Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. %. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. 2ress the knot do$n.0.. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. + .. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.'. . a.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.etrace /.1*. /o$ever.. + . Figure-$ight . by tying the knot in a retrace.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. Checkpoints.. .. + .1. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. .epeat + . Tying the Knot. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. Figure 4-).+ ... %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. b.. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.

'.7. + . ..1.0. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. . !ith the $orking end.. Figure 4-)1.+ . ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. Figure-eight retrace.. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. + . + .. Checkpoints %. + . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. he finished knot is dressed loosely..* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. and route the $orking end through the loop. b.).

. + .0..'*. depending on ho$ it is tied.. %0* End of the Rope. /old the loop in the left hand. + . -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. palms do$n $ith hands together. he knot is tied. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.1. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. Tying the Knot. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right.. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. /old rope in both hands.. + . reach under the horiAontal anchor. + .'. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. and bring it in$ard. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.. .. + . -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.0. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.* Middle of the Rope. /old the standing end in the left hand. !ith the right hand...%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. a. %. + . assume that the anchor is horiAontal. grasp the $orking end.

!hen tying this knot. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)4.. . + . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.+ . a. + .1. Tying the Knot. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to... %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. 2ress do$n the knot.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. b.7*. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.. It is a middle rope knot. !ith the right hand. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. C!o2e hitch. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.'. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. %. ake up the slack from the anchor.

.. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. + . A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.1. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. + . and fingertip.. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. Checkpoints.. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.8. + .'.. + .7. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. Figure 4-)5.0. b. and place it over the heel $rap.. . + .+ . + . (ireman’s knot. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot..4.).. palm. + . +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.5.

%0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. + . + .0. It is a middle rope knot. + . tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.. + .)*. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. a. the tail and the bight must be together. . it lays in$ard.%... Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.1.. Tying the Knot.. Cake one $rap around the palm.'. !hen dressing the knot do$n.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. !ith the $rap thus formed.

* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.4*. %0* he tail and bight must be together. It is a middle rope knot. %. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. .Figure 4-)6. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. Directiona! #igure-eight. b. Checkpoints.

7. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. + ... &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.. forming t$o loops. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot..'. Tying the Knot. + .. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. + . . + ...0. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.). + . + .1. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. ie an overhand knot on a bight..4.a. + .. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.

%0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. .5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. %o+!ine-on-a. b.. Checkpoints.* It is a middle rope knot. %. >sing a doubled rope.ight.5. a.Figure 4-)7. form an ..* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. + .. Tying the Knot.

/old the bight $ith the left hand. a.+ .* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.0. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. Figure 4-)". + .7. !ith the $orking end... Checkpoints. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. It is a middle of the rope knot.. 2ress the knot do$n. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. b. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. + . also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. + . T+o-!oop #igure-eight. . Tying the Knot. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.8*.1.. %.'. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.

* he loop is the desired siAe. Figure-eight !oop. 2ress the knot tightly. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. b. Tying the Knot. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. Checkpoints. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.0. Figure 4-)'. + .. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %. It is a specialty knot... !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. + . form a loop in rope %standing part*.+ . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.1... . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. a.

. + . Figure 4-. $ith the $orking ends even. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.1.*. + . + . %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. + . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.1. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. 2ouble the short rope..0.. ..epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. + .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .. . . he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. and place it over the long rope. forming a bight. >sing an arm3s length of rope.0(inch bight...*.0... -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.*: + .each do$n through the .%.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart..

Checkpoints. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.+ .4. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. b. parallel. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. . &orm a complete round turn in the rope. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. + .). Bay the $orking end under the long rope. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.). + . It is a specialty knot.nsure they are tight.. . Figure 4-. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.. and not t$isted.. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.7. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. + .. %.'.

3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. + .. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. Tying the Knot.a... -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. %achman knot. + . &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.1. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . b. Checkpoints.... %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. %. Figure 4-. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner..* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.0. + .

1. he running end is to the back of the body. b. a. >sing the standing part.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. + .. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.. tie an overhand around all coils. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. !ith the running end. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.7.'. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. + . /olding the bight loosely. It is a specialty knot. Tying the Knot. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. + ..).. not crossed... . + ..4.. . + . make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. %. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.0.* A minimum of four $raps. + .nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. Checkpoints.. hen. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. bring a bight up through the loop. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. + . single coil. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. he standing portion is on the bottom.

Figure 4-... . -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. + . + . It is a specialty knot.. a.1. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. Bay the loops to the right.. Tying the Knot. + .0. !ith the right hand. + .1. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system.. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.'.

+ . . b..* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Tying the Knot. a.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. &orm a . Checkpoints.+ .. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. It is a specialty knot. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops..7.. Three-!oop o+!ine. %. Figure 4-.4. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.

.. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.1.0 inches up the rope.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. Figure 4-. b.'.. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. + . t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. %. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. + . standing end of the rope. .+ .. + . Checkpoints.5.:u!e Knot0 . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.).7. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.0..each through the bight and grasp the long. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. Figure-eight s!ip knot. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. + .

+ .1.0 inches long. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight.* here is a single overhand slip knot.. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. Transport knot. Figure 4-. Tying the Knot. + ...0.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope..6. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. %. %1* he bight is a minimum of . It is simply an overhand slip knot.. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. b. a. Check 9oints. + . K!eimhiest Knot .

Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. a. . high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.'.. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope..0 inches..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. It is a special( purpose knot.1.. Tying the Knot. + . pass them through the bight %see + . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.. find the center of the rope and form a bight. + .. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . + .*. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. easily adjustable.7. + .. !ith the ends offset.. + . !rap at least four complete turns.0..

It is a special(purpose knot. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly..* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. b. Tying the Knot. . + .Figure 4-.. a. K!eimhiest knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. Checkpoints..7. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . + .0.: to . %.0 inches.

+ . %0* he knot is dressed tightly. It is a special(purpose knot..* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. %. Checkpoints.Figure 4-. + . %.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. a. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Tying the Knot. <irth hitch.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.. :unter -itch . Checkpoint.'.. + .: &orm a bight. Frost knot. Figure 4-. b. b..". %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.1: Cinch the knot tightly.

/old the loop $ith the left hand. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. + .* A bight passes through the carabiner. Tying the Knot.0. a.0 inches apart. palms do$n about .. !ith the right hand. b..he munter hitch.'. + . %0* he carabiner is locked.. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. /old the rope in both hands. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop.1. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. !ith the right hand. . $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. %. + . + .. Bock the locking mechanism... Check 9oints.

2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. ensuring they do not cross. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.*. thus creating a loop around the $aist. a.. :unter hitch. .. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.. + . . + .0. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.. .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.' feet or longer. It usually re#uires a sling rope .1. Tying the Knot..each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.. + .'. + .Figure 4-1*.

%.7. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. tightening the seat.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.4.. + . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.+ . . b.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. Figure 4-1). -ull up on the ropes.. + .). . &rom rear to front. Check 9oints.appe! seat.

. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. + . ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. a. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. + . Tying the Knot. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. preferably ovals*. .. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*..0.

%0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. %. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. rope can only be pulled in one direction.. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts.* !hen properly dressed.Figure 4-1. b. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . Although mountain operations have not changed. <uar&e knot. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. Check 9oints.

his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I.<D. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. illness and injury. tactics. Inclement $eather.). $henever the masculine gender is used. >nless other$ise stated. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. -ersonnel using &C 1(84.A2DC. glaciers. Countain Dperations. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective.+. anchors. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath.army. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . and training.8:7(7781. for training %see Appendi" A*. A =: A +/(. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. ice climbing.). he proponent of this publication is /F . and urban vertical environments. >. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. Army Infantry +chool. movement on glaciers. e#uipment. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. both men and $omen are included. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. evacuation. and actions. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. rock climbing.). hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. 9A 1. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. &ort <enning. ho$ever. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. sno$(covered mountains.

Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. glaciers. sno$fields. and $ell(led troops. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Df the appro"imately 0. surprise.::: kno$n minerals. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. rehearsals. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. compartments. AcclimatiAation. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. single ridges. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. Spring storms. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. conditioning. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit.

leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult."cept for calcite.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. . granite dries #uickly. f. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. and cracks. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. After a rain. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. <ranite. . . face climbing. &ace climbing is possible. &ace climbing can be found. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. a. c. and it is usually difficult to protect. conglomerate type stones may be loose. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. e. S!ate an& <neiss.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. and de$. .ockfall danger is high. ho$ever. . <rassy S!opes.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. After long. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. d. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. Bimestone has pockets. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. it cannot be protected. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. ne$ sno$. Cha!k an& 8imestone. b. found in limestone. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. San&stone. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. +topping a slide on small.

if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. propelled by its o$n lo$er density.ocks. %. and over time.ocks. avoid scree $hen ascending. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. Ascending scree is a tedious task. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. under pressure.ock C!assi#ications . Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. Ta!us. g. or. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. . Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. his results in an intrusive rock. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri".unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. but smaller than boulders. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. Scree. =gneous . either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. internal heat. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. he magma may move up$ard. If possible. /o$ever. a. h. .

Fuieter eruptions. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. $hich cut across the strata. $hen a ledge suddenly ends.ocks. %1* Cointing . the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. .ockies. In the Alps. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e .and crystalliAing. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. Barge %. it is called 6tuff. herefore. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. Dccasionally. and dikes. forced bet$een sedimentary strata.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. +ierras. =orth Cascades. Adirondacks. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. or clusters of segregated minerals. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. produce basalt.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. . .ocks. In plutonic rocks. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged.

c.ocks. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. As sediments accumulate. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. especially in limestone.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. but cleavage or foliation. <ecause of this cleavage. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. or oceans. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. :etamorphic . %.b. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. After sediments are solidified. lakes. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. hese changes may be minimal. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. only slightly altering the sediments. +hale changes to slate or schist. $hich offers . Se&imentary . and limestone to marble. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding.ocks. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. In fact. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. %. he Canadian . in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth.

basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. he breakage e"tends . %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. a. volcanoes. heaving up fold mountains. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma.$orld class climbing. forming fault(block mountain ranges. and mountain ridge systems. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. $hich also provides solid climbing. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. the Dlympics of !ashington. b. :ountain Structure. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. ocean trenches. 9!ate Tectonics. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. $hich results in fault(block mountains. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. .* Dome :ountains.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. &aulting. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. and to pull apart and crack. granitic continental crust. %. e"posing the central igneous core. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. . and the /igh >intahs of >tah. =evada. often accompanies up$arp. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. and heavier. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead.

%1* Fo!& :ountains. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. ho$ever. he best kno$n is the 6. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. Core often. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. central core is all that remains. ectonic forces. it is faulted on one side only. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. the oldest. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. 9eologists call folds geosynclines.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion.

Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. domed. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. Asian arc. .oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. there are folds measured by a rope length. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. he I2+ classes are: . often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. a. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. In addition. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. and the .idge."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. and faulted. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. the Caucasus region. and the Cediterranean. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material.ift Valley of . %7* Comp!eB :ountains. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka.do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. .

Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. often combined $ith small belay points. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure.* H Class 7—&ree climbing.:—. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue.8—.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. .7—Coderate difficulty. belay and emplace intermediate protection."traordinary difficulty. /ands are necessary to support balance.—/iking trail. %4* Class 7. %'* Class 7.4—9reat difficulty. . and e"perience re#uired. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary."posed positions. %)* Class 7. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training.'—Bittle difficulty. H Class '—<elayed climbing.)—Cedium difficulty. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule.* Class 7.H Class . %0* Class 7. %1* Class 7."tremely great difficulty. $hich may have some e"posure.:(7. %7* Class 7.5—Very great difficulty. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. his is the simplest form of free climbing. .* b. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. climbing techni#ue. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. /igh physical conditioning. H Class 1—Climbing. hree points of contact are necessary..

%5* Class 7. 7. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. %0* A.(7. in a classification of 7.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable..* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. and energy e"penditure.* Classes are further divided into a.5J*.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample.—. e"perience.5.. c. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs..* A:—M&rench(free. and d categories starting from 7.: to 7. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. . his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route.. c... %&or e"ample. the 6. ground fall $ould occur. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %.6 or 6L. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. d.'—9reater increases of difficulty. b.6 indicates periods of run(out $here. re#uiring more climbing ability. 7. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6.' %for e"ample. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out. %.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. if a fall $as e"perienced.asy aid.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb..:d*.

%7* A'—+erious aid. II — /alf of a day. .K0 days %usually not less than 7. hese falls.K0 to 0 . such as A1J or A1(."treme aid. =o serious fall danger. e. All protection is sketchy at best.%1* A0—Coderate aid. %)* A7—. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing.5*. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. ho$ever. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves.4*. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. long fall potential does e"ist. V — ."tremely severe aid. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. %'* A1—/ard aid. III — About three(fourths of a day. %4* A)—. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. If the leader falls. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. . 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. VI — 9reater than 0 days. /o$ever.

c . hard very 7. sho$s a comparison of these systems.urope.1.). hard severe...5 . DDS Class .:d VIIJ ..1a 1b.c 7b.0.c 7b... H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.5 VI( severe.'a 1b.7b 7. III . 'c 7. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.b.c 7b..4 . H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .b.b VIII ..'a 1b.1 IIIsup .'a 'a...' 7.c )a..* moderate %CD2* .7 7..7b 7.:a VII( .c 7b.)a 7. able .c )a.b.. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.a VIII( .:c VII ..b 0c.7b 7.f.: 7.c 0a.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.) 7.a.1 7.8 IIsup . Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.:..* easy %..b 0a.)a 7.c.b.b.8 VI 7a 7..(...)b . H <raAilian—<raAil uses .a.7 . 'b hard severe.1K.c. 'a severe..8 0: 0.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.b. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.0.c VIII . H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty..c )a.c..:b VII .b 7b.'.0 7.b.7b(7c 7. 7..'.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.* easy %.c 7a. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.K. hard severe.c 'a.

he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete. g.7. $ith objective haAards ever(present. %.. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings..* Commitment .0c 7. easy climb near the road. H I — A short. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. .atings. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation.)K4. all in a remote area.)K4. $ith little objective haAard.verything a grade VI has. . and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance..oman numerals. H V — A long climb in a remote setting. possibly $ith a haAardous descent.. -ossibly days to approach the climb.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 . H VII — .)K4.0d IL( IL IL ILJ .0a 7.)c 4a VIII 0) . or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. A difficult and involved approach and descent. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour.)c 4a 05 . H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.7. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day.0b 7.ating systems. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in . .)K4. $ith sustained technical climbing. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*.7. and more of it. 2ifficult physically and mentally. and the route might be prone to avalanche.7..e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent. his route is subject to objective haAards.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.. AI %alpine ice*.

A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. a. he pitch may be shorter. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. $ith places to rest. location. physically and mentally. but on featureless ice.atings. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. additional information may be needed about siAe. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. erratic $eather. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. An e"tremely tough pitch. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions.%0* Technica! . !hen planning mountain operations. H 7 — A long. strenuous pitch. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. H . re#uiring agility and creativity. — A froAen lake or stream bed. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. . echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice.

H If lost. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. H ?eep dry. during severe mountain storms. dry. Co2er an& Concea!ment . H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. c. %. put on dry clothing. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. types. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. and calm. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. but do not overdress. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise.b. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. H 2o not rush. H ?eep $arm. stay $arm.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. and amounts of precipitation. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. if possible. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm.

+oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. As in all operations. in depth. like observation. are easily e"cavated. sleet. such as volcanic tuff. and fog can limit visibility. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. /o$ever. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. . positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. /o$ever. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. In other areas. +ome rock types. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. are e"cellent at long ranges. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. a. In alpine environments. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced.!hen moving in the mountains. hail. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. dead space is a problem at short ranges. sno$. . rain. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. boulders. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. outcroppings. b. Conversely. heavy vegetation. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation.

Conditions greatly change $ith altitude.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. rainfall. b. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. . he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. a. If an une"pected $ind strikes. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. and $eather factors. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. especially in $inter.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. sno$ conditions. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. . and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. latitude. or a rise in temperature. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point.

2ue to the cold. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. he barometer usually drops 0. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. +ome mountains.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. b. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. conse#uently.c. At higher altitudes. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. the thinner. d. a. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. . In tropical regions. such as those found in desert regions. <ecause of this increased dryness. (eather Characteristics .ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere.

%0* 8o+ 9ressure. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. he higher in altitude. land masses. In order to understand this. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. ho$ it is being moved.1 millibars %mb*.::: feet. humidity %moisture content*.* -igh 9ressure. a.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. Bo$ pressure. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. and if it is being lifted or not. he higher the pressure. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. oceans. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. and the earth3s rotation.. air pressure %barometric pressure*. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. b. Associated $ith clear skies.:. %. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. the better the $eather $ill be. the lo$er the pressure. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. Associated $ith bad $eather. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. !ith lo$er air pressure.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . on the other .6 his layer reaches as high as ':. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas.

soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. . he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. or at high altitudes. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. c. c. <ecause of these funneling effects. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. a. and sinks to the earth3s surface. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. >sually. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs.hand.6 (in& In high mountains. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. =ormally. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. Above hot surfaces. b. Dn a $eather map. !ith increasing $ind strength. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. 2uring the $inter season. dense clouds fill the air. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever.

hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. e. Caritime -olar — cold. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. Caritime ropical — $arm. . has settled to the surface. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. f. Continental ropical — $arm. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. there are three prevailing $inds: %. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. $et air mass.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. due to the earth3s rotation. dry air mass. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. ropical — south of ):O north latitude.d. $et air mass. g. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. In the =orthern /emisphere. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. dry air mass. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds.

0 degrees &ahrenheit per . !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point.%.. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer.:: percent relative humidity. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6.:: percent relative humidity*. and so on*. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. fog. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. a.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. and thermometer. b. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. clouds are formed. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. $ind meter.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends.. sno$. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. rain. de$. . condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. the $armer the air. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. the more moisture it can hold.

8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. a. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. Clouds can be described in many $ays. it has no$here to go but up. +ince air masses $ill not mi".(. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. mid(. d. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. !hen temperatures are cold enough. and . &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. 6rographic 8i#ting. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . c. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass.(0*. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. hey can be classified by height or appearance. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). Cyc!onic 8i#ting. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. b.a. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation.7:: feet. Fronta! 8i#ting. . Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather.

Stratus C!ou&s. 3im ostratus C!ou&s.(1 and .('*. Cumu!us C!ou&s. Figure )-. Figure )-1.Figure )-). .* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures .. %.

he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. especially if the cloud is more than 1. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist.::: feet . +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation.Figure )-4. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds.

7!tostratus. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.thick. 7!tocumu!us. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. though usually hours a$ay. Figure )-6. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms.(7 and .7:: to 0:. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. .* b. especially if they are rising over time. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. Figure )-5.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds.::: feet thick. Cold clouds.()*. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather.

ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day.(4 and &igure .(5*. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. Cirrus. . produces a ring of light around the moon. c. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. As the storm approaches. at night. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. in a blue sky. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. humidity rises. !ith altostratus. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. Figure )-7. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. emperatures are $arm. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:.%.

%0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. signifying an increased production of ice crystals.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. d.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. . he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. As a result. %. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. ?no$n for their flat bases and . he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. releasing incredible amounts of energy. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. shaped like a comma. hey can be nearly straight. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. or seemingly all tangled together. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. %. Cirrostratus.::: feet.Figure )-". Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches.::: feet. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible.

vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. As the air rises. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them.distinct outlines. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. an artifact of erosion. damaging $inds. >nder favorable conditions. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. ho$ever. large hail. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. ice crystals dominate the composition. . fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. and tornadoes. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air.::: feet or higher.(8*. 9iven suitable conditions. . the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.

the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. >pon reaching the mountain top. e. and cools. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. is lifted up$ard.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. 6ther C!ou& Types. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. hey are orographic clouds. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. Cumu!onim us. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. and contrails.(. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . !ith continued descent. . If they gro$ and descend. %.Figure )-'. $arming as it descends. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. bad $eather can be e"pected.:*. Initially. /o$ever. lenticulars. similar to a 6flying saucer. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. stable air encounters a mountain. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. Dnce the air returns to its original height.

Figure )-)). Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover.. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure .Figure )-)*. Contrai!s. C!ou& =nterpretation. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather.(.*. especially if the sky is . f. 8inticu!ar.

cirrostratus. and stationary. (arm Front.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. it becomes a stationary front. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Dccasionally. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. altostratus. he four types of fronts are $arm. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. cirrostratus. cumulus. there . he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. occluded. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. 6cc!u&e& Front. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. and fog. b. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. c. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. Co!& Front. <ecause $arm air is less dense. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. Stationary Front. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. a. it is a $arm occlusion. d. . Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. cold. nimbostratus %producing rain*. being more dense than $arm air. and nimbostratus. to the local sky. Cold air. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. $ill force the $arm air up.covered $ith cumulus clouds.

a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every ..7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . sno$. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. clear. . his cooler. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. subarctic. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. Temperature =ormally. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. the temperature of the air drops 7. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. and precipitation*.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every .::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard.::: feet of elevation gain.. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. and mid(latitudes. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. b. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. <esides permitting rapid heating. a. Conse#uently. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. fog.::: feet of elevation gain. and heat loss through thermal radiation.. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. calm mornings.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. At high altitudes. due to convection currents. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. the temperature of the air drops 1.

. o be effective. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. if today $as hot and dry. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. >+=. herefore. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. are also helpful. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. temperature. the amount of data available. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast.* 9ersistence :etho&. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. b. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. a.. but more slo$ly %1. including >+A&. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. thermometer. . +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. $ind meter.0 degrees &ahrenheit per .c.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. or the =ational !eather <ureau.

(in& Spee&. assess speed to the nearest knot. bushes. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. Ideally. . c. are blo$ing. such as trees. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. Assess $ind speed in knots. (in& Direction. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. %0* If no anemometer is available. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. and clouds and precipitation. . his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. Aisi i!ity in :eters. and so forth. %. /o$ever. %'* 7na!og :etho&. &or e"ample.* If an anemometer is available. b. tents. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. estimate the speed in knots.%0* Tren&s :etho&. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. high( and lo$(pressure centers. a. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. this may not al$ays be the case. under changing conditions. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns.

%&or e"ample. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. total cloud cover is 'K5. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots.77 P 7 degrees C. &og. Cei!ing -eight. If clouds are not touching terrain. %. $Bamp!e4 '.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. then estimate to the best of your ability.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. heavy do$npours. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. Assess total cloud cover in eighths.5 times C plus 10. 9resent (eather. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm.* f. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.5 J 10 P '. colder temperatures. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . . g.77. 7 degrees C " . . degrees &. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . degrees & Q 10 " . Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer.d. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths.. Temperature. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather.. . e.* !ith a thermometer. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. hail. =ote if bases are above all terrain. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*.

Bo$ering cloud ceilings. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. h. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. Increase in precipitation.%0* !ithout a thermometer.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. 6 ser2e& (eather. assess the pressure trend. Changes in obstructions to visibility. %. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. i. Increasing cloud coverage. Carked cooler temperature changes. Carked $ind speed increases. !ith a barometer or altimeter. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. 9ressure Tren&. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. . he closer the isometric lines are. Carked increase in humidity. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. %. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. as $ell as an estimated temperature. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area.

or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. or e"cessive use. b. companions. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. %i2ouac Site. heavy e#uipment. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. and flooding %especially in gullies*. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. lightning.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. and poor judgment. Fa!!ing. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. . dehydration. e#uipment misuse*. bad $eather. such as lack of preparation. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. /umidity decreases. &alling can be caused by carelessness. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. tour.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. choice of route. over(fatigue. carelessness. $quipment. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. Increasing barometric pressure. age. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. a. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . c. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. Ep&ate. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. or as a combination %human trigger*. or other reasons. rope in. $ind. overe"ertion. climbing above one3s ability. j. a hold breaking a$ay. improper diet. avalanche run(out Aones. man(made %caused by an individual. If the possibility of falling e"ists. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. overestimating ability.

+pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall.::: pounds*. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. +leep $ell.ock.7:: feet*. 72a!anches. hanging glaciers and seracs. b. e. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. sno$. if at all possible. d. a. At high altitudes %especially over ). Aisi i!ity. &og. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. lightning. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. and so on. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. rain. it is best to rope up. <u!!ies. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. If you must cross these danger areas.* f. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. As this slope increases . or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. Cre2asses. g. endurance and concentration is reduced. acclimatiAe slo$ly.ock#a!!. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. .efer to paragraph . storms. >se a route sketch and march table. Avoid. %. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. darkness. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. icefalls.: kilograms %about 0. . A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. 7!titu&e. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. rockfalls. c. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. stay hydrated. If you must move under these conditions. If ice is in the gully. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol.

Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear.::: feet. b. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks.from 07 to 1: degrees. herefore. violent. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. as a glacier makes a bend. but dehydration is of greater concern. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. shallo$ depressions. Bightning is fre#uent. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. and a bluish light %+t. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. isolated trees. a. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. A clear. Bike$ise. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. d. fi"ed $ire installations. c. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. . crackling. and rock needles. . Above appro"imately 5. e. %. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. cracks that guide $ater. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. hair standing on end. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. the force #uadruples. ridges. +eek shelter around dry.: kilometers apart. . shallo$ overhangs. rock $alls.* Avoid peaks. haAardous icefalls can be formed. cracks filled $ith earth. humming of metal objects. caves*. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*.

+#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries.* . If already rappelling. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*.0 to .%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. and debris being blo$n about. % able .(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. $indburn. If half $ay up the rock face. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. and sno$.5 inches@ ho$ever. even if overcast. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. i. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. h. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. g. the sno$ #uickly melts. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. j. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. rain. f. If it is sno$ing. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. 2uring and after rain.::(meter rise in altitude. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. ."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. &or each . $hich may bury the trail. 2rink plenty of fluids.

+lopes as gentle as . but may occur on concave slopes. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist.Ta !e )-.* S!ope 7ng!e. %1* S!ope 7spect. %. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees.7 degrees have avalanched. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep.. a. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. S!ope Sta i!ity.

%'* <roun& Co2er.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. Sno+ 9its. %.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. +ustained $inds of . Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. %0* 9recipitation. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter .* Temperature. the potential for avalanche is high. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. $arm days. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. Various factors trigger avalanches. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. heavy e#uipment. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. %Dn at least one occasion.sunny. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. e"plosions. . %.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. Dn grassy slopes or scree. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. At temperatures above freeAing. c. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. Triggers. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. %'* (eight. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. %1* (in&. %7* Ai ration. b. -assing helicopters. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. .

isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. If the block is still holding up. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. smooth the face $ith a shovel. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. place the other foot on the block. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. o conduct the test. and so on.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. d. Dnce the pit is complete. to the ground.pit across the fall line. o isolate the rear of the column. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. through all the sno$.utschblock test. Dnce above. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. %. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. then t$ice. s#uat once. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. %1* Conduct a . =e"t. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test.

: degrees Celsius %. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. . Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche.during the $inter sno$ season. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. &or normal density. %b* As slabs become harder. 9rotecti2e :easures. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. Although any avalanche can kill you. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. settled sno$. +lab release is rapid. Dther measures include: . he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. Barge avalanches of this type. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. d. a drop in temperature of . %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer.

far from the bottom of slopes. 2eploy avalanche cord. $hich is al$ays the best choice. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. climb to the side of the avalanche path. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. . Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. >se them for lunch and rest stops. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone.oute Se!ection. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. f. . and not directly up the center. %. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. avoid moving during these periods. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. If you must traverse. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. -repare to discard e#uipment. ridges. e. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. . %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. -ut your hood on. %0* <roup Sa#ety. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. %1* ake advantage of dense timber.%.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. %. as $ell as protect your spine. 2etach ski runa$ay cords.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps.* 9ersona! Sa#ety.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching.

* 2iscard e#uipment. do not fight it. hold your breath. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. &I9/ &D. %)* ry to rela". %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. shut your mouth.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. no one can hear you scream. %. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. they $ould avoid the avalanche. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. %1* Soun&s. ID>. BI&. g. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. . Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks.. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. If you feel your feet touch the ground. If you feel yourself about to pass out. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. Sur2i2a!. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche.%0* Fracture 8ines.* :ountain 8i2ing . and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. and the body temperature is lo$ered. their pulse rate declines. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen.

/yperventilation and the cool. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. shelter considerations. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. locating $ater. perspiration. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. #ormal activities $navigation. Dne #uart of $ater. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. &luids lost through respiration. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. health haAards. or the . 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. fire building. raining should include: psychological preparation. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. communications. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. a. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues.(4)*.

+oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources.e#uivalent. d. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. c. springs. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. . hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. .mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. b. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. and a loss of . &ruits. If the $ater supply is insufficient. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. e. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. physical activity must be reduced. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. ho$ever. -urification must be accomplished. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. Conserve $ater for drinking. +no$. rain. severe cramping may result. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. mountain streams. juices.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity.0 #uarts %.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. thirst should be satisfied in increments. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable.

!ater is scarce above the timberline. . !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. high mountain areas freeAe. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. a $atering party should be employed. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0.drinking $ater. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition.(4)*. defense*. f. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. a. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. may be used for other purposes such as bathing.'. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. After sundo$n. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. assembly area. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted.::: feet*. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. If possible. precautions must be taken. b. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . but other$ise not dangerous. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. !ater that is unfit to drink. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater.

amino acids. and cheese. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. Df the total daily caloric intake. Cain sources of fats are meats. vitamins. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. nuts. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats.7'(pound man. resulting from digestion of protein. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. %0* Fats. is 5 ounces for a . and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. Dther foods such as cereals. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. %. eggs. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. energy. he amino acids. and carbohydrates. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. and minerals. poultry. fiber. milk. and meats. hese food components provide energy. butter. fish. vegetables. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. milk. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. metabolic changes. regardless of physical activity. eggs.* 9rotein. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen.of cold rations. . Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. and legumes also provide amino acids. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. c. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. or milk proteins. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. and loss of appetite. fats. cheese. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. he minimum daily protein re#uirement.

Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. especially if this period is to e"ceed .: days. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. vegetables. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. and ?. fruits*. vegetables. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. %7* Cinerals. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. vegetables. depending on the soldier. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. . Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. a balanced diet is a necessity. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. iron. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins.. phosphorous.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. %. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. 2. and fruit. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. and Ainc. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. %'* Aitamins. d. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. vitamin supplements should be considered. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . and meats. .* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. In the form of glucose. =utritionally. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. . fruits. $hich are found in cereals.%1* Car ohy&rates.

the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed.. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. stoves. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. and hot chocolate are diuretics. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . . >se stoves and heat . the metabolism may not provide enough heat.$orks.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. %About '. . and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. metal containers. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. %1* . Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. and chocolate. shortness of breath. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. and cider should also be considered. candies. Carbohydrates.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. At higher elevations.s $ith breakfast bars. fruits. thus releasing heat. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. cramps. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. Commanders may consider supplementing C. juices. herefore. tea..7:: calories for garrison activity. marked. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. o conserve fuel. cereal bars. are important in maintaining energy levels.::(pound man*. the cooking time may be doubled. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. juices. and illness. po$dered milk. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. /ot beverages of soup. and be eaten hot or cold. !hen cooking. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible. +ince coffee. fires.

he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. %7* Certain drugs. and eyelids. ahkios. In freeAing $eather. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. nose. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. medications. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. As all missions are tactical. no trace of a unit should be detected. herefore. perspiration.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. %.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. 9ersona! -ygiene. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. garbage should be burned or deep buried. alcohol. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. hydration. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. If possible. his is especially important in the high mountains. !hen operating in areas . a. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. and judgment of soldiers. and burial sites. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. mainly during periods of cold $eather. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing.

If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. If laundering of clothing is difficult. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. blisters. $hich may cause blisters. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. digging latrines is usually difficult. dried. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. !henever changing socks. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. &eet should be $ashed daily. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. it can . %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold.$here resupply is not possible. cracks. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. and discoloration. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. the soldier in a designated. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. and kept as dry and clean as possible. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. b. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. Sanitation. If latrines are constructed. but must be #uickly dried. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. If regular foot $ashing is impossible.6 +ince $aste freeAes. In rocky or froAen ground. In tactical situations. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles.

arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. Altitude illness is common here.*. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain .'. Areas above . $aste may be covered $ith stones.::: feet. Coderate altitude is from 7.::: to 5. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. he e"pectation that freshly deployed.4. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed.be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7.::: to . arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. and training of soldiers. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. /ere. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained.::: to . /o$ever. employment of the local population may be advantageous. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. Above 5. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic.5. In rocky areas above the timberline.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. $here altitude illness is the rule. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond .::: feet. .::: feet. /igh altitude e"tends from 5.*.5. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. conditioning.::: feet.::: to 5. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*.'. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. Very high altitude is the region from . high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt.::: feet %high elevation*.'.::: feet. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations.::: feet and ending at . starting at about 5. At these altitudes.

Boss of appetite. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. . a. b.'. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated.4. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). /eadache. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. . 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. 2eterioration of memory. operational unit.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation.:.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.0.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms.apid ascent to elevations of . en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).'.apid ascent to .0 to .7:: feet causes severe. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months.::: feet*. nutrition and physical activity it is about . .5 percent may have severe symptoms. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. Irregular breathing.::: to .::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . +lurred speech. +leep disturbances. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration.::: feet. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals.apid ascent to . Increased irritability in some individuals. the rate of ascent. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations.

>nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. herefore.+. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . >. and enemy situation. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache.unacclimatiAed personnel.+. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness.+. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations.. a. -riorities of training must be established. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . As $ith all military operations. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. environment.

Additionally. food. if in a $inter environment. >nits can leapfrog. c. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. . these drugs are diuretics. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. $ith the unit. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. mission. and rest must be considered as priorities. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. $ater purification supplies. and. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. a unit should ascend at a rate of .* Above 5. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*.::: feet per day. time to ac#uire $ater.::: feet. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel..::: to 0. taking an e"tended rest period. !ater.

%'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. f. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. and special e#uipment loads. A different group of muscles are used. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. $hile carrying D. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. $hich must be developed and hardened. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. climbing. his conditions the back and legs. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. . the soldier3s .%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. he better the physical condition of the soldier.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. and calisthenics. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. e. d. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. . developing a sense of insecurity and fear. his increases the soldier3s endurance. At the same time. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. the metabolism becomes more efficient. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent.

. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. hese include sprains. breathing management. arms. . abdomen. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. and trench foot*. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. lungs. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. strains. hypothermia. . and mountaineering skills are realiAed. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. As $ith any other injuries. frostbite. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. abrasions. to the point of instinctive reaction. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. fractures. metabolism. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. personnel can still become injured %sprains. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. legs.epetitive practice. back. conditioning. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. g. contusions and fractures. strains. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development.capacity for e"ertion is increased. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. After acclimatiAation. and circulatory support. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. >pon deploying to high elevations. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. he heart rate.

Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather.. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. 2ue to rough terrain.:: and . So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. 2o not pop blisters. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. he skin may be $arm to the touch. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. Immediate first aid is given on site. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. %1* o treat sunburn. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. and seek medical attention. If blisters do break. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. fever. In severe cases chills. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. $ash thoroughly. and headaches may occur. burning. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. %. bandage. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. a. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal.7::. . and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days.* Contributing factors include fair skin. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. Sun urn. he .

ice.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. %'* o prevent sunburn. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. b.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. %&or e"ample. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. -roper sunglasses should provide .* 2uring sustained activity. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. Administer pain medication if needed. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. .7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T .* In an emergency. an +-& of . $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. red.+. Sno+ !in&ness.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. %.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. and $ater. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. Avoid rubbing the eyes. %Currently. If still painful. the >. %1* o treat sno$blindness. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark.

rest.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. /o$ever. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . dehydration. move. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. . and nutrition.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. +imple tasks take longer to perform. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. and immersion foot. a. and fight in $inter conditions. b. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. personnel. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. dissemination. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite.0. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. but freeAing temperatures are not. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur.*. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur.

he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. (in& chi!! chart. %0* . %'* 7m ient Temperature. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor.-). he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries.ace. &or e"ample. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. c.Figure . <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. %1* <eographic 6rigin. %.

accumulation of perspiration. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced.6.8. 6—Dverheating.danger Aone or beyond. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. he lo$er the $ind chill. Avoid overheating. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. %5* C!othing. D—2ry.D. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. • • • . he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. in mind. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. %4* Terrain. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. therefore. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. %)* Type o# :ission. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. !et clothing loses insulation value. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. ?eep dry.

. . %. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. %. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. .%8* :oisture. %. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. age is not a significant factor. %. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold.4* .1* Concomitant =n>ury.7* 3utrition.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. d.:* Dehy&ration. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. %.* 7ge. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. %. Individuals must retain their body fluids. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken.0* Fatigue.a&ica! Changes in the (eather. %. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. especially in higher elevations. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. %. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration.

* . Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. convection. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. %.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements.a&iation. or evaporation."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. f. conduction. e. -erform emergency first aid. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. %0* Con&uction. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. and careful. . %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. . +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. Dn cold days. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. <ody heat may be lost through radiation.%. deliberate.

%a* Symptoms. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. %0* Dehy&ration. administer $ater. shortness of breath. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. !ind chill is convection cooling. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. g. cold skin. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. fear.* Shock. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. . $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury.%1* Con2ection. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. his condition may digress into incoherence. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss.levate the back and head. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. pain. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. and e"cessive thirst. his is usually caused by . %. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. o treat shock. rapid and faint pulse. Clothing that ventilates. %'* $2aporation. and loss of blood. or feet. unconsciousness. insulates. Any illness or injury can produce shock. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. %b* 'reatment. s$eating. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. . and possibly death. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. slo$er heart beat.

higher temperature. At high altitudes.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. rapid heartbeat. mental sluggishness. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. /o$ever. fainting. headache. dry mouth. and unconsciousness. If the stomach is cold. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. upset stomach. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. lack of appetite. he is probably dehydrated. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. tiredness. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. diAAiness. Cold causes fre#uent urination. in fact. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. %a* Contributing +actors. the air is dry. hey may. o distinguish bet$een them. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . %b* Symptoms. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. decreased amounts of urine being produced. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration.

Accidental immersion in $ater. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. 2iarrhea. %a* Contributing +actors. %1* -ypothermia. -oor nutrition. . /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. Change in $eather. Allo$ the victim to rest. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. In advanced cases. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. /igh $inds. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. %c* 'reatment. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. 2ecreased physical activity. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

are prone to second attacks. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions.):*. $hich is a diuretic. is planned for every 1. e. and death results. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. >nconsciousness. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. If untreated. $armth. Crackling.0: to . given orally can also be effective. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. rapid heartbeat %pulse . and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . reatment of /A-. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient.::: to 1.• -rogressive shortness of breath.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells.. • • d. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. using mannitol could be fatal.::: feet of altitude gained. A rest day. rest. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. /A-.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. if left untreated. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. /A-. may become irreversible and cause death. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects.::: to 0. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. • • • . It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. &urosemide %Basi"*. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. hydration. . Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. and o"ygen.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. is prevented by good nutrition.

inability to concentrate. /A-. convulsions. a. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur.apid descent and medical attention. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. +ymptoms of /AC.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. Beft untreated. -reventive measures include good eating habits. $armth. hallucinations. and /AC.est. include mild personality changes. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. he main symptom of /AC. and unconsciousness. -revention of /AC. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. is a severe headache. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. and lack of coordination. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. . maintaining hydration. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. confusion... . reatment for /AC. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. c. can cause death. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. vomiting. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. stupor.. . hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. b. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. +upplemental o"ygen. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. headaches. decrease in urination. paralysis. coma. may occur in e"perienced. is the same as for /A-. immediate descent is mandatory. d. /AC.

'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. both cerebral and pulmonary. and /AC. edema. . Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. therefore. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. . 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations.rovided all tactical concerns are met. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. cause increased proteins in the plasma. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. occurs. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. . cools down and heats up differently. &rom this. or the fluid portion of the blood. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. move faster. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure.

Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. /o$ever. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. as $ell as insulation against the cold. c. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. a. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold.*. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. he inner boot provides support. he outer .he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. Foot+ear Currently. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. %. b.*. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. a lace( up configuration.

a. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. .egardless of climatic conditions. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. socks provide cushioning for the foot. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. develops hypothermia or frostbite.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. ski bindings. he is. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. As a system.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. the insulation layers. Figure 1-). uncomfortable and. if $orn correctly. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. %. at best. remove e"cess moisture. Socks. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. !hen $orn improperly. !hen clothing is $orn properly. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. . and the outer most garments. at $orst.

Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. If the user is $earing V< boots. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. &or the most part. he . En&er+ear. he primary material in this product is polyester. b. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. =nsu!ating 8ayers. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. In colder environments. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. %a* In severe $et conditions. c. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. . Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. /o$ever.

3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. t$igs. as $ell as mud. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . he . <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. d. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system.. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. 6uter 8ayers. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$.C!C+ correctly. and stones. e. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind.Figure 1-. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. <aiters.

Three types o# gaiters. hook(pile tape. . $ill need to be locally purchased. in most cases. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. f.. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. . Figure 1-1. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. -an& (ear. and snaps. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot.ven during the best climatic conditions. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. %. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed.C!C+ and.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves.

&or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. =atural fibers.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area.Figure 1-4. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. %. predominately $ool. as $ell as replacement liners for both. man( made fibers are preferred. . Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. -ea&+ear. g. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . -an& +ear.

$ye+ear. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. neck. -e!mets. Figure 1-6. -e!mets. &or e"treme cold. . he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. Figure 1-5. his covers the head. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. a balaclava can be added. i. !hichever helmet is selected. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. h. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet.

as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . $ebbing. Figure 1-7. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected.urope. . &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.urope %C. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . have been combined to make combined . !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. and harnesses. cord.uropean norm %. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope.uropean economy. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. &rance. Community . heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. and comprises several commissions.uropean norm %C. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. . <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es.=*. :aintenance o# C!othing. j.=* and C.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. It is based in -aris.

2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. impact force. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. (e ing an& S!ings. $hich is. A static rope has very little stretch. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. and elongation. abrasion resistance.(mm rope. a standard . he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. essentially. called slings or runners. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. %.opes an& Cor&.egardless of the rope chosen. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. &or most military applications.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and ..7( or . factors affecting rope selection include intended use. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. Figure 1-". Kernmant!e construction..* . it should be >IAA certified. he . perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. Its ability to stretch up to .. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. . Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. .:. and is best used in rope installations. b. . hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an .a. If used for -rusik knots.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient.

&or most military applications. Figure 1-'.uses for these simple pieces are endless.) inch. -arnesses.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. the rope. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. and have less bulk than the tied version.unners are predominately made from either 8K. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. c. . %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. inch. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. Tie& or se+n runners. more durable. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration.0 inches.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope. are usually lighter. carabiners. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying.K.) inch. .)(inch or . . and anchors. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . $hich is stronger. and 0' inches.. . %. and . ' inches. . !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra.

At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. !ith the remaining $ebbing. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. %1* . they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive.:*. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to .:*. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. referred to as a seat harness. . $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(.is unavailable. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. %. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. !hile these harnesses are safer. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses.:*. his type of harness. are more restrictive. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. &itted properly. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(.

Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them.*. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. a. Figure 1-)*. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. his rope. given other options. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. . his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber.. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. great care should be . Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. Cara iners. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. he oval. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. !hen using a carabiner. +teel is still $idely used. the 2(shaped. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. and the protection attaching him to the mountain.

the load is . 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(.0*.. Figure 1-). %. Figure 1-)). <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use.

$hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. specifically the locking version. and length %&igure 1(. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. 9itons. Figure 1-)1. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. and angle. . he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. and $ith the gate open. vertical cracks. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. hey are made of malleable steel. b. and angles. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. the blade and eye are aligned. hey are described by their thickness. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. %1* . he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. $afer.itons. Aarious pitons. %. horiAontal.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate.* 1ertical .egardless of the type chosen. hardened steel. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. design.1*. or other alloys. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. Dn vertical pitons. along its minor a"is. hese pitons are used in flush.

-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . c. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade.%0* Horizontal . he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %.(inch s#uare.itons.itons. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. flush cracks. hey are small and fit into thin. ledges. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset.itons. %)* Angle . . 9iton -ammers. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. %4* 3ong .'*. %'* 2nife 3lade . hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. shallo$ cracks. hese pitons are used in flush. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. Dn horiAontal pitons. hese pitons are used in shallo$. hese are used in direct(aid climbing.>. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. shallo$ cracks. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. $ebbing.itons. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. or leather is used to . or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality .itons.itons. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction.5 centimeters $ide. %1* Wafer . horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. hey are designed to bite into thin. metal. or flakes. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er.

he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. to be used as anchors. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. 9iton hammer.7 centimeters long and $eigh . Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. into the rock.7*. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. Figure 1-)4. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks.0 to 07 ounces. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. Chocks. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. d. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. . <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself.

Chocks. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . $hen used in the camming mode.4* provide convenient. e. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*.)*. f. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. Three-point camming &e2ice. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. Figure 1-)6. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in.Figure 1-)5. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.

ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. Chock 9icks. Figure 1-)7. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. they can be purchased or homemade. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. g. .5*. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture.semi(rigid point of attachment. hese are placed #uickly and easily. saving time and effort. . Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. Cade from thin metal.

Figure 1-)". corrosion.8*. chips. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. and e"tremely noisy. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. $hich is time(consuming. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. hese re#uire a hammer. . brands. dirt. $hich is driven into the rock. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. h. and $eights. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. %. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. and moisture. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. . e"hausting. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. Dnce emplaced. %o!ts. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. Chock picks. <urrs."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. bolt driver. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. and drilling anchor. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. <ecause of this re#uirement.

* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay.Figure 1-)'. %e!ay De2ices. %. the tuber. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. .egardless of the belay device choosen. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. i. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. . %o!ts an& hangers. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot.

Descen&ers.). j. . 7scen&ers. k.*. Figure 1-. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner.Figure 1-. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. &or difficult vertical terrain.*. t$o ascenders $ork best. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. &or lo$er angle movement. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. one ascender is sufficient. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Figure-eights.

different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. light$eight. A pulley should be small. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. 9u!!eys. froAen $aterfalls(can . glaciers.Figure 1-. and strong. Figure 1-. l. &or best results. 9u!!ey. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. 7scen&ers.. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided.. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope.1.

%b* he head of the a". It can be made of fiberglass. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. he adAe. a. hollo$ aluminum. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. head %pick and adAe*. =ce 7B. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a".no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. is perpendicular to the shaft. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. step cutting. . he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. %. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. therefore safer for mountaineering. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. belays. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. direct(aid climbing. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. used for chopping. probing. self(arrest. can have different configurations. and spike %&igure 1(0'*.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. anchors. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user.

It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. =ce aB an& ice hammers. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. inch of front point protruding. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . Crampons. =ce -ammer. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe.b. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. c. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*.4. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. loose ends should be trimmed. Figure 1-. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. . . $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.

as its name implies. %0* he rigid crampon. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. but can be used on less vertical terrain. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. Crampons. is rigid and does not fle". It is designed to be used $ith soft. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. %.Figure 1-. fle"ible boots. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself.5.

. =ce Scre+s. %.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. . he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength. • • • ype I is .6. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. Figure 1-. d.mountaineering boots. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads..igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. =ce scre+s. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from .4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$.

=ce piton. =ce 9itons. ho$ever. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. . hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. If any cracks or bends are noticed. e. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . bends. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. flanged sides. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. hey can. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. f. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe.7. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. hey are available $ith bent faces.' centimeters. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. Figure 1-. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. the scre$ should be turned in. and fi"ed cables.

for removing froAen obstacles. he picket should be inspected for bends.::: kilograms. g. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. and other deformities. and for cutting . Sno+ 9icket. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. he ends should be filed smooth. It can be used in step cutting. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. in shelter construction. broken $ire strands. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. movement. a. broken $ire strands. hey can be angled or (section stakes. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. If bent or cracked.. cracks. Sno+ Sa+. bivouacs. If any cracks. Figure 1-. the picket should be turned in for replacement.". or slippage is noticed. and carrying gear. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . chips.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. $ands*. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. mushrooming ends.

folding. !ands are used to identify routes. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. $eather conditions %and visibility*. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. shelter construction. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. If the sa$ is beyond repair. step cutting. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. A file can repair most defects. 72a!anche rescue equipment. bends. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. he handle should be inspected for cracks. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he blade should be inspected for rust. caches. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. and missing or dull teeth. it should be turned in. and stability. and removing obstacles. he flag should be inspected for tears. and burrs. burrs. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. If the shovel is beyond repair. b. (an&s. he handle should be telescopic. bends. and stability. security to the shaft. and deformities. bends. $arping. the $ands should be replaced. cracks. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. to . bends. light$eight aluminum alloy. Dn folding models. rust.sno$ stability test pits. !ands are . and turns on sno$ and glaciers.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. number of haAards identified. and number of teams in the climbing party. fading.. crevasses. frays. sno$(bridges. c. Sno+ Sho2e!. d. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. If any defects are discovered. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. and discoloration. it should not be used. the hinge and nuts should be secure. he handle should be inspected for cracks.

he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe.robe. %. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. %0* . %.'. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. . hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode.Figure 1-. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters.* Avalanche . 9acks. hese are small. e. 72a!anche rescue equipment. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing.

A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. and are simple and light$eight. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. and butane are the common fuels used. factors that should be considered are $eight. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. %. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. he fly protects against . %.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. !hen choosing a stove. and materials. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. fuel availability. Sto2es. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. kerosene. $eights.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. !hite gas. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. and its reliability. the better it $ill be. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. Tents. g. more harsh environment. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. !hen selecting a tent. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. f. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome.

+no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. and carrying heavy packs. !hen carrying heavy packs. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. and become long and rigid. j. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. they create the shape of the tent. <efore using a ne$ tent. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. connect. Ski po!es. +ome ski poles are . h. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. Skis. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. i. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. sno$shoeing. Sno+shoes. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing.

9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . to the one(person sko$. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. %. !hichever sled is chosen.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. -ea&!amps. . Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. especially $hen hauling fuel. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. a component of the . A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. Figure 1-1*. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel.* !hen choosing a headlamp. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es.egardless of the siAe. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. +leds vary greatly in siAe. on some models. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. l.:(man arctic tent system. A flashlight can provide light. S!e&s. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. k. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. . Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands.

or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. polypropylene top. sunblock and lip protection. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. nickel(cadmium. the e"ception being hot. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. -ocket items should include a knife. b. 9ersona! <ear. compass and or altimeter. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC.conditions. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. fire starting material. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. $ater. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. Stan&ar& <ear. or jungle mountain environments. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. foul $eather shells. fuel. $ith canteens. Caution4 Cotton clothing. $quipment 9acking . first aid kits. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. sunglasses. magaAine pouches. pressure bandage. s$eater. notebook $ith pen or pencil. food procurement material. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. Dbviously. or lithium batteries. desert. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. food. $orn on the body.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. !hen the light is being packed. and $ater procurement material.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. stoves. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. climbing e#uipment. map. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. . $histle. a. if needed. ropes.

appelling gloves. Canteen. casualty evacuation. Carabiners. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. . Climbing rope. Day 9ack. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. or s$eater. Cold $eather hat or scarf. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants.appelKbelay device. +urvival kit. Crampons. e. >tility cord%s*. &irst aid kit. d.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. or poncho. +ling rope or climbing harness. rain suit.c. one per climbing team. one per climbing team. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. Climbing rack. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. &lashlight or headlamp. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . In the event of an injury. pile top. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. Climbing rack. . 9loves. Climbing rope. Ice a". or unplanned bivouac."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. Bocking carabiner%s*. one per climbing team. . :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. . one per climbing team. he carries a light day pack. =onlocking carabiners.

+#uad stove.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. $ashing. injury. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. blouse. %. Altimeter. boots.S. and licking is best. %0* Compass. &or lip protection. f. hat. +leeping mat. +ide shields. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather.* 5ap. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. or navigational error. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. &uel bottle. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof.7 or higher. pants.:: percent of ultraviolet light. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. %7* ()tra Clothing. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. s$eater or fleece jacket. The Ten $ssentia!s. includes socks. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. gloves or mittens. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . under$ear. . . and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging.• • • • +leeping bag. hey should filter 87 to . sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. and or 6. %'* ()tra +ood. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team.

"tra pair of heavy socks. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. and blisters. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. gauAe pads. %4* +irst aid 2it. cutting the $ind. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. a broken bone. . • • • • • . sharp tools."tra hats or balaclavas. butterfly bandages. the mountain environment— steep. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. small adhesive bandages. 2ecentraliAed operations."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. serious sprain. $orking around the camp. and employing $eapons systems. .ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. . scissors. . adhesive tape. -ressure dressings. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. moleskin. elastic compression $rap. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. herefore. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. . Ciniature flashlights can be used. cleanser. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. $hich is important $hile climbing. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter.%a* . %b* o back up foul $eather gear. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. &inally. but commercially available headlamps are best.

but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. /eavy(duty thread. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. and canned heat all $ork. %. -atches. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. %0* 7ce A). Candles.ighter. heat tabs. %. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. 2uct tape. as $ell as for stream crossings. . hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. %1* 4epair 2it. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. harness. %8* 5atches and . A$l and or needles. g. +afety pins. Bighters are handy for starting fires.:* 2nife. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source.%5* +ire Starter. Dther repair items as needed. or pack. Cord and or $ire.* Water and Water Containers. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations.

Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. among others. if not carried in hand. food. a. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. d. rope. . As much as possible. and be securely . %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. $ater. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. In most cases. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. and $ater procurement. e. <y packing the lighter. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. the load is held high and close to the back. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan.%'* =nsect .epe!!ent. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. b. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. more compressible items %sleeping bag.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. nearer the shoulder blades. e"tra ammunition* on top. climbing hard$are. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. c. he ice a". emergency bivouac shelter.

Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots .K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. 9rasping the rope firmly.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. he rope may be given a . or building various installations. . . a.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. and knots later during deployment. f. If not. rappelling. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . t$ists. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. When climbing. meter from the end $ith one hand. grasp the rope appro"imately . bring the hands together forming a loop. management techni&ues. and then tied in place. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. and 0nots. his is repeated. :ountain Coi!.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. care and maintenance procedures. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. o start a mountain coil. serious in!ury may occur.fastened. until the rope is completely coiled. . . as stated above.

$rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm.%. doubling it and placing it under the flap. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. b. securing the coil. -ull the running end of the bight tight.* Figure 4-1. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. %utter#!y Coi!.* In finishing the mountain coil. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. :ountain coi!. slung across the chest. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. . >ncoil the last loop and. using this length of the rope.

nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. o start the double butterfly. . . Coil alternating from side to side %left to right.Figure 4-4. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. %. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. !ith the bight in the left hand. and hold the center in one hand. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. . dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding.* Coiling. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. -lace the doubled rope over the head. %utter#!y coi!. In this configuration .

%utter#!y coi! tie-o##. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off.* Figure 4-5. . -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. ensuring no kinks are in the rope.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. c. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. sling rope.0(inch bight is left. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter .ope. !rap that bight around the coil. Cake three or more $raps. . or for storage. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. 2ress it do$n tightly.

-ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. and so on. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. %. =e"t.e. A smooth follo$ through is essential. !ith the left hand. . the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. A slight t$ist of the $rist. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. Thro+ing the . Dnce stacked. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. hro$ up and out. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. feeding it to a lead climber.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. a. !hen the rope is needed for use.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end.D-. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground.

+ .b.0. bights. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations.0. Class III—middle rope knots. /olding one $orking end in each hand. Class II—anchor knots. back feed. c.. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. Anchor. adjustments must be made. Tying the Knot. It is a joining knot.1.. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance.. he stronger the $ind. !ith e"perience and practice. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. up and out to$ard the horiAon. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. and stack the rope properly as described above. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. he variety of knots. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. Aiming just above the horiAon. and hitches is almost endless. In a strong cross $ind. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. bends. and Class IV—special knots. . Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. a. + ... he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. + .. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment.

%0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope.'. Square knot.. b.. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope.+ .. Tying the Knot. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. a. . Checkpoints. + . Figure 4-6. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. It is a joining knot.. %.

-ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. b. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . standing part of the opposing rope.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. Tying the Knot. It is a joining knot.. %. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. Checkpoints. + .0. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together..nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. %1* . .+ . a. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot.1.

Insert the $orking end %+ .+ ... Dou !e #isherman’s knot.* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + . and 0*.. !ith the $orking end of one rope. b. four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.1.. %..'.. $hich contains the standing part %+ . tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . Checkpoints... %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight.-+ . Figure 4-". %1* .*. . !ith the $orking end of the other rope. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.0. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. + ..* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. + ..

+ . + ... + . Figure-eight en&. . Tying the Knot.0.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers.. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. ... a. + . + . race the original knot to the standing end. 2ress the knot do$n.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end.1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. . Figure 4-'.'.7... !ith the other hand.Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.

+ .0. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. + .. + . &eed the other end back through the knot. a. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. It is also called a ring bend.:*.1..b.. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. or tape knot. Tying the Knot.. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. %. Checkpoints. overhand retrace. ..

* here are t$o overhand knots. %0* here is no slack in the knot. %. a.. Checkpoints. b.. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. It is an anchor knot.. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. + . .Figure 4-)*. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. Tying the Knot.. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. (ater knot. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. one retracing the other.*.

* he bight is locked into place by a loop. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. %. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight. + .+ . and bring it back onto itself.1. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %o+!ine knot.. Figure 4-))..each through the loop and pull up a bight..7. Checkpoints.. =o$ dress the knot do$n.'. .0. + . b.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . . + . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

0*. .etrace /. 2ress the knot do$n.. Figure 4-). Checkpoints. . Figure-$ight . + ... b.. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact. . and one in the front*.'. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. + ..oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.. a..0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. Tying the Knot. .oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. + .eroute& Figure-$ight0 .. %.his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.epeat + .1. It is an anchor knot. distributing the load over the anchor.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. + . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.0.

!ith the $orking end.). leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. and route the $orking end through the loop. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. + . he finished knot is dressed loosely.'. ..7. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. a... + . /o$ever.. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. + . + .he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.1. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. + .0.1*. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. + . $rap the $orking end around the standing part. by tying the knot in a retrace. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope...emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. . it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.. Tying the Knot..

/old rope in both hands. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. Checkpoints %. palms do$n $ith hands together. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.Figure 4-)1. . + . %.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. Tying the Knot.. b. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.'*..* Middle of the Rope. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters.. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. a. depending on ho$ it is tied. Figure-eight retrace.

<ring the $orking end up and out$ard. !ith the right hand. grasp the $orking end. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. %0* End of the Rope.. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. assume that the anchor is horiAontal... + . 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.0.'. /old the standing end in the left hand. + . and bring it in$ard.0. reach under the horiAontal anchor.'.. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. !ith the right hand. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop..+ . 2ress do$n the knot. + ..1.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. + . + . he knot is tied.1. .. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.. /old the loop in the left hand.

%0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. and place it over the heel $rap. b.. a. + . %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. ..).Figure 4-)4. %.4.. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.. !hen tying this knot. + . (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.7. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. palm. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.. ake up the slack from the anchor... and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. + . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. + .0.7*. It is a middle rope knot. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.. Checkpoints. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap.'. + . +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + . + ..1. Tying the Knot. C!o2e hitch. and fingertip.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.

2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. b. (ireman’s knot. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. a. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. %. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. ..)*.+ . + .* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. Figure 4-)5.5.8. It is a middle rope knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.

Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.. the tail and the bight must be together. Figure 4-)6. + .. !hen dressing the knot do$n. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.'.+ . %. it lays in$ard. Cake one $rap around the palm. b. !ith the $rap thus formed. + .* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.0.1... tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. .. Directiona! #igure-eight.. Checkpoints. + .

. + . + . + .4. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .. It is a middle rope knot. + . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. ie an overhand knot on a bight... 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.'. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. forming t$o loops. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.4*.. Tying the Knot.7.. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. + .%0* he tail and bight must be together. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.)..0.. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n.. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. a.1. + .

form an .. %o+!ine-on-a. + . . T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.ight. Checkpoints.Figure 4-)7.5. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. a.. Tying the Knot. b. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %..* It is a middle rope knot.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. >sing a doubled rope.

Tying the Knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. + . and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. /old the bight $ith the left hand. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. %. 2ress the knot do$n. + .1.+ .8*. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.'.0. Checkpoints. a. b. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. It is a middle of the rope knot. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. + .. !ith the $orking end. ..7.. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.. Figure 4-)". T+o-!oop #igure-eight.

* he loop is the desired siAe. form a loop in rope %standing part*. Figure-eight !oop.. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. Checkpoints.. + . %... b. Tying the Knot. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. . It is a specialty knot. + .0. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.+ . %1* he knot is tightly dressed.. 2ress the knot tightly. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.1. !ith the bight as the $orking end. Figure 4-)'. a.

*: + . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted..*. + . &orm a complete round turn in the rope. and place it over the long rope.1. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . + . .epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.each do$n through the ... ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. + . -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. 2ouble the short rope. Figure 4-. >sing an arm3s length of rope.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. + . $ith the $orking ends even..0.1.. ..*.. + .0(inch bight.%.. ..0. forming a bight.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.

+ . the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.'. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. + .+ . %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. + . . parallel.. %..4.nsure they are tight. It is a specialty knot. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.). %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. . Figure 4-.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.). $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.7.. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. b. and not t$isted. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. Checkpoints.

* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.a.. Tying the Knot. + . !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.0. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. Figure 4-. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.. %achman knot. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. Checkpoints...1. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope... make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. + . %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .. + . %. b.

-ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. he running end is to the back of the body. b..'.1.. /olding the bight loosely.4.* A minimum of four $raps. Checkpoints... single coil..). + . not crossed. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. he standing portion is on the bottom. Tying the Knot. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. $ith a bight held in place by a loop.. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. tie an overhand around all coils.. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. + .he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. + . bring a bight up through the loop. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. %. . !ith the running end. + . a. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. >sing the standing part. . + . %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.7.. + . + . hen.0. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. It is a specialty knot. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed.

+ . !ith the right hand. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!... a. Bay the loops to the right. + . + . . reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself..0. It is a specialty knot. + .Figure 4-.... !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.1. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. Tying the Knot. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.1. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.'. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.

%.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Three-!oop o+!ine. Figure 4-.+ . +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.7. + .4. a. Tying the Knot... Checkpoints. .. &orm a . It is a specialty knot. b.

+ .. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. + . %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.1. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.5.0 inches up the rope.each through the bight and grasp the long. %. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. b. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. Figure-eight s!ip knot. standing end of the rope..7.:u!e Knot0 .+ . Figure 4-. .'.. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .0. Checkpoints. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. + . + .). If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system..

Transport knot. Tying the Knot. b. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.0 inches long.. Figure 4-. + . K!eimhiest Knot . %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. %1* he bight is a minimum of . %. Check 9oints. It is simply an overhand slip knot.0.. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. + . + ..1. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.6.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.. a..* here is a single overhand slip knot.

pass them through the bight %see + .. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.7. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . !ith the ends offset. + . easily adjustable.. Tying the Knot. + .0 inches.. It is a special( purpose knot. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. ... !rap at least four complete turns. find the center of the rope and form a bight.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable... 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. + .. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.0. + . 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.*. + .1. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. a..'.

%..7. K!eimhiest knot.. It is a special(purpose knot. Checkpoints.: to . Tying the Knot.Figure 4-. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. .. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. b.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. + . a. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .0 inches.0. + .

Figure 4-. Checkpoints.. Tying the Knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. + . Frost knot. + .. :unter -itch . Checkpoint. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. b.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.'. b. Figure 4-. %.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. It is a special(purpose knot. a.1: Cinch the knot tightly. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.". %0* he knot is dressed tightly. %. + .: &orm a bight.. <irth hitch..

$ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.'.. + . -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. .* A bight passes through the carabiner. + . /old the rope in both hands.. !ith the right hand.. Bock the locking mechanism.0. /old the loop $ith the left hand.he munter hitch. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.. %. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. + . b. a. Tying the Knot. %0* he carabiner is locked.1. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. palms do$n about . Check 9oints. !ith the right hand. + ..0 inches apart.

appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. + . + . a. ensuring they do not cross. :unter hitch. thus creating a loop around the $aist..*.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.0.' feet or longer. . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. . It usually re#uires a sling rope . Tying the Knot....Figure 4-1*... + .1. .'. + .

appe! seat. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. . uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. . b.4. Figure 4-1). <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. %. &rom rear to front. + .* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.. tightening the seat. Check 9oints.7.. + .. -ull up on the ropes. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.+ .).

a. Tying the Knot.. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. + .. preferably ovals*. + .0.. . %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.

roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice.Figure 4-1. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. <uar&e knot. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point.* !hen properly dressed.. rope can only be pulled in one direction. or the e&uipment . it will fail. %. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. Check 9oints. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. b. .

H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first.*.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. When selecting or constructing anchors.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. rees. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. . and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. /o$ever. /o$ever. boulders. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor.

. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. Trees use& as anchors. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. security. In rocky terrain. Figure 5-. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. treesusually have a shallo$ root system.. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. a. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. >se padding on soft.Figure 5-). +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. b. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. Chockstones should be checked for strength. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings.

. b. the projection should be avoided. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. c. a. If any of these signs e"ist. tying a rope to it. their firmness is important. horns. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. hese include blocks. and clipping on a carabiner.ock 9ro>ections . and spikes. If rock projections are used. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. Chockstones.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. flakes.Figure 5-1. .

Figure 5-4. As $ith trees. . %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. .ock pro>ections. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor.

Correct!y oppose& cara iners. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. %ushes an& shru s. Figure 5-6. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. Drape. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement.Figure 5-5. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. $rap. !hichever method is used. and girth. a. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. .

. Figure 5-". (rap. Drape. b. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*.Figure 5-7. (rap.

the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. <irth. <irth. . but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. Figure 5-'.:*. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. .ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. 7nchoring (ith . his re#uires less e#uipment.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling.c. .ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor.

Tension!ess anchor. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps..Figure 5-)*. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. to absorb the tension. more if necessary. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. . A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps.*. Figure 5-)). A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot.

such as skis. such as a railroad tie. $ould be ideal. In e"tremely hard. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. b. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. and ruck sacks. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. %A hefty timber. a. he sling is attached to the anchor. .* Barge boulders can be used. such as pitons and bolts. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground.ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock.#uipment. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. &or training planning. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. ice a"es. e#uipment. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. can also be used if necessary. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. . unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. As $ith natural anchors. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. and the load to be placed on it. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. chocks. Although still available. sno$shoes. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load.:: years. and +BC2s. . he"centrics.

9iton 9!acement. c. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. 7&2antages. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. %0* !hile it is being driven. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. Disa&2antages. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . a. %. %&igure 7(. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. practiced.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. clear the loose rock. as $ith any artificial anchor. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. should be studied. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. !hen this type of rock must be used. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. dirt. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. b. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock.

%1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. it $ill not be lost. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock.. herefore. and on the type of rock. thereby loosening the emplacement.out of the crack.1*. he piton should not spread the rock. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. because the piton is too long. Figure 5-). he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. Clip a carabiner into the loop. the firmer the anchor $ill be. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. .

Eerk vigorously up$ard. If the sound regains its original pitch. drive the piton in as far as possible. If the pitch has changed greatly. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. d. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton.'*. do$n$ard. . !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. there is any #uestion of its soundness. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if.Figure 5-)1.emo2ing 9itons. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. Testing. ry to be in a secure position before testing. drive it into another place. . and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement.K0 meter from the carabiner. upon driving it. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. to each side. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. then grasp the rope at least . concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. the emplacement is probably safe. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. . and $hen using chocks. -ero-!oop. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. o test pitons pull up about . e.

he disadvantages of using chocks are: . pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. vectors. A natural chockstone. removed. . but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. <efore use. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. 7&2antages. Also. but comple" in practice. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. having fallen and $edged in a crack.eusing 9itons. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. Bight to carry. +oft iron pitons that have been used. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. unless severely damaged. Disa&2antages. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. provides an e"cellent anchor point. f. but they must be checked for strength. b. and straightened may be reused. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. 9iton remo2a!. they may have been driven poorly the first time. >sually easy to retrieve and. are reusable. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. In training areas.Figure 5-)4. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. a. . +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions.asy to insert and remove.

%. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. c. Chock p!acements. %1* . Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. $hich may accept pitons. 9!acement.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. Figure 5-)5. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. Book for a constriction point in the crack. cord. and dirt. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. grass. then select a chock to fit it. .• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. %0* !hen selecting a chock.7*. Dften provide only one direction of pull. Avoid poor protection. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . +ome cracks may have loose rock. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. if possible. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock.

firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. After seating a chock.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. d. test it to ensure it remains in place. %a* . Testing. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. .)*. use pairs of chocks in opposition. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. o test it. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection.

b. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks.Figure 5-)6. %o!ts . a. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. pull the retractor bar back. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. and release the retractor bar. it may rotate and pull out. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. S8CD p!acements. place the device into a crack.

and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. carabiners. and should be tested $ith a hammer. and runners. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. /o$ever.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. c. .4*. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. or cracking. a. since this permanently $eakens it. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. !hen using bolts. b. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. . <olts should be used $ith carriers. $hich bores the hole. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. flaking. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. .lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time.

A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. It is aimed in the direction of the load. a. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. b. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. his not only provides greater anchor strength. Figure 5-)". An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e.5*.8*. $qua!i@ing 7nchors .Figure 5-)7. .

and the enemy for the length of the climb. terrain hazards. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. therefore. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load.Figure 5-)'. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be .

. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. the climber studies all possible routes. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain.trained in the basics of climbing. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing.6 to the top looking for cracks. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. he mentally climbs the route. . +orward observers. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit.*. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. reconnaissance personnel. ledges. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. nubbins.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. or 6lines. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles.ven before getting on the rock. !hen picking the line. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. using the hands primarily for balance.6 . It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder.

such as a rock or climbing gear. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. In the training environment. /o$ever. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. In later lessons. falls from climbers above. dry rock. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. If the soles are $et or damp. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. C7ET=63 . beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. the boot soles should be dry and clean. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*.

lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. his vibration. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. kno$n as 6. sho$s a correct climbing stance. and so on. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. a$ay from the rock. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. or moving on to a more . he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. $eight shift.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. helping to minimiAe fatigue. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. a. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. b. left hand. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. and body %trunk*. and reduce the impact of a fall. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. If strained for too long. Stance or %o&y 9osition. %&igure )(. left foot. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. comfortable stance is essential. A rela"ed. right foot. lo$ering the heel. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. and movement. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. help the climber land feet first.

he hands are used to maintain balance. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold.* !henever possible. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out.. Figure 6-.restful position. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. %.a!ance& o2er oth #eet. Figure 6-). Correct c!im ing stance. the hips and shoulders should be .

Again. c. hand.* + . and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. Dn lo$(angle slopes. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. Dn steep rock. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. he basic steps are $eight. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. shift. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. In most cases.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. . fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. or body*. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. +ometimes. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. creating more stress. C!im ing Sequence.: + . his is normally done on #uick. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. $hen footholds are small. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back.D=. intermediate holds. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. and movement %movement being either the foot. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet.centered over both feet. as the climbing progresses.

Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. If both legs are bent.+ . + .: + . 2uring this movement.. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.: + . /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved.. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs.epeat steps . %.&IV.&D>. through 1 for remaining foot. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability./.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. .* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs.

Typica! c!im ing sequence.Figure 6-1. .

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .

his type of lifting is inefficient. Sa#ety 9recautions . %. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. even painful. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. to rest on. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. because the legs are much stronger. Dther than being uncomfortable. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs.Figure 6-1. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. not the arms. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. these movements become more critical. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*.

c. d. follo$ing the same line. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. If on a lo$(angle climb. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. If the rock $ill endanger your second.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. +hould a climber fall. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. a fi"ed rope should be installed. a spotter can be used for safety. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. tossing it do$n. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. do not do it. let the rope provide protection. . he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. e.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. If conducting a roped climb. a. grasping for any possible hold available. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. >pon hearing the $arning. and to reduce the impact of a fall. immediately shout the $arning 6. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. b. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying.

sedimentary(type rock. !hen leading a group of climbers. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. his may simply be a #uick. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. depending on it.&D. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use.. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. C!im ing (ith The Feet . !hen the rock is $et. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. !hen in doubt. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered.f. g. a. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. !hen climbing. +ometimes. b. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions.

In the early learning stages of climbing.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. . . lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. %b* Dn some large holds. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. In this case. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. forgetting to use the feet properly. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms.* %a* +mooth. %. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. Also. he principle of using full sole contact. easy or difficult. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. b. a. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. &ailure to climb any route. . the entire foot cannot be used.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. also applies in climbing. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember.* Maximum Sole Contact. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. as in mountain $alking. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock.

emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue.Figure 6-4. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. >sually. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock.* %a* Dn smaller holds. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. %0* Edging. $ell(defined ledges. . he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. . Again. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. or toe. edging $ith the front of the boot. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. may be used. !henever possible. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small.

therefore. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible.%b* . he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. he Army mountain boot. the better the edging capability. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. intermediate holds. %1* Smearing. . Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. Figure 6-5.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. $ith its softer sole. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. he stiffer the sole. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock.ounded. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue.* %a* . %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. . .

Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. such as edges. . than others. like a camming device. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. inside and $ithin reach. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. and even more painful on the foot. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers.Figure 6-6. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. pockets. +ome positions are more tiring. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. he toes. the possibilities are endless. hands. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. and so on. %'* Jamming. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. resisting a do$n$ard pull. arms. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. depending on the siAe of the crack.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. restful position. or the entire foot can be used. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. ball of the foot. or it can be placed in the crack and turned.

and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. a."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. As stated earlier. b. !hen removing the boot from a crack. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. our body $eight is on our legs. Core often though. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. Dur hands grip. +econdly. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. Figure 6-7. As the individual climbs. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Dn lo$er(angled rock. +ometimes. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . $Bamp!es o# >amming. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. . he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance.

the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. Dn smaller holds. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. the fingers. . the side of the palm.* Push olds. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure.our balance and footing on the ladder. or 6pinching. and on occasion. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". Df course. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. Ideally. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. %. his is fine. -ushing side$ays.

Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. or up$ard. Again. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. and. therefore. . creating an unbalanced stance. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. side$ays. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. %0* Pull olds. .6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. -ull holds.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. also called 6cling holds. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n.* %a* Bike push holds. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. pull holds are often over$orked. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s.Figure 6-". 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. just good techni#ue.

he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. Dn small holds. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. Figure 6-'. =ormally. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. his helps to hold the finger tips in . in opposition to the pull by the fingers. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. creating a stronger hold.

%&igure )(. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. kno$n as a 6ring grip. his hand configuration.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. Bike foot jams. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. %'* Jam olds. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. knuckles. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. ape also adds friction .place and reduces muscle strain in the hand.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger.* Figure 6-)*. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. %1* Pinch olds. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n.

Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. the principle is the same as for fingers. is another techni#ue. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. &or off $idths. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. or body into an off $idth. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. from the calf to the thigh. o jam or cam an arm. %b* In smaller cracks. .6 re#uiring the use of arm. hands. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. and body jams. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. he leg can be used. leg. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. %&igure )(. !hen the arm is straightened. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. and fle"ed to fit the crack. leg. /o$ever.to the hand in jammed position. . +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. or 6off $idths.. only the fingers $ill fit. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position.

he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. As the climber gains e"perience. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. . $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s.Figure 6-)). &rom these fundamentals. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. feet.

though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. . %&igure )(. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. b. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. %0* Mantling.a. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. mantling begins $ith pull holds. $here the pull holds become push holds.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold.otating . or other body parts tire. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. t$o solid handholds should be used. +till. +ometimes. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. +hort of turning back. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. before the hands.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. yet #uickly. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. %. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. he change step. even on an easy route. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. Combination possibilities are endless. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. o make the move. or hop step. o prevent an off balance situation. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position.* Change Step. arms.

on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. Dnce balanced over the foot. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. !ith the foot on the ledge. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. . a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. momentarily. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. Dnce the arms are locked. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge.

An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. :ant!ing sequence. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. %1* !ndercling.Figure 6-). also. forming a bulge or small overhang. or body tension. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge.1*. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets.. applying an up$ard pull. he arms and legs .

the climber $ill . putting the body into an B( shaped position. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. %'* "ie#ack. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. En&erc!ing. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. more or less. he climber bends at the $aist. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. . Figure 6-)1.

rather than muscle. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. Figure 6-)4.'*. Dften. %7* Stemming. or vice versa. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features.7*. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. . !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. or for a rest position. 8ie ack on a #ace.likely fall. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(.

&riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack.Figure 6-)5. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. . he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . Stemming on a #ace. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. legs. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. although smearing may $ork best in some instances.)*. parallel cracks. >sually. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. kno$n as chimneys. or body as an integral contact point.

Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence. .

he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. or a much narro$er crack irotection. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . %c* . Chimney sequence /continue&0. . %)* Sla# Techni$ue. A slab is a relatively smooth. if any holds.4*. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. face features. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. /o$ever.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. .emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. forcing the body against the opposing $all. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain.Figure 6-)6.

or the . Dften. Also. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. Dn steeper slab.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. S!a technique. to increase friction. . a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. . 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. Figure 6-)7.

%b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. If the handholds are too high. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. he can often turn side$ays. a$ay from the rock. 0. use a roped descent. %a* Dn easier terrain. Dn the steepest terrain. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. use a roped descent. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. !hatever the case may be. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. and slips are more likely to occur. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. the climber can face out$ard. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step.. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. !hen in doubt.abilities of others to follo$. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. C7ET=63S . As the steepness and difficulty increase. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. !hen in doubt. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself.

and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. &acing the rock. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. reducing friction. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route.planned landing area. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. facing out$ard or side$ays. as in ascending. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. . Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. %d* Dn steeper slab. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. is usually best on steeper slab. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed.5*. and a tendency to move too #uickly. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster.

. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. . Tying-=n to the C!im ing . length. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly.. is highly unlikely in most instances. . especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. . ropes must be used to proceed.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. they offer little support to the climber.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. A severe fall. may induce further injuries. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever.ope Dver the years.

he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. Seat -arness. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. also. including cost. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. specialiAed e#uipment. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. $hen used correctly. a. /o$ever. -rese$n harness are bulky. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. =o assembly is re#uired. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. it is not for a belay anchor. such as a prese$n harness. %. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. .

reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. %. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. gear loops. S+ami %e!t.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. such as padding. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. Dne(inch $ebbing . at the chest. than an improvised chest harness.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. or ease of adjustment. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. Chest -arness.b. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. c. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. he s$ami belt is a simple. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. a. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*.

%o+!ine-on-a-Coi!.. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. any tie(in around the $aist only could . In a severe fall. !I /D> /.V. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. &ABB. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area.$ill provide more comfort. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!.8*.. raditionally. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. b. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. Figure 6-)'. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. %.

and hold it in place on the hip. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. Dff to one side. 9rasping both ends. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. $rapping to the outside. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. .place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. c.* Bocate the center of the rope. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. and comfortable. like a parachute harness. $ith the knots to the front. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region.ven in a relatively short fall.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. A safe. . %. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. . %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*.

d. but remember that $ith $ebbing.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. and drape the sling over the shoulders.: feet usually $orks. just as you $ould put on a jacket. he t$ist.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. . =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. forming t$o loops. . $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist.Figure 6-. Appro"imately ) to . or cross. %.*. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing.

&i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. in effect. the standing part of the rope is then . his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. 7ttaching the . reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. create a type of full(body harness. e. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. %. or incorrectly.I ICAB BI=?. at the chest. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. f. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. and comes off the harness in a fall. If using a chest harness.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher.

or third loop formed in the knot. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. If using the three loop bo$line.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. rather than tying the rope to it. %e!ay Techniques . he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. Figure 6-)". A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. ensure the end. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. and possibly the e#uipment available. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. %. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used.

try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. ho$ever. e"posed terrain. and snug. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. but $ith practice. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. Dne person climbs at a time. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. Dn steep terrain. sitting position $henever possible. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. . • • • • .6 can be applied to halt a fall. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. In some instances. independent. for an up$ard pull. or a 6brake. >se a $ell braced. if one person falls. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. the procedure should become 6second nature. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. . the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. +tack the rope properly. rope team members can often move at the same time. . <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency.

he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. or run through a friction device. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . removed from the rope.nsure anchor attachments. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying.A9. • • . ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying.V. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. ho$ever.BAI D=. aking up rope.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. and apply the brake to halt a fall. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. guide carabiner %if applicable*. the rope management procedure is basically the same.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <..8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . a.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(. !hen giving slack. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. there is no belay. If the brake hand is removed. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. b.• .BAI. otal control means the brake hand is =.

* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand.. %. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0. %)* . he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. step '*. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0... It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. step . place it behind the back and around the hips. step )*. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended.. to the front of the brake hand.). %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. Figure 6-.. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. step 0*. .. :anaging the rope. step 1*.*. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. he other hand is the brake hand. slide the guide hand out. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0.brake hand remains on the rope at all times.

. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. re#uiring no special e#uipment. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. he body belay. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. especially for beginners. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. the belay may have to absorb.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. +ometimes. It is the simplest belay. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. It is best to sit in a slight depression. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. in its various forms.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. and froAen. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. %. or fall force. using terrain to his advantage. a. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. and the amount of load. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. he leg on the 6guide . !hen perfectly aligned. stiff. %o&y %e!ay.

%0* Standing 'ody 'elay. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard.. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. .hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. Figure 6-. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible.. Sitting o&y e!ay.

he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. rendering the belay useless. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer.Figure 6-. dumping the belayer out of position. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. . If the rope runs too lo$. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. If the rope runs too high. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage.1. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. Stan&ing o&y e!ay.

to allo$ this function. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor.4. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. %. he carabiner must be large enough. attaching both to the carabiner. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. /o$ever. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards.Figure 6-. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. :echanica! %e!ay. &or the most part. is designed for the Cunter hitch. As a climbing belay.* Munter itch. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. b. or pearabiner. useless hitch. $hich forms an obvious. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. -ut some . and of the proper design. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch.

%b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. rather than around the belayerUs body. As a belay device. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. is al$ays the guide hand. or load. though developed as a rappel device. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. to$ards the load.5. he hand on the rope running to the climber. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. :unter hitch. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. . he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device.+ =D change the function of the hands. Figure 6-. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device.

. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling.6. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters.ope management is performed as in a body belay. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. but have no moving parts. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design.%a* As a climbing belay. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. A short. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. Figure 6-. %b* As a lo$ering belay. . Figure-eight &e2ice. >nlike the other devices. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness.

his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. Direct %e!ay. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. he air traffic controller %A C*. If the belay is correctly established. slotted plate. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. Also. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. the most commonly used. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. An indirect belay. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. if the second falls or $eights the rope. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. b. . a. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. Additionally. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. the belayer is not locked into a position. =n&irect %e!ay.

A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. .ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. . sitting stance are preferred. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. a. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. the belayer selects his position. If this placement fails under load. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. 7nchor the %e!ay. and in line $ith the first protection placement. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. Dnce the climbing line is picked. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. %. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. !ith the belay position selected. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. c. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. 7im the %e!ay.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. b.* . rela"ed stance.

ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. 6independent6. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. and connect the sling to one of the anchors.%0* . reach back. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. o accomplish this. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. say after a severe fall. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. saving the slings for the climb. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. his is not mandatory. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. . %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. and 6snug6.

the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. e. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings.* Dn small ledges.7. Stack the . 7ttach the %e!ay. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task.Figure 6-. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. 7nchoring a e!ay. he rope should be stacked on the ground. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile.ope. !ith the rope properly stacked. d. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. %. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. or on the ledge. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. and applies the actual . %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it.

* he belayer should make one #uick. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position.". ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. If using a body belay. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. Figure 6-. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. Anchor attachments. %e!ay setup.belay techni#ue. the anchor attachments. the force. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. final inspection of his belay.BAI D=W6. 6<. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. If the climber takes a fall. %. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. !hen belaying the 6second6. he gives the signal. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. guide carabiner if applicable. if any. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. If the belay is set up correctly. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. guide carabiner.

ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. . C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing.7CT=63 T7K$3 . Aer a! Comman&s able )(. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. C8=:%$.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. A solid. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. or at the top at the anchor. Top-. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer.* %$87D$. :$73=3<. e"posed routes.

Climber selects a belay position. 6 A?.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed.6<. 6+BAC?6 .6T$CT D6E. and again. and hold me.6 6 !. ensure climbers belo$ hear. the rope $ill be managed as necessary.D-.=( I( &IV. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. 6 . I am falling. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope.DC?6 -roceed. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. 9. . ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.S$8F F. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. If multipitch climbing. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.DC?6 6.6 .=+ID=6 ake all the slack. <elayer removes slack and applies brake. apply brake. <elayer removes brakeKtension. <elayer takes in rope.

&or a rope tug command. remaining anchored. Climber sets up the belay.. . +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. b. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands.BAI D=.BAI6 belay.ope comman&s. !ith the issue of this command.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. .7 feet of rope left. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. <elayer removes the belay and. Iou may remove the belay. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands.ope& C!im ing :etho&s .ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. 6&IV. -repares to climb.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing.6 +et up the belay. his is especially true in $indy conditions. prepares to climb. or $hen the climber is around a corner. . Ta !e 6-). Iou have no more rope. his is the signal for 6<. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope.emoves the 6D&& <. !hile a lead climb is in progress. I have finished climbing and I am anchored. remains anchored. . or at the back of a ledge..6&I&( . above an overhang. the most important command is 6<. use only one. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. anchoring and putting the second on belay. +et up the belay position. a.=6 Iou have appro"imately .

his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 6pieces.In military mountaineering. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall.6 6pieces of pro. a. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit.6 6pro. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. Top-. rope%s*. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. a leader or climber. b. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. If you can easily access the top of a climb. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. . the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. you can easily avoid the climb itself. &or training. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. As he climbs the route.ven if the climbing is for another purpose.6 6pro placements.6 and so on.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom.

he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. a. c. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. or 6leap frogging. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the .6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.established for other purposes. he belayer simply adjusts his position. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. +$inging leads. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. belays. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. such as rappel points. taking on the role of lead climber. ice.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. or other rope installations. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. and is responsible for selecting the route. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. b.

. it can be called for. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. 6<. until the climber tells him other$ise. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. the belayer signals. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. or 6rope drag6. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. etc. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. !hen the leader is ready. %'* !hile belaying. !hen the belay is ready. 6CBIC<I=96. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment.ne"t belay. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. >nless told other$ise by the climber. removing the belay anchor. is responsible for belaying the leader. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. $hether by sight or feel. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. to remove any protection that the leader may place. he leader then begins climbing. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. %. he double checks the belay. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. nut tool. If he cannot see the climber. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. he leader can then signal. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury.. such as a piton hammer. again. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. thus minimiAing friction. only as a courtesy. only as a courtesy. %1* <efore the climb starts. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. %0* he other member of the climbing team. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope.BAI D=6.

each on a separate carabiner. $ith t$o carabiners on each. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness.%7* As the leader protects the climb. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. !hen the leader has completed the connection. .BAI6. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. Assorted he"entrics. and $hat types. the leader sets an anchor. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*.D-. !hen the leader selects a particular route. At this position. d. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. or the clip.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. he must also determine ho$ much.* he leader $ill assemble. each on a separate carabiner. the command 6 A?.BAI D=6 is given. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. In this situation. or 6rack. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. &ive to ten standard length runners. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. %. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. . and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons.

Cordellette. the necessary e#uipment. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. . $ith t$o carabiners on each. Bong -rusik sling. to some degree."tra carabiners. • • .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*."tra carabiners.• • • $o to three double length runners. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route.(inch $ebbing.: feet of . =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*.(inch $ebbing. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. • . =ut tool. 0: feet of . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. . 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate.

saving hard$are for difficult sections. %. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. protection can be placed farther apart.&D. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. 9enerally. If the climbing is difficult. If the climbing becomes easier. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. for both the leader and second if either should fall. placement of protection. protection should be placed more fre#uently. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. and upon completion of any traverse..* Placing Protection. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. and <. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . during. As the leader begins this type of move. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. or pendulum. moving past a difficult section. Dnce an anchor is placed. kno$n as a traverse. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue.e. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. is re#uired. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing.

In addition. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. %a* If the route changes direction. in a . $hen released.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. /o$ever. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. C7ET=63 . • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. If the clip is made correctly. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. !hen placing protection.

If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. Figure 6-. rotate the carabiner up$ards . +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to .leader fall. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. C!ipping on to protection. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions.5: degrees. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. o prevent this possibility.'. =o matter ho$ direct the route. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement.

the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. o prevent this. C7ET=63 . Ese o# s!ings on protection. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. . Figure 6-1*. inducing a fall. .ope drag can be mistaken for the climber.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. or anchor.

*.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. or runner. . Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. As the climber moves above the placements. . %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. All $ired chocks used for .ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. Figure 6-1). even $hen used 6actively6.

such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams..leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. &urthermore. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. . therefore. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. +ome of the larger chocks. ry to use the shortest runners possible. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. %e* . Figure 6-1. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner.

!hen the second is ready. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. or seconding. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. he can.f. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. as a courtesy. reply $ith 6CBIC<. If necessary. &ollo$ing.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it.BAI D=.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er.BAI6 to the belayer. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. !hen removing protection. or 6cleaning the pitch6. rock fall. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second .BAI D=. unless other$ise directed. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. %. again as a courtesy. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. +harp rocks. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb.6 and the leader can.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch.6 he second. $hile the final preparations are taking place. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. signal 6CBIC<I=9.* h. !hen removing the protection. g. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. no$ the climber. he second has to issue commands to the leader. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations.

+$inging leads. If too much slack develops. . his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. If removing a piton. he should immediately connect to the anchor. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. he belayer simply adjusts his position. . re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection.6 he leader removes the belay.=+ID=. he can signal 6D&& <. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. a.BAI. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.D-. the method of aid climbing . or 6leap frogging. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. Dnce the second completes the pitch. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. taking on the role of lead climber. $quipment. %. and is the simplest form of aid climbing.egardless of the type of protection used. he should signal 6 A?. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. Dnce secured.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 .reaches a more secure stance. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb.

is the same. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. /o$ever. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. $ith or $ithout the hanger. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. %0* 'olts. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. -itons are used the same as for free climbing.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. bolts can be used for aid climbing.* Pitons. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. %. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. +ince pitons are multidirectional. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill.

although in aid climbing. although in aid climbing.. %4* (ifi ook. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners.* . +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. . %5* -scenders. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. appro"imately every . split(shaft rivets. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. %7* %aisy Chains. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. A fifi hook is a small. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. . although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate.0 inches. %1* S"C%s. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. or steps. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook.or -iders. %)* Etriers . . place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. %'* Chocks. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction.

elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. &rom this height.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. you are no$ standing above your support. one at a time. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider.b. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. aiders. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. he big difference is the movement up the rock. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. If this happens. again. the climb continues as follo$s: %. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. !ith the daisy chains. into the steps in the aider. Technique. %4* .

a serious fall could result. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. If the ascender is too high. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. one at a time.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ .:* .:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level.. 3otes4 . repeat this procedure. the arms need not support much body $eight. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. o ascend the route. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. move the ascenders. Clear each knot as you unclip it.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. above the piece. o prevent this possibility. !hen adjusted to the correct height. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. . !hen the pitch is completed.* >nlike lead climbing. %. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. After ascending another 0: feet. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. Secon&ing. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. tie in short on the rope every . o make this easier. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner.epeat entire process until climb is finished c.

!hile leading an aid traverse. e.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. /o$ever. do not tie into the end of the rope. and other protection placed easily by hand. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. o make this safer and easier. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. 0. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. possibly resulting in the protection failing. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. hooks. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. %. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. he hook . his is in effect a self(belay. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position.as you ascend. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. d. to get caught as you move up$ard. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. +BC2s.

some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement.::(foot climb $ith a . although bolts can be used. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. a. If the climb is only one pitch. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. 9iven one rope. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. belayed climb. hese types of devices due to their passive application. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. protected traverses . &or e"ample: a . are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber.::(foot climb $ith a . 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. $hich involves more difficulties.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. only t$o are described belo$. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. b. the methods $ill vary. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . a forty foot fall could result. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection.

each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired.Us . !hen using t$o ropes. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. climber. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. he again sets up a ne$ belay. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. If using one rope. %.BAI6 from the leader. !hen number . or number .6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. or number 0 climber. !hen number 1 receives 6<. !hen the leader completes this pitch. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number .. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. and number 1. he second.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. !hen the leader completes the pitch. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends.BAI D=. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. ascends belayed by number 0. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay.$ill re#uire additional time. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point.

number 1 performs no belay function. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear.. %d* =ormally. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. he remains anchored to the rock for security. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. his $ould save time for a team of three. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. %d* In this method. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight.belay is ready. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. !hen number 1 is not climbing. such as the tuber type.

'hey can limit the battlefield and. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. . faster.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. and safer. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. but adds to total mission $eight. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. =nsta!!ation . he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier.in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. he use of harnesses. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. H )i.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . even worse. However. ascenders.

Figure 7-). Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. Dnce the anchor is rigged. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample.o install a fi"ed rope. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. If the leader placed protection. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. -rusik. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. . autoblock*. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. Esing a #iBe& rope. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. Dther$ise. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope.*. he $ill stack and manage the rope. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb.

If not. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. .e!ay. . he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer.Figure 7-.. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. FiBe& . Esing a se!#. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel.

he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors.Figure 7-1. =nsta!!ation. . avoids obstacles. a. he second sets up a standard belay. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. actical considerations are met. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. ease of negotiation. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb.

he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. he temporarily anchors the rope. double figure(eight*. As the leader climbs the route. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points.ope crossovers should be avoided. !hen he reaches an anchor point. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. 3ote4 . %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. and attaches the rope to the anchor. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. . middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. %. /e then takes up any e"cess slack.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. .

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. b. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. 9loves are $orn. and runs it around either hip. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. . and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times.appe! %&igure 4(7*.Figure 7-4. diagonally across the chest. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. /e then pulls the rope from behind. &rom there. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. and back over the opposite shoulder. -asty rappe!. and his back straight to reduce friction. %o&y . the rope runs to the brake hand. o brake. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*.

c.appe! %&igure 4()*. 3otes4 . . his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. Seat--ip . 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. %o&y rappe!. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.Figure 7-5. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact.. 0.

his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. %. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. /o$ever. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. Seat-hip rappe!. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. If a single rope is used. stand to the right of the rappel rope. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. his method has minimal friction. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. and is fast and safe. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . hen run the rope through the single carabiner. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. If using a right(hand brake.Figure 7-6. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. stand to one side of the rope.

and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. &or this reason. %. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. he brake hand goes on the slack rope.* o use the figure(eight descender.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. d. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. . %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. Figure-$ight Descen&er. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. Figure 7-7. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard.

6ther De2ices.appe! De2ice. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*.Figure 7-". he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. hese include slots or plates and tubers. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope.) of an inch in siAe. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. Figure-eight &escen&er. d. $Bten&ing the . A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. e. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. f. .

( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing.Figure 7-'. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used.e!ay. depends on the techni#ue. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. /o$ever. 6ne-. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. . A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed.

Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. Dnce across. If crossing a ravine or gorge. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. If t$o carabiners are used. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. such as large trees and solid rock formations. are al$ays preferred. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. the s$immer must be belayed across. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. c. . he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. a. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. he anchor should be $aist high.:. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. =atural anchors. the gates $ill be opposing. b. If crossing a stream. $iremanUs. At that time.

d. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.1*. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure..0*. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. e. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. .Figure 7-)*. Transport tightening system. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope.*.

.oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.Figure 7-)). Transport knot . . Figure 7-). .

$o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank.Figure 7-)1.:. a. $eb $rap. Dnce across. the far side man anchors the rope.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. c. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. . 3ote4 2uring training. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. b. Tension!ess anchor knot.

A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. . it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. e. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. and is run back to the near side anchor. Figure 7-)4. F-pu!!ey tightening system. f. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. transport knot. g. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. As the rope is pulled tight. !hen the rope is tight. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. from inside to outside.d. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. here are several methods of accomplishing this.

%. monkey cra$l. attach it to the bridge. :etho& o# Crossing. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross.a. If dry crossing is impossible. -referably. he may $ear it over both shoulders. and pull the rucksack across. o recover if he falls over. Comman&o cra+!. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. . If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l.)*. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation.7*. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. and yrolean traverse. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. Figure 7-)5.

. Figure 7-)7.appe! seat metho&. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. If crossing $ith rucksacks.Figure 7-)6. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge.4*. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. :onkey cra+!. . a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.

Figure 7-)".may dictate the rigging of these items. o rig machine guns. a. Construction. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. and carabiners. ABIC. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. .* Machine /uns. ammunition. All the slack is pulled to the near side. . Any special e#uipment. cordage %various siAes*. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. he other end is anchored on the near side. or supplies. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. A unit +D. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit.5*. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. %. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. %0* -"0CE Packs. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. such as cre$(served $eapons. &inally. -au!ing !ine.igging Specia! $quipment.b. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops.

ucksacks. Dn each side of this carabiner.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. . %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. . hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. c.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. assembled on the far side. If the < C chooses the dry method. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. he far side remains anchored. %'* A three(man pull team. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. a. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. :o2ing 8itters. :o2ing .b. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. %.

/e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. Figure 7-)'. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. chasms. %. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. b.%)* Dnce across. removes the knots. Suspension tra2erse. inserts a carabiner. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. ravines. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. and up or do$n a vertal.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. and then pulls the rope across. Site Se!ection .

If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance.* . Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. hree to five .he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots.'(foot sling ropes are needed.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. %. $quipment. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. $o sturdy poles are needed. b. . %0* !ith a sling rope. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. -osition this knot on .nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking.0 feet long. and mark the ape" on both poles. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. an A(frame must be used. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . 7-#rames. a. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. Construction. c. leaving about .

5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps.*. ensure it is in the same direction as the . Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot.*. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. . ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails.* Figure 7-.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. %+ee &igure 4(0:&.

Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor. %. dig the legs in about ) inches. %4* If the ground is a hard surface. . he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. =nsta!!ation Construction. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. Adjust the A( . Figure 7-.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off.*. If the ground is soft. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. .%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. . ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. the direction of kick. If more than one sling rope is needed. 7-#rame sprea&er.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors.). d.

Eoin the ends of a . %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined.. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. Figure 7-.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. . ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. not forcing it in a lateral direction. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.0*.. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame..

%7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner.Figure 7-. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. 2ue to the constant . Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal.1. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground.

rucksacks. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural .tension maintained on the belayer. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. use a relay man. or supplies Figure 7-.4. use a mechanical belay. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. . herefore. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge.

o maintain the .5.0(inch bight. and anchor it. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". . he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. if necessary.* Figure 7-. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. . tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment. a. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. 2ouble one installation rope. find the middle. %+ee &igure 4(07.

0 inches apart. g. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. e.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. he angle should be .b. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. f. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. o anchor the A(frame. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. d. belay from the top using the hauling line. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . $hich is tied to the A(frame. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. . directional figure(eight. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . or to. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. c.

he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. !hen it is no longer needed.. terrain.h. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. Construction. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. a. . Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load.educe e"cessive friction on the system. pull the other side from belo$. . and the rope condition. !hen in use.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. Simp!e . the load rubbing against the rock $all. c. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. load $eight. Consi&erations.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. b. . e#uipment. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. and availability of anchors. Theory. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. $eather. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. . simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation.

nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point.* . -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. . place a pulley into the carabiner.%. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. . %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley.

If the t$o pulleys touch. d. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. terrain.Figure 7-. load $eight. a. $eather. 6ther Factors. >se belays and backup safeties. &or greater efficiency. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. Consi&erations. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. e#uipment. .6. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. and availability of anchors. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. F-pu!!ey system. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage.

%)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. . %7* Construct a second anchor. Construction. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load.7.* Anchor the hauling rope. c.. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. and the rope condition. E-pu!!ey system. %. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. the load rubbing against the rock $all. his is the -C2. Theory. Figure 7-.b. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners.

good nutrition and hydration. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. $eather. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. produces early fatigue. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened.est. conditioning. and results in loss of climbing time. empo. the need for rest halts decreases. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. .:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. Coving too fast. s0iing or snow shoeing.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. the slo$er the pace. he more adverse the conditions. H he terrain. !hen a moderate pace is set. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. re#uires more rest halts. pace. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. or number of steps per minute. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. he mountaineer sets a tempo. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. and a unit can cover a given . %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. proper training. pace is adapted to conditions. he trained. rugged terrain. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. H In addition to proper techni#ue. hen. technical roc0 and ice climbing. even under ideal conditions. rappelling. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. acclimatiAation.

%. If possible. deeper inhale.7 hours. enabling an easier. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. steady. not muscle. rock. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. <listers and . breathe deeply. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . hydrate. he soldier e"hales strongly. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one.distance in a minimal time. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. sno$fields. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. and snack on trail food. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps.* After each step for$ard. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. the soldier pauses briefly.. %'* After a climb. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. %1* his slo$. supports the $eight. soldiers lean against a tree. If possible. to . !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. %. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. and higher elevations. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements.

in lo$ brush or heather. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". A ski pole. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. %.efer to Chapter . A normal progression. o turn at the end of each traverse. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks.. !hile traversing.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. and back pain may follo$. /ard ground is firmly compacted. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. through thick brush. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. H -ar& <roun&. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing.blackened toenails. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. ice a". back injury. and on scree and talus slopes. to a herringbone step. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. knee damage. try to s$itchback periodically. If side hill travel is necessary. animal trails. . $ould be from $alking straight up. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. surface. as the slope steepens. %. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy.* !hen ascending. and loss of balance.

he soldier performs a basic rest step. and $eighting the trail leg. and they $ill not be as secure. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. steps off. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. held in the uphill hand. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. . he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. /. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. $hich take half of the boot. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn.. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. $hich must be done in a positive. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. his is the in(balance position. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step.H Sno+ S!opes. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. returning to the in(balance position. and plants his foot solidly. each one improving the step as he ascends. he soldier faces out. he ice a". his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$.0 Step Kicking. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. simply $alk straight do$n. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. aggressive manner.

the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. In this techni#ue. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. H Thick %rush. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. &or the military mountaineer. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried.* !hen ascending. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. !hen traversing. %. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . trees. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. brush is both a help and a hindrance. and the upper leg is used only for balance. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. H <rassy S!opes. $here the ground is more level.

climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. H Scree S!opes. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. H Ta!us S!opes. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. ascending or descending. and then repeats the process. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. %. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. o . use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. if possible. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. back straight. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. After determining that the step is stable. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. !hen $alking in talus. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. and heels dug in. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. feet pointed do$nhill.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support.

and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. knees and toes. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. . he use of the map. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured.ockW6 is shouted immediately. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. grass. elbo$s. digging into the slope $ith hands. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. the location of a target objective. compass and identifiable terrain features. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. sno$. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. and route finding. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. is the foundation of good navigation. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. Backing cover. navigation. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle.prevent rock fall injuries. and do not look up. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. 6. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. the $arning. H !henever a rock is kicked loose.

* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. and bad $eather should be e"pected. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly .H . A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. route planning.. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. 7!timeters. a loss of barometric pressure of . he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. Compasses. b. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. %. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. . millimeters of mercury. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. <y measuring air pressure. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. or millibars. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes.1 inches has occurred. usually attached to a cord. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. checking progress and terrain identification.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. usually inches of mercury. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount.::: feet of elevation. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. a.

%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. he 9-+ is a space(based. it can provide position %accurate up to . %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. causing them to give poor readings. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. longitude and elevation of the individual user. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. %. c. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. . Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. his can result in faulty elevation readings. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. survey monuments. stream(trail intersections.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. %4* . %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. saddles. <!o a! 9ositioning System. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. all($eather. and so forth* is reached.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. It can determine the latitude. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. global.

Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. spurs. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. . he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. saddles.%1* 2uring route planning. start point and objective. or plateaus are better.idgelines. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. enter their coordinates as $ay points. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. 3a2igation Techniques. &or navigation. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. or altimeter navigation. the better the system performs. deep valleys. after choosing critical checkpoints."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. open valleys. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. terrain association. %'* +ince the 0. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. Dther$ise. d. but due . <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. %4* . Canyons. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. summits. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert.

/eavy fog. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. orientation. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. burned(over.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. .eckoning. %. than as a primary navigational aid. navigational corridors. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor.* Dea& .ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. /andrails. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. siAe. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. !hen clear cut. he shape. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. that feature becomes an e"panded objective.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. catching features. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. and attack points are all used. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. . glacier. bo"ing(in areas. elevation. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. slope %+D+. checkpoints. and not a precise point. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. %0* Terrain 7ssociation.

%1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. open road or track. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. in computing rates of ascent or descent. dusk. H !hen looking do$n a straight. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. hey aid in orientation. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. but not behind the object being vie$ed. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. uniform surface. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. such as da$n. $ater. and in $eather prediction. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. H !hen looking over a smooth. such as sno$. check the . H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H !hen the object blends into the background. or desert. H !hen the light is poor. $atercourse. in resection.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline.

H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. sno$fields and glaciers. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. In this case. %. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. may present themselves. cliffs. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. In addition. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. along $ith $eather conditions.ates of travel.altimeter. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. studying it for climbing routes.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. . clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. !atch the mountain during the approach march. e. &ault lines. light conditions %time of day*. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. . 7pproach 6 ser2ations. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. and the physical condition of the team. gross bedding planes of rock. such as couloirs or gullies. cliff bands. and crevasse Aones become visible. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors.

pays off in more efficient travel.oute Se!ection. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. avalanche danger. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. individual ski abilities. $ater features. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . vegetation. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. (inter . 2uring movement. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. If you must cross one. and the siAe of the unit. are often steeper. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. and impact on your route choices. because of more intense glaciation in past ages.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. %. f. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. terrain relief. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. shovel tests. &or $eaker skiers. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. 2uring calm $eather. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. g. sno$ pits. constrain your choice of terrain. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and.

Avoid north. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. !eather and tactical situation permitting. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. If $eak skiers are in the group. If the $eather turns bad. %4* 2uring ski movements. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. . forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. and so on to get accurate readings. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion.danger is still present. ice a". %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. east. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. H >se a steady.

. hick vegetation and rough. fog. trails. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. compasses. %'* /andling maps. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. 9ro !ems. . outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. %. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope.* In $inter. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. caused by large ore deposits. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. especially above tree line. bliAAards.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. kno$ledge of the enemy . <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. At times. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. and drifting sno$. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. Careful map reconnaissance. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. sno$fall. $hiteouts. short hours of daylight.h. drastically limit visibility.

a. cable and tram$ays are often found. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help.situation. clear cuts. %. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. verbal descriptions. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. :ap . Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain.econnaissance. Civilian .:7:.::: map depicts greater detail than a . Aerial. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n.:07.::: maps can be used if available. even larger scale maps are desirable. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. An . documented information gathered from units previously in the area. Along $ith sketch maps. A . &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. In addition. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. Areas above tree line. pay close attention to the marginal information.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance.0. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. terrain analysis of the operational area. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads.::: map and should be used $henever possible. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks.:. such facilities as ski lifts. obli#ue angle.

and plans made to avoid them. e"tractions. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. $eather permitting. $nemy Situation.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . are factored in. trails. such as rivers and gorges. . %1* /elicopter support. impassable torrents. b. they have a marked advantage. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. %0* Dbstacles. and large open areas above tree line. roads. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. barns. c. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors.uins. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. resupply and medevac. but should still be e"pected. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. . bridges. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea.

$ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . Time-Distance Formu!as. d. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. %0* . . and ground cover. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. %. good friction@ use of pitons.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. Enit 7ssessment. mountain structure and forms. including the geology. smooth rock@ bolts. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets.success. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. camming units*. e. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains.outes through granite rock %long cracks.*.

and clothing for mountain travel.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults..' to . it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit.0 to ' kph +kiing . units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel. $eights in order to obtain accurate.) kph '. realistic rates of march. %. .) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-).) to 1. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. actical movements.::: feet of ascent or 0.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC.. to 7.0 kph 0 to 1. foot .K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance.0 kph 1. basic mountaineering gear.0 kph 0 to 1.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.5 to 7. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. should take this into account. In order to do this. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically.. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. first measure the map distance. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. %0* As able 5(.. indicates. helicopter support cannot be relied on.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than . Time-&istance #ormu!as. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains. foot of . Add one hour for each .0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . his distance plus .) to 1.

. Se!ect a . b.* Tra##ica i!ity. sno$ condition reports. avalanche probability. clearings. Consider the follo$ing: %. -lot start and end points. and the likelihood of crevasses. aerial photos. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. $eather reports. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment.oute. %1* . and trails accurately. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. his includes degree of slopes. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. a. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find.equire& $quipment. c. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. vegetation. sno$ depth. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. Additionally. avalanche probability. Se!ect a Current :ap. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. roads. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. $idth of trails. . he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations.

there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. its width. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. >se all available information and plan accordingly. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. and depth of the water. . 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. . :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. When rivers or streams must be crossed. or deep. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. %)* Con&itions. ake into consideration their present health.Contro! 9oints. %4* Checkpoints.%7* Communications. an alternate route should be used. !hen plotting a route on the map. 7f a water obstacle is too wide.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. depending upon the type of stream. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats.Capa i!ities o# Enit. swift. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. speed of the current. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains.econnaissance . #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep.

recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. If a dry crossing is unavailable. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. b. the rivers rise. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. In a s$amp. for e"ample. a. As glaciers. or ice melt during the day. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. perhaps from a ridge. Crossigs.econnaissance of the route %map. sno$. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. if . Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. depending on the distance from the source.. A distant vie$. the closer you are to the source.*. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. or head$aters. Figure '-). 2epending upon the time of year. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. photo. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body.

point of the river or stream. . 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. ho$ever. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. above the tree line for e"ample. %1* Cany mountain streams. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam .ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel.made during the early morning. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. ho$ever. =atural anchors are not a necessity. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. In some areas. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. Dnce a log jam is formed. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. contain sections $ith numerous channels. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. if any. and thus shallo$est. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. firm bottom. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off.

select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. -reparation includes the follo$ing. if available. temperature of the air and $ater*. he could easily dro$n. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. b. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. tactical situation. H If you must cross on the upstream side. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. +DI. as in the higher alpine Aones. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. binoculars. papers. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. <oots should be $orn . a. %)* !hen possible.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. All pockets are buttoned. !rap radios. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing.

streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. socks and inner soles should be removed. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. At times. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. Dn the far side. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. e. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. d. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. f. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. a. c.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. /o$ever.

e. b. a long ice a".$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. and if available. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. deliberate steps. . he staff should be moved first. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. If an obstacle is encountered. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. /e should take short. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. sturdy tree limb. c. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. d. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. o increase balance.

t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. &or chain crossing. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. . he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current.Figure '-. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. a team crossing may be used. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line formed faces the far bank.. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. but $ith the added support of each other.

Figure '-1. a. . he stream at this point may be impassable.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. Cany times though. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. height of the anchors above the $ater. .K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. and the distance from the near and far anchors. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . Chain metho& #or stream crossing.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available.

If the s$immer must release the rope at any time.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery.. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can.V. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. should he fail to reach the far bank. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing.$ill pendulum back. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. %. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. . /e should =. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. If this is impossible.

Stream crossing using a han&!ine. and anchored on the near bank. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. pulled tight.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. rather than straight across the stream. %. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired.Figure '-4. An appropriate knot is tied into the . %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. /ere again. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.

he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. $hichever appears easiest. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. %7* >nder most circumstances. Figure '-5. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. . he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks.

stream bottom configuration.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. f. c. such as mortars.%)* . speed of the current. especially heavier $eapons. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. e. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. $idth of the stream.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. use a different techni#ue. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. and individual e"perience. or choose another route. A lookout should be posted 7: to . and so on. d. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. recoilless rifles. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. b. a. Sa#ety . %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. .

>se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. e. seek out the closest and safest spot. 2o not try to fight the current. c. such as a sandbar. h. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. In either case. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls.g. If the shore is too difficult to reach. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. . S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. b. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. d. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. facing do$nstream. for assistance or rescue. a.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". As the slope steepens. .egardless of the techni#ue used. !henever possible. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes.:(. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. Dn steep terrain. Figure )*-)*. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. . and traverse.*.: and . d.degrees. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures .. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short.:(. descend straight do$n the fall line.

Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. /erringbone step straight up the slope. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. <acking up the slope %crab position*. 3orma! 9rogression. raverse $ith feet flat. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. . %0* =ce 7B. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. e. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. &ront(pointing. logical progression.Figure )*-)).* Crampons.

save the $eight of the crampons altogether. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.e.0*. in some cases. f. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . >sing most of these positions.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. .:(. and move the hand up the a" shaft. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. Step Cutting. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure . C!im ing sequence. .epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". Figure )*-).:(. C!im ing Sequence.. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to .1*.

using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. and angled more. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. . %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. !hen changing direction. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice.* Sno+. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. they should be smaller than footholds. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. In descending. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. %. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. a traverse is also the preferred method. In ascending. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. %0* =ce. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. then cut one bet$een those t$o. %'* -an&ho!&s. steps may be cut straight up the slope. =e"t. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. If handholds are cut. Dnce the step is formed.

:(. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. g. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact.Figure )*-)1. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped.'*. a fall %&igure . $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. . C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. 2uring movement on steep ice. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. or arrest. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. Se!#-7rrest.

.Figure )*-)4. Se!#-arrest technique.

and feet pointed upslope. back to the slope. stomach on the slope. the climber must first gain control of his body. and feet pointed upslope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. stomach on the slope. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. H /ead do$nslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. and feet pointed do$nslope. %. . H /ead upslope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens.Figure )*-)4. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. H /ead do$nslope. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope. back to the slope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished.

controlled. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side.7*.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. %c* In the third position. could severely injure his ankles and legs.:(. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. e"cept skis . %d* In the fourth position. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. 9lissading is similar to skiing. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. . lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. %'* !hen a fall occurs. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. If crampons are not $orn. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn.%a* In the first position. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. stomach do$n position. stomach on the slope. rapid descent. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. %b* In the second position.

he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. Sa#ety. Also. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. $hich serves as the rudder. b. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat.are not used. he same balance and control are necessary. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. and the other hand on the shaft. brake. Squatting <!issa&e. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. pick. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. Sitting <!issa&e. . as painful injury could result. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. and guide for the glissade. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. c.

=ce 9itons. >sed singularly. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. backpacks. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. or any large items. a. deadman(type anchors. flukes. sleds. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. . skis. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. %. <!issa&ing techniques. ice scre$s. and ice pitons. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets.: inches in length. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes.Figure )*-)5.

+olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand.:( . %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . such as top roping. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. move to another spot and replace it. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. =ce piton pair. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded.4*. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . If repeated use is necessary for one installation. !hen an ice piton is removed. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. he pair of pitons. =ce Scre+s. If it pulls out or appears $eak.:(. or the ice may crack or soften. c. making further use difficult. $hen placed correctly. Figure )*-)6. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection.)*. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. are multidirectional.

If repeated use is necessary for one installation. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in.%. such as top roping.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. or the ice may crack or soften. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. . !hen an ice scre$ is removed.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . Figure )*-)7. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. must be removed before further use. %. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. the ice that has accumulated in the tube.

%0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. pickets. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. Figure )*-)". %.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. the $idth should not be less than . the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. . he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es.5*.d. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes.:(. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. !hen constructed of sno$. e. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. In ice. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth.: feet. depending on the strength of the ice. or other e#uipment for added strength.

skis. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. such as a picket or a".* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. %&igure . he direction of pull on long items. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. . especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. t$o or more anchors should be used. or other fi"ed rope installations. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. should be at a right angle to its length. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks.:(.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. . also. ski poles.* !henever possible. frayed. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. %. f. rappel points. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor.%. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. A similar anchor.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. sno$shoes. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions.

all climbers move simultaneously. .:(4.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. :o2ement. !hen crevasses are e"pected. %+ee paragraph . <y using this .e#ualiAed anchor. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. a three(man rope team is recommended. a.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. for more information*. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. the tie(in is modified slightly. b. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. Covement on 9laciers. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. Tie-=n :etho&. Figure )*-)'. +hould any member fall. &or climbing on sno$ and ice.

%e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce.method. called the 6team arrest. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. c. %. %oot-aB e!ay. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure .* %oot-7B %e!ay. 9enerally.*. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. Figure )*-. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. .:(0:*. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. Dn steeper slopes. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$.

he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley.%0* %o&y %e!ay. also. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. .etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. or cliffs.opes. %1* :unter -itch. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. H . he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. ridgelines. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. FiBe& . As the movement continues. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. d. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor.

).a. Characteristics an& De#initions. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.:(00 depicts common glacier features. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. and &igure .:(0.* Figure )*-. . %&igure . <!acier cross section.

. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. <!acier #eatures. %.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.Figure )*-. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier.. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. .

hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. %. %. <e cautious. . hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult.. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. he firn line can change annually.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. %. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. . %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. As you approach this area. %.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend.

'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier.%. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. %. %. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. o$ard the end of the summer. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. In $inter.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. icefalls. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. %0. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . $hen visibility is poor. b. %. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. and ice avalanches. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. %.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. %.

Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . criss(crossed $ith crevasses. %. Figure )*-. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .:(0'*.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse.1.:(01*. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses. .in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers.

he simplest and most common . the remaining members go into team arrest. ie in to the bights and the ends. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. use the -rusik to belay each other in. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even.4. If four people are on a team. o locate the positions. If the team members need to assemble in one area. if three people are on a team. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends.Figure )*-. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. . assess the situation. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. %0* !hen conditions $arrant.

If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. $hile ideal for rock climbing. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions.:(07*. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. . the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. A roped team of t$o. . their security being the team arrest. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. 9enerally. he best combination is a three(man rope team. halting the fall.ope& :o2ement. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. c. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment.

<ecause of this.* . he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. $hether improvised or premanufactured. as for a four(person team. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. %0* .5.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. the rope should be divided into thirds. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. %. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members.Figure )*-. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. he remaining 6thirds6 .

the chance of it failing is much greater. d. Securing the %ackpack. e. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. attached to the rucksack. <efore movement. may be e"tremely difficult. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. he ends of the ropes are tied together.0(foot ropes. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . !hen . the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. forming endless loops or slings.. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. /o$ever. by itself. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. If necessary. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. &or safety reasons. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. or carried over the head and shoulder. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue.ucksack. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. $ith double fishermanUs knots. if $arm clothing is needed. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel.

=arro$ cracks may be covered. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. /o$ever. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. the sno$. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. large crevasses remain open.outes. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. heavily crevassed portions. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. g. . $hereas the glacier ice is gray. Crossing Cre2asses. and icefalls. =arro$ cracks can be jumped.hanging from the drop cord. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. Dpen crevasses are obvious. f. In this Aone. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. $hich covers glacier ice. %. they only supplement. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. and do not take the place of. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. %. steep terminal or lateral moraines.* In the area of the firn line.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. . $hich may be major obstacles to progress. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. connecting both sides of it.

%. the team may proceed.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. and may form firmer bridges. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. and gradually turn into glacier ice. Sno+ %ri&ges. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". . especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. If he is. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. h. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. its detection is difficult. but difficult to detect in flat light. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. In such a situation. a crevasse is probably present. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$.

. %c* he leader should move for$ard. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. =umber t$o belays number three across. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. i. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. he assumes the belay position. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side.: feet back from the edge. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. %1* In crossing crevasses. Dnce the second is across. 2o not stamp the sno$. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope.

the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. if the person $as almost across. =umber 1 must al$ays be . the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1.%. to anchor the rope. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough.. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. the rope is al$ays kept taut. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. % his scenario is for a team of three. using the -rusik as a self belay. /o$ever. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through.

as a minimum. close to number 0. onto the anchor. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. Cre2asse . %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . =ormally. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. $ould anchor the rope by himself. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. if the middle person should fall through. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number .escue Techniques. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . j. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in.Us anchor. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. number .. assumes the role of number 1.

If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. ski. on the edge of the ice. As the assisting team pulls. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. In order to reduce friction. In some situations. =umber . ski pole.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay.edge. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . %0* FiBe& . he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. If the fallen climber is not injured. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. place padding.ope Teams. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. . 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. If necessary. clips number 1Us rope to himself.ope. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. %. such as an ice a".nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. or backpackKrucksack. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the .

he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. %&igure . If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. %f* he procedure is repeated. /o$ever. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . or 6stirrup. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached.6 of the long sling. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. Dther times. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. to ascend the rope. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues.person in the crevasse. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome.

%c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number .:(04*. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. 9rusik ascen&ing technique. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. In theory. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. A pulley can be used here if available. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . to the anchor. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . Figure )*-. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System.support. % his scenario is for a team of three.::(pound load $ith this system. In actual field use. he basic V rig is a 61(to(.6.6 system.. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . and they have decided to install the V rig. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( .

If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . he system is no$ ready for another haul. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. H !ith the 61(to(.6 system. .Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible.

-robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. .Figure )*-. a. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. poles. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface.7. a crevasse is present. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. at least eight feet in length. =ormally. and so on.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system.

move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. 7t is. e. At a minimum. $hich keeps tents closer together. Air evacuation is preferred: however. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. terrain. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. probe again after digging. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. Under these conditions. distance to be moved. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. c. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent.* &or block construction. therefore. by . and e)isting installations. :ountain .b.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. by 0 feet. If a latrine area is needed. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . In deep soft sno$. If a dugout latrine is necessary. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. ry to find a solid platform. tactical situation. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. d. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. the weather. %. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. Dccasionally $hile probing. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site.

evel 777 supervising. c. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.2. hey are. &or a planned rescue. control serious bleeding. resume victimUs breathing.nsure that the C.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue.sufficient. /o$ever.* Assume command. a. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. b. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. . and maintain moderate body $armth. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. medic%. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. . !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. .evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . physician/s assistant. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay.evel 7 and .escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. %. ho$ever. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. .erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. and one person only. . is overall in charge at all times. Dne person.

possibility of falling rocks*. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. 9!anning . %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. and terrain at hand. continually monitor pulse. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. or a change in $eather. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. . a. should be used for evacuation.esist the urge for action.$SCE$.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. T-$ . +peed is less important than correct action. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. hanging glacier.escue 6perations . or any other immediate haAard. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft.If the victim is unconscious. . avalanche run(out Aone. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. vehicle. environmental haAard. if available. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people.

or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. routine. priority.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. H errain features and location of the casualties. H -lan the action. $hen.* After identifying the task. tactical immediate*. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. rescue. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. $hy. H Are additional personnel. and ho$ the situation happened. and evacuation. H . medical. c. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. he task must be identified. treatment. $here. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. security. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . H actical situation. H . d. In planning a rescue.b. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. $hat. and the nature of their injuries.

fi"ed lines. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. reliable trails or roads is essential. sleeping bags. ime becomes the critical element. and rescue belay points*. hot food and drinks. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. $alking trails. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. ropes. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. e. and the personnel and e#uipment available. pulse rate. stove. tents. and stretchers. . %c* !hen performing all rescues. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. the situation.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. drugs started. bivouac sacks. Age and physical condition may vary. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. !ith all rescue techni#ues. Ca"imum use of secure. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties.* In estimating time available. anchor points. and so on*. blood pressure. If the victim is airlifted out. lo$ering lines. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. $arm clothes.

elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. H 9. H F=.=6. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation. H S$C63D ST7<$4 .emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. separate stages are taken. or gusting $inds. Specia! Training .ST ST7<$4 .vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.=6.=6.D ST7<$4 .T. .otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites. available time is drastically reduced.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. . e"treme cold. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time. H 9. .ST7<$4 .=TD T-.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris.%1* . a. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. an orderly rescue may involve further planning.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential. H 9. In high altitudes.=6.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties. H T-=.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. H F6E. b.=TD F6E. .emove dead personnel.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel.

%b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. t$o(hand. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. he sling(rope carry %&igure . it can be lost through carelessness.* S!ing-. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. herefore. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. 6ne-:an Carries. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers.* re#uires a '. a. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. pistol belt. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. piggyback. rough handling. the best method of manual transportation is selected. four(hand.(. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. or inade#uate protection from the elements.ope Carry. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry..7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. saddleback.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. . difficult terrain. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. %.

he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . forming t$o almost e#ual groups. -adding.K0( meter coiled rope. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. . %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. and back around to the front of the bearer.ope Coi! Carry. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. Figure ))-). %0* . S!ing-rope carry. $hen available. around the casualtyUs thighs. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. %f* he rope must be tight. crosses the ends.

%e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. the bearer carefully stands. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. b. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. If this is not done. pulling the casualty onto his back. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. %u&&y . If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. In this case. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright.appe!. .

he rope is run diagonally. from right to left. %7* he rope is run diagonally. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. over his left shoulder. and back under the victimUs left armpit. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. across the carrierUs chest. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. from right to left. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. .%. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip.0(meter sling rope is used. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. across the victimUs back. from left to right. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. %0* A '. he victim straddles the carrier.

a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. behind the neck. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. easy to carry. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. and then routed up along the handling arm. If the litter must be carried. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. :anu#acture& 8itters. he rope is folded in half. depending on the terrain. and then do$n along the other arm. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. $hich are se$n on one side. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. and readily available. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. as described above.* he poleless. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. It can be improvised $ith poles. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay.%. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. on traverse lines.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. %. belayed. over the shoulder. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. . and e#uipment available. and then carried again. nature of injuries. a. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing.

%+ee &C 5(. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter.1.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5.5. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. $hich is a potential breaking point. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. .:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. . he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.

it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. doors. and other similar items. the hood must be up and under the victim. /o$ever. ladders. jackets. b.. sacks.6*-). and most other immobiliAation e#uipment... Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. ponchos. cots. . shirts. tarpaulin. or mattress covers. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. bags. +uch objects include boards. Figure ))-. such as a blanket. benches.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. A litter can be improvised from many different things. a large item. not dragging on the ground.(0*. %. these objects should be padded. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center. . If possible. tent supports. %0* If poles cannot be found.(0):(. $indo$ shutters.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets.. shelter halves. If a poncho is used. skis. scoop stretchers.0. and poles. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards.

7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete..%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure .(1*. . %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. . %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. make a clove hitch over each bight. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. Figure ))-1. little material e"ists to construct litters. centimeters long. 3ote4 Above the tree line. .ope !itter. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. empty bo"es.ach clove hitch should be about . sleeping bags. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time.

slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about .%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. a. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . and place a carabiner into the loop.0 inches belo$ the mule knot.* &irst. After placing the clove hitches over the bights. %e!ay 7ssist. %7* -ull up on the rope. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.escue Systems . -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. . but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. 2o not remove the belay. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. %. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends.(meter poles. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. . ake t$o . and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope.7 centimeters. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary.

* After a climber has been injured. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. %7* . o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. %. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. .emove the -rusik cord and carabiner.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. %5* . transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. b. %e!ay $scape. o improve this system.

%)* . his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. %. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. %0* %e!ays. . and other variables. In practice.aising System. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. .aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. a. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. belays. transferring the $eight to the anchor. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction.aising systems. are often encountered along the evacuation path. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. hand $inches. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. $hich must be surmounted. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor.* . Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. rope(edge friction. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. backup safety -rusiks are used to . . %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik.

%4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. . %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. % his is the signalman or relay man. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. if possible. c. b. taking care not to jar the casualty.safeguard the system. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. %.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. . hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.. %.aising the 8itter. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. Descen&ing S!opes. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform.( '*. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. he litter is prepared as already described.

clearance for the casualty along the route. if used. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. b. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. and anchor points for the A(frame.(7*: a.&escen&ing.Figure ))-4. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation .. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. good loading and unloading platforms.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. %1* he most direct. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. many different techni#ues can be used. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best.

c.:1814 Inches . $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. d. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. Figure ))-5.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. C!i## e2acuation &escent.

random probing starts in that vicinity.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& . and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. If any indication of the location of the victim is found.14 1.1814 . they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides.7.robability of survival drops rapidly and.:81) . . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search.05.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.14 . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. chances of survival are remote. 18.)0. if a member of your group is in an avalanche.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . . 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.. after two hours.. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .:105.. <enera! 9roce&ures .

his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. >sing this and any other information.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. several factors influence the bodyUs location. poles. A human body. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. goggles. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. boots. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. . . If using avalanche beacons. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. terrain. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. packs. and mark all clues. hats.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. if enough personnel are available.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. b. Book for skis. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. urbulence. gloves. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. make an initial probe search in that area. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed.. ice a"es. usually the toe of the slide. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. >nless other$ise indicated. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. a. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. . Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$.

. In the case of large and violent avalanches. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. Although this type of pole .fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. Cany models of transceivers are available. • . all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . Conversely. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. All currently available transceivers are compatible.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. although they may operate differently in the search mode. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. a. and other obstacles act as snares. 9ro e 9o!es. especially in a high $ind. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. the greater $ill be his burial depth. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. • Vegetation. rocks. Bonger poles are difficult to manage.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole.

hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. 9ro ing 8ines. $enty per line is satisfactory.performs best. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. . o ensure systematic and orderly probing. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. 9ro ing Techniques. he only sure check is by digging. the number of personnel per line should be limited.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. As evidenced by their names. coarse probing implies a . but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. c.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. %0* If no probing poles are available.* . b. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. %. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. &or the probing operation to be effective.

6 6+ . $hile the fine probe has. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string.::(percent chance of locating the body.. %.6 <y using these commands. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. &ine probing is the concluding measure. he probers themselves $ork silently. $ith feet about .7 inches apart. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. +trict discipline and firm. essentially. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.!A. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated. $hich almost guarantees finding the body.D<.-.D<.&D. clear commands are essential for efficient probing.2. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace.6 6>. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -..$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. a .

D<.6 6>.& -.ach man probes in front of his left foot.. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.. %b* Dn command...6 6>.D<..6 6>. $hich is then moved ahead . .-.I9/ -.&D.D<.: inches from the adjacent one.!A.%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.6 6C. . then in the center of his straddled position.. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.-.D<. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.= . and finally in front of his right foot. foot..D<. the line advances .-.6 6. foot and repeats the probing se#uence.ach probe is made .2. . -.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.6 6+ ..D<. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.

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