amino acids. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. and carbohydrates. and loss of appetite. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. poultry. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. fish. Dther foods such as cereals. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. he amino acids. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. butter.7'(pound man.

moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. phosphorous. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . %'* Aitamins. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier .. and Ainc. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. %. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. In the form of glucose. fruits*. especially if this period is to e"ceed . and meats. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake.%1* Car ohy&rates.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. . fruits. . and ?. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. vegetables. depending on the soldier. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine.: days. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. vegetables.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. vegetables. 2. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. vitamin supplements should be considered. iron. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. %7* Cinerals. . a balanced diet is a necessity. $hich are found in cereals. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. d. =utritionally. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. and fruit.

At higher elevations.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. are important in maintaining energy levels. Carbohydrates. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. juices.s $ith breakfast bars. the cooking time may be doubled. po$dered milk. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. +ince coffee.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. Commanders may consider supplementing C. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. o conserve fuel.. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. metal containers. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. . and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind.7:: calories for garrison activity. juices.::(pound man*. and be eaten hot or cold.$orks."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. cramps. >se stoves and heat . stoves. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . tea.. and cider should also be considered. thus releasing heat. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. . and illness."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. and chocolate. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. fruits. candies. %1* . Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. !hen cooking. shortness of breath. and hot chocolate are diuretics. /ot beverages of soup. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. %About '. fires. herefore. marked. cereal bars.

Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. and eyelids. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. If possible. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. As all missions are tactical.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. !hen operating in areas . %. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. 9ersona! -ygiene. In freeAing $eather. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. herefore. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. his is especially important in the high mountains. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. and burial sites. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. no trace of a unit should be detected. and judgment of soldiers. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. medications. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. garbage should be burned or deep buried. ahkios. nose. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. perspiration. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. %7* Certain drugs. alcohol. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. hydration. mainly during periods of cold $eather. a.

$hich may cause blisters. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes.$here resupply is not possible. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. If laundering of clothing is difficult. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. digging latrines is usually difficult. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. dried. b. it can . =ails should be trimmed but not too short. but must be #uickly dried. the soldier in a designated. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. Sanitation. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. &eet should be $ashed daily. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. cracks.6 +ince $aste freeAes. blisters. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. In tactical situations. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. !henever changing socks. In rocky or froAen ground. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. If latrines are constructed. and kept as dry and clean as possible. and discoloration. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries.

he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.::: to . .5. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed.::: feet. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. Altitude illness is common here. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. conditioning.*. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories.'. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. In rocky areas above the timberline.'.::: to 5. $here altitude illness is the rule.::: feet.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation.::: feet. Coderate altitude is from 7. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. Areas above .::: to 5. employment of the local population may be advantageous. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.4. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt.::: to . At these altitudes.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures.::: feet.::: feet and ending at . starting at about 5. $aste may be covered $ith stones.5. and training of soldiers. /ere. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . Very high altitude is the region from .be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . and effects of altitude are mild and temporary.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7.::: feet.::: feet %high elevation*. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. /o$ever.'. Above 5.*.

7:: feet causes severe. Boss of appetite.'. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ). Irregular breathing.apid ascent to . 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. .::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel.0.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks.::: feet*.'. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated.::: to . and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. . 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. 2eterioration of memory.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.apid ascent to elevations of .sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. +leep disturbances.::: feet.:. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. /eadache. +lurred speech. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ).apid ascent to . . only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. a. the rate of ascent. b. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. operational unit. nutrition and physical activity it is about . Increased irritability in some individuals.4. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.5 percent may have severe symptoms.0 to .

e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. As $ith all military operations. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . environment. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. herefore. a.+. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions.+.unacclimatiAed personnel. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment.+. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain.. and enemy situation.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. >. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. -riorities of training must be established. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance.

and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*.::: to 0. taking an e"tended rest period. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. and rest must be considered as priorities. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. a unit should ascend at a rate of . he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. $ith the unit. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations.::: feet per day. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. these drugs are diuretics. >nits can leapfrog. time to ac#uire $ater. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. c.* Above 5. $ater purification supplies.::: feet. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. food.. . and. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. mission. if in a $inter environment. Additionally. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. !ater. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b.

f. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. e. and special e#uipment loads. climbing. $hich must be developed and hardened. . he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. developing a sense of insecurity and fear.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. his increases the soldier3s endurance. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. . d. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. the soldier3s . the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. At the same time. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. the metabolism becomes more efficient. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. his conditions the back and legs. he better the physical condition of the soldier. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. $hile carrying D. and calisthenics. A different group of muscles are used. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice.

conditioning. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever.capacity for e"ertion is increased. hese include sprains. As $ith any other injuries. After acclimatiAation. frostbite. . >pon deploying to high elevations. and trench foot*. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. to the point of instinctive reaction. lungs. . legs. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. fractures. g. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. abdomen. abrasions. breathing management. and circulatory support. back. . -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. hypothermia. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned.epetitive practice. strains. contusions and fractures. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. he heart rate. metabolism. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. strains. personnel can still become injured %sprains. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. arms.

endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. bandage. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. a. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. %1* o treat sunburn. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions.:: and . he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. . cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. %. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. and headaches may occur. In severe cases chills. he . Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. he skin may be $arm to the touch. 2o not pop blisters. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. Immediate first aid is given on site. fever.7::. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. Sun urn. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. and seek medical attention. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. 2ue to rough terrain. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. burning.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. If blisters do break. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen.. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. $ash thoroughly.* Contributing factors include fair skin.

ice. and $ater.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. the >.+.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. red.* In an emergency. Sno+ !in&ness. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. Avoid rubbing the eyes. %. If still painful. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. %'* o prevent sunburn. . opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. -roper sunglasses should provide .* 2uring sustained activity. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. %&or e"ample. an +-& of . Administer pain medication if needed. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. %1* o treat sno$blindness. b. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. %Currently.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T .

he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. /o$ever. +oldiers must be prepared to survive.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. and nutrition.0. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. dehydration. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. move. dissemination. and fight in $inter conditions. . emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body.*. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. rest. b. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. a. +imple tasks take longer to perform. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. and immersion foot. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. personnel. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . !armth and comfort become the top priorities. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. but freeAing temperatures are not.

%. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries.-). If a soldier has had a cold injury before. &or e"ample. %0* . !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased .Figure . he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries.ace. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. %1* <eographic 6rigin. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. (in& chi!! chart. %'* 7m ient Temperature. c.

!ind chill is the rate of cooling. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. %)* Type o# :ission. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. he lo$er the $ind chill. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. %4* Terrain. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. therefore. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. accumulation of perspiration.6.8. %5* C!othing. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces.D. in mind. Avoid overheating. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. 6—Dverheating. D—2ry.danger Aone or beyond. • • • . !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. !et clothing loses insulation value. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. ?eep dry. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C.

)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. d. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. %. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions.%8* :oisture. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken.4* . %."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. %.:* Dehy&ration. age is not a significant factor. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.1* Concomitant =n>ury.. %. %. %.* 7ge.0* Fatigue.a&ica! Changes in the (eather. . !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. Individuals must retain their body fluids. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et.7* 3utrition. %. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. especially in higher elevations. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. . %.

%7* he rate of movement should be slo$. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. or evaporation. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. %0* Con&uction. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. and careful. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. e. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. -erform emergency first aid. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. deliberate. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. . Dn cold days. . Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. convection. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss.a&iation.%. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. %.* . f. conduction.

!et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. his condition may digress into incoherence. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. %0* Dehy&ration. . he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss.%1* Con2ection. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. s$eating. fear. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. cold skin. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. insulates. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. pain. his is usually caused by . %b* 'reatment. !ind chill is convection cooling. g. unconsciousness. rapid and faint pulse.* Shock.levate the back and head. shortness of breath. Any illness or injury can produce shock. and loss of blood. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. and e"cessive thirst. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. Clothing that ventilates. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. %a* Symptoms. %. o treat shock. and possibly death. slo$er heart beat. administer $ater. . %'* $2aporation. or feet.

and unconsciousness. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. lack of appetite. At high altitudes. mental sluggishness. tiredness. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. decreased amounts of urine being produced. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. %a* Contributing +actors. hey may. higher temperature. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. Cold causes fre#uent urination. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. %b* Symptoms. dry mouth. upset stomach. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. fainting. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. the air is dry. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . he is probably dehydrated. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. rapid heartbeat. diAAiness. If the stomach is cold. headache. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. in fact. /o$ever. o distinguish bet$een them.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume.

If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. Allo$ the victim to rest. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. Change in $eather. -oor nutrition. /igh $inds. . %1* -ypothermia. In advanced cases. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. %c* 'reatment. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. 2ecreased physical activity. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. Accidental immersion in $ater. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. %a* Contributing +actors. 2iarrhea. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. e. .::: to 1. Crackling. is prevented by good nutrition. and death results.0: to . and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than .• -rogressive shortness of breath. &urosemide %Basi"*. A rest day. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. using mannitol could be fatal. If untreated. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. =ifidipine %-rocardia*.. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. may become irreversible and cause death. if left untreated. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. • • d. are prone to second attacks. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. /A-. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. reatment of /A-. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. and o"ygen. given orally can also be effective. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. is planned for every 1. rapid heartbeat %pulse . It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. >nconsciousness. rest. $armth. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. $hich is a diuretic. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment.):*. hydration.::: to 0. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. /A-. • • • .::: feet of altitude gained.

paralysis. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. headaches. convulsions. coma. is the same as for /A-. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. c. . -revention of /AC. +upplemental o"ygen.. reatment for /AC. immediate descent is mandatory. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. +ymptoms of /AC. Beft untreated. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. /A-.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. stupor. decrease in urination. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. vomiting. -reventive measures include good eating habits.. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. hallucinations. confusion. he main symptom of /AC.. include mild personality changes. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. can cause death. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. b.apid descent and medical attention. and lack of coordination. is a severe headache. a. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. may occur in e"perienced. . and /AC. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. maintaining hydration. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. /AC. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. . A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. and unconsciousness. inability to concentrate. $armth. d.est.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion.

he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. move faster. . (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. both cerebral and pulmonary. cause increased proteins in the plasma. therefore. and /AC. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. . 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. edema. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. occurs. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. .-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. or the fluid portion of the blood. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. &rom this.rovided all tactical concerns are met. cools down and heats up differently. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level.

a. he outer . hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. as $ell as insulation against the cold. c. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. he inner boot provides support. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. Foot+ear Currently.*.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. b. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain.*. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. %.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. a lace( up configuration. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. /o$ever. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(.

a. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. %. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. he is. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. remove e"cess moisture. if $orn correctly. socks provide cushioning for the foot.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. uncomfortable and. . 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. As a system. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. ski bindings. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. at $orst. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. the insulation layers. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. Figure 1-). Socks. develops hypothermia or frostbite. !hen $orn improperly. . and the outer most garments. $hich protect the soldier from the elements.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. !hen clothing is $orn properly. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. at best.egardless of climatic conditions.

%b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. In colder environments. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. . the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. &or the most part. =nsu!ating 8ayers. If the user is $earing V< boots. En&er+ear. he primary material in this product is polyester. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. b. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. he . A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. %a* In severe $et conditions. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. /o$ever. c. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available.

$hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. 6uter 8ayers. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system.. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. d. t$igs. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. e. <aiters. as $ell as mud.C!C+ correctly. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard .Figure 1-. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . and stones. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. he . his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind.

C!C+ and. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. -an& (ear. Figure 1-1..ven during the best climatic conditions. . his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. $ill need to be locally purchased. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. and snaps. hook(pile tape. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. . It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. in most cases. %. Three types o# gaiters. f. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed.

Figure 1-4. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. predominately $ool. %.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. g. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. -an& +ear. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. man( made fibers are preferred. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. =atural fibers.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. as $ell as replacement liners for both. . his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. -ea&+ear.

h. Figure 1-6. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. -e!mets. &or e"treme cold. his covers the head. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. Figure 1-5. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. a balaclava can be added. $ye+ear. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. !hichever helmet is selected. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . neck.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. i. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. -e!mets. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. .

>IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . All mountaineering specific e#uipment. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*.uropean economy.uropean norm %.urope. $ebbing. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety.=*. j. Community . heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. . &rance. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances.urope %C. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. :aintenance o# C!othing. and comprises several commissions. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. It is based in -aris. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . .=* and C. and harnesses. cord. have been combined to make combined .uropean norm %C.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. Figure 1-7. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards.

A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering.egardless of the rope chosen. . his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. .K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . %. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths. abrasion resistance. b. and elongation. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient.a. &or most military applications.. Kernmant!e construction.* .opes an& Cor&. called slings or runners. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . a standard . he .. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord.7( or .:. factors affecting rope selection include intended use.. A static rope has very little stretch. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. Figure 1-".(mm rope. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. and is best used in rope installations. (e ing an& S!ings. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. it should be >IAA certified. If used for -rusik knots. impact force. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. essentially. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. Its ability to stretch up to .opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. .opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. $hich is.

c.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make.0 inches. $hich is stronger. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors.unners are predominately made from either 8K. %.) inch. Figure 1-'. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall.K. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. carabiners. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . &or most military applications.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber.) inch. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil.. are usually lighter.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. and 0' inches.)(inch or . . more durable. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. Tie& or se+n runners. and . .uses for these simple pieces are endless. . and have less bulk than the tied version.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope. ' inches. the rope. -arnesses. . . hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. and anchors. inch.

%. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . are more restrictive. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. his type of harness. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall.:*. !hile these harnesses are safer. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. !ith the remaining $ebbing. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment.:*. referred to as a seat harness.is unavailable. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. %1* . leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops.:*. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. . Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. &itted properly.

but is not preferred for general mountaineering. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. the 2(shaped. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. his rope. a. Cara iners. given other options. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. he oval. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements.. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. great care should be . !hen using a carabiner. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. . If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. Figure 1-)*. +teel is still $idely used. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer.*. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains.

* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. %. Figure 1-)).. Figure 1-). :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. the load is .0*. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(.

-itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner.egardless of the type chosen. Aarious pitons. b. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. %1* . $afer. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. Dn vertical pitons. along its minor a"is. design. vertical cracks. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. or other alloys. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. specifically the locking version. the blade and eye are aligned. and length %&igure 1(. and angle. hese pitons are used in flush. and angles. %.1*. hardened steel.* 1ertical . hey are described by their thickness. hey are made of malleable steel. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. and $ith the gate open. 9itons. Figure 1-)1. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness.itons. . $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. horiAontal.

itons. %1* Wafer .'*. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. hese pitons are used in shallo$. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade.itons.%0* Horizontal . A safety lanyard of nylon cord. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack.itons.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1.>. . shallo$ cracks. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er.itons. c. or leather is used to . hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hey are designed to bite into thin. or flakes.5 centimeters $ide. shallo$ cracks.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . metal. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. flush cracks. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. hese pitons are used in flush. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. %4* 3ong . 9iton -ammers. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. Dn horiAontal pitons. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. hey are small and fit into thin. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. %)* Angle . or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. hese are used in direct(aid climbing.itons. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances.(inch s#uare. $ebbing. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place.itons. ledges. %'* 2nife 3lade .

6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack.0 to 07 ounces. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. 9iton hammer. d. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. .7*. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. Figure 1-)4. Chocks. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. into the rock. to be used as anchors. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord.7 centimeters long and $eigh . +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion.

Three-9oint Camming De2ice. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. $hen used in the camming mode. Three-point camming &e2ice.4* provide convenient. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. f. Figure 1-)6. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. e. Chocks. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(.Figure 1-)5.)*. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or .

saving time and effort. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. . Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. Cade from thin metal. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. Chock 9icks.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. .semi(rigid point of attachment. they can be purchased or homemade. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. hese are placed #uickly and easily. Figure 1-)7.5*. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. g.

brands. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. %. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. $hich is time(consuming. dirt. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. ."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. e"hausting. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. bolt driver. h. corrosion.Figure 1-)". <urrs. chips. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. Dnce emplaced. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. and drilling anchor.8*. and moisture. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. Chock picks. %o!ts. and e"tremely noisy. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. hese re#uire a hammer. $hich is driven into the rock. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. . <ecause of this re#uirement. and $eights. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss.

Figure 1-)'. . the tuber.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. %o!ts an& hangers. i. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. . %e!ay De2ices. %.egardless of the belay device choosen.

Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Figure-eights.Figure 1-. Figure 1-. t$o ascenders $ork best. Descen&ers.*. . &or difficult vertical terrain. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam.*. k. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair.). 7scen&ers. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. &or lo$er angle movement. one ascender is sufficient. j.

. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. Figure 1-. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. froAen $aterfalls(can .. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. A pulley should be small. 9u!!ey. and strong. &or best results.Figure 1-. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. 9u!!eys. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. glaciers. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. l. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope.1. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. 7scen&ers. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. light$eight.

$hich combines the pick and the adAe. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. used for chopping.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. a. belays. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. he adAe. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. is perpendicular to the shaft. . anchors. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. =ce 7B. direct(aid climbing. %b* he head of the a". and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. therefore safer for mountaineering. head %pick and adAe*. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. hollo$ aluminum. probing. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. can have different configurations. It can be made of fiberglass. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. %. self(arrest. step cutting.

It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. Figure 1-.4. =ce -ammer. . Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of .b. =ce aB an& ice hammers. loose ends should be trimmed. c. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. Crampons. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. . he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. inch of front point protruding.

Crampons.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system.5. is rigid and does not fle". but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. It is designed to be used $ith soft.Figure 1-. %0* he rigid crampon. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. %. as its name implies. fle"ible boots. but can be used on less vertical terrain. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing.

igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle.. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. hey are scre$ed into ice formations.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. . he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. • • • ype I is . Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . . $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. =ce Scre+s. =ce scre+s. %.mountaineering boots. d. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. Figure 1-.6. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain.

he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . bends. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. ho$ever. . +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. f.' centimeters. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. flanged sides. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. e. Figure 1-. the scre$ should be turned in. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. If any cracks or bends are noticed. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. =ce piton. and fi"ed cables. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. hey can. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors.7. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. hey are available $ith bent faces. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. =ce 9itons.

mushrooming ends. Sno+ Sa+. g.::: kilograms. and for cutting . he ends should be filed smooth. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. and other deformities. the picket should be turned in for replacement. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . the sno$ anchor should be turned in. If any cracks. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. It can be used in step cutting. broken $ire strands.". or slippage is noticed. bivouacs. and carrying gear. $ands*. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Figure 1-. If bent or cracked. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. he picket should be inspected for bends. cracks. in shelter construction. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. movement. for removing froAen obstacles.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. Sno+ 9icket. chips. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. broken $ire strands. and '7 to 8: centimeters long.. a.

he shafts should be inspected for cracks. If the sa$ is beyond repair. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. frays. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. he handle should be inspected for cracks. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. he handle should be telescopic. fading. burrs. bends. light$eight aluminum alloy. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. (an&s. $arping. It can be used for avalanche rescue. bends. A file can repair most defects. folding. cracks. c. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. If the shovel is beyond repair. it should not be used. d. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . b. and discoloration.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. he blade should be inspected for rust. 72a!anche rescue equipment. If any defects are discovered. he flag should be inspected for tears. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. and missing or dull teeth. bends. and stability. $eather conditions %and visibility*. number of haAards identified. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. the $ands should be replaced. bends. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction.sno$ stability test pits. and burrs. and deformities. Dn folding models. !ands are used to identify routes. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. crevasses. and number of teams in the climbing party. and stability. rust. step cutting. security to the shaft. caches. Sno+ Sho2e!. sno$(bridges. and removing obstacles. it should be turned in. !ands are . the hinge and nuts should be secure. he handle should be inspected for cracks.. to . shelter construction.

72a!anche rescue equipment.Figure 1-. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. hese are small. e. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. %0* . commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search.'. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. 9acks. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. . but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters.* Avalanche .robe. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. %. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. %.

!hen choosing a stove. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. he fly protects against . the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. Tents. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. factors that should be considered are $eight. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. and butane are the common fuels used. g. kerosene. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. !hen selecting a tent.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. f. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. %. more harsh environment. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. Sto2es. !hite gas. the better it $ill be. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. and are simple and light$eight. and its reliability.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. and materials. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. fuel availability. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. %. $eights. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission.

!a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. h. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. they create the shape of the tent. connect. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. +ome ski poles are . sno$shoeing. j. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. Skis. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. Sno+shoes. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. and become long and rigid. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. Ski po!es. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. <efore using a ne$ tent. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. i. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. !hen carrying heavy packs. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. and carrying heavy packs. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard.

ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small.egardless of the siAe. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. on some models. %. especially $hen hauling fuel. !hichever sled is chosen. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. A flashlight can provide light. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . k. S!e&s.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. to the one(person sko$. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. Figure 1-1*. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. a component of the . /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. l. . can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. +leds vary greatly in siAe. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. .* !hen choosing a headlamp. -ea&!amps. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas.:(man arctic tent system. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed.

b. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. ropes. or lithium batteries.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. $ater. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures.conditions. fire starting material. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. s$eater. $ith canteens. sunglasses. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. food procurement material. nickel(cadmium. the e"ception being hot.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. first aid kits. !hen the light is being packed. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. fuel. Caution4 Cotton clothing. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. magaAine pouches. . food. Dbviously. stoves. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. -ocket items should include a knife. compass and or altimeter. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. map. pressure bandage. a. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. desert. sunblock and lip protection. and $ater procurement material. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. polypropylene top. foul $eather shells. $histle. Stan&ar& <ear. if needed. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. $orn on the body. climbing e#uipment. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. 9ersona! <ear. notebook $ith pen or pencil. or jungle mountain environments. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. $quipment 9acking .

. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. Cold $eather hat or scarf. e. or s$eater. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . pile top. 9loves. d.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. In the event of an injury. . his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. Climbing rack. one per climbing team.appelling gloves. =onlocking carabiners. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. or poncho. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. Day 9ack. Climbing rope. Climbing rack.appelKbelay device. Ice a".c. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. +urvival kit. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. &lashlight or headlamp. . or unplanned bivouac. &irst aid kit. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. casualty evacuation. Carabiners. . rain suit. >tility cord%s*. Climbing rope. one per climbing team. one per climbing team. Canteen. Bocking carabiner%s*."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. +ling rope or climbing harness. he carries a light day pack. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. one per climbing team. Crampons.

$ashing. injury. Altimeter. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. blouse. &uel bottle. includes socks. &or lip protection. under$ear. f. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*.:: percent of ultraviolet light.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. hat. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen.7 or higher. The Ten $ssentia!s. pants. gloves or mittens. and or 6. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of .S. and licking is best. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. boots. hey should filter 87 to . %0* Compass. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. or navigational error. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. +#uad stove. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side.• • • • +leeping bag. . sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. +ide shields. he clothing used during the active part of a climb.* 5ap. +leeping mat. %7* ()tra Clothing. %'* ()tra +ood. . %. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. s$eater or fleece jacket.

butterfly bandages. herefore.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. $hich is important $hile climbing."tra hats or balaclavas. ."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. but commercially available headlamps are best. cutting the $ind. -ressure dressings. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. serious sprain. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. Ciniature flashlights can be used. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. $orking around the camp. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. a broken bone. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. small adhesive bandages. %4* +irst aid 2it. gauAe pads. adhesive tape. 2ecentraliAed operations. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. In $inter or severe mountain conditions.%a* . and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. sharp tools. elastic compression $rap. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. cleanser. and employing $eapons systems. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. . moleskin. and blisters. • • • • • . . the mountain environment— steep. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. scissors."tra pair of heavy socks. &inally. . .

In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. Bighters are handy for starting fires. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. . It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. and canned heat all $ork.%5* +ire Starter. +afety pins. Dther repair items as needed. -atches. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. harness. /eavy(duty thread. g. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup.* Water and Water Containers. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. %8* 5atches and . or pack. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. %. Candles. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. %.ighter. 2uct tape. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. %1* 4epair 2it. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. %0* 7ce A). +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. as $ell as for stream crossings. A$l and or needles. Cord and or $ire. heat tabs.:* 2nife.

if not carried in hand. $ater. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. emergency bivouac shelter. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. and $ater procurement. c. more compressible items %sleeping bag. . In most cases. among others. nearer the shoulder blades. a. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks.%'* =nsect . e"tra ammunition* on top. d. food. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. rope. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. <y packing the lighter. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. he ice a". placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. e. and be securely . As much as possible.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. b. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. the load is held high and close to the back.epe!!ent. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. climbing hard$are. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan.

ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. until the rope is completely coiled. serious in!ury may occur. and 0nots. management techni&ues. 9rasping the rope firmly. . and knots later during deployment. . 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. he rope may be given a . Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. :ountain Coi!.fastened. . o start a mountain coil. or building various installations.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. rappelling. as stated above. When climbing. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. f. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. bring the hands together forming a loop. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. and then tied in place. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. grasp the rope appro"imately . Coi!ing an& Carrying the . his is repeated. If not. . t$ists. meter from the end $ith one hand. a.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. care and maintenance procedures.

* Figure 4-1. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil.* In finishing the mountain coil. securing the coil. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. using this length of the rope. >ncoil the last loop and. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. :ountain coi!. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. %utter#!y Coi!. . doubling it and placing it under the flap.%. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. b. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. -ull the running end of the bight tight. slung across the chest.

dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. In this configuration . -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. . -lace the doubled rope over the head. . &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. o start the double butterfly. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. . grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. %. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. !ith the bight in the left hand.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils.Figure 4-4. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. %utter#!y coi!. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils.* Coiling. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. and hold the center in one hand.

. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. sling rope. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . 2ress it do$n tightly. Cake three or more $raps. or for storage. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. !rap that bight around the coil.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack.ope. c.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. .0(inch bight is left. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.* Figure 4-5. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness.

lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. and so on. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. . it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. !ith the left hand. A smooth follo$ through is essential. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. a. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. %. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best.ope <efore thro$ing the rope.e. Thro+ing the . his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. hro$ up and out. =e"t. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. Dnce stacked. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls.D-. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. feeding it to a lead climber. A slight t$ist of the $rist. !hen the rope is needed for use.

In a strong cross $ind. + . adjustments must be made. .0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. bends. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. Class II—anchor knots. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. and hitches is almost endless. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*..0. a. c. !ith e"perience and practice. Tying the Knot. Class III—middle rope knots. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. and stack the rope properly as described above. /olding one $orking end in each hand.1. bights. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . + .b.. he variety of knots. back feed. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate.... !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. Anchor. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he stronger the $ind. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. It is a joining knot. and Class IV—special knots.. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. + . Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. up and out to$ard the horiAon. Aiming just above the horiAon.

%1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. a.. + . %.'... %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope.+ .. Square knot. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. b. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. .* here are t$o interlocking bights. Checkpoints. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-6.

.. Checkpoints.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double .+ .0. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* . It is a joining knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. standing part of the opposing rope. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. a. %.1. + . Tying the Knot. b.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. . Fisherman’s knot. Figure 4-7.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*.

.*. Figure 4-". %1* .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ..'. four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. b. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.. + . and 0*.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.... . + .-+ . %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns..0.. %.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. !ith the $orking end of one rope. Dou !e #isherman’s knot.1... Checkpoints.+ . $hich contains the standing part %+ . Insert the $orking end %+ .

2ress the knot do$n. + .1.7. Figure-eight en&.0. a. + .Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. + ..oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. Figure 4-'.. . -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + .. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end.. !ith the other hand.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. Tying the Knot..'. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. ... race the original knot to the standing end. . + .

%. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. Checkpoints. Tying the Knot.1. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. &eed the other end back through the knot. + ...* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. . a. + . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.b. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. + . or tape knot. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends.. It is also called a ring bend.:*..0.. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. overhand retrace.

Checkpoints.. .Figure 4-)*.* here are t$o overhand knots.. a. %. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. one retracing the other. Tying the Knot. %0* here is no slack in the knot.*. It is an anchor knot. + . <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. b. (ater knot. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(... %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.

%1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. Figure 4-)).each through the loop and pull up a bight. Checkpoints. %o+!ine knot.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. ..'. %.7.. b. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight. .. and bring it back onto itself..1. + . %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. + . =o$ dress the knot do$n. + .+ . -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches .0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor.

%0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. b. %.epeat + .'. + .. .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.0*. Checkpoints. a. .. Figure-$ight . + ..eroute& Figure-$ight0 ... + ..oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor. 2ress the knot do$n.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.1. and one in the front*.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. It is an anchor knot.. + . <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. . Tying the Knot.0. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. Figure 4-). distributing the load over the anchor. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. .un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.etrace /..his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.

a.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. + .. + .1. by tying the knot in a retrace. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. and route the $orking end through the loop.).. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor.he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop..'. he finished knot is dressed loosely. /o$ever... ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.0. + .. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. Tying the Knot. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. + .7. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. + . ..1*. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. + . !ith the $orking end. .

palms do$n $ith hands together.Figure 4-)1. b. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. ... C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. Checkpoints %. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.* Middle of the Rope. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. depending on ho$ it is tied. a. %.'*. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. + .* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.. Figure-eight retrace. /old rope in both hands. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. Tying the Knot.

/old the loop in the left hand. + . + .1. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. he knot is tied. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right... + .. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. grasp the $orking end.+ . &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. and bring it in$ard.0.. 2ress do$n the knot. . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.0.'. !ith the right hand. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. reach under the horiAontal anchor.. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.1. + .. + .. %0* End of the Rope.'. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. !ith the right hand. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. /old the standing end in the left hand.. + .

.Figure 4-)4. It is a middle rope knot. + ..'. palm. Tying the Knot. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.. + . %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. . %.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar... !hen tying this knot.. ake up the slack from the anchor. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. C!o2e hitch. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger..). A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot..7.7*. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. + . + .1. + . + . face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. b.. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. and fingertip. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. and place it over the heel $rap.4.0. + . a. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. Checkpoints.

Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. Tying the Knot.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.8.+ . b.)*. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends..5. a. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.. Figure 4-)5. It is a middle rope knot. Checkpoints. (ireman’s knot. . + . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. %.

. it lays in$ard.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.+ . Cake one $rap around the palm. %. !ith the $rap thus formed.0. Directiona! #igure-eight. Figure 4-)6. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.. + .1. b. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. !hen dressing the knot do$n..... Checkpoints. + . + . the tail and the bight must be together. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.'..

/old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.4.%0* he tail and bight must be together.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.1..7. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. + .'. forming t$o loops. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. It is a middle rope knot.). %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .. ie an overhand knot on a bight. . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. a.. + .. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. + .0. + . 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.. + .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. + . Tying the Knot.. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly..4*. + .

* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. + ..* It is a middle rope knot. %o+!ine-on-a. >sing a doubled rope. a.ight. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %..Figure 4-)7.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. Tying the Knot. form an . Checkpoints.5.. . b.

!ith the $orking end. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot... 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. a.0.1. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. Checkpoints. /old the bight $ith the left hand.8*.7. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. + . %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. + . b. + .. . T+o-!oop #igure-eight.'.. It is a middle of the rope knot.+ . %. 2ress the knot do$n. Figure 4-)". Tying the Knot. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.

0.. . It is a specialty knot. 2ress the knot tightly. b.. form a loop in rope %standing part*. Tying the Knot. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. !ith the bight as the $orking end.* he loop is the desired siAe. a.1. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.. %. Figure 4-)'. + . !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. %1* he knot is tightly dressed.. Checkpoints.. Figure-eight !oop.+ . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. + .

epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. forming a bight.. + .%..*.each do$n through the . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.0. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. + . Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. >sing an arm3s length of rope. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope..0. Figure 4-..0(inch bight.1. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.*: + . + . . .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. . + . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik... and place it over the long rope.*.. 2ouble the short rope. $ith the $orking ends even. + .. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.1..

7. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. + .4. b. %. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. and not t$isted.). Bay the $orking end under the long rope. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. Figure 4-.+ . &orm a complete round turn in the rope. .. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. . parallel..* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. + . the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.'. It is a specialty knot. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.). $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. Checkpoints... here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. + .nsure they are tight.

-lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. + . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.... %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.1. + .. Figure 4-.a. + . &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.0. b. %achman knot.. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. Tying the Knot. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .. %. Checkpoints.

>sing the standing part. he running end is to the back of the body.. + .). . + . -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. + .. + .. hen. %. It is a specialty knot.1.. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.4. Tying the Knot. he standing portion is on the bottom.. a. tie an overhand around all coils. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. + . . + .. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times.. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail..0. not crossed.. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. bring a bight up through the loop. Checkpoints. single coil.* A minimum of four $raps.'. !ith the running end. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. /olding the bight loosely. + .7. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. b. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.

.1. a. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. . Tying the Knot.0.. !ith the right hand. + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. + . form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.1. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.. It is a specialty knot.. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. + . !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. + .Figure 4-..'.. Bay the loops to the right. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system.

Checkpoints. Tying the Knot.. . Three-!oop o+!ine. a.7.. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. + . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied..4. %. b.+ . +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. It is a specialty knot.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Figure 4-.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. &orm a .

).. + . standing end of the rope. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.0. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. + .7. .* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. Figure-eight s!ip knot. + .0 inches up the rope. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand.. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. + .5. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. Checkpoints. Figure 4-.:u!e Knot0 . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.each through the bight and grasp the long..+ .. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . b. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.'. %. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n..1.

+ . K!eimhiest Knot .. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.0 inches long. b. It is simply an overhand slip knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. a. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + .. Transport knot.. Check 9oints.0.6.. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.* here is a single overhand slip knot. %.1. Tying the Knot. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.. Figure 4-. + .he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. %1* he bight is a minimum of .

3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. + . find the center of the rope and form a bight. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.. easily adjustable. Tying the Knot. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. It is a special( purpose knot.. pass them through the bight %see + . !rap at least four complete turns...0.'.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable... + . Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. + . a... !ith the ends offset. + . 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . + .0 inches.7.*. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .1..

* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. b. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot..0 inches.0. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.: to . + . Tying the Knot. It is a special(purpose knot. . + ..7.. K!eimhiest knot. a.. %. Checkpoints. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.Figure 4-. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.

+ .1: Cinch the knot tightly.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. Figure 4-.Figure 4-. + . b. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Tying the Knot. + . a. <irth hitch.: &orm a bight.'. Checkpoints. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. b. It is a special(purpose knot. Checkpoint..0: <ring the runner back through the bight.. :unter -itch . %.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions..". %. Frost knot.. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.

0. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. Bock the locking mechanism.. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.. ..he munter hitch. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. Check 9oints.. a. + . + . $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. %. + .'. Tying the Knot. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop.0 inches apart. /old the rope in both hands. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. !ith the right hand.1.. !ith the right hand.. palms do$n about .* A bight passes through the carabiner. /old the loop $ith the left hand. %0* he carabiner is locked. b. + .

1.Figure 4-1*.0.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. It usually re#uires a sling rope . -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. . .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope... Tying the Knot.'. + . thus creating a loop around the $aist. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.' feet or longer.. ensuring they do not cross. + .*. a. + . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. :unter hitch. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. ... + .

. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.4.. &rom rear to front.appe! seat. tightening the seat. %. . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.+ . uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. Figure 4-1). -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. . b.. Check 9oints. + .). -ull up on the ropes.7. + .

he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. .. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.. + . a. preferably ovals*. Tying the Knot. + .0..

roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. it will fail. . 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. %..* !hen properly dressed.Figure 4-1. Check 9oints. or the e&uipment . b. <uar&e knot. rope can only be pulled in one direction. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point.

/o$ever.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. /o$ever. rees. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. boulders. trees must be carefully checked for suitability.*. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. . +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. When selecting or constructing anchors. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first.

sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. >se padding on soft. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. . security.Figure 5-). %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. Trees use& as anchors. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. Figure 5-. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. b.. a. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. Chockstones should be checked for strength. In rocky terrain.

A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. If rock projections are used. flakes. tying a rope to it. . their firmness is important. and spikes.ock 9ro>ections . the projection should be avoided. and clipping on a carabiner.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. If any of these signs e"ist. horns. Chockstones.Figure 5-1. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. c. b. a. . hese include blocks. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner.

the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. .Figure 5-4. As $ith trees.ock pro>ections. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. . A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch.

he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. Drape. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. %ushes an& shru s. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. and girth. !hichever method is used. . $rap. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. Figure 5-6. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. a. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used.Figure 5-5.

Drape. (rap. Figure 5-". b.Figure 5-7. . (rap. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*.

he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor.c.:*.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. his re#uires less e#uipment. <irth. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. <irth. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. . . Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. 7nchoring (ith . Figure 5-'. .

$hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom.*. to absorb the tension. more if necessary. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps.. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . Tension!ess anchor. Figure 5-)). A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot.Figure 5-)*. .

and ruck sacks. such as a railroad tie. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. and the load to be placed on it. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. he"centrics. ice a"es. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. b. chocks.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. $ould be ideal. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. can also be used if necessary. &or training planning. such as skis. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. %A hefty timber. . In e"tremely hard. he sling is attached to the anchor. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. such as pitons and bolts. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. and +BC2s. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. e#uipment. sno$shoes. . +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. a. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. As $ith natural anchors. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain.ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. Although still available. . 9itons -itons have been in use for over . ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid.* Barge boulders can be used. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load.#uipment. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience.:: years. 3ote4 Artificial anchors.

9iton 9!acement.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. clear the loose rock. pitons can support multiple directions of pull.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . %&igure 7(. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. 7&2antages. !hen this type of rock must be used.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. as $ith any artificial anchor. a. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. dirt. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. practiced. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. %0* !hile it is being driven. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. %. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. should be studied. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. b. Disa&2antages. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. c. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$.

Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock.out of the crack.1*. and on the type of rock. thereby loosening the emplacement. the firmer the anchor $ill be. . Clip a carabiner into the loop. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. because the piton is too long.. herefore. it $ill not be lost. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. he piton should not spread the rock. Figure 5-). $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements.

then grasp the rope at least .emo2ing 9itons. If the pitch has changed greatly. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. ry to be in a secure position before testing. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. Testing. e. . If the sound regains its original pitch. do$n$ard. d. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. and $hen using chocks. -ero-!oop.'*. there is any #uestion of its soundness. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. drive it into another place. the emplacement is probably safe. . as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. o test pitons pull up about . Eerk vigorously up$ard. . to each side. upon driving it. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it.K0 meter from the carabiner.Figure 5-)1. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. drive the piton in as far as possible. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement.

he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. but comple" in practice. b. Disa&2antages. . Bight to carry. A natural chockstone. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness.asy to insert and remove.Figure 5-)4. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. 7&2antages. vectors. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. they may have been driven poorly the first time. . >sually easy to retrieve and.eusing 9itons. 9iton remo2a!. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. unless severely damaged. provides an e"cellent anchor point. Also. f. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . are reusable. having fallen and $edged in a crack. a. <efore use. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. removed. but they must be checked for strength. In training areas. and straightened may be reused. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. +oft iron pitons that have been used.

and dirt. Chock p!acements. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. Avoid poor protection. %0* !hen selecting a chock. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. if possible. then select a chock to fit it. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction.7*. . c. %1* . %. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. +ome cracks may have loose rock.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. 9!acement.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . Dften provide only one direction of pull. grass. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. cord. $hich may accept pitons. Book for a constriction point in the crack. Figure 5-)5.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner.

It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out.)*. use pairs of chocks in opposition.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. o test it. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. d. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. test it to ensure it remains in place. After seating a chock. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. %a* . Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. Testing. .

a. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. place the device into a crack. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. %o!ts . it may rotate and pull out. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. b. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. and release the retractor bar. S8CD p!acements. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. pull the retractor bar back.Figure 5-)6. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it.

or cracking. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. c. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. . /o$ever. $hich bores the hole. .4*. and runners. since this permanently $eakens it. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. a. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. !hen using bolts. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. <olts should be used $ith carriers.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. and should be tested $ith a hammer. . flaking. b.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. carabiners. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(.

A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)7. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. a. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . Figure 5-)". 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. It is aimed in the direction of the load. b. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. his not only provides greater anchor strength. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. .8*. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling.5*.

An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. terrain hazards.Figure 5-)'. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. and the enemy for the length of the climb. therefore. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor.

ven before getting on the rock. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. ledges. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. reconnaissance personnel. or 6lines. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues.6 to the top looking for cracks. nubbins.6 . =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. +orward observers. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. . 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. the climber studies all possible routes. using the hands primarily for balance.trained in the basics of climbing. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. . !hen picking the line.*. he mentally climbs the route. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations.

oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. such as a rock or climbing gear. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. falls from climbers above. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. If the soles are $et or damp. the boot soles should be dry and clean. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. dry rock. In the training environment. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. /o$ever.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . In later lessons. C7ET=63 . he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope.

Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. comfortable stance is essential. right foot. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. sho$s a correct climbing stance. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. or moving on to a more . and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. helping to minimiAe fatigue. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. and so on. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. A rela"ed. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. %&igure )(. his vibration. lo$ering the heel.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. a. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. If strained for too long. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. help the climber land feet first. and movement. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. and reduce the impact of a fall. and body %trunk*. kno$n as 6. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. $eight shift. Stance or %o&y 9osition. a$ay from the rock. left hand. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. b. left foot.

%.. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. Correct c!im ing stance.restful position. Figure 6-. he hands are used to maintain balance. Figure 6-). !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. the hips and shoulders should be .a!ance& o2er oth #eet.* !henever possible.

Dn lo$(angle slopes. +ometimes. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. as the climbing progresses.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds.: + . he basic steps are $eight. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. shift.* + . Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. Dn steep rock.centered over both feet. c. or body*. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. his is normally done on #uick. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. intermediate holds. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. and movement %movement being either the foot. Again. $hen footholds are small.D=. hand. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. C!im ing Sequence. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. In most cases. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. creating more stress. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. .

.: + .: + . $hich are used to maintain stance and balance. through 1 for remaining foot. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. If both legs are bent. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7. %. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made..+ . + .* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.: +hift the $eight onto both feet.&IV. . leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. 2uring this movement.epeat steps . $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability.&D>./.

Figure 6-1. . Typica! c!im ing sequence.

Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .Figure 6-1.

to rest on.Figure 6-1. even painful. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. his type of lifting is inefficient. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. not the arms. Dther than being uncomfortable. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. these movements become more critical. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. Sa#ety 9recautions . %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. because the legs are much stronger. %.

If on a lo$(angle climb. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. If the rock $ill endanger your second. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. >pon hearing the $arning. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. do not do it. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. e. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. a. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. tossing it do$n. and to reduce the impact of a fall. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. . a fi"ed rope should be installed. +hould a climber fall. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. +hould a rock become loose accidentally.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. c. follo$ing the same line. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. let the rope provide protection. b. If conducting a roped climb. a spotter can be used for safety. d. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. grasping for any possible hold available. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. immediately shout the $arning 6.

<e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered.f. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. !hen in doubt. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. !hen leading a group of climbers. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. +ometimes. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly.. g. !hen climbing. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. a. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight.&D. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. sedimentary(type rock. C!im ing (ith The Feet . but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. his may simply be a #uick. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. b. depending on it. !hen the rock is $et. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards.

%&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. as in mountain $alking. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds.* %a* +mooth. %b* Dn some large holds.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. he principle of using full sole contact. In the early learning stages of climbing. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. In this case. %. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. easy or difficult. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. the entire foot cannot be used. also applies in climbing. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. . most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. . . forgetting to use the feet properly.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. &ailure to climb any route. b. Also. a. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used.* Maximum Sole Contact. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot.

edging $ith the front of the boot. $ell(defined ledges. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. or toe. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. !henever possible.* %a* Dn smaller holds. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. Again. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight.Figure 6-4. >sually. . the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. . he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. %0* Edging.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. may be used. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold.

the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. therefore. the better the edging capability. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. . but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock.%b* . . Figure 6-5. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. $ith its softer sole. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging.ounded.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. he stiffer the sole. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. he Army mountain boot.* %a* . edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. .ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. intermediate holds. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. %1* Smearing. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique.

and even more painful on the foot. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. . Aside from these t$o basic ideas. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. %'* Jamming.Figure 6-6. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. resisting a do$n$ard pull. ball of the foot. +ome positions are more tiring. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. the possibilities are endless. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. like a camming device. or the entire foot can be used. pockets. he toes. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. restful position. and so on. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. arms. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. such as edges. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. than others. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. inside and $ithin reach. depending on the siAe of the crack. hands.

and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. Figure 6-7. +econdly. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. a.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. our body $eight is on our legs. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. b. !hen removing the boot from a crack. As stated earlier. Dn lo$er(angled rock. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Core often though. +ometimes. As the individual climbs. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. Dur hands grip. . $Bamp!es o# >amming. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance.

or 6pinching. Dn smaller holds. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. .* Push olds. Ideally. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. %.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. the fingers. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance.our balance and footing on the ladder. -ushing side$ays. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. his is fine. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. and on occasion. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. Df course. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. the side of the palm.

-ull holds. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. side$ays.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. just good techni#ue. . %0* Pull olds. creating an unbalanced stance. Again. therefore. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. or up$ard. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. also called 6cling holds. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. and. . Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength.* %a* Bike push holds. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. pull holds are often over$orked.Figure 6-".

$Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. Dn small holds. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. his helps to hold the finger tips in . he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. Figure 6-'. creating a stronger hold. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. =ormally. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock.

$Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance.* Figure 6-)*. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. his hand configuration. %'* Jam olds.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. %1* Pinch olds. kno$n as a 6ring grip. knuckles. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. %&igure )(. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. ape also adds friction . or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. Bike foot jams.

he hand is then clenched as much as possible. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position.. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. %&igure )(. and fle"ed to fit the crack. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. &or off $idths. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. only the fingers $ill fit.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. he leg can be used. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. the principle is the same as for fingers. leg. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. is another techni#ue. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. %b* In smaller cracks. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure.to the hand in jammed position. from the calf to the thigh. . %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. . sho$s e"amples of jam holds. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. o jam or cam an arm. or 6off $idths. or body into an off $idth. hands. !hen the arm is straightened. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. leg. /o$ever.6 re#uiring the use of arm. and body jams.

numerous combination techni#ues are possible. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. As the climber gains e"perience. .Figure 6-)). and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. feet. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. &rom these fundamentals.

and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. +ometimes.otating . before the hands. %&igure )(. b. yet #uickly. o make the move. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. arms. +till. $here the pull holds become push holds. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. mantling begins $ith pull holds. %0* Mantling. he change step. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. or hop step. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. even on an easy route.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. t$o solid handholds should be used. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. +hort of turning back. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet.* Change Step. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. o prevent an off balance situation. %. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet.a. . he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. or other body parts tire. Combination possibilities are endless.

momentarily. Dnce the arms are locked. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. !ith the foot on the ledge. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. . he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. Dnce balanced over the foot. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach.

applying an up$ard pull.1*. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. forming a bulge or small overhang. or body tension.. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. %1* !ndercling. :ant!ing sequence.Figure 6-). also. he arms and legs . he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard.

putting the body into an B( shaped position. more or less. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. the climber $ill . he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. Figure 6-)1. %'* "ie#ack. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. he climber bends at the $aist. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. . En&erc!ing. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds.

. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. 8ie ack on a #ace. %7* Stemming. he legs should be straightened $henever possible.likely fall. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. Figure 6-)4. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. rather than muscle. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue.7*. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring.'*. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. or vice versa. or for a rest position. Dften.

he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . .)*. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. kno$n as chimneys. Stemming on a #ace. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. parallel cracks. legs. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. >sually. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys.Figure 6-)5. or body as an integral contact point. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact.

Chimney sequence.Figure 6-)6. .

forcing the body against the opposing $all. /o$ever.4*. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . %)* Sla# Techni$ue. face features. if any holds.Figure 6-)6.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. Chimney sequence /continue&0. A slab is a relatively smooth. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. or a much narro$er crack irotection. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. . he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. %c* . %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack.

Dften. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. Figure 6-)7. Also. . or the . ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. Dn steeper slab. $hile keeping the hips over his feet.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. S!a technique. to increase friction. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. . %4* %o&n Clim#ing.

forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. As the steepness and difficulty increase. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . !hen in doubt. and slips are more likely to occur. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. Dn the steepest terrain. he can often turn side$ays. !hatever the case may be. use a roped descent. !hen in doubt. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. %a* Dn easier terrain. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. 0. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber.. C7ET=63S . he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold.abilities of others to follo$. use a roped descent. If the handholds are too high. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. the climber can face out$ard. a$ay from the rock. still having a good vie$ of the descent route.

facing out$ard or side$ays. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. and a tendency to move too #uickly. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. as in ascending. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. reducing friction. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. &acing the rock. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending.planned landing area. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. . Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. %d* Dn steeper slab.5*. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. is usually best on steeper slab.

. . may induce further injuries. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. . and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. length. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. ropes must be used to proceed. A severe fall.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle..opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. . and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. is highly unlikely in most instances.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. they offer little support to the climber. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock.ope Dver the years. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely.

It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. a. it is not for a belay anchor. Seat -arness. $hen used correctly. /o$ever. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. . specialiAed e#uipment. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. also. -rese$n harness are bulky. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. =o assembly is re#uired. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. including cost. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. such as a prese$n harness. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. %. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops.

his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. such as padding. than an improvised chest harness. Dne(inch $ebbing . belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. gear loops. a. Chest -arness. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. at the chest.b. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. he s$ami belt is a simple. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. or ease of adjustment. %. c. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. S+ami %e!t.

usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. any tie(in around the $aist only could .$ill provide more comfort. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. b. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. %. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. !I /D> /. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. raditionally. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. &ABB. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. Figure 6-)'.8*. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. In a severe fall. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot.. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap.V.. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot.

Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. . seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. and hold it in place on the hip. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. $ith the knots to the front. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. and comfortable. $rapping to the outside. . 9rasping both ends. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. Dff to one side.* Bocate the center of the rope. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. %. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. A safe. c.ven in a relatively short fall. like a parachute harness. .

forming t$o loops. he t$ist. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. or cross.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot.Figure 6-. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. . Appro"imately ) to . just as you $ould put on a jacket.*. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. . and drape the sling over the shoulders. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling.: feet usually $orks. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. making a sling 1 to ' feet long.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. d. %. but remember that $ith $ebbing. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness.

&i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness.I ICAB BI=?.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. f. the standing part of the rope is then . the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. If using a chest harness. at the chest. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. and comes off the harness in a fall. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. %. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. in effect. 7ttaching the . C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. create a type of full(body harness. or incorrectly. e. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece.

and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. Figure 6-)".clipped into the chest harness carabiner.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. and possibly the e#uipment available. or third loop formed in the knot. rather than tying the rope to it. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. If using the three loop bo$line. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. %. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. %e!ay Techniques . ensure the end. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall.

Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. rope team members can often move at the same time. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. . . the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. if one person falls. >se a $ell braced. for an up$ard pull. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings.6 can be applied to halt a fall. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. sitting position $henever possible. ho$ever. +tack the rope properly. and snug. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. Dne person climbs at a time. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. . independent. but $ith practice. e"posed terrain. Dn steep terrain.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. In some instances. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. • • • • . or a 6brake. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. the procedure should become 6second nature.

BAI D=. removed from the rope. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . • • . ho$ever. the rope management procedure is basically the same.• .ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. b.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. take up rope to remove e"cess slack.V. aking up rope.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.BAI..nsure anchor attachments. there is no belay.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. If the brake hand is removed. otal control means the brake hand is =. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. and apply the brake to halt a fall. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. a. or run through a friction device. !hen giving slack.A9.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . guide carabiner %if applicable*. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(.

%1* /olding the rope in the brake hand... Figure 6-. to the front of the brake hand. he other hand is the brake hand. step 0*..epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. step '*. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. step )*.. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. step . step 1*.*. %)* . e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. %. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. slide the guide hand out.). :anaging the rope.. . $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0.brake hand remains on the rope at all times. place it behind the back and around the hips. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure.. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.

he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. !hen perfectly aligned. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. stiff.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. using terrain to his advantage. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. and the amount of load. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. or fall force. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. It is the simplest belay. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. and froAen. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. especially for beginners. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. the belay may have to absorb. a. . It is best to sit in a slight depression. he leg on the 6guide . the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. he body belay. %o&y %e!ay. in its various forms. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. %. re#uiring no special e#uipment. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. +ometimes.

bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard. Sitting o&y e!ay..hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. . Figure 6-.. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay.

the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. . It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. If the rope runs too high.1. dumping the belayer out of position. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage.Figure 6-. rendering the belay useless. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. If the rope runs too lo$. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively.

the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. or pearabiner. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he carabiner must be large enough. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. :echanica! %e!ay. attaching both to the carabiner.* Munter itch. As a climbing belay. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. and of the proper design. is designed for the Cunter hitch. $hich forms an obvious. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads.4. b.Figure 6-. useless hitch. to allo$ this function. /o$ever. &or the most part. -ut some . %. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice.

%0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. :unter hitch. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. rather than around the belayerUs body. .tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and.5. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. is al$ays the guide hand.+ =D change the function of the hands. he hand on the rope running to the climber. As a belay device. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. Figure 6-. though developed as a rappel device. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. to$ards the load. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. or load.

Figure-eight &e2ice. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. A short. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. %b* As a lo$ering belay. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. but have no moving parts.ope management is performed as in a body belay. . >nlike the other devices. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design.6. . A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. Figure 6-.%a* As a climbing belay.

2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. the most commonly used. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. Also. If the belay is correctly established.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . b. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. slotted plate. =n&irect %e!ay. Additionally. if the second falls or $eights the rope. a. . Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. An indirect belay. he air traffic controller %A C*.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. the belayer is not locked into a position. Direct %e!ay.

the belay must no$ be 6aimed. %. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. and in line $ith the first protection placement. b. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. rela"ed stance. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. . sitting stance are preferred.* . as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. If this placement fails under load.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. c. Dnce the climbing line is picked. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. !ith the belay position selected. the belayer selects his position. 7nchor the %e!ay. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. . a. 7im the %e!ay. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line.

but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. say after a severe fall. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. . =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. saving the slings for the climb. reach back. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. o accomplish this. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. his is not mandatory. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors.%0* . 6independent6. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. and 6snug6.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed.

%0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. he rope should be stacked on the ground. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. %. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. 7nchoring a e!ay.Figure 6-. e. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. and applies the actual . d. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it.ope. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. !ith the rope properly stacked. Stack the . or on the ledge.7. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay.* Dn small ledges. 7ttach the %e!ay. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber.

If using a body belay. !hen belaying the 6second6. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner.* he belayer should make one #uick. %e!ay setup. the force. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. Figure 6-. the anchor attachments. If the belay is set up correctly. he gives the signal. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull.BAI D=W6. final inspection of his belay. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. guide carabiner if applicable. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. Anchor attachments. %. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. If the climber takes a fall. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . 6<. if any.". and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. guide carabiner. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock.belay techni#ue.

bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. . A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. :$73=3<. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. C8=:%$. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer.7CT=63 T7K$3 . or at the top at the anchor. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions.* %$87D$. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. A solid.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. e"posed routes. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. Top-. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered.

elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. 6+BAC?6 . 6 A?.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed.=( I( &IV.D-. ensure climbers belo$ hear. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area.DC?6 6. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route. 9. 6 .S$8F F. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. I am falling.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. apply brake. and hold me.6<.6 . <elayer removes brakeKtension.6 6 !. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. .DC?6 -roceed.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. and again. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. <elayer removes slack and applies brake. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. If multipitch climbing. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. Climber selects a belay position.6T$CT D6E. <elayer takes in rope.

BAI6 belay. the most important command is 6<.6&I&( . +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. 6&IV. <elayer removes the belay and. Iou have 7 feet of rope left.=6 Iou have appro"imately .BAI D=. +et up the belay position. . or $hen the climber is around a corner. Ta !e 6-).. Climber sets up the belay.7 feet of rope left. Iou may remove the belay.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. !hile a lead climb is in progress.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. his is the signal for 6<. or at the back of a ledge. Iou have no more rope. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. &or a rope tug command.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. . remaining anchored.ope comman&s.emoves the 6D&& <. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . prepares to climb.6 +et up the belay. b. use only one. above an overhang. I have finished climbing and I am anchored. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope.. . !ith the issue of this command. . his is especially true in $indy conditions. -repares to climb. remains anchored. a. anchoring and putting the second on belay. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands.ope& C!im ing :etho&s .

rope%s*. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 6pro. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. you can easily avoid the climb itself.6 and so on. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. As he climbs the route. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. .6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. If you can easily access the top of a climb. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. a leader or climber. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors.6 6pro placements.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. b. a. Top-. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb.6 6pieces. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. &or training. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner.In military mountaineering.6 6pieces of pro.

+$inging leads. taking on the role of lead climber. or 6leap frogging. such as rappel points.established for other purposes. or other rope installations. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. a. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. b. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. c. he belayer simply adjusts his position. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. ice.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. belays. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. and is responsible for selecting the route. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break.

ne"t belay. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*.. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. he leader can then signal. !hen the leader is ready. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. 6<. only as a courtesy. >nless told other$ise by the climber. !hen the belay is ready. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. to remove any protection that the leader may place. etc. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. or 6rope drag6. %. If he cannot see the climber. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. %'* !hile belaying. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. it can be called for. 6CBIC<I=96. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. thus minimiAing friction. he double checks the belay. is responsible for belaying the leader. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. . he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. %1* <efore the climb starts. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. only as a courtesy. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. he leader then begins climbing.BAI D=6. nut tool. again. the belayer signals. $hether by sight or feel. %0* he other member of the climbing team. such as a piton hammer. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. until the climber tells him other$ise.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. removing the belay anchor.

A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. !hen the leader has completed the connection. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. In this situation. Assorted he"entrics. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. &ive to ten standard length runners. each on a separate carabiner. the leader sets an anchor.%7* As the leader protects the climb. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. %. he must also determine ho$ much.BAI D=6 is given.D-. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. each on a separate carabiner. . !hen the leader selects a particular route. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. and $hat types.* he leader $ill assemble. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness.BAI6. $ith t$o carabiners on each.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. the command 6 A?. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. or the clip. or 6rack. At this position. . d.

=ut tool %if stoppers are carried*."tra carabiners. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. Cordellette. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*."tra carabiners. $ith t$o carabiners on each. Bong -rusik sling. the necessary e#uipment. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. =ut tool. • • . 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. • . %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing.(inch $ebbing.: feet of .• • • $o to three double length runners. . to some degree.(inch $ebbing. 0: feet of .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route.

If the climbing becomes easier. If the climbing is difficult. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. is re#uired. As the leader begins this type of move. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. protection can be placed farther apart. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. kno$n as a traverse. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. moving past a difficult section. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. or pendulum.&D. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. during. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. and upon completion of any traverse.e.* Placing Protection. saving hard$are for difficult sections. protection should be placed more fre#uently. Dnce an anchor is placed. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. %. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. placement of protection.. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . 9enerally. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. and <. for both the leader and second if either should fall.

the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. $hen released. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. in a .moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. If the clip is made correctly. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. In addition. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. !hen placing protection. /o$ever. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. C7ET=63 . %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. %a* If the route changes direction. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position.

leader fall. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used.'. rotate the carabiner up$ards .5: degrees. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. Figure 6-. C!ipping on to protection. =o matter ho$ direct the route. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. o prevent this possibility.

the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. . o prevent this.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. or anchor. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. Ese o# s!ings on protection. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. inducing a fall. C7ET=63 . . Figure 6-1*.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall.

*. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. . Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. even $hen used 6actively6. All $ired chocks used for . Figure 6-1). you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. . %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. or runner. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. As the climber moves above the placements.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through.

A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. +ome of the larger chocks. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. %e* . or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position.. Figure 6-1. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. therefore. &urthermore. ry to use the shortest runners possible. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. .

* h. +harp rocks. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. !hen the second is ready.BAI6 to the belayer. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. If necessary. or seconding. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. %. he second has to issue commands to the leader. he can. reply $ith 6CBIC<. unless other$ise directed. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. !hen removing the protection. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb.BAI D=.6 and the leader can.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. no$ the climber. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<.BAI D=. as a courtesy. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. $hile the final preparations are taking place. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. !hen removing protection. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. &ollo$ing. rock fall.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it.6 he second. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope.f. g. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . signal 6CBIC<I=9. again as a courtesy. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. or 6cleaning the pitch6.

Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection.reaches a more secure stance. a. . he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. he belayer simply adjusts his position. Dnce secured. +$inging leads. %. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. the method of aid climbing . his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. If too much slack develops.6 he leader removes the belay. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb.=+ID=. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection.BAI. or 6leap frogging. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. $quipment.egardless of the type of protection used. he should signal 6 A?.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . he should immediately connect to the anchor. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. If removing a piton. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. . he can signal 6D&& <.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece.D-. taking on the role of lead climber. Dnce the second completes the pitch. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads.

%0* 'olts. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. %. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands.is the same. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. /o$ever. +ince pitons are multidirectional. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. bolts can be used for aid climbing. $ith or $ithout the hanger. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . -itons are used the same as for free climbing. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer.* Pitons.

he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. A fifi hook is a small. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders.. . . %1* S"C%s. although in aid climbing.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. although in aid climbing. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. split(shaft rivets. or steps. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction.or -iders. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. %5* -scenders. . 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. %7* %aisy Chains. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. %4* (ifi ook. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops.0 inches. appro"imately every . +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. %'* Chocks.* . %)* Etriers .asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed.

%4* . !ith the daisy chains. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted.b. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. into the steps in the aider. aiders. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. one at a time.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. again. Technique. you are no$ standing above your support. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. he big difference is the movement up the rock.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. If this happens. the climb continues as follo$s: %. &rom this height. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain.

and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. repeat this procedure. a serious fall could result.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. Clear each knot as you unclip it. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. %. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. !hen adjusted to the correct height. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . move the ascenders. . Secon&ing. After ascending another 0: feet. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. !hen the pitch is completed. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started..may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. o make this easier. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. tie in short on the rope every . adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level.:* . 3otes4 . o ascend the route. If the ascender is too high. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. one at a time. the arms need not support much body $eight.* >nlike lead climbing. above the piece. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. o prevent this possibility.

As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. 0. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. !hile leading an aid traverse. possibly resulting in the protection failing. C!ean 7i& C!im ing.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action.as you ascend. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. his is in effect a self(belay. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. /o$ever. %. do not tie into the end of the rope. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. e. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. d. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. o make this safer and easier. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. +BC2s. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. to get caught as you move up$ard. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. and other protection placed easily by hand. hooks. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. he hook .

C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep. 9iven one rope.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. protected traverses . Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. hese types of devices due to their passive application. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. If the climb is only one pitch. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together.::(foot climb $ith a . although bolts can be used. only t$o are described belo$. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. a. $hich involves more difficulties.::(foot climb $ith a . belayed climb. a forty foot fall could result. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. the methods $ill vary. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. &or e"ample: a . b. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure.

he again sets up a ne$ belay. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. !hen the leader completes this pitch. %. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. If using one rope. !hen using t$o ropes. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . or number . =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. ascends belayed by number 0.. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point.BAI6 from the leader.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. or number 0 climber. climber. he second. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*.Us .* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. and number 1. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes.$ill re#uire additional time. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader.BAI D=. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. !hen the leader completes the pitch. !hen number 1 receives 6<. !hen number . %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . he most e"perienced individual is the leader.

Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . !hen number 1 is not climbing. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. such as the tuber type. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. number 1 performs no belay function. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. his $ould save time for a team of three. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. %d* =ormally. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. he remains anchored to the rock for security. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes.belay is ready. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches.. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . %d* In this method. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers.

but adds to total mission $eight. even worse. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. he use of harnesses. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. ascenders. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& .in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. .ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. However.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. H )i.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. and safer. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. faster. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. =nsta!!ation . As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult.

he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. . the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. autoblock*. Dther$ise. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample.o install a fi"ed rope. Esing a #iBe& rope. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. -rusik. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up.*. If the leader placed protection. he $ill stack and manage the rope. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. Figure 7-). he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. Dnce the anchor is rigged. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb.

If not. FiBe& . he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer.Figure 7-. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. Esing a se!#. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above. .ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. . the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope.e!ay..

avoids obstacles. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. .Figure 7-1. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. a. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. actical considerations are met. ease of negotiation. he second sets up a standard belay. =nsta!!ation. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points.

he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. 3ote4 . his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. %. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. !hen he reaches an anchor point. .ope crossovers should be avoided. and attaches the rope to the anchor. he temporarily anchors the rope. . double figure(eight*. As the leader climbs the route. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. o brake. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. &rom there. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays.appe! %&igure 4(7*. b. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground.Figure 7-4. . and back over the opposite shoulder. /e then pulls the rope from behind. the rope runs to the brake hand. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. -asty rappe!. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. 9loves are $orn. and runs it around either hip. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. diagonally across the chest. %o&y . and his back straight to reduce friction.

c. 3otes4 . %o&y rappe!. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. Seat--ip . 0. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller.Figure 7-5. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods.appe! %&igure 4()*.. .

care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . stand to the right of the rappel rope. If a single rope is used. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. If using a right(hand brake. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side.Figure 7-6. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. and is fast and safe. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. /o$ever. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. his method has minimal friction.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. stand to one side of the rope. Seat-hip rappe!. %.

place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. %. Figure 7-7. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. d. &or this reason. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap.* o use the figure(eight descender. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. . he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. Figure-$ight Descen&er.

Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. f. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K.) of an inch in siAe. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling.appe! De2ice. d. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. . Se!#-%e!ay Techniques.Figure 7-". It also allo$s for easier self( belay. hese include slots or plates and tubers. Figure-eight &escen&er. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. e. $Bten&ing the . A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. 6ther De2ices. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*.

ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*.e!ay. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. /o$ever. 6ne-. .Figure 7-'.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. depends on the techni#ue. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.

Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. c. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. At that time. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. such as large trees and solid rock formations. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. the gates $ill be opposing. If crossing a ravine or gorge. b. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. the s$immer must be belayed across. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. he anchor should be $aist high. If crossing a stream. If t$o carabiners are used. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. =atural anchors. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. a. are al$ays preferred. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor.:. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. $iremanUs. Dnce across. .

A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope..*. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope.0*. Transport tightening system. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. . e. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.1*. d. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure.Figure 7-)*.

. . . Transport knot .oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.Figure 7-)). Figure 7-).

'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. b. $eb $rap. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. c. . a. Dnce across.:. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank.Figure 7-)1. Tension!ess anchor knot. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. 3ote4 2uring training. the far side man anchors the rope. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot.

his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. and is run back to the near side anchor. f. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. here are several methods of accomplishing this. Figure 7-)4. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight.d. . g. transport knot. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. e. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. F-pu!!ey tightening system. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. As the rope is pulled tight. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. !hen the rope is tight. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. from inside to outside.

a. :etho& o# Crossing. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. o recover if he falls over.)*. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. -referably. and yrolean traverse. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. Figure 7-)5. %. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. monkey cra$l. attach it to the bridge.7*. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. . he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. and pull the rucksack across. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. he may $ear it over both shoulders. If dry crossing is impossible. Comman&o cra+!.

a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.appe! seat metho&. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. If crossing $ith rucksacks. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. Figure 7-)7.Figure 7-)6. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. . :onkey cra+!. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. .4*.

may dictate the rigging of these items. Figure 7-)". Construction. ABIC.* Machine /uns. cordage %various siAes*. .igging Specia! $quipment. All the slack is pulled to the near side. or supplies. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. -au!ing !ine. &inally. Any special e#uipment. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. and carabiners.5*.b. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. such as cre$(served $eapons. ammunition. he other end is anchored on the near side. o rig machine guns. %. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. . a. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. %0* -"0CE Packs. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. A unit +D.

etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. Dn each side of this carabiner. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across.ucksacks. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. . a. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. c. assembled on the far side. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. %. . . he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot.b. :o2ing . takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. %'* A three(man pull team. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. :o2ing 8itters. If the < C chooses the dry method. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. he far side remains anchored. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge.

and then pulls the rope across. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer.%)* Dnce across. b. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. %. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. ravines. and up or do$n a vertal. Suspension tra2erse. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. removes the knots. Figure 7-)'. chasms. inserts a carabiner. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. Site Se!ection .

-lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side.'(foot sling ropes are needed. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. a. Construction.0 feet long. $o sturdy poles are needed. b. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. %0* !ith a sling rope. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. c. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. -osition this knot on . he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. 7-#rames. leaving about . All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. .nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. %. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . $quipment.* . and mark the ape" on both poles. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. an A(frame must be used. hree to five .5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. %+ee &igure 4(0:A.

* Figure 7-.*. ensure it is in the same direction as the . pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.*. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. .the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. Cake the $raps as tight as possible.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch.

d. . ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. If the ground is soft.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors.*. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. =nsta!!ation Construction.). 7-#rame sprea&er. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. . the direction of kick. . %. If more than one sling rope is needed.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. Adjust the A( . Figure 7-. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. dig the legs in about ) inches. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. %4* If the ground is a hard surface.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs.

+ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. . ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. Figure 7-.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . Eoin the ends of a . not forcing it in a lateral direction. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots.0*... It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.

%)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. 2ue to the constant . !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending.1. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled.Figure 7-. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground.

herefore.4. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. rucksacks. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons.tension maintained on the belayer. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. use a relay man. . Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . use a mechanical belay. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. or supplies Figure 7-. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route.

0(inch bight.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch.5. . and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. %+ee &igure 4(07. 2ouble one installation rope. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. find the middle. and anchor it. if necessary. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. . o maintain the .* Figure 7-. a. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside.platforms that provide a safe $orking area.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape".

+tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . e. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. f. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . g.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . directional figure(eight. $hich is tied to the A(frame. o anchor the A(frame. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. he angle should be .0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms.b. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. or to. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. c. . d.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. belay from the top using the hauling line. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads.0 inches apart.

aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. !hen it is no longer needed. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. . F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. c. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. a. .etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. and the rope condition.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. Consi&erations. e#uipment. terrain.. Simp!e . it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope.educe e"cessive friction on the system. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. pull the other side from belo$. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. . the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. and availability of anchors. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. load $eight. !hen in use. $eather. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation.h. b. the load rubbing against the rock $all. Construction. Theory. .

. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. then place the $orking end into the carabiner.%.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+.* . . establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. place a pulley into the carabiner.

3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. 6ther Factors. >se belays and backup safeties. e#uipment. If the t$o pulleys touch. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. terrain. $eather. . d. &or greater efficiency. load $eight. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. a.6. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. and availability of anchors. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. Consi&erations.Figure 7-. F-pu!!ey system. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock.

&riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. %7* Construct a second anchor. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. E-pu!!ey system. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. Theory..7. . >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling.* Anchor the hauling rope. the load rubbing against the rock $all. %. Construction. and the rope condition. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. c. his is the -C2. Figure 7-. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight.b.

or number of steps per minute. $eather. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. and results in loss of climbing time. re#uires more rest halts. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. !hen a moderate pace is set. conditioning. he mountaineer sets a tempo. good nutrition and hydration. even under ideal conditions. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. hen. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. Coving too fast. pace. produces early fatigue. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. H he terrain. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. and a unit can cover a given . he more adverse the conditions. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. the need for rest halts decreases. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. he trained. acclimatiAation. . rugged terrain. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. rappelling. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. the slo$er the pace.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. pace is adapted to conditions. proper training.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. empo. s0iing or snow shoeing.est. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. technical roc0 and ice climbing. H In addition to proper techni#ue.

enabling an easier. %'* After a climb. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. deeper inhale. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. %. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. and higher elevations. soldiers lean against a tree. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . hydrate. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. and snack on trail food. If possible. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step.* After each step for$ard. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. supports the $eight.. rock. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles.distance in a minimal time. sno$fields. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. <listers and . halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. he soldier e"hales strongly. steady. not muscle. %. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. breathe deeply. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. the soldier pauses briefly. %1* his slo$.7 hours. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. If possible. to . It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps.

!alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. back injury. . A normal progression. %. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. and back pain may follo$.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. in lo$ brush or heather.* !hen ascending. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. $ould be from $alking straight up. ice a". and on scree and talus slopes. %. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. o turn at the end of each traverse. animal trails. A ski pole. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. surface. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. try to s$itchback periodically. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. as the slope steepens. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. /ard ground is firmly compacted. knee damage. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. and loss of balance. H -ar& <roun&. !hile traversing. through thick brush. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out.. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. to a herringbone step. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. If side hill travel is necessary.efer to Chapter .blackened toenails. for techni#ues and use of the ice a".

If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step.0 Step Kicking. his is the in(balance position. he soldier performs a basic rest step. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. he ice a". aggressive manner.. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. he soldier faces out. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. each one improving the step as he ascends. simply $alk straight do$n. . /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. and they $ill not be as secure.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. steps off. returning to the in(balance position. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. /. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. held in the uphill hand. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. $hich must be done in a positive. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. $hich take half of the boot. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$.H Sno+ S!opes. and plants his foot solidly. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. and $eighting the trail leg. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard.

/40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. and the upper leg is used only for balance. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*.* !hen ascending. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. H Thick %rush. H <rassy S!opes. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. !hen traversing. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. brush is both a help and a hindrance. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. In this techni#ue. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. trees. $here the ground is more level. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. &or the military mountaineer. %. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions.

!hen $alking in talus. After determining that the step is stable. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. o . if possible. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. ascending or descending. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. feet pointed do$nhill. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. %.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. back straight. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. and heels dug in. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. and then repeats the process. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. H Ta!us S!opes. H Scree S!opes. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side.

personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. compass and identifiable terrain features. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. elbo$s. the location of a target objective.prevent rock fall injuries. 6.ockW6 is shouted immediately. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. sno$. is the foundation of good navigation. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. Backing cover. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. knees and toes. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. and do not look up. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. the $arning. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. he use of the map. grass. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. digging into the slope $ith hands. . H !henever a rock is kicked loose. navigation. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. and route finding. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure.

checking progress and terrain identification.. route planning. millimeters of mercury. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet.::: feet of elevation. b.H . he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains.1 inches has occurred. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. or millibars. 7!timeters. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. <y measuring air pressure. a loss of barometric pressure of . %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. Compasses. %. usually inches of mercury. usually attached to a cord. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. . a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. and bad $eather should be e"pected. a.

%7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. he 9-+ is a space(based. . or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. It can determine the latitude. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. c.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. global. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. stream(trail intersections. his can result in faulty elevation readings. all($eather. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. %. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. <!o a! 9ositioning System. and so forth* is reached. causing them to give poor readings. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. longitude and elevation of the individual user. %4* . saddles.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. survey monuments. it can provide position %accurate up to . continuously available radio positioning navigation system.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated.

open valleys. or plateaus are better. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. but due . deep valleys. enter their coordinates as $ay points. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. summits. . If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. the better the system performs. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. saddles. spurs.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. Canyons. start point and objective. Dther$ise. after choosing critical checkpoints. or altimeter navigation. 3a2igation Techniques.idgelines. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+.%1* 2uring route planning. %4* . three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. d. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. terrain association. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. &or navigation. %'* +ince the 0. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots.

he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. /andrails. . Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. catching features. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. checkpoints. /eavy fog. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. and not a precise point. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain.eckoning. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. slope %+D+. siAe. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. navigational corridors. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. burned(over. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. . or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. and attack points are all used. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. !hen clear cut. glacier. he shape. orientation. bo"ing(in areas. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. than as a primary navigational aid. elevation.* Dea& . his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. %.

H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. hey aid in orientation. in resection. H !hen the object blends into the background. uniform surface. such as da$n. H !hen the light is poor. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H !hen looking over a smooth. such as sno$. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. $ater. check the . open road or track. $atercourse. in computing rates of ascent or descent. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. dusk. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. but not behind the object being vie$ed. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. and in $eather prediction.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. H !hen looking do$n a straight. or desert.

gross bedding planes of rock. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making.ates of travel. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. In this case. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. along $ith $eather conditions. and crevasse Aones become visible. In addition. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. !atch the mountain during the approach march. and the physical condition of the team. e. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. cliffs. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. light conditions %time of day*. . most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. sno$fields and glaciers. . cliff bands. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. %. may present themselves. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. studying it for climbing routes. such as couloirs or gullies.altimeter. &ault lines. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features.

are often steeper.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. g. $ater features. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you.oute Se!ection. (inter . cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. sno$ pits. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. 2uring calm $eather. avalanche danger. and the siAe of the unit. If you must cross one. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. and impact on your route choices.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. f. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. constrain your choice of terrain. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. 2uring movement. %. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. shovel tests. &or $eaker skiers. individual ski abilities. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. terrain relief. pays off in more efficient travel. vegetation. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes.

travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. If the $eather turns bad. %4* 2uring ski movements. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. east. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. Avoid north. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. If $eak skiers are in the group. H >se a steady. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. . and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. !eather and tactical situation permitting. and so on to get accurate readings. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. H -reset aAimuths on your compass.danger is still present. ice a".

$hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult.h. compasses. Careful map reconnaissance. $hiteouts. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. caused by large ore deposits. short hours of daylight. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. . bliAAards. 9ro !ems. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. %'* /andling maps. especially above tree line. %. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. trails.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. At times. drastically limit visibility. and drifting sno$. sno$fall. kno$ledge of the enemy . both on the ground and from aerial photographs. hick vegetation and rough. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. . %1* Cagnetic disturbances. fog.* In $inter.

:. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. verbal descriptions. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. even larger scale maps are desirable. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. such facilities as ski lifts. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. An .0. A . or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help.:7:. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. a. :ap .::: map depicts greater detail than a . Civilian . +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale.:07. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. obli#ue angle. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. Aerial. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads.::: maps can be used if available. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. In addition.situation. %. cable and tram$ays are often found. terrain analysis of the operational area. clear cuts. pay close attention to the marginal information. Along $ith sketch maps. Areas above tree line.::: map and should be used $henever possible.econnaissance. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.

—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. but should still be e"pected. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. $eather permitting. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. %1* /elicopter support. bridges. . potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. barns. such as rivers and gorges.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. e"tractions. and plans made to avoid them.uins. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. resupply and medevac. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. c. are factored in. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . they have a marked advantage. . trails. and large open areas above tree line. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. impassable torrents. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. roads. $nemy Situation. %0* Dbstacles. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. b. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions.

camming units*. including the geology.success. %0* . . +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background.outes through granite rock %long cracks. good friction@ use of pitons. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. mountain structure and forms. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . %. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. smooth rock@ bolts. e.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. Enit 7ssessment. Time-Distance Formu!as. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. and ground cover. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. d. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets.*. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed.

actical movements. foot of .) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC. basic mountaineering gear. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. his distance plus .::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . In order to do this. helicopter support cannot be relied on.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. %. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. %0* As able 5(. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel.) kph '.5 to 7. first measure the map distance.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than . Time-&istance #ormu!as. to 7. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. foot .) to 1. Add one hour for each .0 kph 0 to 1.0 to ' kph +kiing . should take this into account. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.0 kph 0 to 1..' to .0 kph 1.. indicates. . realistic rates of march. $eights in order to obtain accurate.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than .) to 1.::: feet of ascent or 0.. and clothing for mountain travel.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times.

aerial photos. Se!ect a . clearings. Consider the follo$ing: %.* Tra##ica i!ity. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. -lot start and end points.equire& $quipment. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. a. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. and trails accurately. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. vegetation.. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. b. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. Se!ect a Current :ap. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route.oute. avalanche probability. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. sno$ depth. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. Additionally. and the likelihood of crevasses. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. roads. c. $idth of trails. . avalanche probability. $eather reports. his includes degree of slopes. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. %1* . sno$ condition reports.

#ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. %4* Checkpoints. and depth of the water. %)* Con&itions. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. . 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common.econnaissance . speed of the current. >se all available information and plan accordingly. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. ake into consideration their present health. !hen plotting a route on the map. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. swift. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route.Contro! 9oints.%7* Communications. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. or deep. an alternate route should be used. When rivers or streams must be crossed. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated.Capa i!ities o# Enit. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. its width. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. depending upon the type of stream. . 7f a water obstacle is too wide. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats.

the closer you are to the source. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. 2epending upon the time of year. Crossigs. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. photo. A distant vie$. b. As glaciers. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability.econnaissance of the route %map. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. or head$aters. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. a. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. If a dry crossing is unavailable. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. the rivers rise.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. Figure '-). depending on the distance from the source.*. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. or ice melt during the day. if . and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. In a s$amp. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists.. for e"ample. perhaps from a ridge. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. sno$.

. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. above the tree line for e"ample. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom.made during the early morning. Dnce a log jam is formed. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. contain sections $ith numerous channels. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. ho$ever. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. if any. firm bottom. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. %1* Cany mountain streams. and thus shallo$est. In some areas. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. ho$ever. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. =atural anchors are not a necessity. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. point of the river or stream.

A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. if available. b. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. <oots should be $orn . Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. -reparation includes the follo$ing. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. !rap radios. tactical situation. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. as in the higher alpine Aones. All pockets are buttoned. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. +DI. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. binoculars. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. a. temperature of the air and $ater*. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. he could easily dro$n. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. papers. %)* !hen possible. H If you must cross on the upstream side.

he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. e. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. socks and inner soles should be removed. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. d. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. /o$ever. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. Dn the far side. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. f. c. At times. a. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack.

a long ice a". then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. and if available. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. /e should take short. deliberate steps. e. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. . c. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. b. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. d. he staff should be moved first. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. sturdy tree limb. If an obstacle is encountered. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. o increase balance. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*.

.Figure '-. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. &or chain crossing. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. but $ith the added support of each other. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. . =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line formed faces the far bank. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. a team crossing may be used.

Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. a. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. he stream at this point may be impassable. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. . and the distance from the near and far anchors. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. Cany times though. .K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . height of the anchors above the $ater.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing.Figure '-1.

then a rope bridge should be installed as such. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. If this is impossible. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing.V.. . should he fail to reach the far bank. /e should =. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. %. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner.$ill pendulum back. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across.

and anchored on the near bank. /ere again. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor.Figure '-4. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. pulled tight. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. An appropriate knot is tied into the . %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. rather than straight across the stream. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. %. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.

he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. Figure '-5. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. %7* >nder most circumstances. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. $hichever appears easiest. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. .

f. use a different techni#ue. recoilless rifles. and individual e"perience. . Sa#ety .iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. such as mortars. c. stream bottom configuration. and so on. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. e. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. d. $idth of the stream. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. b. speed of the current. or choose another route. A lookout should be posted 7: to .ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site.%)* . All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. a. especially heavier $eapons.

2o not try to fight the current. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across.g. a. facing do$nstream. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. . for assistance or rescue. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. If the shore is too difficult to reach. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. seek out the closest and safest spot. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. In either case. h. b. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. c. such as a sandbar. d. e. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

descend straight do$n the fall line. !henever possible. d. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. Figure )*-)*. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending.:(. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a".. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. As the slope steepens. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.:(. . F!at-#ooting in the cra position. Dn steep terrain. and traverse.: and . keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures .egardless of the techni#ue used. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short.*. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied.degrees. . bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope.

-ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue.* Crampons. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. 3orma! 9rogression. raverse $ith feet flat. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. . Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. <acking up the slope %crab position*.Figure )*-)). he techni#ues can be used in any combination. &ront(pointing. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. /erringbone step straight up the slope. e. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. logical progression. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. %0* =ce 7B. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %.

:(. Figure )*-). and move the hand up the a" shaft. . in some cases.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". f.e. C!im ing sequence.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. >sing most of these positions. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. C!im ing Sequence.0*. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . Step Cutting. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .1*. .:(.

then cut one bet$een those t$o. !hen changing direction. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. =e"t. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. steps may be cut straight up the slope. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. %'* -an&ho!&s. %0* =ce. In ascending. and angled more. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. they should be smaller than footholds. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. %. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. . a traverse is also the preferred method.* Sno+.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. In descending. If handholds are cut. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. Dnce the step is formed.

and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury.'*. g. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. . A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. Se!#-7rrest. 2uring movement on steep ice. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting.:(. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped.Figure )*-)1. a fall %&igure . or arrest.

Se!#-arrest technique. .Figure )*-)4.

%0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. back to the slope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. and feet pointed do$nslope. and feet pointed upslope. the climber must first gain control of his body. H /ead do$nslope. stomach on the slope. H /ead upslope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. H /ead do$nslope.Figure )*-)4. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. . back to the slope. stomach on the slope. %. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed upslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. and feet pointed do$nslope.

$ith the pick pointed into the slope. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. If crampons are not $orn. e"cept skis . he a" is held diagonally across the chest. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. %d* In the fourth position. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. stomach on the slope. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope.7*. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". controlled. could severely injure his ankles and legs. rapid descent. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position.%a* In the first position. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. stomach do$n position.:(. . increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. 9lissading is similar to skiing. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. %b* In the second position. %c* In the third position. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . Dne hand grasps the head of the a". lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. %'* !hen a fall occurs.

he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. Sa#ety. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. brake. $hich serves as the rudder. pick. and the other hand on the shaft. and guide for the glissade. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. b. c. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. Also. . he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat.are not used. as painful injury could result. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. Sitting <!issa&e. Squatting <!issa&e. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. he same balance and control are necessary.

flukes. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. %. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. backpacks. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. <!issa&ing techniques.Figure )*-)5. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . skis. and ice pitons. deadman(type anchors. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. ice scre$s. a. . sleds. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. or any large items. >sed singularly. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor.: inches in length. =ce 9itons.

%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure .:(. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. making further use difficult.)*. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. !hen an ice piton is removed. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.:( . Figure )*-)6. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. or the ice may crack or soften. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: .4*. c. =ce piton pair. such as top roping. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. $hen placed correctly. =ce Scre+s. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. he pair of pitons. If it pulls out or appears $eak. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. are multidirectional. move to another spot and replace it.

. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. Figure )*-)7. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick.* %'* As $ith ice pitons.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. such as top roping.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. or the ice may crack or soften. %. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation.%. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . must be removed before further use. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning.

%0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. or other e#uipment for added strength. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots.: feet. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. Figure )*-)". !hen constructed of sno$.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. pickets. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$.d. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. In ice. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor.5*. . his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure .:(. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. depending on the strength of the ice. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. %. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. the $idth should not be less than . It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. e. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed.

If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. f. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. skis.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. he direction of pull on long items. should be at a right angle to its length. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. also. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth.%. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. sno$shoes. %. such as a picket or a". or other fi"ed rope installations.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. t$o or more anchors should be used. . the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. .:(. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions.* !henever possible. %&igure .7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. rappel points. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. frayed. A similar anchor. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. $qua!i@e& 7nchors.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. ski poles. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor.

:(4. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. <y using this . he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure.e#ualiAed anchor. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. a three(man rope team is recommended. !hen crevasses are e"pected. Tie-=n :etho&. all climbers move simultaneously. Covement on 9laciers. Figure )*-)'. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. b. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. +hould any member fall. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. a. :o2ement. the tie(in is modified slightly.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. for more information*. .ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. %+ee paragraph . he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9.

%oot-aB e!ay. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock.* %oot-7B %e!ay. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing.:(0:*. Figure )*-. Dn steeper slopes.method. .6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. called the 6team arrest. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. %. 9enerally. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$.*. c. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce.

both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. ridgelines. H . FiBe& . H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. or cliffs. . he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. %1* :unter -itch.%0* %o&y %e!ay. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. d. As the movement continues. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. also. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions.opes. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley.

<!acier cross section. .:(0.* Figure )*-.:(00 depicts common glacier features. and &igure . sho$s a cross section of a glacier. %&igure .). Characteristics an& De#initions. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers.a.

%1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer..* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall. %. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. .Figure )*-.. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. <!acier #eatures.

. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. %. %. . hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. he firn line can change annually. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. . As you approach this area. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. %. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. %. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. <e cautious.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones.

%. icefalls. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. o$ard the end of the summer. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. %. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. %0.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. and ice avalanches. $hen visibility is poor. b. %. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.%. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. %. In $inter.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. %. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs .

Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer.:(01*. .in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . criss(crossed $ith crevasses. Figure )*-. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.:(0'*. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure . %.1. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.

he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. o locate the positions.Figure )*-. If four people are on a team. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. the remaining members go into team arrest. use the -rusik to belay each other in. . three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. assess the situation.4. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. if three people are on a team. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. he simplest and most common . ie in to the bights and the ends. If the team members need to assemble in one area.

If traveling $ith a sled in to$. he best combination is a three(man rope team. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues.ope& :o2ement. A roped team of t$o. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. halting the fall. their security being the team arrest.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. . %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. c. . is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. 9enerally. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. $hile ideal for rock climbing. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope.:(07*.

Figure )*-. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. he remaining 6thirds6 . $hether improvised or premanufactured. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness.* .ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. as for a four(person team.5. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. %0* . it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. the rope should be divided into thirds. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. %. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. <ecause of this.

attached to the rucksack.. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. or carried over the head and shoulder. e. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. may be e"tremely difficult. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. Securing the %ackpack. <efore movement.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . by itself. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. $ith double fishermanUs knots. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever.ucksack. d. he ends of the ropes are tied together. forming endless loops or slings. If necessary. if $arm clothing is needed.0(foot ropes. !hen . /o$ever. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. &or safety reasons. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. the chance of it failing is much greater. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope.

!ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. steep terminal or lateral moraines. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite.hanging from the drop cord. heavily crevassed portions. In this Aone. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. Crossing Cre2asses. g. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. %. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. large crevasses remain open. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*.outes.* In the area of the firn line. connecting both sides of it. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. and do not take the place of. =arro$ cracks may be covered. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. the sno$. f. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. /o$ever. $hich covers glacier ice. Dpen crevasses are obvious. they only supplement. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. and icefalls. %.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. . .

the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". and gradually turn into glacier ice. .%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. a crevasse is probably present. but difficult to detect in flat light. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. h. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. In such a situation. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. Sno+ %ri&ges. the team may proceed. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. If he is. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. its detection is difficult. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. and may form firmer bridges. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. %.

: feet back from the edge. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. i. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. %c* he leader should move for$ard. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. =umber t$o belays number three across.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. 2o not stamp the sno$. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. %1* In crossing crevasses. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. Dnce the second is across. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. . If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. he assumes the belay position.

or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope.%. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. using the -rusik as a self belay. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. /o$ever. =umber 1 must al$ays be .* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. to anchor the rope. if the person $as almost across.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. % his scenario is for a team of three. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position.. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. the rope is al$ays kept taut.

if the middle person should fall through.escue Techniques. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. as a minimum. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. close to number 0.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. onto the anchor. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. number . and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. j. =ormally. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number .Us anchor. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load.. assumes the role of number 1. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . $ould anchor the rope by himself. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . Cre2asse . %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay.

on the edge of the ice. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . .edge. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. If the fallen climber is not injured. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. place padding. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. In some situations. In order to reduce friction. ski pole. or backpackKrucksack. =umber .ope.ope Teams.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. %0* FiBe& . the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. %. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. such as an ice a". clips number 1Us rope to himself. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. If necessary. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. As the assisting team pulls. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . ski. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! .

to ascend the rope. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional .:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration.6 of the long sling. or 6stirrup. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. /o$ever. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. %f* he procedure is repeated. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. %&igure . the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. Dther times. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet.person in the crevasse. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go.

%c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik.:(04*.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number .support. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. Figure )*-. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. % his scenario is for a team of three.::(pound load $ith this system. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. to the anchor. In actual field use. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . and they have decided to install the V rig. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line.6 system. A pulley can be used here if available. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( .6. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. 9rusik ascen&ing technique.. In theory. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope.

H !ith the 61(to(. he system is no$ ready for another haul. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. . %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0.6 system.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number .

If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n.Figure )*-. .* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. a crevasse is present. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. =ormally. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole.7. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. a. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. poles. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. and so on. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. at least eight feet in length.

escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. Dccasionally $hile probing. %. therefore. If a latrine area is needed. :ountain . move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*.* &or block construction. the weather. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. In deep soft sno$. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . $hich keeps tents closer together. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. At a minimum. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. e. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. ry to find a solid platform. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. 7t is. Under these conditions. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. by . by 0 feet. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. If a dugout latrine is necessary. distance to be moved. probe again after digging. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury.b. d. and e)isting installations. Air evacuation is preferred: however. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. tactical situation. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. c. terrain.

!hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. medic%.nsure that the C. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations.2. c.sufficient. /o$ever.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. &or a planned rescue. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. control serious bleeding. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue.* Assume command.evel 777 supervising. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. a. . all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. hey are. is overall in charge at all times. . Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. %. . 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . b. resume victimUs breathing.evel 7 and . and maintain moderate body $armth. . >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. and one person only. ho$ever. physician/s assistant. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. Dne person. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. .

escue 6perations . his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. or a change in $eather. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. 9!anning . !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation.$SCE$.esist the urge for action. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. should be used for evacuation.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. vehicle. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. if available. continually monitor pulse. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action.If the victim is unconscious. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. environmental haAard. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. or any other immediate haAard. possibility of falling rocks*. . T-$ . . %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. and terrain at hand. hanging glacier. avalanche run(out Aone. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. a. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. +peed is less important than correct action.

H Are additional personnel.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. rescue. $here. H .* After identifying the task. security. H actical situation. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. $hat. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. and the nature of their injuries.b. and ho$ the situation happened. d. c. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. he task must be identified. medical. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. H -lan the action. priority. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. H errain features and location of the casualties. tactical immediate*. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . relate it to the circumstances of the situation. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. $hy. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. $hen. routine. H . H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. and evacuation. treatment. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. In planning a rescue.

* In estimating time available. pulse rate. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. and stretchers. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. ropes. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. drugs started. hot food and drinks. reliable trails or roads is essential. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. the situation.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. If the victim is airlifted out. bivouac sacks. $alking trails. anchor points. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. !ith all rescue techni#ues. tents. fi"ed lines. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. Age and physical condition may vary. $arm clothes. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. and so on*. blood pressure. %c* !hen performing all rescues. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. and rescue belay points*. Ca"imum use of secure. and the personnel and e#uipment available. . %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. sleeping bags. lo$ering lines. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. stove. ime becomes the critical element. e.

such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. H F=.=TD T-.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . available time is drastically reduced. H 9.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.%1* . .=TD F6E. a.ST ST7<$4 .elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning.=6. separate stages are taken. .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. b.=6.D ST7<$4 . o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. In high altitudes.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. or gusting $inds. .emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris.T. H F6E. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time. H 9.ST7<$4 . e"treme cold. Specia! Training .=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation.=6.emove dead personnel. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. . H 9.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. H T-=.=6.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.

it can be lost through carelessness. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. %. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. pistol belt.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. difficult terrain. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. the best method of manual transportation is selected. a. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. . piggyback. t$o(hand. before trying to move the $ounded soldier.(. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated.ope Carry. saddleback. or inade#uate protection from the elements. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay.* re#uires a '. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever.* S!ing-.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation.. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. rough handling. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. four(hand. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. herefore. 6ne-:an Carries. he sling(rope carry %&igure .

%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . around the casualtyUs thighs. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. S!ing-rope carry. and back around to the front of the bearer. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. . and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. forming t$o almost e#ual groups.K0( meter coiled rope. Figure ))-). %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. -adding. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. $hen available. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle.ope Coi! Carry. %0* . crosses the ends. %f* he rope must be tight.

pulling the casualty onto his back. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. the bearer carefully stands. In this case. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. If this is not done. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*.appe!. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. b. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. . /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. %u&&y . A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest.

from right to left. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. from right to left. across the carrierUs chest. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. %0* A '. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. he rope is run diagonally. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks.%. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. from left to right. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. over his left shoulder. %7* he rope is run diagonally. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. he victim straddles the carrier. . %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. across the victimUs back. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. and back under the victimUs left armpit.0(meter sling rope is used. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip.

he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. as described above. :anu#acture& 8itters. on traverse lines. nature of injuries. and e#uipment available. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. $hich are se$n on one side. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used.%. . +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. a. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. If the litter must be carried. belayed. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. It can be improvised $ith poles.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. behind the neck. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. easy to carry. and then carried again. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. and then do$n along the other arm. %.* he poleless. he rope is folded in half. and readily available. over the shoulder. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. depending on the terrain. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. and then routed up along the handling arm. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled.

%1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. $hich is a potential breaking point. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. . It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system.1.5.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. %+ee &C 5(.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. . %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.

not dragging on the ground. /o$ever. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. and poles. ladders. scoop stretchers. ponchos. . such as a blanket.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . benches. and other similar items. If possible. shelter halves. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters.6*-)..(0):(. tent supports. Figure ))-. +uch objects include boards. jackets.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets.. %. shirts. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. bags.. sacks. A litter can be improvised from many different things. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters.. If a poncho is used. the hood must be up and under the victim.0. doors. b. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. these objects should be padded. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. skis. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. $indo$ shutters. a large item. . %0* If poles cannot be found. cots. or mattress covers. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim.(0*. tarpaulin. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area.

. . 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. Figure ))-1. centimeters long.(1*.ach clove hitch should be about . little material e"ists to construct litters. . sleeping bags. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter.ope !itter. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. . empty bo"es.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. make a clove hitch over each bight. 3ote4 Above the tree line.

%. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope.* &irst.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. . %7* -ull up on the rope. . %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.escue Systems . 2o not remove the belay. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. ake t$o . his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb.(meter poles. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . a. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about .7 centimeters. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. After placing the clove hitches over the bights.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. and place a carabiner into the loop. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. %e!ay 7ssist.

%5* . he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. o improve this system. %e!ay $scape. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue.* After a climber has been injured. b. %7* . %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. . transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. %. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber.

. . %. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. belays. hand $inches. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. backup safety -rusiks are used to .elease the mule knot securing the -rusik.* . +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. rope(edge friction. transferring the $eight to the anchor. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes.%)* . In practice. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. a. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. are often encountered along the evacuation path.aising System. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. . and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. $hich must be surmounted. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges.aising systems.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. and other variables. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. %0* %e!ays.

!hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed.( '*. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . Descen&ing S!opes. c. .* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time.aising the 8itter. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. he litter is prepared as already described.. if possible. % his is the signalman or relay man. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. b.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. %. %.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. taking care not to jar the casualty. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. .safeguard the system.

here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. if used. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. and anchor points for the A(frame.. %1* he most direct. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. many different techni#ues can be used. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. clearance for the casualty along the route.&escen&ing. good loading and unloading platforms.Figure ))-4. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . b. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation .(7*: a. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered.

Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. d. c. C!i## e2acuation &escent. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty.:1814 Inches . continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. Figure ))-5.

. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent..1814 . chances of survival are remote.05. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search.)0. if a member of your group is in an avalanche. <enera! 9roce&ures .:81) .< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. If any indication of the location of the victim is found.:105. after two hours. 18. random probing starts in that vicinity.. .14 . 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but.7.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.14 1.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& . Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .robability of survival drops rapidly and.

goggles. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. A human body. b. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. terrain. boots. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. usually the toe of the slide. gloves. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. If the initial search reveals items from the victim.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable.. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. . a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. . All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. If using avalanche beacons. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. . If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. >sing this and any other information. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. make an initial probe search in that area. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. a. urbulence. Book for skis. and mark all clues. packs. poles. >nless other$ise indicated. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. hats. if enough personnel are available. ice a"es. several factors influence the bodyUs location.

all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. especially in a high $ind. Cany models of transceivers are available. 9ro e 9o!es. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. rocks.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. Although this type of pole . Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. • Vegetation. and other obstacles act as snares. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. All currently available transceivers are compatible. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. In the case of large and violent avalanches.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately .fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. the greater $ill be his burial depth. • . 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. a. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. . although they may operate differently in the search mode. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. Conversely.

%0* If no probing poles are available. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. 9ro ing Techniques. %. c. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried.* . 9ro ing 8ines. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. b. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. $enty per line is satisfactory. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. As evidenced by their names. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. coarse probing implies a . the number of personnel per line should be limited. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. o ensure systematic and orderly probing.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. . %. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. he only sure check is by digging.performs best. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. &or the probing operation to be effective. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain.

the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.2. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . clear commands are essential for efficient probing. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. +trict discipline and firm.6 6>. &ine probing is the concluding measure. $hich almost guarantees finding the body. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.D<. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.6 <y using these commands. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander.&D.!A. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. essentially.::(percent chance of locating the body..-.6 6+ . he probers themselves $ork silently.. %. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated..$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed.D<. a . the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. $ith feet about . %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. $hile the fine probe has. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.7 inches apart.

%b* Dn command..&D.6 6C. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.= .D<.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.6 6.I9/ -.-. -.. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B. the line advances ..D<.6 6>.!A. foot. . .D<.2.ach man probes in front of his left foot.D<.& -.-. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string. $hich is then moved ahead . >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.-. foot and repeats the probing se#uence. then in the center of his straddled position..6 6+ .D<.ach probe is made ..6 6>.6 6>.. .%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.: inches from the adjacent one. and finally in front of his right foot...D<.

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