Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

Figure 4-).1*. .. a. + . %.. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. Tying the Knot.etrace /. Figure-$ight .+ . /o$ever.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. .. by tying the knot in a retrace. + . leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.'.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.1. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. Checkpoints. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. b.epeat + .. . + .. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor..0... 2ress the knot do$n.

+ . Figure-eight retrace.). + .'. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. and route the $orking end through the loop. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.0.7.+ . leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. Checkpoints %. he finished knot is dressed loosely... ake the $orking end around the anchor point. . !ith the $orking end. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. b..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. + . . + .* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.1.. Figure 4-)1. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope.

%0* End of the Rope. + . + . /old rope in both hands. + . a.%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. /old the loop in the left hand. + . +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right...1. palms do$n $ith hands together. he knot is tied.0. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.* Middle of the Rope..'. + . grasp the $orking end.. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(... assume that the anchor is horiAontal.'*. reach under the horiAontal anchor. %.. + . -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. Tying the Knot. !ith the right hand. .0. depending on ho$ it is tied. and bring it in$ard. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. /old the standing end in the left hand... +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.

Checkpoints.1. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. Figure 4-)4. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. a. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. !hen tying this knot. Tying the Knot.7*.+ . + . b. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. C!o2e hitch.'.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar.. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. %.. !ith the right hand.. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. It is a middle rope knot. 2ress do$n the knot. + . ake up the slack from the anchor. ..

.7.+ .5. + .4. Checkpoints. + . +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. (ireman’s knot.0. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. ...8. and place it over the heel $rap. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. Figure 4-)5.. palm.. + . b.'. + .. + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.1. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. + .. and fingertip.). + .

.1. + . + . It is a middle rope knot. it lays in$ard. !ith the $rap thus formed. + . tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. Cake one $rap around the palm. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied..)*. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.%. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. a. Tying the Knot.0... !hen dressing the knot do$n. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. the tail and the bight must be together.'... . + .

%.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Checkpoints. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. Directiona! #igure-eight. It is a middle rope knot. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. b.4*.Figure 4-)6. %0* he tail and bight must be together.

Tying the Knot. + ... + . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. + .. + .1. + . &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be.. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n... 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. ie an overhand knot on a bight. + .'.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. .. forming t$o loops.0.)..7. + .4. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.a.

T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. + .5.Figure 4-)7. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.. . %. %o+!ine-on-a.ight. form an . >sing a doubled rope. Tying the Knot.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. b. Checkpoints. a.* It is a middle rope knot... %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.

2ress the knot do$n. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Tying the Knot. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. !ith the $orking end.8*.7. /old the bight $ith the left hand. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.+ .. Checkpoints. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. . + ..1.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.. %. a. Figure 4-)".'.0. b.. + . It is a middle of the rope knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. + . Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.

form a loop in rope %standing part*..* he loop is the desired siAe. a. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. %. 2ress the knot tightly.+ . Checkpoints. . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. !ith the bight as the $orking end. It is a specialty knot... 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. Figure 4-)'. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.1. + . Tying the Knot. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik... b. + .0. Figure-eight !oop.

Figure 4-. + .0. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0..*.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. .*: + ..1. >sing an arm3s length of rope... .. + .. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. $ith the $orking ends even.*. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.0.each do$n through the . and place it over the long rope.0(inch bight. + . 2ouble the short rope. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope..%.1.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. + .. forming a bight. + .

parallel.'. + . It is a specialty knot. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.. Figure 4-. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.).. b. + . .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.7. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.. + . and not t$isted. Bay the $orking end under the long rope.+ .4. Checkpoints. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.nsure they are tight. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. . $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.. %.). %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.

+ . b. %achman knot. + ..0. Tying the Knot.a.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. %.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.1. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner... Checkpoints. + .. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. Figure 4-. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.

+tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. Checkpoints. %. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.. Tying the Knot.. bring a bight up through the loop.'. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. + .* A minimum of four $raps.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed... + . /olding the bight loosely. . place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. + .7. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.). +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.0. single coil. + . he running end is to the back of the body. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.4.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*... . hen. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. !ith the running end... a. >sing the standing part.1. + .. b. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. not crossed. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. It is a specialty knot. he standing portion is on the bottom. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. + . tie an overhand around all coils. + . $ith a bight held in place by a loop.

+ . !ith the right hand.1. Tying the Knot. . It is a specialty knot. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.0. a. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. + . + .1.Figure 4-. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!... &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. + . It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. Bay the loops to the right. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.'.....

Figure 4-. Checkpoints. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. b. It is a specialty knot..* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. %...4.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. Three-!oop o+!ine. .7. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. a. Tying the Knot. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.+ . + . &orm a ..

Figure-eight s!ip knot.+ .each through the bight and grasp the long. Checkpoints..5. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about ..0 inches up the rope. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. + .. + ..7.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.'. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. standing end of the rope. Figure 4-.0. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. %..:u!e Knot0 . Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. + . %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. b. + .1.). . -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.

+ . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. Tying the Knot. + . %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. Check 9oints. + .. b.0 inches long.0. %1* he bight is a minimum of . It is simply an overhand slip knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. Figure 4-. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.1.6. Transport knot...he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*..* here is a single overhand slip knot. a. K!eimhiest Knot .. %.

high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. + . + . easily adjustable. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by ... It is a special( purpose knot. pass them through the bight %see + ..0 inches.*. + . a. !rap at least four complete turns... 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.'.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. + . + .0.. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. find the center of the rope and form a bight.. !ith the ends offset. Tying the Knot.1.7.. . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.

7... %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.0 inches.. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.. Tying the Knot. K!eimhiest knot. a. %.0. Checkpoints. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. . It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. It is a special(purpose knot. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.: to .* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. + . + .Figure 4-. b.

: &orm a bight. + . <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Tying the Knot. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. %.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. + . <irth hitch. + . b. a.'. %... Checkpoint. Figure 4-.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.Figure 4-..* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.". Checkpoints. b. Frost knot. It is a special(purpose knot. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.1: Cinch the knot tightly.. :unter -itch .

1. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.* A bight passes through the carabiner. %0* he carabiner is locked. + . !ith the right hand. /old the loop $ith the left hand.he munter hitch. Tying the Knot.0. + . a.. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. /old the rope in both hands. palms do$n about .. Check 9oints. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. + . form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.0 inches apart. ... b.. + .'. !ith the right hand. Bock the locking mechanism.. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. %.

Figure 4-1*.' feet or longer. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. + .'..0..each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. . .. :unter hitch. It usually re#uires a sling rope . thus creating a loop around the $aist. + . ensuring they do not cross. a. + . .. Tying the Knot..1. + . &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.*. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.

.4. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.appe! seat. b.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.+ . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots... Figure 4-1). tightening the seat. + .7.). -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. . %. + . &rom rear to front. -ull up on the ropes. Check 9oints.

+ . + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. ..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. Tying the Knot.. a. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. preferably ovals*. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.0..

rope can only be pulled in one direction. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore.Figure 4-1. %. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations..* !hen properly dressed. Check 9oints. Although mountain operations have not changed. <uar&e knot. b. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities.

movement on glaciers. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. Army Infantry +chool. anchors. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I.). >nless other$ise stated. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. sno$(covered mountains. and urban vertical environments. evacuation. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander.).unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. he proponent of this publication is /F . =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. e#uipment.8:7(7781. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. A =: A +/(.+. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. for training %see Appendi" A*. 9A 1. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. >. and training. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. Inclement $eather. illness and ho$ever.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. Countain Dperations. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. &ort <enning. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. and actions. both men and $omen are included.A2DC. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning.<D. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. $henever the masculine gender is used. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build.). he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. glaciers. ice climbing. rock climbing.

::: kno$n minerals. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. AcclimatiAation. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. single ridges. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. compartments. and $ell(led troops. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . surprise. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. sno$fields.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. Df the appro"imately 0. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. conditioning. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. Spring storms. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. glaciers. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. rehearsals. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies.

Cha!k an& 8imestone. and cracks. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. &ace climbing is possible. &ace climbing can be found. ho$ever. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. face climbing. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. . found in limestone. After a rain. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. d. . Cost climbing holds are found in cracks.ockfall danger is high. After long. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. ne$ sno$. and de$."cept for calcite. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. granite dries #uickly. +topping a slide on small. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. <ranite. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. b. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. . San&stone. Bimestone has pockets. e. <rassy S!opes. . it cannot be protected. f. conglomerate type stones may be loose. . and it is usually difficult to protect. S!ate an& <neiss. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. a.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. c.

* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e .ocks. . &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . Ta!us. . Ascending scree is a tedious task. internal heat. his results in an intrusive rock. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". =gneous . Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. If possible. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. under pressure.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". propelled by its o$n lo$er density. and over time. a. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing.ocks. Scree. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. avoid scree $hen ascending. he magma may move up$ard. /o$ever.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. h. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell.ock C!assi#ications .unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. g. or. %. but smaller than boulders. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe.

6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling.and crystalliAing. and dikes.ockies.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. .:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. %1* Cointing . Dccasionally. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e ."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. . . the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. $hich cut across the strata. In plutonic rocks. +ierras. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. or clusters of segregated minerals.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. herefore. Fuieter eruptions. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. Adirondacks.ocks. =orth Cascades. In the Alps. it is called 6tuff.ocks. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. Barge %. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. produce basalt. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld.

sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. he Canadian . +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing.b. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. or oceans.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas.ocks. but cleavage or foliation. hese changes may be minimal. lakes. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. c. :etamorphic . +hale changes to slate or schist. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. After sediments are solidified. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. only slightly altering the sediments. In fact.ocks. As sediments accumulate. %. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. $hich offers . and limestone to marble.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. Se&imentary . $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. %.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. <ecause of this cleavage. especially in limestone.

:ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. and to pull apart and crack. ocean trenches.$orld class climbing. =evada. heaving up fold mountains. volcanoes. e"posing the central igneous core. and heavier. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. granitic continental crust. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. . often accompanies up$arp. a. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains.* Dome :ountains. &aulting. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. $hich results in fault(block mountains. b. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. 9!ate Tectonics. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. forming fault(block mountain ranges. :ountain Structure. he breakage e"tends . Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. . %. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. or cracking of the crust into large chunks.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. and mountain ridge systems. the Dlympics of !ashington. $hich also provides solid climbing.

!hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. it is faulted on one side only. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. he best kno$n is the 6. ectonic forces. central core is all that remains. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . Core often. ho$ever. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. %1* Fo!& :ountains. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. %'* Ao!canic the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. the oldest. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes.

. In addition. . these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. and have the skills to accomplish the plan. he I2+ classes are: . creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. domed. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. there are folds measured by a rope length.idge. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. and the .ift Valley of . Asian arc. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. the Caucasus region. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. and faulted. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. a. and the$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic .

H Class '—<elayed climbing. hree points of contact are necessary. %7* Class 7."posed positions.'—Bittle difficulty. %1* Class 7. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary.:(7. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. his is the simplest form of free climbing. often combined $ith small belay points. belay and emplace intermediate protection. climbing techni#ue. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training.7—Coderate difficulty.4—9reat difficulty. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. and e"perience re#uired."tremely great difficulty.. /ands are necessary to support balance. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. H Class 1—Climbing. /igh physical conditioning. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble.H Class . %0* Class 7. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. $hich may have some e"posure. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue. %'* Class 7. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection."traordinary difficulty. .e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. %4* Class 7.5—Very great difficulty.—/iking trail.:—. %)* Class 7. . .* b.)—Cedium difficulty.* Class 7.8—.

c.* A:—M&rench(free. e"perience.* Classes are further divided into a..'—9reater increases of difficulty. the 6.—. %.. %&or e"ample.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. re#uiring more climbing ability.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. .5.6 indicates periods of run(out $here. d. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level.. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling.(7. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. 7. %0* A..:d*. 7.5J*.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out.' %for e"ample. and d categories starting from 7. in a classification of 7. %5* Class 7.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable.asy aid. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. and energy e"penditure. b.: to 7. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. if a fall $as e"perienced. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7... ground fall $ould occur.6 or 6L. c. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple..

.5*. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. III — About three(fourths of a day. hese falls. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. All protection is sketchy at best. =o serious fall danger.4*."tremely severe aid. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. ho$ever. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. V — . %4* A)—. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %'* A1—/ard aid. such as A1J or A1(. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. %)* A7—. . II — /alf of a day. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. long fall potential does e"ist.K0 days %usually not less than 7. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories.%1* A0—Coderate aid. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement."treme aid. %7* A'—+erious aid. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. VI — 9reater than 0 days.K0 to 0 . >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. e. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. If the leader falls. /o$ever.

c 7b..f..b.:.c )a.1.c 7b.b.7 7.. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.c 7b. 'b hard severe.0.1K.7b 7.c 7b.'.b. 'a severe.a.'a 'a.(.1 7..8 VI 7a 7. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs.)b .a VIII( ..c 7a..7 ..' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .5 VI( severe.)a 7.:c VII .b 7b. sho$s a comparison of these systems.8 0: 0. 7.c. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in .c )a.:b VII .c.)a 7.* moderate %CD2* .7b 7. 'c 7. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty..b 0c.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.b.1a 1b..5 ..' 7.'.c 0a.c )a.4 .1 IIIsup .'a 1b.c VIII ..oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty.a..c. III .: 7..) 7... Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.urope.b.. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it. able . H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.0 7..c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.).'a 1b.c ..7b 7.b.8 IIsup . hard severe. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs. hard very 7...* easy %.b. H <raAilian—<raAil uses . hard severe.* easy %.K.b 0a.c 'a.7b(7c 7.0..:a VII( .:d VIIJ . DDS Class . 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.b VIII ..

.)c 4a VIII 0) . he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in . . %. possibly $ith a haAardous descent.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-).verything a grade VI has. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete. $ith sustained technical climbing. and the route might be prone to avalanche.atings. -ossibly days to approach the climb. AI %alpine ice*. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*.. H I — A short.0a 7. 2ifficult physically and mentally. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself.)K4.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .0c 7.)c 4a 05 . his route is subject to objective haAards.7..0b 7.)K4. H V — A long climb in a remote setting.ating systems.)K4. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance.. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation.. $ith little objective haAard.7. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. . Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. all in a remote area. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. easy climb near the road.)K4. $ith objective haAards ever(present.7. H VII — .. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. and more of it..7..0d IL( IL IL ILJ . g.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.* Commitment . and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.oman numerals. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. A difficult and involved approach and descent.

location.atings. a. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. H . Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. he pitch may be shorter. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. . $ith places to rest. additional information may be needed about siAe. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. re#uiring agility and creativity. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. strenuous pitch. erratic $eather. H 7 — A long. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. physically and mentally. — A froAen lake or stream bed. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. but on featureless ice. !hen planning mountain operations. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. An e"tremely tough pitch. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation.%0* Technica! . possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances.

but do not overdress. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. and amounts of precipitation. Co2er an& Concea!ment . H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. c. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. H If lost. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly.b.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. during severe mountain storms. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. if possible. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. and calm. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. dry. %. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. H 2o not rush. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. types. put on dry clothing. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. H ?eep dry. stay $arm. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. H ?eep $arm.

sleet. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. As in all operations. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. /o$ever. . mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. and fog can limit visibility. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. In other areas. are easily e"cavated. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. In alpine environments. . outcroppings. such as volcanic tuff. are e"cellent at long ranges. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. dead space is a problem at short ranges. b. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. +ome rock types. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. hail. a. /o$ever. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. like observation. heavy vegetation. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. Conversely. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. boulders. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony.!hen moving in the mountains. sno$. in depth. rain.

rainfall. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. latitude. or a rise in temperature. he reverse can happen just as #uickly.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. . and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. a. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. sno$ conditions. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. . Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. and $eather factors.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. If an une"pected $ind strikes. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. especially in $inter. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. b.

-ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. conse#uently. At higher altitudes. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. <ecause of this increased dryness. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. the thinner.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude.c. such as those found in desert regions. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. In tropical regions. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. a. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. (eather Characteristics . he barometer usually drops 0. d. b. +ome mountains. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. 2ue to the cold. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. .

1 millibars %mb*. %0* 8o+ 9ressure.:. ho$ it is being moved. on the other . une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. a. he higher the pressure. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. and the earth3s rotation. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. oceans. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature.* -igh 9ressure. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. b. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. air pressure %barometric pressure*. %. Associated $ith clear skies.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers.. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. the better the $eather $ill be. the lo$er the pressure. In order to understand this. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. humidity %moisture content*. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. he higher in altitude.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . !ith lo$er air pressure. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. land masses. Bo$ pressure.::: feet. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. Associated $ith bad $eather.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. and if it is being lifted or not. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6.

Above hot surfaces. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more.hand. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. =ormally. !ith increasing $ind strength. 2uring the $inter season. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. Dn a $eather map. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. . <ecause of these funneling effects. >sually. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. c. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. c. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. b. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. and sinks to the earth3s surface. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. $here it rises and moves to the poles again.6 (in& In high mountains. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. or at high altitudes. a. dense clouds fill the air. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction.

hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. due to the earth3s rotation. e. has settled to the surface. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. Caritime -olar — cold. . there are three prevailing $inds: %. Caritime ropical — $arm. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. g. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. f. dry air mass. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. $et air mass. In the =orthern /emisphere. Continental ropical — $arm.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. dry air mass. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. $et air mass. but do not necessarily affect the $eather.d. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air.

fog.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. $ind meter. and so on*. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point.::: feet of elevation gained or lost.:: percent relative humidity*.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. b. the $armer the air.. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. and thermometer. a. rain.. the more moisture it can hold.%. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. clouds are formed. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. de$. sno$. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. .:: percent relative humidity. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6.

Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. and . Clouds can be described in many $ays. it has no$here to go but up. .(. c. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. hey can be classified by height or appearance.a. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. mid(.(0*. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. a. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. !hen temperatures are cold enough. +ince air masses $ill not mi". d. b. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ).arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. 6rographic 8i#ting. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. Fronta! 8i#ting. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation.7:: feet.

* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures .(1 and . Figure )-.Figure )-). Cumu!us C!ou&s.. Figure )-1. . Stratus C!ou&s. %.('*. 3im ostratus C!ou&s.

deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark.::: feet . especially if the cloud is more than 1. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een.Figure )-4. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation.

7!tostratus. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. Figure )-6. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. Figure )-5. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s.::: feet thick. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Cold clouds.thick. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. 7!tocumu!us. especially if they are rising over time. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.7:: to 0:.* b. . though usually hours a$ay.(7 and . Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto.()*. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather.

the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. in a blue sky. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. . indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. Cirrus. produces a ring of light around the moon. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. !ith altostratus. c.(5*. emperatures are $arm.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus.%. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. humidity rises. Figure )-7. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. As the storm approaches. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. at night.(4 and &igure .

releasing incredible amounts of energy.::: feet. Cirrostratus. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. or seemingly all tangled together. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus.Figure )-". ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. ?no$n for their flat bases and . +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. As a result. d. %. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. %. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. shaped like a comma.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. hey can be nearly straight.::: feet. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. . Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation.

>nder favorable conditions. . fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. damaging $inds. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$.::: feet or higher. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. ice crystals dominate the composition. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. . Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. an artifact of erosion. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. 9iven suitable conditions. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. As the air rises.(8*.distinct outlines. and tornadoes. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. large hail. ho$ever. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure .

is lifted up$ard. If they gro$ and descend. $arming as it descends. . and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . >pon reaching the mountain top. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud.:*. hey are orographic clouds. 6ther C!ou& Types. stable air encounters a mountain. %. similar to a 6flying saucer. /o$ever.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. Initially. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. lenticulars.Figure )-'. Dnce the air returns to its original height. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. !ith continued descent. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. Cumu!onim us. and cools. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. bad $eather can be e"pected. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side.(. and contrails. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. e. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape.

Figure )-)). especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. C!ou& =nterpretation. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . f. 8inticu!ar.Figure )-)*.. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*.*. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon.(. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. especially if the sky is . +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. Contrai!s.

A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. it becomes a stationary front. (arm Front. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. a. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. nimbostratus %producing rain*. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. $ill force the $arm air up. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. . A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. cirrostratus. Co!& Front. cumulus. he four types of fronts are $arm. d. Cold air. c. altostratus. cold. cirrostratus.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. being more dense than $arm air. b. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. Stationary Front. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. <ecause $arm air is less dense. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. it is a $arm occlusion.covered $ith cumulus clouds. and stationary. and fog. occluded. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. to the local sky. there . Dccasionally.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. and nimbostratus. 6cc!u&e& Front. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion.

Conse#uently. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. a. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. At high altitudes. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. .0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. clear. the temperature of the air drops 1. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. fog.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. sno$. Temperature =ormally. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every .::: feet of elevation gain. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. b. <esides permitting rapid heating. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. and mid(latitudes. calm typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. his cooler. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$..7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . subarctic. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. and heat loss through thermal radiation. due to convection currents.::: feet of elevation gain. and precipitation*. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. the temperature of the air drops 7. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness... emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice.

the amount of data available. including >+A&. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience.c. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. $ind meter. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. . Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. are also helpful. o be effective. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. thermometer.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. temperature. herefore. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. or the =ational !eather <ureau. .. >+=. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. if today $as hot and dry. but more slo$ly %1. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. b. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. a.* 9ersistence :etho&. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents.

(in& Spee&. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. . Ideally. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. and so forth. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. /o$ever. &or e"ample. c. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. %0* If no anemometer is available. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years.* If an anemometer is available. Assess $ind speed in knots. this may not al$ays be the case. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. and clouds and precipitation. such as trees. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. . assess speed to the nearest knot. %'* 7na!og :etho&. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. under changing conditions. a. estimate the speed in knots. are blo$ing.%0* Tren&s :etho&. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. (in& Direction. b. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. bushes. %. Aisi i!ity in :eters. tents. high( and lo$(pressure centers. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns.

Assess total cloud cover in eighths. %. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times .* !ith a thermometer.77.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. If clouds are not touching terrain. degrees &.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain.d. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. &og. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. . o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft.. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths.* f. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds.77 P 7 degrees C. Cei!ing -eight. total cloud cover is 'K5. e.5 times C plus 10. g. 7 degrees C " . Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. hail. heavy do$npours. $Bamp!e4 '. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. 9resent (eather. %&or e"ample. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*..5 J 10 P '. colder temperatures. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. =ote if bases are above all terrain. then estimate to the best of your ability. Temperature. . degrees & Q 10 " .ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. . Tota! C!ou& Co2er.

%0* !ithout a thermometer. !ith a barometer or altimeter. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. i. %. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. 9ressure Tren&. Increasing cloud coverage. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. Carked $ind speed increases. %. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. Carked increase in humidity. Changes in obstructions to visibility. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. .* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. Increase in precipitation. 6 ser2e& (eather. Carked cooler temperature changes.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. as $ell as an estimated temperature. assess the pressure trend. he closer the isometric lines are. h.

Ep&ate. e#uipment misuse*. climbing above one3s ability. man(made %caused by an individual. avalanche run(out Aones. companions. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . $quipment. rope in. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. If the possibility of falling e"ists. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. or e"cessive use. a. j. /umidity decreases. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. lightning. age. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. $ind. Increasing barometric pressure. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. choice of route. bad $eather. improper diet. . Increasing height of cloud ceilings. or other reasons. over(fatigue. or as a combination %human trigger*. and poor judgment. tour. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. overe"ertion. carelessness. &alling can be caused by carelessness. heavy e#uipment. b. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. overestimating ability. and flooding %especially in gullies*. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. Fa!!ing. such as lack of preparation. a hold breaking a$ay. dehydration. c. %i2ouac Site.

and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. and so on. +leep $ell. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse.: kilograms %about 0. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. Avoid. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. icefalls. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. e. darkness. . >se a route sketch and march table."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. If you must cross these danger areas. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. %. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. &og. 7!titu&e. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Cre2asses. stay hydrated. As this slope increases .ock. rockfalls. b. d.* f. 72a!anches. . it is best to rope up. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*.::: pounds*. Aisi i!ity.ock#a!!. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. At high altitudes %especially over ).efer to paragraph . c. lightning. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. <u!!ies. rain. hanging glaciers and seracs. a. If ice is in the gully.7:: feet*. if at all possible. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. acclimatiAe slo$ly. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. endurance and concentration is reduced. g. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. If you must move under these conditions. storms. sno$.

?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. and rock needles. fi"ed $ire installations. Bightning is fre#uent. and a bluish light %+t. Air is dryer at higher altitudes.from 07 to 1: degrees. as a glacier makes a bend.* Avoid peaks. isolated trees.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. but dehydration is of greater concern.::: feet. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . haAardous icefalls can be formed. herefore. d. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. A clear. e. shallo$ overhangs. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. c. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. caves*. Above appro"imately 5. %. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. a. . Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear.: kilometers apart. cracks filled $ith earth. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. rock $alls. . it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. hair standing on end. Bike$ise. b. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. shallo$ depressions. . the force #uadruples. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. humming of metal objects. cracks that guide $ater. violent. crackling. ridges. +eek shelter around dry.

gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. the sno$ #uickly melts. 2uring and after rain. and debris being blo$n about. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. h. % able . rain.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist.* . even if overcast. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. f. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. If already rappelling. i. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives.0 to .::(meter rise in altitude. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. &or each . If half $ay up the rock face. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. j. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. g. 2rink plenty of fluids. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. $indburn. and sno$. . If it is sno$ing. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. $hich may bury the trail. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of .5 inches@ ho$ever.

72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. but may occur on concave slopes.. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on .* S!ope 7ng!e. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. a. %1* S!ope 7spect. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. +lopes as gentle as . %.7 degrees have avalanched. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. S!ope Sta i!ity.Ta !e )-.

Dn grassy slopes or scree. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . %. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. Sno+ 9its. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. . the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. . %'* <roun& Co2er.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. e"plosions. the potential for avalanche is high. %'* (eight. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. b.sunny. %7* Ai ration. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. +ustained $inds of . $arm days. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. Various factors trigger avalanches. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. -assing helicopters. Triggers. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. %. %Dn at least one occasion. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. %1* (in&. %0* 9recipitation.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. heavy e#uipment.* Temperature. At temperatures above freeAing.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. c.

utschblock test. d. smooth the face $ith a shovel. If the block is still holding up. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. s#uat once.pit across the fall line. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. o conduct the test. and so on. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. then t$ice. Dnce above. o isolate the rear of the column. =e"t. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. place the other foot on the block. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. %. Dnce the pit is complete. through all the sno$. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. %1* Conduct a . %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. to the ground. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab.

lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters.during the $inter sno$ season. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. +lab release is rapid. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. a drop in temperature of . he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. &or normal density. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. settled sno$.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. Barge avalanches of this type. %b* As slabs become harder. .: degrees Celsius %. 9rotecti2e :easures. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. Although any avalanche can kill you. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. Dther measures include: . d.

avoid moving during these periods. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. -repare to discard e#uipment. %0* <roup Sa#ety. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. far from the bottom of slopes. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. 2eploy avalanche cord.oute Se!ection. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. f. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. e. and not directly up the center. If you must traverse. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. climb to the side of the avalanche path. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. -ut your hood on.%. >se them for lunch and rest stops. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. %. . . either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. $hich is al$ays the best choice. ridges. %. as $ell as protect your spine. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. .

it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. &I9/ &D. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. no one can hear you scream. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. If you feel yourself about to pass out. %)* ry to rela". <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. and the body temperature is lo$ered. If you feel your feet touch the ground.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. Sur2i2a!. %1* Soun&s. their pulse rate declines.* :ountain 8i2ing . they $ould avoid the avalanche. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. hold your breath. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen.. ID>.* 2iscard e#uipment. . %.%0* Fracture 8ines. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. g. BI&. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. shut your mouth. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. do not fight it.

preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. shelter considerations. Dne #uart of $ater. /yperventilation and the cool. locating $ater. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. #ormal activities $navigation. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. raining should include: psychological preparation. a. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. communications. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. fire building. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations.(4)*. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. health haAards. &luids lost through respiration. or the . he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. perspiration.

Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. c. thirst should be satisfied in increments.0 #uarts %. +no$. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. rain. juices. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. . physical activity must be reduced. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for .mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. If he is hot and the $ater is cold.e#uivalent. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. b. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. &ruits. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. severe cramping may result. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. and a loss of . . and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. springs.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. ho$ever. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. e. -urification must be accomplished. Conserve $ater for drinking. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. d. If the $ater supply is insufficient. mountain streams. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable.

high mountain areas freeAe. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. !ater is scarce above the timberline. . or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes.drinking $ater. !ater that is unfit to drink. b. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. After sundo$n. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted.'. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. If possible. assembly area. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. a $atering party should be employed. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. precautions must be taken. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. defense*. f. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. but other$ise not dangerous. a. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0.::: feet*."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling.(4)*.

&ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. milk. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. Dther foods such as cereals. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. and carbohydrates. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. %0* Fats. vegetables. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. . poultry. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. cheese. is 5 ounces for a . fats.of cold rations. amino acids. metabolic changes. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. eggs. resulting from digestion of protein. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. eggs. hese food components provide energy. regardless of physical activity. and loss of appetite. fish. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. nuts. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. butter.7'(pound man. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. and cheese. fiber.* 9rotein. c. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. energy. %. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. milk. Cain sources of fats are meats. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. or milk proteins. and legumes also provide amino acids. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. and meats. he amino acids. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. and minerals. Df the total daily caloric intake. vitamins.

Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. vegetables. and Ainc.: days. . Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. %7* Cinerals. especially if this period is to e"ceed . fruits. %. . a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. and fruit. depending on the soldier. iron. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. 2.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. and ?. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. d. vitamin supplements should be considered. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. %'* Aitamins. . a balanced diet is a necessity.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. =utritionally. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . In the form of glucose. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . vegetables. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A.. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. phosphorous. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. fruits*. vegetables. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. $hich are found in cereals. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. and meats.%1* Car ohy&rates.

the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. candies. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting.7:: calories for garrison activity.s $ith breakfast bars."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. and be eaten hot or cold. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. fruits. !hen cooking. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite.$orks. cereal bars. . he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. tea. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. +ince coffee. >se stoves and heat .s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. herefore. /ot beverages of soup. thus releasing heat. and hot chocolate are diuretics. marked. stoves. and chocolate. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible.. juices. Carbohydrates. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. juices. o conserve fuel. shortness of breath. cramps. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. %About '. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. are important in maintaining energy levels. the cooking time may be doubled. fires. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . . and cider should also be considered. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation.::(pound man*. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. metal containers. At higher elevations."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. %1* . beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. and illness.. po$dered milk. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. Commanders may consider supplementing C.

In freeAing $eather. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. and burial sites. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. %. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. hydration. perspiration. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. no trace of a unit should be detected. ahkios. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. mainly during periods of cold $eather. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. garbage should be burned or deep buried. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. and judgment of soldiers. !hen operating in areas . +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. As all missions are tactical. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. a. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. 9ersona! -ygiene. medications. alcohol. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. his is especially important in the high mountains. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. %7* Certain drugs.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. and eyelids. nose. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. herefore. If possible.

cracks. and discoloration. dried. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet.6 +ince $aste freeAes. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. If latrines are constructed. it can . his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. the soldier in a designated. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. $hich may cause blisters. &eet should be $ashed daily. Sanitation. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. In rocky or froAen ground. digging latrines is usually difficult. !henever changing socks. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. blisters. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold.$here resupply is not possible. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. If laundering of clothing is difficult. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. In tactical situations. and kept as dry and clean as possible. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. but must be #uickly dried. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. b. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein.

Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. /o$ever.::: feet.'. /igh altitude e"tends from 5.5. employment of the local population may be advantageous. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*.::: feet and ending at . Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures.::: to covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary.::: feet. and training of soldiers. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. Altitude illness is common here.5.::: to . $aste may be covered $ith stones. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. Coderate altitude is from 7.::: to .::: feet. conditioning. $here altitude illness is the rule. Very high altitude is the region from .'.'.::: feet. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.::: feet. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. In rocky areas above the timberline. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.*.*.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained.4. Above 5.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. . /ere. starting at about 5. Areas above .::: to 5. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. At these altitudes. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain .::: feet %high elevation*. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories.

:. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. Boss of appetite.apid ascent to . b. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated.::: feet*. the rate of ascent.4. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation.'.'.0. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy.::: feet.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. .5 percent may have severe symptoms. operational unit. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.::: to . incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. .apid ascent to elevations of . +leep disturbances. +lurred speech.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility.7:: feet causes severe. Irregular breathing. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ). Increased irritability in some individuals. /eadache. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . . nutrition and physical activity it is about . Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. a.0 to .::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel.apid ascent to . 2eterioration of memory. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ).

he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least .unacclimatiAed personnel. the total impact still results in errors of judgment.+. -riorities of training must be established.+. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >.+. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. environment. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • .. As $ith all military operations. and enemy situation. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. >. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. a. herefore.

!ater..::: feet per day.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. food. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. a unit should ascend at a rate of . +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. .::: feet. these drugs are diuretics. if in a $inter environment. $ater purification supplies. c. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. and. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. >nits can leapfrog. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. taking an e"tended rest period. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening.::: to 0. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater.* Above 5. time to ac#uire $ater. $ith the unit. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. and rest must be considered as priorities. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. mission. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. Additionally.

the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. At the same time. A different group of muscles are used. d. his conditions the back and legs.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. he better the physical condition of the soldier. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. $hich must be developed and hardened.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. climbing. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. the metabolism becomes more efficient. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. and calisthenics. $hile carrying D. the soldier3s . +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. his increases the soldier3s endurance. . and special e#uipment loads. e. . f. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease.

strains. strains. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. . . Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims.capacity for e"ertion is increased. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. frostbite. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. hese include sprains. contusions and fractures. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. fractures. abrasions. conditioning. arms. back. . >pon deploying to high elevations. metabolism. After acclimatiAation. personnel can still become injured %sprains. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. and circulatory support. to the point of instinctive reaction. breathing management.epetitive practice. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. As $ith any other injuries. abdomen. g. legs. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. lungs. and trench foot*. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. he heart rate. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. hypothermia.

burning. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens.* Contributing factors include fair skin. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions.7::. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. 2ue to rough terrain. fever. . a. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. he skin may be $arm to the touch. Sun urn. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . he . and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. If blisters do break. Immediate first aid is given on site.. 2o not pop blisters. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. $ash thoroughly. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen.:: and .Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. and headaches may occur. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. and seek medical attention. bandage. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. In severe cases chills. %. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. %1* o treat sunburn. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather.

7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays .7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. %1* o treat sno$blindness. Sno+ !in&ness. red.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. If still painful. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. ice. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. the >. and $ater. %'* o prevent sunburn. Administer pain medication if needed. %&or e"ample. b.* In an emergency.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. -roper sunglasses should provide .7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . Avoid rubbing the eyes. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. %. %Currently.* 2uring sustained activity.+. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. an +-& of . use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. .

Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. b. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. +imple tasks take longer to perform. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. but freeAing temperatures are not. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . . and immersion foot. and fight in $inter conditions. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. personnel. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. dehydration. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. +oldiers must be prepared to survive.0. dissemination. rest. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. /o$ever. a. move.*. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. and nutrition.

he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. %1* <eographic 6rigin. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . %0* . Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. %'* 7m ient Temperature.Figure . &or e"ample. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. %. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. c. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries.ace. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit.-). (in& chi!! chart.

D. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. D—2ry. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. therefore. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. accumulation of perspiration. %4* Terrain. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. %)* Type o# :ission. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces.6. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. he lo$er the $ind chill. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. • • • . or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. %5* C!othing. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. ?eep dry. in mind. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection.danger Aone or beyond. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. !et clothing loses insulation value. 6—Dverheating. Avoid overheating.8.

!eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival.* 7ge.:* Dehy&ration. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. %. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. %."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. %. age is not a significant factor. %. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.4* .. Individuals must retain their body fluids. especially in higher elevations.0* Fatigue. . and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel.%8* :oisture. d. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration. %.1* Concomitant =n>ury. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. %.a&ica! Changes in the (eather.7* 3utrition. . %. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. %. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased.

+oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. %0* Con&uction. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body.a&iation. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. or evaporation. . Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. Dn cold days. <ody heat may be lost through radiation.%. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. and careful. f. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. ."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. conduction. deliberate. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. -erform emergency first aid.* . e. %. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. convection.

Any illness or injury can produce shock. rapid and faint pulse. his condition may digress into incoherence. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. . 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. or feet. and loss of blood. %b* 'reatment. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. and e"cessive thirst. and possibly death. shortness of breath. pain. o treat shock.levate the back and head. %'* $2aporation. !ind chill is convection cooling. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. cold skin. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin.* Shock. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. %a* Symptoms. %. fear. his is usually caused by . Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. g. slo$er heart beat. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. administer $ater. Clothing that ventilates. . it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. insulates.%1* Con2ection. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. s$eating. %0* Dehy&ration. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. unconsciousness.

Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. Cold causes fre#uent urination. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. higher temperature. headache. %a* Contributing +actors. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. in fact. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. tiredness. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. dry mouth. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. he is probably dehydrated. At high altitudes. and unconsciousness. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. /o$ever. fainting. If the stomach is cold. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. upset stomach. decreased amounts of urine being produced. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. the air is dry. o distinguish bet$een them. mental sluggishness. hey may.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. %b* Symptoms. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. diAAiness. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. lack of appetite. rapid heartbeat.

Accidental immersion in $ater. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. . %a* Contributing +actors. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. %1* -ypothermia. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. Allo$ the victim to rest.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. In advanced cases. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. -oor nutrition. %c* 'reatment. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. Change in $eather. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. /igh $inds. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. 2ecreased physical activity. 2iarrhea.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. and o"ygen. is prevented by good nutrition. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. &urosemide %Basi"*. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. Crackling.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. $armth. If untreated. .0: to . and death results. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. $hich is a diuretic. • • • . decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. • • d. using mannitol could be fatal. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. is planned for every 1. are prone to second attacks.):*. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. >nconsciousness. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug.::: to 0. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. rest. if left untreated.::: to 1. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. A rest day. /A-.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. reatment of /A-. e. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. rapid heartbeat %pulse . given orally can also be effective. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . /A-.. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. may become irreversible and cause death. hydration.::: feet of altitude gained.• -rogressive shortness of breath.

stupor. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. $armth. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions.apid descent and medical attention. coma. paralysis.. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. he main symptom of /AC. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. vomiting.. and unconsciousness. inability to concentrate. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. is a severe headache. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. include mild personality changes. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. c. may occur in e"perienced. /A-. b. convulsions. is the same as for /A-. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur.. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. +upplemental o"ygen. maintaining hydration. reatment for /AC. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. . +ymptoms of /AC. -reventive measures include good eating habits.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. immediate descent is mandatory. . hallucinations. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. Beft untreated. headaches. d. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain.est. and lack of coordination. confusion.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. can cause death. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. . -revention of /AC. decrease in urination. /AC. and /AC. a.

'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. cools down and heats up differently. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. . which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. &rom this. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. edema. occurs. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. .-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. and /AC. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better.rovided all tactical concerns are met. cause increased proteins in the plasma. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. move faster. . and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. or the fluid portion of the blood. therefore. both cerebral and pulmonary. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level.

he inner boot provides support. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. /o$ever. c. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. a lace( up configuration. Foot+ear Currently. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible.*. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. b. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. as $ell as insulation against the cold. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots.*. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. %. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. a. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. he outer .he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system.

$hich protect the soldier from the elements. if $orn correctly. socks provide cushioning for the foot. ski bindings.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. !hen clothing is $orn properly. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. develops hypothermia or frostbite. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. . a.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. the insulation layers. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. . C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. %. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. and the outer most garments. uncomfortable and. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. Socks. at $orst. he is. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached.egardless of climatic conditions. at best. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. remove e"cess moisture. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. !hen $orn improperly. Figure 1-). he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. As a system.

=nsu!ating 8ayers. In colder environments.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. he . %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. En&er+ear. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. he primary material in this product is polyester.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. c. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. . Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. &or the most part. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. /o$ever. b. If the user is $earing V< boots. %a* In severe $et conditions.

$Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system.C!C+ correctly. he . d. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. as $ell as mud.. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. <aiters. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. t$igs. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. and stones. 6uter 8ayers. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the .Figure 1-. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. e.

he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. %. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter.ven during the best climatic conditions. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. $ill need to be locally purchased. -an& (ear. hook(pile tape. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. in most cases. Three types o# gaiters.C!C+ and. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. and snaps. .. Figure 1-1.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. . f.

predominately $ool. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. as $ell as replacement liners for both. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. As $ith clothes and hand $ear.Figure 1-4. . %.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. =atural fibers. -ea&+ear. g. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. -an& +ear. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. man( made fibers are preferred. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer.

keeping the $earer drier and $armer. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. i. &or e"treme cold. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. Figure 1-6. a balaclava can be added. -e!mets.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . !hichever helmet is$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. his covers the head. . -e!mets. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. $ye+ear. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. h. Figure 1-5. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. neck.

heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. $ebbing. cord. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. :aintenance o# C!othing. &rance. and harnesses. Community .* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and.uropean economy. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined .urope. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging.uropean norm %C. It is based in -aris. .=*.urope %C. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.uropean norm %. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. . and comprises several commissions.=* and C. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . j. have been combined to make combined . !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. Figure 1-7. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness.

K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. Its ability to stretch up to .egardless of the rope chosen. called slings or runners.opes an& Cor&. essentially. . . Figure 1-". and elongation. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. Kernmant!e construction. he . %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought.:.. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. $hich is. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. (e ing an& S!ings. A static rope has very little stretch. If used for -rusik knots. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. &or most military applications. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath.a. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle..* . impact force.. and is best used in rope installations. %. .(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. abrasion resistance. it should be >IAA certified.(mm rope. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains.7( or . b. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. a standard .

+e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. carabiners.) inch. .unners are predominately made from either 8K. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material .) inch. and . and anchors. inch.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.0 inches.. $hich is stronger. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. . Tie& or se+n runners.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. &or most military applications. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. and have less bulk than the tied version. -arnesses.K.uses for these simple pieces are endless. c. more durable. and 0' inches. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. the rope. .)(inch or . are usually lighter. ' inches. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. . Figure 1-'. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. %. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. . and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying.

* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive.:*. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing.:*. referred to as a seat harness. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand unavailable. %1* . $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. are more restrictive. his type of harness. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time.:*. !ith the remaining $ebbing. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. &itted properly. . %. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. !hile these harnesses are safer.

Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available.*. +teel is still $idely used. Cara iners. great care should be . odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. and the protection attaching him to the mountain.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. his rope. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer.. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. the 2(shaped. given other options. . a. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. !hen using a carabiner.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. he oval. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. Figure 1-)*. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them.

:a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. Figure 1-).0*.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. %. the load is . 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners. Figure 1-)).. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner.

and angle.egardless of the type chosen. hey are made of malleable steel.1*. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly.itons. design. %1* . %. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. the blade and eye are aligned. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical.* 1ertical . A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. . $afer. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. and length %&igure 1(. horiAontal. 9itons. b. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. along its minor a"is. Aarious pitons. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. hey are described by their thickness. or other alloys. hardened steel. Figure 1-)1. and $ith the gate open. vertical cracks. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. hese pitons are used in flush. specifically the locking version. Dn vertical pitons. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. and angles. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness.

or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. %1* Wafer . c. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. hey are small and fit into thin. %4* 3ong . ledges.itons. 9iton -ammers. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about .(inch s#uare. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. shallo$ cracks. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. %)* Angle .%0* Horizontal . shallo$ cracks. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. $ebbing. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place.itons. Dn horiAontal pitons. or leather is used to .'*. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. hey are designed to bite into thin.itons. . A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood.5 centimeters $ide. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner. metal. hese pitons are used in flush. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. or flakes. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. flush cracks. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. hese pitons are used in shallo$.itons.itons. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability.>.itons. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. %'* 2nife 3lade .

Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. 9iton hammer. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. Chocks. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion.7*. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. to be used as anchors. . 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use.7 centimeters long and $eigh . All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. Figure 1-)4. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing.0 to 07 ounces. d. into the rock.

e. Chocks. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. $hen used in the camming mode.)*. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. Three-point camming &e2ice. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . f.4* provide convenient.Figure 1-)5. Figure 1-)6. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in.

he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. g.semi(rigid point of attachment. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. Figure 1-)7.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. . hese are placed #uickly and easily. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. Chock 9icks. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. Cade from thin metal. they can be purchased or homemade.5*. saving time and effort. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. .

<ecause of this re#uirement. . Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. h. bolt driver. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss.8*. $hich is time(consuming. $hich is driven into the rock. dirt. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. e"hausting. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. hese re#uire a hammer. brands.Figure 1-)". <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. <urrs. corrosion. . and moisture. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. Dnce emplaced. %o!ts. Chock picks. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. and drilling anchor. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. and $eights. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. and e"tremely noisy. %. chips. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type.

%0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. %e!ay De2ices.Figure 1-)'. %.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. . <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement.egardless of the belay device choosen. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. the tuber. %o!ts an& hangers. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. i. .

3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. j.*. one ascender is sufficient. Figure 1-.Figure 1-. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. .). S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. &or difficult vertical terrain. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. 7scen&ers. k.*. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. t$o ascenders $ork best. Figure-eights. Descen&ers. &or lo$er angle movement.

. l. light$eight. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. A pulley should be small. Figure 1-. 7scen&ers. and strong. 9u!!ey. &or best results.1.Figure 1-. glaciers. froAen $aterfalls(can . the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. 9u!!eys.. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use.

he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. a. . =ce 7B. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". hollo$ aluminum. head %pick and adAe*. probing. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. self(arrest. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. therefore safer for mountaineering. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. step cutting. It can be made of fiberglass. belays. he adAe. %. used for chopping. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. can have different configurations. %b* he head of the a". is perpendicular to the shaft. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. anchors. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. direct(aid climbing. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes.

. . he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear.4. =ce aB an& ice hammers. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. Figure 1-. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. loose ends should be trimmed.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.b. Crampons. inch of front point protruding. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. c. =ce -ammer. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs.

It is designed to be used $ith soft. as its name implies. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . is rigid and does not fle". he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types.Figure 1-. Crampons. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system.5. %0* he rigid crampon. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. but can be used on less vertical terrain. %. fle"ible boots.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing.

choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads..mountaineering boots. . hey are scre$ed into ice formations. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. Figure 1-.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle.6. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. %. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. =ce Scre+s. . d. =ce scre+s. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. • • • ype I is . he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.* !hen selecting ice scre$s.

%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks.7. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. If any cracks or bends are noticed. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. flanged sides. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. hey can. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. f. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . e. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. Figure 1-. ho$ever. the scre$ should be turned in. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. hey are available $ith bent faces. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. bends. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. and fi"ed cables.' centimeters. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. =ce 9itons. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. . =ce piton.

and other deformities. broken $ire strands. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions.". the sno$ anchor should be turned in. movement. $ands*. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing.. in shelter construction. he ends should be filed smooth.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. g. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . the picket should be turned in for replacement. mushrooming ends. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. a. cracks. If bent or cracked. Figure 1-. It can be used in step cutting. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. or slippage is noticed. he picket should be inspected for bends. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. and for cutting . Sno+ Sa+. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. for removing froAen obstacles.::: kilograms. If any cracks. chips. bivouacs. broken $ire strands. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. Sno+ 9icket. and carrying gear.

sno$ stability test pits. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. !ands are used to identify routes. he handle should be inspected for cracks. b. bends. shelter construction. and number of teams in the climbing party. he handle should be inspected for cracks. cracks. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. d. security to the shaft. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . bends. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. (an&s. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. crevasses. Sno+ Sho2e!. !ands are . burrs. c. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. and stability. fading. to . If any defects are discovered. frays. caches. and stability. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. If the shovel is beyond repair. the $ands should be replaced. $arping. light$eight aluminum alloy. sno$(bridges. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. bends. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. he handle should be telescopic. A file can repair most defects. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. number of haAards identified. and missing or dull teeth. rust. step cutting. and deformities. $eather conditions %and visibility*. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. Dn folding models. If the sa$ is beyond repair. the hinge and nuts should be secure. it should be turned in.. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. 72a!anche rescue equipment. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. and discoloration. and burrs. bends. folding. and removing obstacles. he flag should be inspected for tears. he blade should be inspected for rust. it should not be used.

compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. . %. 9acks. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. 72a!anche rescue equipment. %.robe. e. hese are small. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier.Figure 1-. %0* . he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance.* Avalanche .'."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather.

g. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. Sto2es. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. !hen choosing a stove.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. he fly protects against . !hen selecting a tent. the better it $ill be. and butane are the common fuels used. and its reliability. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. !hite gas. more harsh environment. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. Tents. factors that should be considered are $eight. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. $eights. f.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. kerosene. %. %. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. and materials. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. fuel availability. and are simple and light$eight.

h. i. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. !hen carrying heavy packs. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. +ome ski poles are . Ski po!es. they create the shape of the tent. and carrying heavy packs. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. j. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. and become long and rigid. Skis.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. sno$shoeing. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. Sno+shoes. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. connect. <efore using a ne$ tent. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain.

l. A flashlight can provide light. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. to the one(person sko$. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. +leds vary greatly in siAe. -ea&!amps. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather .:(man arctic tent system. on some models. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. . a component of the . k. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. %.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. Figure 1-1*. . he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. !hichever sled is chosen. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small.* !hen choosing a headlamp. S!e&s.egardless of the siAe. especially $hen hauling fuel. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain.

compass and or altimeter. and $ater procurement material. climbing e#uipment. desert. sunglasses. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. stoves. if needed. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. food procurement material. or lithium batteries. Stan&ar& <ear. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. ropes. first aid kits. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. fuel. nickel(cadmium. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. fire starting material. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. Dbviously. pressure bandage. $ith canteens. magaAine pouches. Caution4 Cotton clothing. food. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. $histle. $ater. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. the e"ception being hot. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. -ocket items should include a knife. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. . or jungle mountain environments. polypropylene top. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. 9ersona! <ear.conditions. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. notebook $ith pen or pencil. sunblock and lip protection. $quipment 9acking . s$eater. foul $eather shells.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. !hen the light is being packed. a. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. b. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. map. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. $orn on the body.

one per climbing team. Bocking carabiner%s*. Canteen. Cold $eather hat or scarf. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. rain suit. =onlocking carabiners. e. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. pile top. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. Climbing rack. . d. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . or unplanned bivouac. &irst aid kit. +urvival kit. 9loves. or s$eater.appelKbelay device.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. one per climbing team. . his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. or poncho. Climbing rope.appelling gloves. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. Day 9ack. +ling rope or climbing harness. Crampons. one per climbing team. Carabiners. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. one per climbing team. In the event of an injury. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. . Ice a".c. casualty evacuation. Climbing rack. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. >tility cord%s*. Climbing rope. &lashlight or headlamp. he carries a light day pack. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. .

or navigational error. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. &or lip protection. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. injury. pants.7 or higher. The Ten $ssentia!s. includes socks.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of .* 5ap. %0* Compass. . s$eater or fleece jacket. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. +ide shields. %. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. +leeping mat. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains.• • • • +leeping bag. %'* ()tra +ood. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. Altimeter. hey should filter 87 to . and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. under$ear. and or 6. f. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. boots. %7* ()tra Clothing. hat. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. +#uad stove. &uel bottle. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. and licking is best. $ashing.:: percent of ultraviolet light.S. . gloves or mittens. blouse. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather.

and employing $eapons systems. . adhesive tape. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. and blisters. %4* +irst aid 2it. • • • • • . e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves.%a* . inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. gauAe pads. butterfly bandages. herefore. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. 2ecentraliAed operations."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. . In $inter or severe mountain conditions. serious sprain. . moleskin. scissors."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. cleanser. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. $orking around the camp. sharp tools."tra pair of heavy socks. &inally. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. a broken bone. -ressure dressings. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. . cutting the $ind. elastic compression $rap. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. . small adhesive bandages. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit."tra hats or balaclavas. $hich is important $hile climbing. Ciniature flashlights can be used. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. but commercially available headlamps are best. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. the mountain environment— steep. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit.

+afety pins. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. or pack. %. . heat tabs. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires.ighter. %8* 5atches and . Dther repair items as needed. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. %1* 4epair 2it. g. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. as $ell as for stream crossings. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. Cord and or $ire.%5* +ire Starter. /eavy(duty thread. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. Bighters are handy for starting fires. 2uct tape. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. harness. A$l and or needles. Candles. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. and canned heat all $ork. -atches.* Water and Water Containers. %0* 7ce A). he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. %. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts.:* 2nife.

he ice a". should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. e. the load is held high and close to the back. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. food.%'* =nsect . As much as possible. e"tra ammunition* on top. among others. $ater. if not carried in hand. nearer the shoulder blades. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. more compressible items %sleeping bag. rope. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. and $ater procurement. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. c. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. emergency bivouac shelter. . Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. b.epe!!ent. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. climbing hard$are. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. and be securely . a. d. <y packing the lighter. In most cases.

K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. management techni&ues. and then tied in place. care and maintenance procedures. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. bring the hands together forming a loop. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . rappelling. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. o start a mountain coil. t$ists. . . and 0nots. or building various installations. :ountain Coi!. serious in!ury may occur. 9rasping the rope firmly. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. . the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. f. and knots later during deployment.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. When climbing. If not. until the rope is completely coiled. his is repeated.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. as stated above. meter from the end $ith one hand.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. grasp the rope appro"imately .fastened. he rope may be given a . . a.

form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. >ncoil the last loop and. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. doubling it and placing it under the flap. securing the coil. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. b. . %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. %utter#!y Coi!.* In finishing the mountain coil. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. :ountain coi!.%. using this length of the rope.* Figure 4-1. slung across the chest. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. -ull the running end of the bight tight. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil.

%0* Tie-off and Carrying. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. -lace the doubled rope over the head. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils.Figure 4-4. %. and hold the center in one hand. %utter#!y coi!. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. o start the double butterfly. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils.* Coiling. . !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. !ith the bight in the left hand. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. In this configuration .emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. . .

.* Figure 4-5. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . or for storage. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together.ope. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. sling rope. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. c. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. !rap that bight around the coil. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. ensuring no kinks are in the rope.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. Cake three or more $raps. 2ress it do$n tightly. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness.0(inch bight is left. . -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack.

!ith the left hand. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out.D-. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. =e"t. Dnce stacked. A smooth follo$ through is essential. !hen the rope is needed for use. and so on. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. As soon as the rope leaves the hand.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. feeding it to a lead climber. Thro+ing the . Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. A slight t$ist of the $rist.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. hro$ up and out. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. %. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls.e.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. .* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. a.

and hitches is almost endless. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. + . back feed. up and out to$ard the horiAon. + .0.. and Class IV—special knots. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail.. a. Anchor. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded.. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. + .b. he variety of knots. bights. and stack the rope properly as described above.. he stronger the $ind. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. Tying the Knot. . -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . c. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. !ith e"perience and practice.. In a strong cross $ind. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Class II—anchor knots. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. /olding one $orking end in each hand.0. Class III—middle rope knots. bends. Aiming just above the horiAon. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. It is a joining knot..1. adjustments must be made.

Square knot. Tying the Knot.* here are t$o interlocking bights. a. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.+ . It is a joining knot. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope.'.. b. Checkpoints. . %.. Figure 4-6. + . Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied...

a.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. b.1. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . %1* . . -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot.0.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. + . %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. Tying the Knot..+ .. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. It is a joining knot. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. standing part of the opposing rope. %. Checkpoints.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long.

+ . Checkpoints. . %1* .. + .. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. !ith the $orking end of one rope. four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. + .1.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. $hich contains the standing part %+ .0. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. b.. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. Insert the $orking end %+ .-+ .* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart..'. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . Dou !e #isherman’s knot...* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight.. and 0*. %... %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. + . Figure 4-"..*.

race the original knot to the standing end.'. Tying the Knot.. + . + . 2ress the knot do$n. . + .. a.. . Figure 4-'.. .1. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. + .Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*.0. !ith the other hand. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight..7.. + .. Figure-eight en&.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end.

. Tying the Knot.. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse.b..:*.0. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. + . 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. &eed the other end back through the knot..1. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. or tape knot. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %. overhand retrace. + . Checkpoints.. It is also called a ring bend. + . he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. a.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side..

* here are t$o overhand knots. It is an anchor knot..... %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*.*. one retracing the other. Tying the Knot. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. (ater knot. b.Figure 4-)*. Checkpoints. . %. a. %0* here is no slack in the knot. + . <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(.

. Checkpoints.+ .1. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. %. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight. b. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight..7.* he bight is locked into place by a loop... + .oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . + . .'. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*.. Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. + .each through the loop and pull up a bight. =o$ dress the knot do$n. and bring it back onto itself.0. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.

a. distributing the load over the anchor.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining..oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.. + . It is an anchor knot. and one in the front*. Figure-$ight .'. .. b.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. Figure 4-). . Tying the Knot. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.. + .un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact..0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. + . .etrace /. Checkpoints. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. 2ress the knot do$n. + . .0..his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.1.0*. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(..eroute& Figure-$ight0 . %.epeat + ..

. Tying the Knot. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. /o$ever. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. + .0. + ... insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. + . ake the $orking end around the anchor point. by tying the knot in a retrace. .. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part.'.. + . a. $rap the $orking end around the standing part.7. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. and route the $orking end through the loop.1*. ...1.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.). + .he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. !ith the $orking end. he finished knot is dressed loosely. + . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope.

Figure 4-)1. Figure-eight retrace.. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. /old rope in both hands. Checkpoints %. palms do$n $ith hands together.. . he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.'*. Tying the Knot.* Middle of the Rope. a. b. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. depending on ho$ it is tied. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. + . %.

+ .0. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor..+ .1. grasp the $orking end. + . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. %0* End of the Rope.. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. 2ress do$n the knot. /old the standing end in the left hand.. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.. . + .. + . &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. reach under the horiAontal anchor. + . &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.'. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. !ith the right hand. he knot is tied.0. !ith the right hand. /old the loop in the left hand.1... 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.'. + . -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. and bring it in$ard.

7. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + . ake up the slack from the anchor. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining.4.. + . !hen tying this knot. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. and place it over the heel $rap.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.. + . a. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.). + .. It is a middle rope knot. C!o2e hitch. + . + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. and fingertip. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.7*. Tying the Knot. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. + ... palm.Figure 4-)4.0.. ... Checkpoints.1. b.'. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. %.

%0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. It is a middle rope knot. b. (ireman’s knot. Figure 4-)5. . a. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. + .)*. Checkpoints. %. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot.8. Tying the Knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.+ ...5.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.

. %.. + . + . Figure 4-)6.. b.. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. it lays in$ard. .0.+ .. Directiona! #igure-eight. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor..1. Cake one $rap around the palm. Checkpoints.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. the tail and the bight must be together. !ith the $rap thus formed.'. !hen dressing the knot do$n. + .

'. It is a middle rope knot.4*.0. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. Tying the Knot.1...). 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.%0* he tail and bight must be together. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. + . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side...... + . A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. + . + . forming t$o loops. + .. ie an overhand knot on a bight. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. a.4.7. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.. + . spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. + .

. Checkpoints. + . a.ight.5. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot..5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. >sing a doubled rope. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. b. form an . .. %o+!ine-on-a. Tying the Knot.* It is a middle rope knot.Figure 4-)7.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. %.

+ . . !ith the $orking end.1. %. Tying the Knot.. a. + .8*.. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. + . is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.7.. /old the bight $ith the left hand. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. Checkpoints. 2ress the knot do$n. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.'. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. + . T+o-!oop #igure-eight. It is a middle of the rope knot.0. b.. Figure 4-)". %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.

0. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. !ith the bight as the $orking end. a.* he loop is the desired siAe.. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. It is a specialty knot. 2ress the knot tightly. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. . his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.1. form a loop in rope %standing part*.. + . Checkpoints.. Tying the Knot. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. %. b.+ .. Figure 4-)'. Figure-eight !oop. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.. + .

2ouble the short rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. forming a bight.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. .*. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .1.. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.0. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted..0(inch bight. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.. + .*.0. Figure 4-. + ..%. and place it over the long rope.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. $ith the $orking ends even.*: + . >sing an arm3s length of rope. . + .each do$n through the . + . . + .1...

). Checkpoints.nsure they are tight. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. parallel. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.7.+ .'.. b. and not t$isted. Figure 4-. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. + . + .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.4. . + . .).. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. %. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. It is a specialty knot...

. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. b. + . %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. Figure 4-. Tying the Knot... + .0. %achman knot. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. Checkpoints.a.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. + . %.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender.1.

4. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail..7.1. hen. + .0. >sing the standing part.). %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. + . + . make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. + .. !ith the running end.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. single coil. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. tie an overhand around all coils. .he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. he running end is to the back of the body.. b. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. Tying the Knot. %. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. he standing portion is on the bottom.. a.'. not crossed. . place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. bring a bight up through the loop. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body... + . Checkpoints.. /olding the bight loosely.* A minimum of four $raps.. It is a specialty knot. + . + ..

+ . -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. + .1.1. !ith the right hand. . &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. + . !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. a.. Bay the loops to the right.Figure 4-.0. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. + . Tying the Knot. It is a specialty knot..'.. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system...

a. Three-!oop o+!ine. Tying the Knot... + . It is a specialty knot. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. %. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts..4. Checkpoints. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied..+ . &orm a . b. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. Figure 4-.7. .

take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.0 inches up the rope.. b. . + . -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.0. + . -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.5. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about . Checkpoints. + . Figure 4-. standing end of the rope. + .).'..:u!e Knot0 .. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.+ . %.each through the bight and grasp the long..1. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. Figure-eight s!ip knot.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.7.. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.

-ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. Tying the Knot.1. b. + ..6. K!eimhiest Knot .. %. + . a.0 inches long. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. + . Transport knot...* here is a single overhand slip knot. It is simply an overhand slip knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. Check 9oints. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. Figure 4-. %1* he bight is a minimum of .0..

. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. Tying the Knot.1..'. + .. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . easily adjustable. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .. a.7..0 inches. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. It is a special( purpose knot. find the center of the rope and form a bight. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable... !ith the ends offset. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.0. + . + . + . !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. !rap at least four complete turns. + .*.. pass them through the bight %see + ..

It is a special(purpose knot. . Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .0 inches. Checkpoints.. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.7. + ..: to .Figure 4-.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. + .. Tying the Knot. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. %.0. b. a. K!eimhiest knot. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.

%0* he knot is dressed tightly. b. Checkpoints.. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. %.'. Tying the Knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.: &orm a bight.. Frost knot. + . It is a special(purpose knot.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. %. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.. :unter -itch . + . <irth hitch..Figure 4-. + . <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. Checkpoint.1: Cinch the knot tightly.". a. b. Figure 4-.

. !ith the right hand. %0* he carabiner is locked. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. palms do$n about ..1. Tying the Knot. b. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. + .'. + . /old the rope in both hands.* A bight passes through the carabiner. Check 9oints.he munter hitch. + .0 inches apart. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.0. a... $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. !ith the right hand.. + . %... Bock the locking mechanism. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. /old the loop $ith the left hand.

'..0. thus creating a loop around the $aist. :unter hitch. . -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. Tying the Knot.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. + . a.Figure 4-1*.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. + . ensuring they do not cross. .' feet or longer..*.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. . &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.1. + .. It usually re#uires a sling rope . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip... + .

.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front..4. &rom rear to front.+ . bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.. Check 9oints. + . tightening the seat. + . uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. . Figure 4-1). %..appe! seat.7. -ull up on the ropes. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.). -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. b. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.

Tying the Knot. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. . %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.. a.0. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip.. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. + . preferably ovals*. + . <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot..

7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load.. rope can only be pulled in one direction. Check 9oints. %. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. b. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. <uar&e knot. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. or the e&uipment .* !hen properly dressed.Figure 4-1. it will fail. .roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice.

but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. boulders. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. When selecting or constructing anchors.*. rees. .used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. /o$ever.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. /o$ever. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. trees must be carefully checked for suitability.

Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. a. security. Trees use& as anchors. >se padding on soft. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. b. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. Chockstones should be checked for strength.. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable.Figure 5-). Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. In rocky terrain. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. . Figure 5-.

the projection should be avoided. . If rock projections are used. . horns. and clipping on a carabiner. their firmness is important. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. c. Chockstones. hese include blocks. a. b. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner.Figure 5-1. flakes. If any of these signs e"ist. and spikes. tying a rope to it.ock 9ro>ections .

As $ith trees. . the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction.Figure 5-4. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. . he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*.ock pro>ections. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground.

Figure 5-5. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. a. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. . and girth. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. Figure 5-6. Drape. $rap. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. %ushes an& shru s. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. !hichever method is used. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape.

. (rap.Figure 5-7. (rap. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. Figure 5-". b. Drape.

ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor.c.:*. . ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. . he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. his re#uires less e#uipment. 7nchoring (ith . A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. . <irth. Figure 5-'.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. <irth.

to absorb the tension. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. Tension!ess anchor. Figure 5-)). $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.. . A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. more if necessary.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom.Figure 5-)*. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps.*.

as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. . unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. a. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. and +BC2s.#uipment. %A hefty timber. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. and ruck sacks. &or training planning. b. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. . +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid.* Barge boulders can be used. As $ith natural anchors. can also be used if necessary. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. and the load to be placed on protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . such as pitons and bolts. ice a"es. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. e#uipment. $ould be ideal. such as skis. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. In e"tremely hard.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. such as a railroad tie. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. .:: years. he sling is attached to the anchor. he"centrics. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. Although still available. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. sno$shoes. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. chocks. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible.

2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. 7&2antages.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. c. practiced. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. Disa&2antages. dirt. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. as $ith any artificial anchor. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. %&igure 7(. if available* so that if the piton is knocked .0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. 9iton 9!acement. clear the loose rock. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. %. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. !hen this type of rock must be used. b. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. a. %0* !hile it is being driven. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. should be studied.

$Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. and on the type of rock. it $ill not be lost. Clip a carabiner into the loop. Figure 5-). the firmer the anchor $ill be. thereby loosening the emplacement. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand..1*. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. because the piton is too long.out of the crack. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. he piton should not spread the rock. herefore. .

If the pitch has changed greatly. drive it into another place. . Eerk vigorously up$ard.Figure 5-)1. drive the piton in as far as possible. -ero-!oop. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. If the sound regains its original pitch. d. there is any #uestion of its soundness. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. then grasp the rope at least . Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. . If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. e. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed.K0 meter from the carabiner. to each side. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. upon driving it. o test pitons pull up about . meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling.emo2ing 9itons. and $hen using chocks. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. do$n$ard. ry to be in a secure position before testing. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement.'*. Testing. . Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. the emplacement is probably safe. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure.epeat these actions as many times as necessary.

unless severely damaged. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. Bight to carry. provides an e"cellent anchor point. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . . Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. having fallen and $edged in a crack. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. vectors. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. . test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. and straightened may be reused. <efore use. but they must be checked for strength.Figure 5-)4. >sually easy to retrieve and. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. b. they may have been driven poorly the first time. Disa&2antages. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery.asy to insert and remove. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. 7&2antages. are reusable. removed. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. 9iton remo2a!. f. +oft iron pitons that have been used. A natural chockstone. but comple" in practice.eusing 9itons. In training areas. a. Also.

%1* .nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. %. 9!acement. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. and dirt. . $hich may accept pitons. c. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. Dften provide only one direction of pull. Avoid poor protection. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. if possible. %0* !hen selecting a chock. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock.7*. Figure 5-)5. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . +ome cracks may have loose rock. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. cord. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. then select a chock to fit it. grass. Chock p!acements. Book for a constriction point in the crack. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes.

Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. . +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. Testing. use pairs of chocks in opposition. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. o test it. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. test it to ensure it remains in place. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. %a* .)*.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. After seating a chock. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. d.

place the device into a crack. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. %o!ts .Figure 5-)6. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. pull the retractor bar back. and release the retractor bar. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. S8CD p!acements. it may rotate and pull out. a. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. b. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise.

and runners. . the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. a. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. . =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. and should be tested $ith a hammer. since this permanently $eakens it. c.4*.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. $hich bores the hole. . b. <olts should be used $ith carriers. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. flaking. or cracking. carabiners. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. /o$ever. !hen using bolts.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route.

$qua!i@ing 7nchors . %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e.Figure 5-)7. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. . Figure 5-)". It is aimed in the direction of the load. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. b. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.8*. a. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. his not only provides greater anchor strength.5*.

might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be .Figure 5-)'. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. and the enemy for the length of the climb. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. terrain hazards. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. therefore.

. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. reconnaissance personnel.ven before getting on the rock. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. he mentally climbs the route. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. or 6lines. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations.6 . !hen picking the line.trained in the basics of climbing.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. +orward observers. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. nubbins. using the hands primarily for balance. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing.6 to the top looking for cracks. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. the climber studies all possible routes.*. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. . 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. ledges.

All je$elry should be removed from the fingers.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. In later lessons. /o$ever. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. C7ET=63 . he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. the boot soles should be dry and clean. such as a rock or climbing gear. dry rock. If the soles are $et or damp. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. falls from climbers above. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. In the training environment. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls.

C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. %&igure )(. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. kno$n as 6. helping to minimiAe fatigue. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. left foot. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. a. a$ay from the rock. and reduce the impact of a fall. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. and movement. or moving on to a more . <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. Stance or %o&y 9osition. right foot. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. $eight shift. help the climber land feet first. comfortable stance is essential. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. sho$s a correct climbing stance. and body %trunk*.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. left hand. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. his vibration. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. If strained for too long. lo$ering the heel. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. and so on. b. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. A rela"ed.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface.

Figure 6-. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. Figure 6-).restful position.. the hips and shoulders should be . -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. Correct c!im ing stance.a!ance& o2er oth #eet. %. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out.* !henever possible. he hands are used to maintain balance.

he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. intermediate holds. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue.D=. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. creating more stress. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. Dn steep rock.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. C!im ing Sequence.centered over both feet. his is normally done on #uick. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. Dn lo$(angle slopes. In most cases.: + . the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. or body*. hand. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. he basic steps are $eight. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. . Again. and movement %movement being either the foot. shift. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. c.* + . Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. +ometimes. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. $hen footholds are small. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. as the climbing progresses. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1.

/and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.&IV.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. . through 1 for remaining foot. %. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability.epeat steps . but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.: + .: + . Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7. If both legs are bent./. 2uring this movement. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs.. + .* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs.&D>.+ ..

.Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence.

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. .

he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. %. even painful. his type of lifting is inefficient. not the arms.Figure 6-1.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. these movements become more critical. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. Dther than being uncomfortable. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. because the legs are much stronger. to rest on. Sa#ety 9recautions .

!hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. a fi"ed rope should be installed. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. If conducting a roped climb. If on a lo$(angle climb. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. . do not do it. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. follo$ing the same line. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. If the rock $ill endanger your second. grasping for any possible hold available. a spotter can be used for safety. tossing it do$n. and to reduce the impact of a fall.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. d. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. >pon hearing the $arning. e. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. +hould a climber fall. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. c. immediately shout the $arning 6. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. let the rope provide protection. b.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. a. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing.

:argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed.. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. +ometimes. !hen the rock is $et. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. his may simply be a #uick. a. b. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. !hen in doubt. C!im ing (ith The Feet . <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. !hen leading a group of climbers. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. g. !hen climbing. depending on it. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. sedimentary(type rock. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly.&D.f. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it.

as in mountain $alking.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember.* %a* +mooth. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. In the early learning stages of climbing. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. forgetting to use the feet properly. &ailure to climb any route. he principle of using full sole contact. . ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. the entire foot cannot be used. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever. . easy or difficult. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. also applies in climbing. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. %b* Dn some large holds. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. . he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. In this case. %.* Maximum Sole Contact.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. a. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. b. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. Also.

%&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. . %0* Edging. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. $ell(defined ledges. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. Again. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. or toe. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. may be used. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle.Figure 6-4. >sually. edging $ith the front of the boot. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold.* %a* Dn smaller holds. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. !henever possible. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. .

but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. %1* Smearing. intermediate holds. he Army mountain boot. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot.ounded. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. he stiffer the sole. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible.* %a* . .ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. . Figure 6-5. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. therefore. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. $ith its softer sole. the better the edging capability. .%b* .ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell.

depending on the siAe of the crack. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. resisting a do$n$ard pull. ball of the foot. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. like a camming device. . especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. the possibilities are endless. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. pockets. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. he toes. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. or the entire foot can be used. and so on. than others.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. %'* Jamming. and even more painful on the foot. hands. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features.Figure 6-6. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. +ome positions are more tiring. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. arms. inside and $ithin reach. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. such as edges. restful position.

the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. !hen removing the boot from a crack."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. Core often though. +econdly. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. . the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. Dur hands grip. $Bamp!es o# >amming. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . +ometimes. b. Dn lo$er(angled rock. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. As the individual climbs. our body $eight is on our legs. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. As stated earlier. a. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. Figure 6-7.

even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure. Ideally.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. and on occasion. . %. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. the fingers. the side of the palm. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller.our balance and footing on the ladder. or 6pinching. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. -ushing side$ays.* Push olds. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. Dn smaller holds. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. his is fine. Df course.

6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. therefore. <ecause of this increased feeling of security. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength.Figure 6-". Again. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. creating an unbalanced stance. %0* Pull olds. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. also called 6cling holds. . or up$ard. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. and. -ull holds. pull holds are often over$orked. . 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. just good techni#ue.* %a* Bike push holds. side$ays.

grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. creating a stronger hold. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. =ormally. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. Figure 6-'.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. Dn small holds. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. his helps to hold the finger tips in . he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock.

Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. %1* Pinch olds. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. knuckles. kno$n as a 6ring grip. %&igure )(. his hand configuration. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. %'* Jam olds. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. Bike foot jams. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" and reduces muscle strain in the hand.* Figure 6-)*. ape also adds friction . %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger.

or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. from the calf to the thigh. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. and fle"ed to fit the crack. leg. leg. . he leg can be used.. %b* In smaller cracks. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. o jam or cam an arm. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. !hen the arm is straightened. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position.6 re#uiring the use of arm. or body into an off $idth. . /o$ever. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. is another techni#ue. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross the hand in jammed position. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. only the fingers $ill fit.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. and body jams.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. hands. or 6off $idths. %&igure )(. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. &or off $idths. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. the principle is the same as for fingers. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard.

&rom these fundamentals. feet. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. As the climber gains e"perience. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. . Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. numerous combination techni#ues are possible.Figure 6-)).

$hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. +hort of turning back. +till. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. Combination possibilities are endless. yet #uickly. %. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. o make the move. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. mantling begins $ith pull holds. %&igure )(. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. $here the pull holds become push holds. . %0* Mantling. or hop step. before the hands. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork.a. b.* Change Step.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. o prevent an off balance situation. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold.otating . he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. or other body parts tire. t$o solid handholds should be used. +ometimes. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. he change step. arms. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. even on an easy route. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily.

on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. Dnce the arms are locked. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. !ith the foot on the ledge. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. . +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. momentarily. Dnce balanced over the foot.

It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard.. or body tension. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. forming a bulge or small overhang.1*. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. %1* !ndercling. he arms and legs . also. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. applying an up$ard pull.Figure 6-). :ant!ing sequence.

should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. more or less. . he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. En&erc!ing. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. he climber bends at the $aist. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. $hichever seems to produce the most friction.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. putting the body into an B( shaped position. Figure 6-)1. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. %'* "ie#ack. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. the climber $ill .

he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. %7* Stemming. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. or vice versa. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. . he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces.'*. Figure 6-)4. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. rather than muscle.7*. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. Dften. 8ie ack on a #ace. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. or for a rest position.likely fall.

legs. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. >sually. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . kno$n as chimneys. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Stemming on a #ace. parallel cracks.Figure 6-)5. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. . Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys.)*. or body as an integral contact point. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack.

Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence. .

A slab is a relatively smooth. . or a much narro$er crack irotection. %c* . he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. .Figure 6-)6. forcing the body against the opposing $all. face features. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. /o$ever.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . Chimney sequence /continue&0.4*. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. if any holds.

%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. Dn steeper slab. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. . the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. to increase friction. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. $hile keeping the hips over his feet.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. S!a technique. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. . Figure 6-)7. or the . Also. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. Dften. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever.

as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. use a roped descent. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. the climber can face out$ard. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. !hatever the case may be. 0. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. use a roped descent. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. !hen in doubt. Dn the steepest terrain. !hen in doubt. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. As the steepness and difficulty increase. C7ET=63S . he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. and slips are more likely to occur. %a* Dn easier terrain.abilities of others to follo$. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold.. a$ay from the rock. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. If the handholds are too high. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. he can often turn side$ays. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the .

facing out$ard or side$ays. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. and a tendency to move too #uickly. %d* Dn steeper slab. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. &acing the rock. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. reducing friction. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending.5*. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. . as in ascending. is usually best on steeper slab. !eight is still concentrated over the feet.planned landing area. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. and leading to the likelihood of a slip.

eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. ropes must be used to proceed. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. is highly unlikely in most instances. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock.. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. length.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. A severe fall. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. . . . Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . .ope Dver the years. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. they offer little support to the climber. may induce further injuries.

he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. . $hen used correctly. it is not for a belay anchor. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. /o$ever. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. a. also. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. -rese$n harness are bulky. %. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. Seat -arness. specialiAed e#uipment.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. =o assembly is re#uired. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. including cost. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. such as a prese$n harness. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope.

gear loops. than an improvised chest harness. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. at the chest. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. he s$ami belt is a simple. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. Chest -arness. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. Dne(inch $ebbing . %. such as padding. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. or ease of adjustment. c. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. S+ami %e!t. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall.b. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. a.

-D++I<IBI I D& A +. In a severe fall. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. Figure 6-)'.. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment.8*.V. !I /D> /.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. %. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. &ABB. raditionally. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. any tie(in around the $aist only could . he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. b.. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit.$ill provide more comfort.

. %. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. 9rasping both ends. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. $ith the knots to the front.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material.* Bocate the center of the rope. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. and hold it in place on the hip. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. like a parachute harness.ven in a relatively short fall. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. A safe. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. . Dff to one side. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. and a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. c. $rapping to the outside. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. .

=mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. d.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. or cross.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. but remember that $ith $ebbing. Appro"imately ) to . making a sling 1 to ' feet long.Figure 6-.: feet usually $orks. %. he t$ist. . and drape the sling over the shoulders.*. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. . forming t$o loops. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. just as you $ould put on a jacket. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness.

=mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness.I ICAB BI=?. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. 7ttaching the . f.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. in effect. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. at the chest.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. the standing part of the rope is then . create a type of full(body harness. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. and comes off the harness in a fall. e. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. %.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. or incorrectly. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. If using a chest harness. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope.

tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. or third loop formed in the knot. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. rather than tying the rope to it. ensure the end. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. Figure 6-)". and possibly the e#uipment available. %e!ay Techniques . and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. %. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. If using the three loop bo$line. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying.

and snug. +tack the rope properly. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. but $ith practice. or a 6brake. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. independent. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. sitting position $henever possible. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. >se a $ell braced. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. for an up$ard pull. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. In some instances. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. if one person falls.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. .6 can be applied to halt a fall. e"posed terrain. rope team members can often move at the same time. • • • • . the procedure should become 6second nature. . . simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. ho$ever. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. Dne person climbs at a time. Dn steep terrain.

nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. ho$ever.BAI D=. otal control means the brake hand is =. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times.. guide carabiner %if applicable*.A9. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side.V. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.BAI. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. • • . at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. the rope management procedure is basically the same.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. there is no belay. !hen giving slack. a.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . If the brake hand is removed. or run through a friction device.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(. aking up rope. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. removed from the rope.• .nsure anchor attachments. and apply the brake to halt a fall. b. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device.

step )*. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. :anaging the rope..*. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. step . step '*. %.. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands.. to the front of the brake hand. he other hand is the brake hand. . he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. slide the guide hand out. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0.brake hand remains on the rope at all times.. step 0*.). place it behind the back and around the hips. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. step 1*. %)* . Figure 6-..

and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. It is the simplest belay. he body belay. !hen perfectly aligned. he leg on the 6guide . A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. and the amount of load. a. the belay may have to absorb. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. especially for beginners. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. using terrain to his advantage. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. or fall force. and froAen. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. +ometimes. . in its various forms. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. re#uiring no special e#uipment. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. stiff.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. %. %o&y %e!ay. It is best to sit in a slight depression. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy.

. . he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay.. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard. Figure 6-. Sitting o&y e!ay.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*.

the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. If the rope runs too lo$. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage.Figure 6-. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. . just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*.1. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. rendering the belay useless. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. If the rope runs too high. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. dumping the belayer out of position.

attaching both to the carabiner. useless hitch. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. b. :echanica! %e!ay. $hich forms an obvious.4. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. &or the most part. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. and of the proper design. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope.* Munter itch. %. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. /o$ever. -ut some . as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. is designed for the Cunter hitch. or pearabiner. As a climbing belay. he carabiner must be large enough. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. to allo$ this function. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness.Figure 6-. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route.

is al$ays the guide hand. :unter hitch. to$ards the load. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body.5. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. rather than around the belayerUs body. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. though developed as a rappel device. As a belay device. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. he hand on the rope running to the climber. or load. . the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. Figure 6-.+ =D change the function of the hands. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device.

he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber.6. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. but have no moving parts. Figure 6-.%a* As a climbing belay. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device.ope management is performed as in a body belay. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. Figure-eight &e2ice. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. A short. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. . >nlike the other devices. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. %b* As a lo$ering belay. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. .

he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. he air traffic controller %A C*. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. the most commonly used. the belayer is not locked into a position. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. slotted plate. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. b. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. if the second falls or $eights the rope.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. . climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. Also. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . =n&irect %e!ay. An indirect belay. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. a. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. Direct %e!ay. If the belay is correctly established. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. Additionally.

he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. c. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. and in line $ith the first protection placement. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. rela"ed stance. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. If this placement fails under load.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. a. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. . the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. sitting stance are preferred. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. b. 7nchor the %e!ay. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. %. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. the belayer selects his position. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. !ith the belay position selected. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. Dnce the climbing line is picked. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. 7im the %e!ay.* . but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. .

&ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. reach back. saving the slings for the climb. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. his is not mandatory.%0* . the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. 6independent6. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. say after a severe fall. and 6snug6. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. . he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. o accomplish this. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help.

but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. %. 7ttach the %e!ay. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. !ith the rope properly stacked. 7nchoring a e!ay. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. Stack the . If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position.* Dn small ledges. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber.7. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. he rope should be stacked on the ground. and applies the actual . d. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber.Figure 6-. e. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. or on the ledge.ope.

guide carabiner. 6<. if any. final inspection of his belay. the force. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. he gives the signal. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. Figure 6-.* he belayer should make one #uick. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same .". Anchor attachments. If using a body belay. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. !hen belaying the 6second6. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. %e!ay setup. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. %. the anchor attachments.BAI D=W6.belay techni#ue. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. If the belay is set up correctly. If the climber takes a fall. guide carabiner if applicable. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position.

7CT=63 T7K$3 . :$73=3<.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. or at the top at the anchor. Top-.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. e"posed routes. . If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb.* %$87D$. A solid. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. C8=:%$. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases.

6 A?. 6 . 6+BAC?6 .6<. apply brake. ensure climbers belo$ hear. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.D-.6 .=( I( &IV.DC?6 6. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.6T$CT D6E. . <elayer takes in rope.S$8F F. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. and hold me.6 6 !. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. <elayer removes brakeKtension.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. Climber selects a belay position.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. I am falling. If multipitch climbing. 9.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. and again. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb.DC?6 -roceed. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.

I have finished climbing and I am anchored.. the most important command is 6<. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.6 +et up the belay. above an overhang. Iou may remove the belay.6&I&( . o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands.emoves the 6D&& <. <elayer removes the belay and. !hile a lead climb is in progress.7 feet of rope left. Iou have no more rope.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. his is especially true in $indy conditions.ope comman&s. Ta !e 6-). -repares to climb.BAI D=. . . +et up the belay position. !ith the issue of this command. 6&IV. b.=6 Iou have appro"imately . or at the back of a ledge. anchoring and putting the second on belay. remains anchored.. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. or $hen the climber is around a corner. a. Climber sets up the belay. . &or a rope tug command. remaining anchored.BAI6 belay.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. use only one. his is the signal for 6<.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . prepares to climb. .

If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams.6 6pro. As he climbs the route. a leader or climber. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall.6 6pieces of pro. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. Top-. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above.6 6pro placements. . the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner.6 and so on. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. If you can easily access the top of a climb. a.6 6pieces.In military mountaineering. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed.6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. b. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. &or training. rope%s*. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. you can easily avoid the climb itself. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor.

A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple.established for other purposes. belays. such as rappel points. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. or other rope installations. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. b. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. or 6leap frogging. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. +$inging leads. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. taking on the role of lead climber. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. $ill be referred to as 6anchors.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. c. and is responsible for selecting the route. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. ice. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. a. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. he belayer simply adjusts his position. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing.

%. he leader then begins climbing. %0* he other member of the climbing team. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. or 6rope drag6. nut"t belay. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. !hen the belay is ready. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. %1* <efore the climb starts. If he cannot see the climber. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. again. %'* !hile belaying. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. he double checks the belay. such as a piton hammer.BAI D=6. etc. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. 6<. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. is responsible for belaying the leader. 6CBIC<I=96. !hen the leader is ready. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move.. $hether by sight or feel. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. thus minimiAing friction. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. until the climber tells him other$ise. it can be called for. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. to remove any protection that the leader may place. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. . ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. >nless told other$ise by the climber. only as a courtesy. the belayer signals. only as a courtesy. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. he leader can then signal. removing the belay anchor. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment.

D-. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. the command 6 A?. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. In this situation. %.%7* As the leader protects the climb. $ith t$o carabiners on each. !hen the leader has completed the connection. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. . each on a separate carabiner. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. &ive to ten standard length runners. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. !hen the leader selects a particular route. and $hat types. each on a separate carabiner. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. d. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness.BAI6. or the clip. or 6rack. +BC2s of re#uired siAe.* he leader $ill assemble. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. he must also determine ho$ much.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder.BAI D=6 is given.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. At this position. . the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. the leader sets an anchor. Assorted he"entrics.

%0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. • • . • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. $ith t$o carabiners on each. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. . • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. • ."tra carabiners.(inch $ebbing. =ut tool. 0: feet of .(inch $ebbing. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate.: feet of . . Cordellette. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. ."tra carabiners. to some degree. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. the necessary e#uipment.• • • $o to three double length runners.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. Bong -rusik sling.

If the climbing becomes easier. is re#uired. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. moving past a difficult section. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. or pendulum. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it.. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. As the leader begins this type of move. kno$n as a traverse. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. protection can be placed farther apart. and upon completion of any traverse. for both the leader and second if either should fall. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. Dnce an anchor is placed. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. and <.&D. placement of protection. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. during. 9enerally. %.e. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements.* Placing Protection. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. protection should be placed more fre#uently. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. saving hard$are for difficult sections. If the climbing is difficult. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection.

he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. %a* If the route changes direction. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. !hen placing protection. If the clip is made correctly. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. $hen released. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. /o$ever. in a . C7ET=63 . In addition.

it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations.5: degrees. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . rotate the carabiner up$ards . =o matter ho$ direct the route.leader fall. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. Figure 6-. C!ipping on to protection. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. o prevent this possibility.'. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped.

the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. Figure 6-1*. inducing a fall.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. or anchor. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. o prevent this. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. . It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. C7ET=63 . Ese o# s!ings on protection. .

%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. or runner. Figure 6-1). As the climber moves above the placements. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. . All $ired chocks used for . %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out.*. . Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. even $hen used 6actively6. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner.

leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. Figure 6-1. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. therefore.. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. ry to use the shortest runners possible. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. +ome of the larger chocks. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. . Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. &urthermore. %e* . 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position.

a leader has a variety of responsibilities. !hen the second is ready. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. as a courtesy. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. no$ the climber.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<.BAI D=. reply $ith 6CBIC<. %. or 6cleaning the pitch6. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. g. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. he second has to issue commands to the leader. If necessary.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er.6 and the leader can. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. !hen removing protection. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . signal 6CBIC<I=9. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. he can.* h. or seconding. $hile the final preparations are taking place. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. rock fall.BAI6 to the belayer. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it.6 he second. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. !hen removing the protection. again as a courtesy. unless other$ise directed. &ollo$ing.BAI D=. +harp rocks.f.

taking on the role of lead climber.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. he should immediately connect to the anchor. a. $quipment. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. . and is the simplest form of aid climbing.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . the method of aid climbing . he belayer simply adjusts his position. he can signal 6D&& <. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. +$inging leads. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup.D-. or 6leap frogging. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks.BAI. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece.6 he leader removes the belay. If too much slack develops.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.=+ID=. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. Dnce secured. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb.egardless of the type of protection used. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. If removing a piton.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. . >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. %. he should signal 6 A?. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. Dnce the second completes the pitch.reaches a more secure stance.

is the same. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . /o$ever. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. +ince pitons are multidirectional. $ith or $ithout the hanger. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. %0* 'olts.* Pitons. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. %. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. bolts can be used for aid climbing. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid.

triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. or steps. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. although in aid climbing. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. appro"imately every . !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*.* . %4* (ifi ook. . %1* S"C%s. %7* %aisy Chains. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. %'* Chocks. although in aid climbing. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. . %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. A fifi hook is a small.0 inches. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into.or -iders. %)* Etriers . split(shaft rivets. %5* -scenders. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. .. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness.

as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . aiders. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. one at a time. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. %4* . %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. you are no$ standing above your support.b. into the steps in the aider. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. &rom this height. again. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. Technique.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. the climb continues as follo$s: %. !ith the daisy chains. he big difference is the movement up the rock. If this happens. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider.

you can easily unclip and remove the protection. one at a time. . above the piece. o ascend the route. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . as you approach the protection on the ascenders.* >nlike lead climbing. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. Secon&ing. move the ascenders. o make this easier. tie in short on the rope every . repeat this procedure. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. After ascending another 0: feet. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. !hen the pitch is completed. a serious fall could result. Clear each knot as you unclip it. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. !hen adjusted to the correct height. %. If the ascender is too high..epeat entire process until climb is finished c. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. 3otes4 . !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. the arms need not support much body $eight. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started.:* . o prevent this possibility.

ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. %. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. o make this safer and easier. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. possibly resulting in the protection failing. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. e. d. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. and other protection placed easily by hand. !hile leading an aid traverse. 0.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. +BC2s. he hook . Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. As the second moves to the beginning of the you ascend. /o$ever. to get caught as you move up$ard. his is in effect a self(belay. hooks. do not tie into the end of the rope. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position.

A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep. a.::(foot climb $ith a . It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. $hich involves more difficulties.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . the methods $ill vary. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. belayed climb. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. &or e"ample: a . /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. 9iven one rope.::(foot climb $ith a . %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. protected traverses . he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. If the climb is only one pitch. hese types of devices due to their passive application. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. although bolts can be used. a forty foot fall could result. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. b. only t$o are described belo$.

he second. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. !hen number 1 receives 6<.$ill re#uire additional time.Us .6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position.. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . !hen number . =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. !hen the leader completes this pitch. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. or number 0 climber.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors.BAI D=.BAI6 from the leader. %. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. and number 1. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. If using one rope. he again sets up a ne$ belay. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. ascends belayed by number 0. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. !hen the leader completes the pitch. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. !hen using t$o ropes. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. climber. or number . %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0.

If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. %d* In this method. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. he remains anchored to the rock for security. !hen number 1 is not climbing. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . his $ould save time for a team of three..: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. %d* =ormally. number 1 performs no belay function. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue.belay is ready. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. such as the tuber type. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number .

leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. 'hey can limit the battlefield and.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. and safer. faster. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. he use of harnesses. H )i. ascenders. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. =nsta!!ation .ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. . Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. but adds to total mission $eight. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. even worse. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route.

he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. autoblock*. Esing a #iBe& rope. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. -rusik. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope.o install a fi"ed rope. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. Figure 7-). Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. he $ill stack and manage the rope. . Dther$ise. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. If the leader placed protection. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion.*. Dnce the anchor is rigged. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends.

Esing a se!#. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope.e!ay. FiBe& . . he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. . the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t..Figure 7-. If not. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel.

he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. ease of negotiation. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. avoids obstacles. a. he second sets up a standard belay. =nsta!!ation. .Figure 7-1. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. actical considerations are met. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*.

he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. and attaches the rope to the anchor. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch.ope crossovers should be avoided. %. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. As the leader climbs the route. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. !hen he reaches an anchor point. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. he temporarily anchors the rope.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. double figure(eight*. . . /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. 3ote4 .

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

b. and runs it around either hip. o brake. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. /e then pulls the rope from behind. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. and back over the opposite shoulder. and his back straight to reduce friction. diagonally across the chest. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. 9loves are $orn. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. %o&y .Figure 7-4. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. . /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. the rope runs to the brake hand. &rom there. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope.appe! %&igure 4(7*. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. -asty rappe!.

/asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.Figure 7-5.appe! %&igure 4()*. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. 0. . 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. Seat--ip .. c. %o&y rappe!. 3otes4 .

stand to one side of the rope. %. stand to the right of the rappel rope. Seat-hip rappe!. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. his method has minimal friction. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side.Figure 7-6. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. If using a right(hand brake. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. and is fast and safe.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. If a single rope is used. /o$ever. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point.

d. Figure-$ight Descen&er. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. Figure 7-7.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. %. &or this reason. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. . he brake hand goes on the slack rope.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard.* o use the figure(eight descender.

hese include slots or plates and tubers.appe! De2ice. It also allo$s for easier self( belay.) of an inch in siAe. f. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. $Bten&ing the . Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. Figure-eight &escen&er. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. d. 6ther De2ices. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. e.Figure 7-". .

A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. depends on the techni#ue. . he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system.e!ay. /o$ever. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . 6ne-.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#.Figure 7-'.

c. If t$o carabiners are used.:. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. If crossing a stream. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. Dnce across. a. =atural anchors. are al$ays preferred. If crossing a ravine or gorge. At that time. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. $iremanUs. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. the gates $ill be opposing. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. b. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. such as large trees and solid rock formations. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. . Dnce the knot has been pulled out. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. he anchor should be $aist high.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. the s$immer must be belayed across.

>sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure.Figure 7-)*. e.1*.. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. . Transport tightening system. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.*. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation.0*. d. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.

. Transport knot . .oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight..Figure 7-)). Figure 7-).

Figure 7-)1. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. Dnce across. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. a. $eb $rap. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. c. Tension!ess anchor knot. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. 3ote4 2uring training. the far side man anchors the rope. b. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. .'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank.:. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope.

F-pu!!ey tightening system. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. g. !hen the rope is tight. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. transport knot. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. here are several methods of accomplishing this. f. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope.d. from inside to outside. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. . As the rope is pulled tight. and is run back to the near side anchor. Figure 7-)4. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. e.

he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance.)*. If dry crossing is impossible. o recover if he falls over. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. he may $ear it over both shoulders. .* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. Comman&o cra+!. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. -referably. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. %. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. and yrolean traverse. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. monkey cra$l. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame.7*.a. and pull the rucksack across. attach it to the bridge. Figure 7-)5. :etho& o# Crossing. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack.

a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. Figure 7-)7.Figure 7-)6. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. :onkey cra+!. . he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. If crossing $ith rucksacks.appe! seat metho&.4*. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. .

such as cre$(served $eapons. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. Any special e#uipment. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops.igging Specia! $quipment. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. he other end is anchored on the near side. ABIC. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. Figure 7-)". must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge.5*. a. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. A unit +D. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. %0* -"0CE Packs. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. cordage %various siAes*. Construction. . anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. &inally. . o rig machine guns. -au!ing !ine. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. and carabiners. or supplies. All the slack is pulled to the near side. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time.may dictate the rigging of these items.b.* Machine /uns. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. ammunition. %.

c. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. assembled on the far side. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. Dn each side of this carabiner. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. %. a. . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. .emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor.b. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. If the < C chooses the dry method. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. he far side remains anchored.ucksacks. %'* A three(man pull team. :o2ing . >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. :o2ing 8itters. . and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method.

%)* Dnce across. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. and up or do$n a vertal. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. b. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. %. inserts a carabiner. Figure 7-)'. ravines. Site Se!ection . chasms. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. removes the knots. Suspension tra2erse. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. and then pulls the rope across. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer.

he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. . and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. c. an A(frame must be used.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole.'(foot sling ropes are needed. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. $o sturdy poles are needed. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. b. 7-#rames.0 feet long.* . $quipment. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. %0* !ith a sling rope. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. hree to five . and mark the ape" on both poles. Construction. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. -osition this knot on . depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. a. leaving about . %.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times.

5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. . !hen starting the first vertical $rap.*. %+ee &igure 4(0:C.*. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps.* Figure 7-. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. ensure it is in the same direction as the .the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied.

If the ground is soft. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. %4* If the ground is a hard surface. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. the direction of kick. -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.*. d.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. Figure 7-. Adjust the A( .* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. =nsta!!ation Construction.).un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. 7-#rame sprea&er. If more than one sling rope is needed. . he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. . ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. %. dig the legs in about ) inches. .

'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots... Eoin the ends of a . It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. . +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.0*. not forcing it in a lateral direction. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. Figure 7-.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope..

%)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. 2ue to the constant . !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions.Figure 7-. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first.1. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*.

rucksacks. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement.4. use a relay man. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line.tension maintained on the belayer. . Aertica! hau!ing !ine. or supplies Figure 7-. use a mechanical belay.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. herefore.

o maintain the . he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. .0(inch bight. and anchor it. a.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". . tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope.platforms that provide a safe $orking area.5. 2ouble one installation rope. find the middle. if necessary. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. %+ee &igure 4(07.* Figure 7-.

or to. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. he angle should be .0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. $hich is tied to the A(frame. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . Attach e#uipment to the hauling line .b.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. e. c. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. g.0 inches apart. . ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. f. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. o anchor the A(frame. belay from the top using the hauling line.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. directional figure(eight. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. d.

. Construction. e#uipment.. $eather. c. Theory. !hen it is no longer needed. Consi&erations.h. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. and availability of anchors. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. . Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. . !hen in use. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing.educe e"cessive friction on the system. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. a. pull the other side from belo$. b. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. Simp!e . and the rope condition. . If only e#uipment is being hauled up. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. the load rubbing against the rock $all. load $eight. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. terrain.

-rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. . -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope.%. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. place a pulley into the carabiner. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+.* . Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. . Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+.

3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. >se belays and backup safeties. d. F-pu!!ey system.Figure 7-. terrain. e#uipment. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load.6. $eather. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. . &or greater efficiency. a. Consi&erations. 6ther Factors. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. and availability of anchors. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. load $eight. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. If the t$o pulleys touch. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*.

c. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. Construction. . +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. his is the -C2. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. E-pu!!ey system.7. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage.. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. %7* Construct a second anchor. %. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. Theory. the load rubbing against the rock $all. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. Figure 7-. and the rope condition.b.* Anchor the hauling rope.

he mountaineer sets a tempo. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. s0iing or snow shoeing. hen. or number of steps per minute. rugged terrain. he more adverse the conditions. proper training. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. even under ideal conditions. and results in loss of climbing time. conditioning. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. produces early fatigue. he trained. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. . 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. good nutrition and hydration. empo. $eather. technical roc0 and ice climbing. the need for rest halts decreases. H In addition to proper techni#ue. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. acclimatiAation. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. H he terrain. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. re#uires more rest halts. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. Coving too fast. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. rappelling.est. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. !hen a moderate pace is set. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. pace is adapted to conditions. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. and a unit can cover a given . the slo$er the pace. pace.

a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb.7 hours. the soldier pauses briefly. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. If possible. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. %. hydrate. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. and higher elevations. %. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. breathe deeply.* After each step for$ard. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. sno$fields. not muscle. steady. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. he soldier e"hales strongly. %'* After a climb. rock. If possible.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. deeper inhale. soldiers lean against a tree. and snack on trail food. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. supports the $eight. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. %1* his slo$.distance in a minimal time. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. to . %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements.. <listers and . enabling an easier. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight.

H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. surface. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. A normal progression. and loss of balance.* !hen ascending. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. A ski pole. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. animal trails. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. /ard ground is firmly compacted. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles.. to a herringbone step. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. in lo$ brush or heather. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. knee damage. through thick brush. ice a". !hile traversing. and on scree and talus slopes. and back pain may follo$. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. %. If side hill travel is necessary. o turn at the end of each traverse. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails.efer to Chapter . !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack.blackened toenails. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. back injury. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. as the slope steepens. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. %. H -ar& <roun&. try to s$itchback periodically. . %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. $ould be from $alking straight up. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. for techni#ues and use of the ice a".

simply $alk straight do$n. returning to the in(balance position.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. /. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. and plants his foot solidly. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step..H Sno+ S!opes. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker.0 Step Kicking. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. . $hich must be done in a positive. each one improving the step as he ascends. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. held in the uphill hand. he soldier performs a basic rest step. aggressive manner. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. $hich take half of the boot. and $eighting the trail leg. steps off. his is the in(balance position. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. and they $ill not be as secure. he soldier faces out. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. he ice a". streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot.

3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. In this techni#ue. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. $here the ground is more level. H Thick %rush. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. brush is both a help and a hindrance.* !hen ascending. %. !hen traversing. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. trees. and the upper leg is used only for balance. &or the military mountaineer. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. H <rassy S!opes.

After determining that the step is stable. %. !hen $alking in talus.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. H Ta!us S!opes. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. ascending or descending. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. feet pointed do$nhill. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. and heels dug in. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. if possible. o . he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. and then repeats the process. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. back straight. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. H Scree S!opes. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided.

digging into the slope $ith hands. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. navigation. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation.ockW6 is shouted immediately. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. is the foundation of good navigation. compass and identifiable terrain features. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. sno$. grass. Backing cover. and do not look up. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain.prevent rock fall injuries. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. knees and toes. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. the $arning. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. . and route finding. 6. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. the location of a target objective. elbo$s. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. he use of the map.

Compasses. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. a. a loss of barometric pressure of . route planning. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. millimeters of mercury. <y measuring air pressure. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. 7!timeters. usually attached to a cord. . %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance.1 inches has occurred. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team.H . checking progress and terrain identification.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure.::: feet of elevation. b. or millibars. %. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. usually inches of mercury.. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. and bad $eather should be e"pected. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes.

it can provide position %accurate up to . his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. he 9-+ is a space(based. survey monuments.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. %4* .ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. stream(trail intersections. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. his can result in faulty elevation readings.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. global. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. <!o a! 9ositioning System. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. It can determine the latitude. . his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. causing them to give poor readings. longitude and elevation of the individual user.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. all($eather. %. c. and so forth* is reached. saddles. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system.

due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. d. Dther$ise. &or navigation. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. . If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. but due . or plateaus are better. Canyons. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. %4* . he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. terrain association. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. start point and objective. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. the better the system performs. enter their coordinates as $ay points. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. or altimeter navigation. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. %'* +ince the 0. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. after choosing critical checkpoints. summits."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. spurs. 3a2igation Techniques. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert.idgelines.%1* 2uring route planning. deep valleys. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. open valleys. saddles.

Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. siAe. %. . bo"ing(in areas. elevation. and attack points are all used. than as a primary navigational aid. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. /andrails. he the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. navigational corridors. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. burned(over. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. slope %+D+. and not a precise point. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. . /eavy fog. orientation. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. !hen clear cut. glacier. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature.* Dea& . it should not be used as the main techni#ue.eckoning. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. checkpoints. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. catching features.

or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. H !hen looking over a smooth. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. uniform surface. H !hen looking do$n a straight. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. in resection. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. dusk. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. hey aid in orientation. or desert. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. open road or track. such as sno$. $ater. check the . Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. in computing rates of ascent or descent. but not behind the object being vie$ed. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. such as da$n. $atercourse. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. and in $eather prediction. H !hen the light is poor. H !hen the object blends into the background. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined.

sno$fields and glaciers. light conditions %time of day*. cliffs. In addition. . cliff bands. e. may present themselves. such as couloirs or gullies. &ault lines. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. studying it for climbing routes. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. In this case. and the physical condition of the team.altimeter. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. !atch the mountain during the approach march. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. %. .ates of travel. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. and crevasse Aones become visible. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. along $ith $eather conditions. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. gross bedding planes of rock. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making.

2uring calm $eather. individual ski abilities. avalanche danger. because of more intense glaciation in past ages.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. %. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. 2uring movement. g. $ater features.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. and the siAe of the unit. f. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. If you must cross one. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. pays off in more efficient travel. and impact on your route choices. vegetation. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. are often steeper. (inter .oute Se!ection. &or $eaker skiers. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. terrain relief. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. constrain your choice of terrain. shovel tests. sno$ pits. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement.

east. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. H -reset aAimuths on your compass. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. H >se a steady. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. !eather and tactical situation permitting. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. and so on to get accurate readings. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. If $eak skiers are in the group. Avoid north. If the $eather turns bad. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. %4* 2uring ski movements. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march.danger is still present. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. ice a". !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. . %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm.

oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements.* In $inter. sno$fall. trails.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. . both on the ground and from aerial photographs. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. . and drifting sno$. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. especially above tree line. At times. kno$ledge of the enemy . hick vegetation and rough. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. %. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. compasses. caused by large ore deposits. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks.h. $hiteouts. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. drastically limit visibility. short hours of daylight. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. 9ro !ems. fog. bliAAards. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. Careful map reconnaissance. %'* /andling maps.

opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. Civilian . he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend.econnaissance.:.::: maps can be used if available. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. obli#ue angle. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. Aerial. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. :ap . even larger scale maps are desirable. cable and tram$ays are often found.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. pay close attention to the marginal information. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area.::: map depicts greater detail than a .:7:. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues.:07. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. %. In addition. a. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. clear cuts.::: map and should be used $henever possible. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n.0. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. Along $ith sketch maps. verbal descriptions. An . A . terrain analysis of the operational area. Areas above tree line. such facilities as ski lifts. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme.situation. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover.

re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. . and large open areas above tree line. roads. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. are factored in. but should still be e"pected.uins. e"tractions. they have a marked advantage. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. .oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. $nemy Situation.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. bridges. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . $eather permitting.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. such as rivers and gorges. c. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. and plans made to avoid them. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. impassable torrents. barns. %1* /elicopter support. resupply and medevac. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. trails. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. b. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. %0* Dbstacles. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground.

including the geology. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* .outes through granite rock %long cracks. good friction@ use of pitons. . %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. camming units*. mountain structure and forms. d.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains.*. %. e. Enit 7ssessment. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. and ground cover. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. smooth rock@ bolts. %0* . $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. Time-Distance Formu!as. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(.success.

0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing .0 kph 0 to 1. %. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons.) kph '. and clothing for mountain travel.0 kph 0 to 1.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. foot of . Time-&istance #ormu!as. In order to do this. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.5 to 7.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. to 7. basic mountaineering gear. his distance plus . he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. realistic rates of march. ... sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. %0* As able 5(. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$* $alking* Dn foot %less than . should take this into account. $eights in order to obtain accurate..::: feet of ascent or 0. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.) to 1. helicopter support cannot be relied on. first measure the map distance.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). actical movements. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC..) to 1. indicates.0 kph 1.' to . such as patrolling or deliberate assaults. Add one hour for each .::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance.0 to ' kph +kiing .0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . foot . +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times.

vegetation. avalanche probability. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. -lot start and end points. and the likelihood of crevasses. Additionally. $idth of trails. Consider the follo$ing: %. Se!ect a Current :ap. Se!ect a . Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. aerial photos. his includes degree of slopes.oute. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. $eather reports. . Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. a. c.equire& $quipment. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. %1* . roads. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary.* Tra##ica i!ity. clearings. sno$ condition reports. b. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. avalanche probability. sno$ depth. and trails accurately..

7f a water obstacle is too wide. depending upon the type of stream. %4* Checkpoints. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats.Capa i!ities o# Enit. swift.Contro! 9oints. >se all available information and plan accordingly. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. an alternate route should be used. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. !hen plotting a route on the map. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. and depth of the water. . . 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. %)* Con&itions. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. its width. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. or deep. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues.econnaissance . 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence.%7* Communications. ake into consideration their present health. When rivers or streams must be crossed. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. speed of the current.

!henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours.. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. sno$. photo. depending on the distance from the source. Figure '-). +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. perhaps from a ridge. or head$aters. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. for e"ample. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. the closer you are to the source.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. or ice melt during the day. the rivers rise. a. As glaciers. If a dry crossing is unavailable. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. A distant vie$. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. 2epending upon the time of year. if . the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing.*. Crossigs. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing.econnaissance of the route %map. b. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. In a s$amp. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation.

Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. and thus shallo$est. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. contain sections $ith numerous channels. artificial anchors may have to be constructed.made during the early morning. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. ho$ever. ho$ever. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. In some areas. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. firm bottom. =atural anchors are not a necessity. point of the river or stream. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. . is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. above the tree line for e"ample. Dnce a log jam is formed. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. %1* Cany mountain streams. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. if any.

+ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. binoculars. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. H If you must cross on the upstream side. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. All pockets are buttoned. papers. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. b. <oots should be $orn . $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. as in the higher alpine Aones. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. %)* !hen possible. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. temperature of the air and $ater*.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. !rap radios. +DI. if available. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. tactical situation. he could easily dro$n. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. -reparation includes the follo$ing. a.

f. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. /o$ever. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. At times. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. d. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. c. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. Dn the far side. socks and inner soles should be removed. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. e. a.

d. /e should take short. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. e.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. sturdy tree limb. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. b. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. If an obstacle is encountered. a long ice a". c. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. o increase balance. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. deliberate steps. he staff should be moved first. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. and if available. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. . here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted.

but $ith the added support of each other. he line formed faces the far bank. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. . a team crossing may be used. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. &or chain crossing.Figure '-. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*.. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.

he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . he stream at this point may be impassable. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . Cany times though. . the chosen site must be closely e"amined. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. and the distance from the near and far anchors. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. . someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. a. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. height of the anchors above the $ater.Figure '-1. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor.

A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b.$ill pendulum back. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. If this is impossible. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. /e should =.V. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine.. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. %. should he fail to reach the far bank. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. .* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing.

rather than straight across the stream. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. An appropriate knot is tied into the . /ere again. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired.Figure '-4. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. %. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. pulled tight. and anchored on the near bank.

he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. $hichever appears easiest. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. Figure '-5. . he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. %7* >nder most circumstances. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank.

recoilless rifles. Sa#ety . and individual e"perience. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. .:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. f. speed of the current. especially heavier $eapons. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. d.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. or choose another route. use a different techni#ue. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. c.%)* . such as mortars. A lookout should be posted 7: to . and so on. b. $idth of the stream. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. stream bottom configuration. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. a. e. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.

ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters.g. b. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. If the shore is too difficult to reach. facing do$nstream. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. c. such as a sandbar. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. h. In either case. seek out the closest and safest spot. . at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. e. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. 2o not try to fight the current. d. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. for assistance or rescue. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. a. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

: and .*. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. Figure )*-)*. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a".. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. As the slope steepens. F!at-#ooting in the cra position.:(. Dn steep terrain. . he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. d. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. . If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting.degrees. !henever possible.egardless of the techni#ue used. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope.:(. descend straight do$n the fall line. and traverse. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures .

* Crampons. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. e. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. .Figure )*-)). raverse $ith feet flat. <acking up the slope %crab position*. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. logical progression. 3orma! 9rogression. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. &ront(pointing. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. %0* =ce 7B. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. /erringbone step straight up the slope.

<egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. >sing most of these positions.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". C!im ing sequence. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . in some cases. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. .0*.:(. Step Cutting.:(. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.1*. f. Figure )*-). and move the hand up the a" shaft.e. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. C!im ing Sequence. ..emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure . +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to .

a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. !hen changing direction. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. %0* =ce. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. and angled more. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. .negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. =e"t. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. In descending.* Sno+. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. a traverse is also the preferred method. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. %. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. steps may be cut straight up the slope. then cut one bet$een those t$o. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. they should be smaller than footholds. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. In ascending. %'* -an&ho!&s. If handholds are cut. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. Dnce the step is formed.

or arrest. Se!#-7rrest. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury.'*. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. a fall %&igure . Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs.:(. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped.Figure )*-)1. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. 2uring movement on steep ice. g. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. . and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop.

Figure )*-)4. Se!#-arrest technique. .

stomach on the slope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. and feet pointed do$nslope. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. stomach on the slope. and feet pointed do$nslope. H /ead do$nslope. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled.Figure )*-)4. and feet pointed upslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. H /ead upslope. back to the slope. . the climber must first gain control of his body. and feet pointed upslope. back to the slope. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. H /ead do$nslope. %. H /ead upslope.

stomach do$n position. 9lissading is similar to skiing. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike.%a* In the first position. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope.:(. %d* In the fourth position. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. %b* In the second position. controlled. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. e"cept skis . . or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . stomach on the slope. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. could severely injure his ankles and legs.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick.7*. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. rapid descent. %c* In the third position. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. %'* !hen a fall occurs. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. If crampons are not $orn. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. Dne hand grasps the head of the a".

he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. Squatting <!issa&e. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. he same balance and control are necessary. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. brake. $hich serves as the rudder. Sitting <!issa&e. as painful injury could result. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a".are not used. Also. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". pick. b. c. . and the other hand on the shaft. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. Sa#ety. and guide for the glissade. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope.

he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . =ce 9itons. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. . Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. skis. sleds. and ice pitons.: inches in length. a. ice scre$s. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. >sed singularly. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. %. backpacks. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. flukes. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. deadman(type anchors.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice.Figure )*-)5. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. or any large items. <!issa&ing techniques.

:(.)*. making further use difficult.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. If it pulls out or appears $eak. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. =ce piton pair. or the ice may crack or soften. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. are multidirectional. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation.:( . move to another spot and replace it.4*. he pair of pitons. Figure )*-)6. c. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. !hen an ice piton is removed. =ce Scre+s. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. such as top roping. $hen placed correctly. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection.

%. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. . %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. must be removed before further use. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. Figure )*-)7. or the ice may crack or soften. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning.%. such as top roping.

!hen constructed of sno$. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. or other e#uipment for added strength. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. In ice. . he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$.: feet.:(. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. pickets. Figure )*-)". %. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth.d. e. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location.5*. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. depending on the strength of the ice. the $idth should not be less than . this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious.

the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull.:(. ski poles. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. f. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head.* !henever possible.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. should be at a right angle to its length. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying.%. sno$shoes. or other fi"ed rope installations. frayed. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. %&igure . the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. he direction of pull on long items. such as a picket or a". . t$o or more anchors should be used. rappel points. $qua!i@e& 7nchors. %. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. also.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . A similar anchor. skis. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes.8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. .

6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. Tie-=n :etho&. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. for more information*. :o2ement. all climbers move simultaneously.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock.:(4. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. a. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. Covement on 9laciers. b. +hould any member fall. the tie(in is modified slightly. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. %+ee paragraph . he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing.e#ualiAed anchor. <y using this . !hen crevasses are e"pected. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. Figure )*-)'. . he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. a three(man rope team is recommended.

the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak.:(0:*. Dn steeper slopes. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. %oot-aB e!ay. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . c. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". .method. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. Figure )*-.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. %. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing.*. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft.* %oot-7B %e!ay. 9enerally. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. called the 6team arrest.

An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. or cliffs. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice.opes. As the movement continues. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. H . also. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area.%0* %o&y %e!ay. d. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. FiBe& . H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. .etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. ridgelines. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. %1* :unter -itch. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis.

Characteristics an& De#initions. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.a. %&igure .:(00 depicts common glacier features.). his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. . <!acier cross section.* Figure )*-. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. and &igure .:(0.

. . %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.. %. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer.Figure )*-. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. <!acier #eatures.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier.

<e cautious. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. As you approach this area.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. %.. he firn line can change annually. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. %.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. . . %.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. %. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses.

* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier.%. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. %. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. %. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. %0. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. b. o$ard the end of the summer. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. %. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. %.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. %. icefalls. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. and ice avalanches. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. In $inter. $hen visibility is poor.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers.

he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure .:(01*.:(0'*.1. . his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. criss(crossed $ith crevasses. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. Figure )*-. %. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .

and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. If the team members need to assemble in one area. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. assess the situation. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. o locate the positions. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. If four people are on a team.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. he simplest and most common . the remaining members go into team arrest.Figure )*-. . %0* !hen conditions $arrant. if three people are on a team.4. ie in to the bights and the ends. use the -rusik to belay each other in. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse.

but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. $hile ideal for rock climbing. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. 9enerally.ope& :o2ement. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. their security being the team arrest. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. A roped team of t$o. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. . If traveling $ith a sled in to$. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . c. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. he best combination is a three(man rope team. .method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier.:(07*. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. halting the fall.

the rope should be divided into thirds. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement.Figure )*-. %0* .* .5.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. <ecause of this. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. as for a four(person team. he remaining 6thirds6 . he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. $hether improvised or premanufactured. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. %. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope.

he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. the chance of it failing is much greater. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it.0(foot ropes.. Securing the %ackpack. $ith double fishermanUs knots. &or safety reasons. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. !hen . to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. attached to the rucksack. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. d.ucksack. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. /o$ever. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. or carried over the head and shoulder. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. if $arm clothing is needed. <efore movement. If necessary. forming endless loops or slings. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. e. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. he ends of the ropes are tied together. by itself. may be e"tremely difficult. Ese o# 9rusik Knots.

$hereas the glacier ice is gray. f. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. and icefalls. they only supplement. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. large crevasses remain open. $hich covers glacier ice. Dpen crevasses are obvious. g. Crossing Cre2asses.hanging from the drop cord. . %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. the sno$. %.outes. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. heavily crevassed portions. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. In this Aone. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. and do not take the place of. /o$ever. steep terminal or lateral moraines. . though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. connecting both sides of it. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. =arro$ cracks may be covered.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams.* In the area of the firn line. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. %. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse.

In such a situation. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. h. and gradually turn into glacier ice. the team may proceed. and may form firmer bridges. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. %. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. but difficult to detect in flat light. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. its detection is difficult. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. . !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. a crevasse is probably present. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. If he is. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. Sno+ %ri&ges. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a".

/e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. %1* In crossing crevasses. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. 2o not stamp the sno$. Dnce the second is across. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. i. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. he assumes the belay position. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. .$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position.: feet back from the edge. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. =umber t$o belays number three across. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. %c* he leader should move for$ard.

If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge.. to anchor the rope. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. % his scenario is for a team of three. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. if the person $as almost across. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. /o$ever. using the -rusik as a self belay. =umber 1 must al$ays be . the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load.%. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. the rope is al$ays kept taut. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet.

the procedure is the same e"cept that number . %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number .escue Techniques. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . close to number 0. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. if the middle person should fall through. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. onto the anchor.. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. Cre2asse . %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. =ormally.Us anchor. $ould anchor the rope by himself. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . assumes the role of number 1. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. number . as a minimum. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. j.

In some situations. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. If necessary. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. or backpackKrucksack. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. such as an ice a". ski.ope. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . %. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. If the fallen climber is not injured. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. thus relieving the strain on the sno$.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . %0* FiBe& . thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. =umber . ski pole. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. As the assisting team pulls.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. clips number 1Us rope to himself. place padding.ope Teams. In order to reduce friction. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member.edge. on the edge of the ice. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. .

the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. /o$ever. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop.6 of the long sling. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. %&igure . %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. Dther times. %f* he procedure is repeated. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope.person in the crevasse. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. or 6stirrup.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. to ascend the rope.

he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system.:(04*. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing he basic V rig is a 61(to(. A pulley can be used here if available. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . If additional rope teams are not immediately available. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system.::(pound load $ith this system.6. % his scenario is for a team of three.6 system. Figure )*-. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . In actual field use. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious.. to the anchor. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. and they have decided to install the V rig. 9rusik ascen&ing technique. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. In theory.

=umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. H !ith the 61(to(. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. . foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue.6 system. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. he system is no$ ready for another haul.

and so on. . poles. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. =ormally. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. a crevasse is present. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large.7. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses.Figure )*-. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. at least eight feet in length.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. a. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis.

by . by 0 feet. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. $hich keeps tents closer together. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. :ountain . Under these conditions. If a dugout latrine is necessary. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. ry to find a solid platform. Dccasionally $hile probing. and e)isting installations. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. 7t is. %. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. the weather. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. c.* &or block construction. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. distance to be moved. therefore. Air evacuation is preferred: however. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. If a latrine area is needed. At a minimum.b. In deep soft sno$. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. probe again after digging. d. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. tactical situation. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. e. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. terrain.

there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. medic%. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. . &or a planned rescue. and one person only. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. a. . . and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used.2.evel 777 supervising. c.nsure that the C. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. . 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. ho$ever. physician/s assistant.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a .* Assume command. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. and maintain moderate body $armth. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed.evel 7 and . control serious bleeding. is overall in charge at all times. /o$ever. %. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. b. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. hey are. Dne person. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim.sufficient. resume victimUs breathing. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. .escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations.

hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. 9!anning . environmental haAard. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. should be used for evacuation. or any other immediate haAard. . a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. continually monitor pulse. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. if available. +peed is less important than correct action. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. hanging glacier. or a change in $eather. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. and terrain at hand.$SCE$.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. avalanche run(out Aone. vehicle.escue 6perations . a. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. . T-$ . %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample.If the victim is unconscious. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help.esist the urge for action. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. possibility of falling rocks*.

* After identifying the task. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. d. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. H actical situation.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. and ho$ the situation happened. H . that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. H . H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*.b. medical. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. H errain features and location of the casualties. tactical immediate*. $here. security.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. $hen. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. routine. c. In planning a rescue. $hat. H Are additional personnel. $hy. and the nature of their injuries. he task must be identified. priority. H -lan the action. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. treatment. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. rescue. and evacuation. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved.

hot food and drinks. If the victim is airlifted out. Age and physical condition may vary. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. reliable trails or roads is essential. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. anchor points. bivouac sacks. ropes. fi"ed lines. Ca"imum use of secure. ime becomes the critical element. $alking trails. the situation. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. and so on*. and stretchers. . attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. drugs started. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. %c* !hen performing all rescues. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. stove. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. !ith all rescue techni#ues. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. lo$ering lines. and rescue belay points*.* In estimating time available. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. $arm clothes. tents. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. sleeping bags. and the personnel and e#uipment available. pulse #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. blood pressure. e.

a. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.=TD T-.ST7<$4 . H T-=.=6. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.=6. H F6E. b.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.=TD F6E. .ST ST7<$4 .emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . H 9. separate stages are taken. Specia! Training . %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. available time is drastically reduced. In high altitudes.D ST7<$4 .elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning.=6. an orderly rescue may involve further planning.=6.%1* . . .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance.T. e"treme cold.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites. H F=.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. H 9. H 9.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation.emove dead personnel. or gusting $inds. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. .

.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. saddleback. difficult terrain. t$o(hand. %. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. pistol belt. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. before trying to move the $ounded soldier.ope Carry. . or inade#uate protection from the elements. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid.* S!ing-.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. rough handling. piggyback. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers.(. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. herefore. four(hand. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. the best method of manual transportation is selected. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. he sling(rope carry %&igure . 6ne-:an Carries.* re#uires a '. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. a. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. it can be lost through carelessness. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours.

Figure ))-). should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. S!ing-rope carry. around the casualtyUs thighs. .%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. %0* . %f* he rope must be tight. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms.ope Coi! Carry. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. -adding. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. and back around to the front of the bearer. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle.K0( meter coiled rope. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. crosses the ends. $hen available.

%d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. pulling the casualty onto his back. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level.appe!. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. In this case. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. b. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. %u&&y . If this is not done. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. the bearer carefully stands. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. . the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. he victim is top(rope belayed from above.

+lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. %0* A '. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. across the carrierUs chest. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. over his left shoulder. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. from right to left. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. from right to left. and back under the victimUs left armpit. . he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. he rope is run diagonally. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. from left to right. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. %7* he rope is run diagonally.%.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. across the victimUs back. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip.0(meter sling rope is used. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. he victim straddles the carrier. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks.

he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing.%. %. over the shoulder. behind the neck. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. a. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. belayed. his litter may be used $hen rappelling.* he poleless. :anu#acture& 8itters. nature of injuries. depending on the terrain. . $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. easy to carry. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. $hich are se$n on one side. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. and readily available. If the litter must be carried. and then carried again. and then do$n along the other arm. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. he rope is folded in half.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. as described above. It can be improvised $ith poles. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. and then routed up along the handling arm. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. and e#uipment available. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. on traverse lines.

the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. $hich is a potential breaking point.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever.5. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. . %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. .:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. %+ee &C 5(.1.

a large item. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. %. skis. shirts. jackets. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. not dragging on the ground. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. Figure ))-. If possible. these objects should be padded.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. cots. the hood must be up and under the victim. and poles. ..(0):(. A litter can be improvised from many different things. sacks.0.6*-). . scoop stretchers. bags. benches. b. ladders. tent supports.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . %0* If poles cannot be found..(0*. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. tarpaulin.. doors. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. ponchos. and other similar items. +uch objects include boards. such as a blanket. or mattress covers. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. shelter halves. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.. /o$ever. If a poncho is used. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. $indo$ shutters.

make a clove hitch over each bight. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available.(1*. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ).%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . . &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. little material e"ists to construct litters. Figure ))-1. . centimeters long.. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches.ope !itter. sleeping bags.ach clove hitch should be about . he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. . %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. 3ote4 Above the tree line. empty bo"es. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing.

2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. a. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about .(meter poles. %. . After placing the clove hitches over the bights.7 centimeters. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. .* &irst. 2o not remove the belay. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. and place a carabiner into the loop.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. ake t$o .0 inches belo$ the mule knot. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. %7* -ull up on the rope. %e!ay 7ssist. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb.escue Systems . 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends.

%. %e!ay $scape. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber.* After a climber has been injured. %7* . o improve this system. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. %5* . transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. . b. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance.

It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. and other variables. hand $inches. . belays. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. %0* %e!ays. backup safety -rusiks are used to . !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes.aising System. . transferring the $eight to the anchor. %. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage.%)* . In practice. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems.* . . Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation.aising systems. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. are often encountered along the evacuation path. $hich must be surmounted. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. rope(edge friction. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. a. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system.

safeguard the system. % his is the signalman or relay man. if possible. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. . !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. c.aising the 8itter. . %. b. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. taking care not to jar the casualty. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. he litter is prepared as already described. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform. Descen&ing S!opes. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure .* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$.. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system.( '*. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. %. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions.

Figure ))-4. if used. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope.(7*: a. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation .. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. many different techni#ues can be used. clearance for the casualty along the route. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. %1* he most direct. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure .&escen&ing. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . and anchor points for the A(frame. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. good loading and unloading platforms. b.

Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. d.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . c. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. C!i## e2acuation &escent. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. Figure ))-5. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner.:1814 Inches .

14 . <enera! 9roce&ures . 18. after two hours. chances of survival are remote.)0. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides.05.robability of survival drops rapidly and.14 1.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.. random probing starts in that vicinity.7.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent.. if a member of your group is in an avalanche. . If any indication of the location of the victim is found.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent.1814 . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots .. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately . they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but.:105.:81) . . Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.

Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial.. gloves. . and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. poles.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. if enough personnel are available. ice a"es. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. >nless other$ise indicated. hats. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. urbulence. packs. . $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. make an initial probe search in that area.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. Book for skis. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. . and mark all clues. several factors influence the bodyUs location. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. boots. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. >sing this and any other information. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. b. If the initial search reveals items from the victim.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. usually the toe of the slide. terrain. If using avalanche beacons. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. a. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. A human body. goggles. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established.

All currently available transceivers are compatible. especially in a high $ind. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. . • . each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. Conversely. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . 9ro e 9o!es.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. Although this type of pole . although they may operate differently in the search mode. and other obstacles act as snares. • Vegetation. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. In the case of large and violent avalanches. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. Cany models of transceivers are available. rocks. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. a. the greater $ill be his burial depth. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots.

o ensure systematic and orderly probing. . %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. he only sure check is by digging. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. %0* If no probing poles are available. $enty per line is satisfactory. 9ro ing Techniques."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. %.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. b. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. coarse probing implies a . 9ro ing 8ines. &or the probing operation to be effective. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access.performs best. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. c.* . -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. %. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. the number of personnel per line should be limited. As evidenced by their names.

%0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: ...!A. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. %. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated.7 inches apart. $hile the fine probe has. clear commands are essential for efficient probing.6 6>. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.2.6 <y using these commands. a . the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.D<. $hich almost guarantees finding the body. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander.D<. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. &ine probing is the concluding measure. $ith feet about . +trict discipline and firm. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. he probers themselves $ork silently.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center. essentially. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.-..::(percent chance of locating the body.&D.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed.6 6+ .

.D<. the line advances .&D.: inches from the adjacent one..D<. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing..ach probe is made ..D<. -. then in the center of his straddled position. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.ach man probes in front of his left foot. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe. and finally in front of his right foot. . .-.D<.. $hich is then moved ahead .%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.6 6>.6 6.= .6 6+ .!A.2.D<.-. foot.& -.. . he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.6 6>. %b* Dn command.I9/ -. foot and repeats the probing se#uence..6 6C.D<.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe..6 6>.-.

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