Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

+ . Figure-$ight .etrace /. b. .+ . + .1*.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor.1. Checkpoints. 2ress the knot do$n. %. . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. /o$ever.epeat + ... + . Figure 4-). forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.'.. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. Tying the Knot. . leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. by tying the knot in a retrace... a.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.0....* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.

Figure-eight retrace.. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse.1. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. .emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. !ith the $orking end. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.. b.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. + . Checkpoints %.7. + . ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. and route the $orking end through the loop.).0.. + . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. he finished knot is dressed loosely.+ . + . .'... Figure 4-)1.

-lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. reach under the horiAontal anchor.. /old the loop in the left hand.. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.. + . %0* End of the Rope.0.. palms do$n $ith hands together.. /old rope in both hands. /old the standing end in the left hand.* Middle of the Rope. + ..%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. and bring it in$ard. depending on ho$ it is tied. + . 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. %.'. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. he knot is tied. !ith the right hand. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping..'*. + . -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.1. grasp the $orking end. + .. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. a. . +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. Tying the Knot. + . -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.0...

. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.. a..7*. Tying the Knot. 2ress do$n the knot. Figure 4-)4. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope.1. !ith the right hand. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. + .. b. It is a middle rope knot. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. !hen tying this knot. %.+ . ake up the slack from the anchor. + .'.. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. Checkpoints.. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. C!o2e hitch.

4. + . (ireman’s knot...1. + ..8.5... +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + . + . . +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.0.7. Figure 4-)5.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. and fingertip. + . palm. and place it over the heel $rap.. + . b..'. Checkpoints.). =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. + . -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.+ .

+ . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm.'. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied.0. a.1. .. the tail and the bight must be together... Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. It is a middle rope knot.. Tying the Knot. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. it lays in$ard. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. + . + .. !ith the $rap thus formed. Cake one $rap around the palm.)*.%. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. + .. !hen dressing the knot do$n.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.

b. Checkpoints. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. It is a middle rope knot.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .4*. %. Directiona! #igure-eight.Figure 4-)6. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. . %0* he tail and bight must be together.

4. + . + . + . + .). /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. Tying the Knot.'.. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. + ... + .0. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.7. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. forming t$o loops. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. ie an overhand knot on a bight. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull......1..a. + . &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.

.. >sing a doubled rope.ight. Checkpoints.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. Tying the Knot. a. b. %o+!ine-on-a. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. form an .* It is a middle rope knot..Figure 4-)7. %. + . %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.5.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. .

It is a middle of the rope knot. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.1. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. 2ress the knot do$n. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop...7. + . + . Tying the Knot. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. %.. !ith the $orking end.8*. Figure 4-)". + . a. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.+ . Checkpoints. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.'. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. /old the bight $ith the left hand..0. b. . form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.

. Figure-eight !oop. Tying the Knot. . b. 2ress the knot tightly. %. + .. Checkpoints. form a loop in rope %standing part*. a. Figure 4-)'. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.0. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.1. It is a specialty knot.. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.. %1* he knot is tightly dressed.+ . + .* he loop is the desired siAe. !ith the bight as the $orking end..

and place it over the long rope. . . + . + . 2ouble the short rope. Figure 4-. + . forming a bight.0.. + .. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. $ith the $orking ends even.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. >sing an arm3s length of rope..* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.0(inch bight.1..each do$n through the .*: + .1.0.. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.*.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.. . =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:... :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik..%.*. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . + . Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.

&inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. + ..7. %. and not t$isted.. parallel. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. + .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. .'. Figure 4-. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*.). the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.nsure they are tight. b. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. Checkpoints. . here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.+ . + .4. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. It is a specialty knot.). %0* he locking bar faces the climber. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.

Tying the Knot.0. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! .* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. + . %achman knot. %.1. + . Checkpoints.. + .. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. Figure 4-. b. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner... -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.... %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.a.

he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. a.).4. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. . b. + . + . %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps... + . + . %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied..7. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. he running end is to the back of the body. + . single coil. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top.'. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage.. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. It is a specialty knot. hen... + .0. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. bring a bight up through the loop. Tying the Knot. .. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. not crossed. /olding the bight loosely. + . >sing the standing part. tie an overhand around all coils. !ith the running end.. %. he standing portion is on the bottom.1.* A minimum of four $raps. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. Checkpoints.

reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.'. + .0. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. Bay the loops to the right..1. + . /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself... !ith the right hand. + ... + .Figure 4-. It is a specialty knot. a. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system.1. . Tying the Knot.

4. It is a specialty knot. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Figure 4-... Checkpoints. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. + . %.7.. b. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. . &orm a . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.+ .. Tying the Knot. Three-!oop o+!ine. a.

. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. Checkpoints.:u!e Knot0 . /old the center of the bight in the right hand.'.0. Figure 4-. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. %.each through the bight and grasp the long. b. + .5. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about ... + . standing end of the rope. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand.1. + . Figure-eight s!ip knot. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. + .). t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.0 inches up the rope.+ .. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.7.. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.

Tying the Knot. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.0.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. Figure 4-. + ..0 inches long.6.1. + . K!eimhiest Knot . -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. b.* here is a single overhand slip knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.. Transport knot. a. + . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. %. It is simply an overhand slip knot... %1* he bight is a minimum of . Check 9oints..

high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. !rap at least four complete turns. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. !ith the ends offset. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.*..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable... + .. find the center of the rope and form a bight. pass them through the bight %see + .. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . It is a special( purpose knot. a.. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. + . + . ..7. + . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. easily adjustable.'.0. + ... Tying the Knot. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .1.0 inches.

.0. .7. + . It is a special(purpose knot... %0* All $raps are tight and touching. K!eimhiest knot. b. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.0 inches. Tying the Knot.. Checkpoints. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. + . a.Figure 4-.: to . Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . %. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.

* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. + ...Figure 4-. %. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. <irth hitch.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. Figure 4-. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.". :unter -itch . + . %. Frost knot. It is a special(purpose knot. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. Checkpoints. a.'. b. Checkpoint.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. + ..1: Cinch the knot tightly. b. Tying the Knot.: &orm a bight.

b. /old the loop $ith the left hand. . Bock the locking mechanism.. + . is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*..0. + .. + . Tying the Knot.he munter hitch. %. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. !ith the right hand. /old the rope in both hands..* A bight passes through the carabiner. %0* he carabiner is locked.. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. Check 9oints. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. + . a. palms do$n about .1.. !ith the right hand.0 inches apart. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.'.

. Tying the Knot. thus creating a loop around the $aist.0. + .1. a.. + . It usually re#uires a sling rope .Figure 4-1*.. :unter hitch.. .. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. + .'. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.*. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. ensuring they do not cross.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1. + .' feet or longer. .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope..

pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.. &rom rear to front. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.. ..4.7. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.appe! seat.). Check 9oints. Figure 4-1). -ull up on the ropes.+ . %. + . + . tightening the seat. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. . b.

.0. Tying the Knot.. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. preferably ovals*. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs.. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load.. + . a. . + .

several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. rope can only be pulled in one direction..* !hen properly dressed. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . %. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load.Figure 4-1. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. Although mountain operations have not changed. b. <uar&e knot. Check 9oints.

his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. anchors. rock climbing. movement on glaciers. tactics.). hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build.+. both men and $omen are included. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. and actions.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. >nless other$ise stated. illness and injury. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. he proponent of this publication is /F . $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. and urban vertical environments. &ort <enning. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. A =: A +/(. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective.8:7(7781.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. sno$(covered mountains. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander.army. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. for training %see Appendi" A*. 9A 1. >.A2DC. Inclement $eather. and training. evacuation. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. glaciers. $henever the masculine gender is used. Countain Dperations. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath.).). ice climbing. e#uipment.<D. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. Army Infantry +chool. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. ho$ever.

AcclimatiAation. and $ell(led troops. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. glaciers. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. sno$fields.::: kno$n minerals. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. compartments. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. Df the appro"imately 0. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. surprise. Spring storms. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. single ridges. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. conditioning. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. rehearsals. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole .

San&stone. . dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. . !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. found in limestone. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. +topping a slide on small. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. <rassy S!opes. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. S!ate an& <neiss. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. conglomerate type stones may be loose. f. . and de$. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. and it is usually difficult to protect. c. it cannot be protected. .outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever."cept for calcite. granite dries #uickly. After long. ne$ sno$. Bimestone has pockets. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. <ranite. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. . but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. Cha!k an& 8imestone. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. ho$ever. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. face climbing.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. a. b. &ace climbing is possible.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. After a rain. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. and cracks. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. d. e.ockfall danger is high. &ace climbing can be found.

a. Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. internal heat. =gneous . he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. Ascending scree is a tedious task.ocks. his results in an intrusive rock. .<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. g. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. If possible. under pressure. %. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. /o$ever.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. Scree. h. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling.ock C!assi#ications . propelled by its o$n lo$er density. he magma may move up$ard. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. and over time. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. but smaller than boulders. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . or. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. avoid scree $hen ascending. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". .* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell.ocks. Ta!us.

joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. +ierras. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed.and crystalliAing. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. herefore. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. Fuieter eruptions. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. or clusters of segregated minerals."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. . Adirondacks. =orth Cascades. In plutonic rocks. . it is called 6tuff. $hich cut across the strata.ocks.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. %1* Cointing . Barge %.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family.ockies.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. . may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner.ocks. produce basalt. Dccasionally. and dikes. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. In the Alps. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures.

Se&imentary . a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. or oceans. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. hese changes may be minimal. and limestone to marble. :etamorphic . !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites.ocks. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas.ocks. but cleavage or foliation. In fact. %. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. <ecause of this cleavage. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. $hich offers . only slightly altering the sediments. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys. +hale changes to slate or schist. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. %. especially in limestone. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. he Canadian .* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. lakes. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth.b. After sediments are solidified. As sediments accumulate. c.

their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. and mountain ridge systems. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. $hich results in fault(block mountains. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. granitic continental crust. $hich also provides solid climbing. the Dlympics of !ashington. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. :ountain Structure. . Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. ocean trenches. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. ectonic activity causes plates to collide.* Dome :ountains. %. e"posing the central igneous core. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. =evada. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. 9!ate Tectonics.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. forming fault(block mountain ranges. volcanoes. heaving up fold mountains. b. and to pull apart and crack. . &aulting. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. a.$orld class climbing. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. and heavier. he breakage e"tends . he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. often accompanies up$arp.

>p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. ectonic forces. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. the oldest. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. central core is all that remains. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. it is faulted on one side only.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . ho$ever. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. he best kno$n is the 6. Core often. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. %1* Fo!& :ountains. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges.ainier and Count +aint /elens* .to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle.

develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. . A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. the Caucasus region.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . and the Cediterranean. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. %7* Comp!eB :ountains.ift Valley of . . domed. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. and have the skills to accomplish the plan.idge. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. he I2+ classes are: .do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. In addition. a. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. and faulted. Asian arc. there are folds measured by a rope length. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. and the . Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain.

:(7. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training.:—.4—9reat difficulty.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition. . Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. . H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble.8—. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. %4* Class 7. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced. and e"perience re#uired. %0* Class 7."traordinary difficulty. H Class 1—Climbing. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. %1* Class 7. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. %'* Class 7. belay and emplace intermediate protection.* b.5—Very great difficulty.—/iking trail.'—Bittle difficulty. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue..7—Coderate difficulty. /igh physical conditioning. %7* Class 7. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule."tremely great difficulty.* Class 7. hree points of contact are necessary. $hich may have some e"posure.H Class . Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. H Class '—<elayed climbing. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. his is the simplest form of free climbing. . /ands are necessary to support balance. %)* Class 7. climbing techni#ue. often combined $ith small belay points."posed positions.)—Cedium difficulty.

* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. . %. 7. the 6.6 indicates periods of run(out $here.6 or 6L. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs... %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. and d categories starting from 7.'—9reater increases of difficulty.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable.asy aid.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. %0* A.' %for e"ample. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. e"perience. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route.. 7. and energy e"penditure. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. ground fall $ould occur. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6..5J*.. in a classification of 7.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb.(7. d.: to 7. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing.* Classes are further divided into a. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out. b. %5* Class 7. c.—. c.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample. re#uiring more climbing ability.* A:—M&rench(free.. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. %&or e"ample. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level.5..:d*. if a fall $as e"perienced.

he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement."treme aid.%1* A0—Coderate aid.K0 to 0 . It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. . 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. If the leader falls. %'* A1—/ard aid. All protection is sketchy at best. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length.K0 days %usually not less than 7. %7* A'—+erious aid. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. e. /o$ever.4*. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. long fall potential does e"ist. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. V — . IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7."tremely severe aid. such as A1J or A1(. . II — /alf of a day.5*. =o serious fall danger. ho$ever. hese falls. %4* A)—. VI — 9reater than 0 days. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. III — About three(fourths of a day. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length. %)* A7—.

hard severe.a..urope.:a VII( .c 'a. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs. 'c 7.' 7. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in . III .:.* easy %.c 7b.c .* easy %. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.a VIII( ..c VIII .)a 7. sho$s a comparison of these systems.'a 1b...c.'.1a 1b... Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.0 7.1K.K.7b 7.7 .:b VII .5 .b.c. DDS Class .)b .)..b...4 .:d VIIJ .1 IIIsup .1. able .b 7b.'a 1b. 7.f.'..b.8 VI 7a 7..:c VII .7b 7..4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup . 'a severe. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.c )a.c 7a. hard very 7.b VIII . H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates...c 0a.c )a.b.7 7.) 7.c 7b...(.b.7b(7c 7.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty..0.c )a.'a 'a.c 7b.7b 7..b..b 0c.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.0.8 IIsup .* moderate %CD2* .8 0: 0. 'b hard severe. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.a..1 7.b 0a.)a 7.b. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.: 7.5 VI( severe. H <raAilian—<raAil uses ...c.c 7b. hard severe.

and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable.verything a grade VI has. H VII — ..)c 4a 05 .0c 7. . Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself. and more of it.0b 7. H V — A long climb in a remote setting.* Commitment . $ith little objective haAard. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.. g..)K4. $ith sustained technical climbing.7. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. -ossibly days to approach the climb. .oman numerals. his route is subject to objective haAards.)K4.)K4. possibly $ith a haAardous descent.. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .)c 4a VIIIsup 04 .0d IL( IL IL ILJ .)c 4a VIII 0) ..7.)K4.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-). he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards.7.atings. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. H I — A short. $ith objective haAards ever(present. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance.. .0a 7. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. 2ifficult physically and mentally.7. AI %alpine ice*. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. easy climb near the road. %. all in a remote area. A difficult and involved approach and descent. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation.ating systems. and the route might be prone to avalanche.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent.

atings. — A froAen lake or stream bed. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. a. . !hen planning mountain operations. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. H . location. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. but on featureless ice. re#uiring agility and creativity. he pitch may be shorter. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. additional information may be needed about siAe. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. erratic $eather. H 7 — A long. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. physically and mentally. strenuous pitch. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors.%0* Technica! . $ith places to rest. An e"tremely tough pitch. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors.

$hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. if possible. and amounts of precipitation. c. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm.b. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. put on dry clothing. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. H If lost. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. dry. and calm. types. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. H 2o not rush. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. Co2er an& Concea!ment . %. H ?eep dry. during severe mountain storms. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. stay $arm. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. H ?eep $arm. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. but do not overdress. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth.

hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. hail. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. and fog can limit visibility. In alpine environments.!hen moving in the mountains. /o$ever. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. such as volcanic tuff. are e"cellent at long ranges. heavy vegetation. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. /o$ever. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. sleet. are easily e"cavated. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. Conversely. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds.ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. rain. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. b. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. In other areas. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. like observation. sno$. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. in depth. +ome rock types. . a. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. dead space is a problem at short ranges. boulders. outcroppings. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. . he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. As in all operations.

Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. sno$ conditions. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. If an une"pected $ind strikes. or a rise in temperature. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. . especially in $inter. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. rainfall. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. b. . An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. a. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. latitude. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. and $eather factors. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. Conditions greatly change $ith altitude.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions.

he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. <ecause of this increased dryness. a. conse#uently. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. he barometer usually drops 0. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. b. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. d. In tropical regions. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations.c. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. +ome mountains. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. . the thinner. 2ue to the cold. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. (eather Characteristics . hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. such as those found in desert regions. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains. At higher altitudes.

2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. he higher the pressure.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . %. Associated $ith bad $eather. on the other . oceans. Associated $ith clear skies. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. and the earth3s rotation. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. humidity %moisture content*. ho$ it is being moved. the better the $eather $ill be. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps.::: feet. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. b. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas.:. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere.* -igh 9ressure.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. !ith lo$er air pressure. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out.. and if it is being lifted or not. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. air pressure %barometric pressure*. In order to understand this. land masses. Bo$ pressure. the lo$er the pressure.6 his layer reaches as high as ':.1 millibars %mb*. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. a. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. he higher in altitude.

b. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. Above hot surfaces. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth.6 (in& In high mountains. c. a. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. !ith increasing $ind strength. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. or at high altitudes. . $here it rises and moves to the poles again. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. 2uring the $inter season. c. dense clouds fill the air. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare.hand. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. <ecause of these funneling effects. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. Dn a $eather map. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. and sinks to the earth3s surface. >sually. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. =ormally. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$.

his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. e. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. Caritime -olar — cold. dry air mass. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause.d. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. dry air mass. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. In the =orthern /emisphere. there are three prevailing $inds: %. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. has settled to the surface. g.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. $et air mass. due to the earth3s rotation. Continental ropical — $arm. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. f. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. $et air mass. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. Caritime ropical — $arm. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. . Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude.* 9o!ar $aster!ies.

:: percent relative humidity. rain. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . the $armer the air. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7.%. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. b. the more moisture it can hold. sno$. fog. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. $ind meter. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6...:: percent relative humidity*. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. clouds are formed. . de$. If the air contains a great deal of $ater. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. a. and so on*.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. and thermometer. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends.

Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). b. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation. it has no$here to go but up.(0*.7:: feet. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. c. 6rographic 8i#ting. !hen temperatures are cold enough. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. a. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. mid(. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s.(. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. and . Clouds can be described in many $ays.a. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. d. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. hey can be classified by height or appearance. +ince air masses $ill not mi". . his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. Fronta! 8i#ting.

(1 and . Figure )-1.Figure )-). Figure )-.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . Stratus C!ou&s. .. %. Cumu!us C!ou&s.('*. 3im ostratus C!ou&s.

+tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds.::: feet . $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. especially if the cloud is more than 1. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark.Figure )-4.

altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures .7:: to 0:. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &.::: feet thick. 7!tostratus.* b. especially if they are rising over time.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky.()*. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. . 7!tocumu!us. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). Figure )-5. Figure )-6. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms.thick. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds. Cold clouds. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. though usually hours a$ay.(7 and .

he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. As the storm approaches.(5*. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies.::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit.%.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. produces a ring of light around the moon. Cirrus. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. . he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. in a blue sky.(4 and &igure . and $inds become southerly or south easterly. Figure )-7. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. !ith altostratus. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. c. humidity rises. emperatures are $arm. becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. at night. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus.

ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. hey can be nearly straight. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. or seemingly all tangled together. shaped like a comma. . cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe.::: feet. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. As a result. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. d.::: feet. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. ?no$n for their flat bases and . Cirrostratus. releasing incredible amounts of energy. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like.Figure )-".* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. %. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. %."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front.

%0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure .::: feet or higher. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. As the air rises.distinct outlines. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. . hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. an artifact of erosion. and tornadoes. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air.(8*. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. large hail. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. ho$ever. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. 9iven suitable conditions. damaging $inds. . Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. ice crystals dominate the composition. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations. >nder favorable conditions. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells.

and cools.(. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. %. Cumu!onim us. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. Dnce the air returns to its original height. and contrails.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. If they gro$ and descend.Figure )-'. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. e. >pon reaching the mountain top. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. . lenticulars.:*. $arming as it descends. is lifted up$ard. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. similar to a 6flying saucer. /o$ever. !ith continued descent. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. stable air encounters a mountain. bad $eather can be e"pected. hey are orographic clouds.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. 6ther C!ou& Types. Initially. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure .

C!ou& =nterpretation. especially if the sky is . Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. 8inticu!ar. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate. f. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure .(.*. Figure )-)).Figure )-)*. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Contrai!s. then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover..

Dccasionally. Cold air. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. b. 6cc!u&e& Front.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. $ill force the $arm air up. it is a $arm occlusion. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. c. nimbostratus %producing rain*. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. there . Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. cirrostratus. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. Stationary Front. cold. a. and nimbostratus. he four types of fronts are $arm. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. cirrostratus. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. altostratus. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface.covered $ith cumulus clouds. being more dense than $arm air. cumulus. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. (arm Front. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Co!& Front. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. and stationary. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. and fog. <ecause $arm air is less dense. to the local sky. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. occluded. d. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. it becomes a stationary front.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. .

and precipitation*. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. and mid(latitudes. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor..::: feet of elevation gain. Conse#uently. his cooler. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every .::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. and heat loss through thermal radiation. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. <esides permitting rapid heating. calm mornings. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. b. due to convection currents. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. At high altitudes. the temperature of the air drops 1. sno$. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. the temperature of the air drops 7. . fog. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night.. subarctic. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. clear.. a. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. Temperature =ormally.::: feet of elevation gain.

$hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same. herefore. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. $ind meter. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. >+=. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. are also helpful. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. a. b. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. including >+A&. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . the amount of data available.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. thermometer.. temperature. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. . o be effective. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. if today $as hot and dry.c. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. . 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. or the =ational !eather <ureau. but more slo$ly %1. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain.* 9ersistence :etho&.

Assess $ind speed in knots. assess speed to the nearest knot. tents. %0* If no anemometer is available. and so forth. b. /o$ever. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. under changing conditions. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns.%0* Tren&s :etho&. c. bushes. high( and lo$(pressure centers. . %. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. estimate the speed in knots. (in& Spee&. .* If an anemometer is available. Ideally. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. are blo$ing. Aisi i!ity in :eters. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. (in& Direction. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. %'* 7na!og :etho&. this may not al$ays be the case. and clouds and precipitation. such as trees. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. a. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. &or e"ample. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult.

ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. 9resent (eather. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. Cei!ing -eight..5 times C plus 10. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. e. colder temperatures. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. Assess total cloud cover in eighths. . hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. g.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. total cloud cover is 'K5.d. %. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. $Bamp!e4 '. Tota! C!ou& Co2er.* !ith a thermometer.77 P 7 degrees C. hail. %&or e"ample.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. heavy do$npours. &og. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather.* f. If clouds are not touching terrain. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. . if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. 7 degrees C " . assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. =ote if bases are above all terrain. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . then estimate to the best of your ability. Temperature. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. degrees & Q 10 " . degrees &.5 J 10 P '. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects..77. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . .

=ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. Carked increase in humidity. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. i. Carked $ind speed increases. 9ressure Tren&.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation.%0* !ithout a thermometer. %. h. Carked cooler temperature changes. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. . Changes in obstructions to visibility. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. %. Increase in precipitation. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. 6 ser2e& (eather. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. he closer the isometric lines are. Increasing cloud coverage. assess the pressure trend. !ith a barometer or altimeter. as $ell as an estimated temperature. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction.

j. tour. b. such as lack of preparation. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. or as a combination %human trigger*. heavy e#uipment. over(fatigue. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. bad $eather. $quipment. $ind. e#uipment misuse*. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. man(made %caused by an individual. or e"cessive use. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . %i2ouac Site. or other reasons. c. /umidity decreases. carelessness. a hold breaking a$ay. Fa!!ing. lightning. age. climbing above one3s ability. overe"ertion. and poor judgment. avalanche run(out Aones. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. rope in.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. and flooding %especially in gullies*. If the possibility of falling e"ists. choice of route. dehydration. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. improper diet. . <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. a. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. &alling can be caused by carelessness.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. Increasing barometric pressure. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. Ep&ate. overestimating ability. companions. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*.

+pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall.::: pounds*. icefalls. hanging glaciers and seracs. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. c. darkness. 72a!anches. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend.* f. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness.ock#a!!. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. If ice is in the gully. >se a route sketch and march table. sno$. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. Avoid. As this slope increases . +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. stay hydrated. and debris are channeled do$n gullies.efer to paragraph . acclimatiAe slo$ly. Aisi i!ity. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. %. +leep $ell. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. g. . Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. e. . Cre2asses. and so on. if at all possible. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. storms. At high altitudes %especially over ). rockfalls. &og.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. If you must cross these danger areas.: kilograms %about 0.7:: feet*."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. lightning. endurance and concentration is reduced. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. it is best to rope up. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. <u!!ies. 7!titu&e. d.ock. a. rain. b. If you must move under these conditions. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year.

Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. hair standing on end. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. and rock needles. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. ridges. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. fi"ed $ire installations. Bike$ise. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. A clear. shallo$ depressions. rock $alls. humming of metal objects. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. but dehydration is of greater concern. the force #uadruples.::: feet.* Avoid peaks. a. Bightning is fre#uent."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. d. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. e.: kilometers apart. Above appro"imately 5. . Air is dryer at higher altitudes. isolated trees.from 07 to 1: degrees. as a glacier makes a bend. . (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. cracks that guide $ater. . +eek shelter around dry. crackling. caves*.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. %. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. b. and a bluish light %+t. cracks filled $ith earth. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. c. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. violent. shallo$ overhangs. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. herefore. haAardous icefalls can be formed.

72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. 2uring and after rain. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. If half $ay up the rock face. and sno$. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. i. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys.* . If already rappelling. 2rink plenty of fluids. . f. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. If it is sno$ing. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . % able . the sno$ #uickly melts. g. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. $hich may bury the trail. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. &or each . secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. h. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity.::(meter rise in altitude.5 inches@ ho$ever. j. $indburn. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. and debris being blo$n about.0 to . even if overcast. rain. his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist.

Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes.* S!ope 7ng!e.. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. a.7 degrees have avalanched.Ta !e )-. S!ope Sta i!ity. but may occur on concave slopes. %1* S!ope 7spect. +lopes as gentle as . +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. %.

/igh rates of sno$fall %0. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. %. $arm days. At temperatures above freeAing. %1* (in&. -assing helicopters.* Temperature. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. Triggers. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. %Dn at least one occasion. Dn grassy slopes or scree.sunny.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. %'* <roun& Co2er. Various factors trigger avalanches. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. especially $hen accompanied by $ind.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. %0* 9recipitation. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. %7* Ai ration.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. %'* (eight. b. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. %. e"plosions. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. heavy e#uipment. +ustained $inds of . c. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. . the potential for avalanche is high. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. . Sno+ 9its.

and so on.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. If the block is still holding up. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column.utschblock test. through all the sno$. smooth the face $ith a shovel. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. Dnce above.pit across the fall line. d.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. Dnce the pit is complete. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. =e"t. isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. %. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. o isolate the rear of the column. o conduct the test. then t$ice. place the other foot on the block. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. %1* Conduct a . he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. s#uat once. to the ground. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides.

during the $inter sno$ season. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. Although any avalanche can kill you. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. Dther measures include: . slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes.: degrees Celsius %. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. +lab release is rapid. d. . Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. Barge avalanches of this type. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. &or normal density. a drop in temperature of . %b* As slabs become harder. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. 9rotecti2e :easures. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. settled sno$.

?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. %.oute Se!ection. Iour pack can act as a flotation device.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. as $ell as protect your spine. 2eploy avalanche cord. . ridges. -repare to discard e#uipment.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. . >se them for lunch and rest stops. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. %0* <roup Sa#ety. . %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$.%. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. e. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. f. %1* ake advantage of dense timber. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. -ut your hood on. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. $hich is al$ays the best choice. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. and not directly up the center. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. %.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. far from the bottom of slopes. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. climb to the side of the avalanche path. avoid moving during these periods. If you must traverse. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible.

do not fight it. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$. g. %. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. and the body temperature is lo$ered. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. shut your mouth. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. If you feel yourself about to pass out. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. BI&. no one can hear you scream. their pulse rate declines. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. &I9/ &D. they $ould avoid the avalanche. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. If you feel your feet touch the ground. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %)* ry to rela".#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. you must try your hardest to reach the surface.%0* Fracture 8ines. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$.* 2iscard e#uipment. %1* Soun&s. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. hold your breath. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. ID>. Sur2i2a!.. . Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$.* :ountain 8i2ing . and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche.

or the . /yperventilation and the cool. fire building. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. shelter considerations. raining should include: psychological preparation. locating $ater. health haAards. perspiration. Dne #uart of $ater. a. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. communications. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration.(4)*. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. &luids lost through respiration. #ormal activities $navigation. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment.

=onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . severe cramping may result. thirst should be satisfied in increments. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. .7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. +no$. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. d.e#uivalent. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. physical activity must be reduced. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. e. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. c. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. If the $ater supply is insufficient.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. -urification must be accomplished. Conserve $ater for drinking. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. mountain streams. springs. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. .0 #uarts %. and a loss of . juices. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. ho$ever. &ruits. rain. b. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed.

Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. After sundo$n. If possible.::: feet*. a $atering party should be employed. a. !ater is scarce above the timberline. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . At progressively higher elevations %greater than . at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. f. assembly area. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. precautions must be taken. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. b. but other$ise not dangerous.drinking $ater. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. . high mountain areas freeAe. !ater that is unfit to drink. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes.'. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes.(4)*. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. defense*. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available.

Df the total daily caloric intake. fiber. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. he amino acids. is 5 ounces for a . are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. eggs. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. vitamins. milk. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. Although there is no physiological need for hot food.of cold rations. and minerals. amino acids. and carbohydrates. Cain sources of fats are meats. milk. butter. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. and meats. . are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. cheese. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. and loss of appetite. %0* Fats. regardless of physical activity. energy. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. c. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. fats. %. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. metabolic changes. or milk proteins.7'(pound man. nuts. and cheese. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. resulting from digestion of protein. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. fish. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. eggs.* 9rotein. and legumes also provide amino acids. Dther foods such as cereals. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. poultry. hese food components provide energy. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. vegetables. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. Carbohydrate(containing beverages.

Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . d. iron. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. a balanced diet is a necessity. especially if this period is to e"ceed . and meats. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. vegetables. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . 2. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. depending on the soldier. vitamin supplements should be considered.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater.. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. fruits. fruits*. and fruit. phosphorous. . A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. =utritionally. %. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. and Ainc. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. and ?.%1* Car ohy&rates. vegetables. $hich are found in cereals.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. vegetables. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. %7* Cinerals. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells.: days. . . %'* Aitamins. In the form of glucose.

A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often. /ot beverages of soup. Carbohydrates. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. %About '. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation.. the cooking time may be doubled. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. . and be eaten hot or cold. fires. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. juices. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. At higher elevations. %1* ."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail.s $ith breakfast bars. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. juices. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather.7:: calories for garrison activity. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. +ince coffee. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. tea.. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. . cramps. >se stoves and heat . marked. fruits. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. and hot chocolate are diuretics. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. herefore. stoves. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. and chocolate. po$dered milk. and illness.::(pound man*. are important in maintaining energy levels. !hen cooking. Commanders may consider supplementing C. metal containers. cereal bars. o conserve fuel. candies. shortness of breath. thus releasing heat. and cider should also be considered. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible.$orks.

the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. If possible.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. As all missions are tactical. alcohol. and burial sites. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. !hen operating in areas . a. herefore. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. perspiration. 9ersona! -ygiene. %. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. In freeAing $eather. and eyelids. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. his is especially important in the high mountains. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. ahkios. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. no trace of a unit should be detected. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. nose. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. mainly during periods of cold $eather. hydration. medications. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. garbage should be burned or deep buried. %7* Certain drugs. and judgment of soldiers. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper.

$hich may cause blisters. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. digging latrines is usually difficult. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation.6 +ince $aste freeAes. Sanitation. If latrines are constructed. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. the soldier in a designated. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. &eet should be $ashed daily. If laundering of clothing is difficult.$here resupply is not possible. dried. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. !henever changing socks. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. In tactical situations. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. b. it can . If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. In rocky or froAen ground. and kept as dry and clean as possible. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. and discoloration. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. cracks. but must be #uickly dried. blisters. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating.

most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people.5. Very high altitude is the region from . At these altitudes. /ere. conditioning. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation.::: to 5.4. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt. starting at about 5. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . .::: feet and ending at . Coderate altitude is from 7.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. /o$ever. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond . $here altitude illness is the rule. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories.'. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations. Above 5.::: to .5.::: feet. $aste may be covered $ith stones.be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.::: feet.'. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary.*. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.*.::: feet. Areas above .::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. employment of the local population may be advantageous. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes.::: feet %high elevation*. Altitude illness is common here. and training of soldiers. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed.::: to .::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. /igh altitude e"tends from 5.::: to 5. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.::: feet.::: feet. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore.'.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. In rocky areas above the timberline.

:. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.'. operational unit. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. 2eterioration of memory. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of .::: to .::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. +leep disturbances. Irregular breathing.0 to .apid ascent to .5 percent may have severe symptoms.apid ascent to .::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. nutrition and physical activity it is about . .0. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations.4.'. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. +lurred speech. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. . Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated.7:: feet causes severe. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated.apid ascent to elevations of . 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude. b. and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.::: feet*. Increased irritability in some individuals.::: feet. Boss of appetite.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. /eadache. . the rate of ascent. a.

forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations.+. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • . and enemy situation. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. As $ith all military operations. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. -riorities of training must be established. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >.. herefore.+. >.+. environment. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. a.unacclimatiAed personnel.

a unit should ascend at a rate of . these drugs are diuretics. . +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation.::: feet per day. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. $ith the unit.* Above 5. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. mission. $ater purification supplies. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. !ater. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. c.. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. >nits can leapfrog. time to ac#uire $ater. if in a $inter environment. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater. and rest must be considered as priorities.::: feet. Additionally. and.::: to 0. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. food. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. taking an e"tended rest period. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party.

hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. e. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. his increases the soldier3s endurance. and special e#uipment loads. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. and calisthenics. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. climbing. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. his conditions the back and legs. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. the metabolism becomes more efficient. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. $hich must be developed and hardened. the soldier3s . d. . $hile carrying D. he better the physical condition of the soldier. A different group of muscles are used. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. . the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. f. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. At the same time. developing a sense of insecurity and fear.

caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. and circulatory support. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. lungs. metabolism. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. . he heart rate. strains. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. strains. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. arms. hypothermia. conditioning. hese include sprains. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation.capacity for e"ertion is increased. . abrasions. . g. contusions and fractures. to the point of instinctive reaction. back. >pon deploying to high elevations. legs. and trench foot*. After acclimatiAation. and mountaineering skills are realiAed.epetitive practice. As $ith any other injuries. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. personnel can still become injured %sprains. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. abdomen. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. fractures. frostbite. breathing management. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries.

2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. 2ue to rough terrain. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible.:: and . red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather. In severe cases chills. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather. a. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. fever. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. Immediate first aid is given on site. and seek medical attention.7::.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. . and headaches may occur.. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. he skin may be $arm to the touch. bandage. he . he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . %1* o treat sunburn. burning.* Contributing factors include fair skin. %. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. $ash thoroughly. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. 2o not pop blisters. If blisters do break. Sun urn.

%&or e"ample.+. %'* o prevent sunburn. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. -roper sunglasses should provide . hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. Avoid rubbing the eyes. %Currently.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it.* In an emergency.* 2uring sustained activity. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. %1* o treat sno$blindness.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. b. the >. Administer pain medication if needed. >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. and $ater. . Sno+ !in&ness. %. If still painful. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. red. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. ice. an +-& of . skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T .* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$.

he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. rest. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt.*. dehydration. but freeAing temperatures are not. and nutrition.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. dissemination. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. b. and immersion foot. personnel. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . . and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. and fight in $inter conditions.0. /o$ever. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. a. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. +imple tasks take longer to perform.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. move. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(.

&or e"ample.-). If a soldier has had a cold injury before. %. c. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates.Figure . the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased . %0* .ace. %1* <eographic 6rigin. %'* 7m ient Temperature. (in& chi!! chart. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries.

he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. D—2ry. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. %5* C!othing. he lo$er the $ind chill. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries.danger Aone or beyond. ?eep dry. %4* Terrain. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures.8. accumulation of perspiration. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. • • • . the faster tissue freeAing can occur. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. 6—Dverheating. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection.6. !et clothing loses insulation value. Avoid overheating. therefore. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. in mind.D. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. %)* Type o# :ission.

"cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration.4* . %. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather.0* Fatigue. age is not a significant factor. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. %. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury.7* 3utrition.1* Concomitant =n>ury. . %. %. %. . !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions.a&ica! Changes in the (eather.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience.* 7ge. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration.%8* :oisture.. %. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. d. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.:* Dehy&ration. %. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. %. especially in higher elevations. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. Individuals must retain their body fluids. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased.

Check for other injuriesKcold injuries.%."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. %0* Con&uction. f. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat. or evaporation. . -erform emergency first aid. convection.* . %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. and careful. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. %. deliberate. e.a&iation. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. conduction. . Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. Dn cold days.

shortness of breath. !ind chill is convection cooling. unconsciousness. fear. %. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. Clothing that ventilates. %a* Symptoms. s$eating. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. %'* $2aporation. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. . Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. pain. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. and possibly death.levate the back and head. %b* 'reatment. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury.%1* Con2ection. or feet. administer $ater. . Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. g. his is usually caused by . Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. cold skin. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. insulates. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. %0* Dehy&ration. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. slo$er heart beat. rapid and faint pulse.* Shock. Any illness or injury can produce shock. and e"cessive thirst. his condition may digress into incoherence. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. and loss of blood. o treat shock. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly.

the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. %b* Symptoms. mental sluggishness. headache. dry mouth. tiredness. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. diAAiness. upset stomach. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. Cold causes fre#uent urination. If the stomach is cold. the air is dry. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. he is probably dehydrated. decreased amounts of urine being produced. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. /o$ever. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. %a* Contributing +actors. hey may. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. o distinguish bet$een them. in fact. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. fainting. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. and unconsciousness. higher temperature. rapid heartbeat. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. At high altitudes.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. lack of appetite.

$hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. %a* Contributing +actors. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. Accidental immersion in $ater. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. In advanced cases. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. 2ecreased physical activity. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. . %c* 'reatment. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. -oor nutrition. 2iarrhea. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. Allo$ the victim to rest. %1* -ypothermia. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. /igh $inds. Change in $eather. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

and o"ygen. and death results. are prone to second attacks. /A-. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. If untreated. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. is planned for every 1. if left untreated. A rest day. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*.):*. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug.::: feet of altitude gained. >nconsciousness. using mannitol could be fatal. Crackling. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. e. /A-. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. reatment of /A-. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. is prevented by good nutrition. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . may become irreversible and cause death. rest. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. rapid heartbeat %pulse . . hydration.. given orally can also be effective. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. • • • .::: to 0.::: to 1. &urosemide %Basi"*. $armth. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0.• -rogressive shortness of breath.0: to . $hich is a diuretic.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. • • d.

paralysis. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. decrease in urination. . /A-. stupor. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. maintaining hydration. confusion. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. /AC. reatment for /AC.. hallucinations. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. coma.est. and unconsciousness. +upplemental o"ygen. convulsions. d. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions.apid descent and medical attention. . and using a gradual ascent to altitude. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC.. vomiting. and lack of coordination. headaches. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. +ymptoms of /AC. can cause death. may occur in e"perienced. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. is the same as for /A-. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. . /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. a. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation.. include mild personality changes. inability to concentrate. -revention of /AC. immediate descent is mandatory. $armth. b. c.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. Beft untreated. and /AC. he main symptom of /AC. -reventive measures include good eating habits. is a severe headache. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion.

which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. cools down and heats up differently. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass. . he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. and /AC. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. occurs. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. or the fluid portion of the blood. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. move faster. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. . cause increased proteins in the plasma. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity.rovided all tactical concerns are met. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. &rom this.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. therefore. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. edema. . both cerebral and pulmonary.

a lace( up configuration. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. c. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. a. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. b. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. he outer . he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. he inner boot provides support. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer.*. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits.*. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. %. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. /o$ever.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. as $ell as insulation against the cold.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. Foot+ear Currently.

!hen clothing is $orn properly. %. remove e"cess moisture. Figure 1-). socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. !hen $orn improperly. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. develops hypothermia or frostbite. socks provide cushioning for the foot.egardless of climatic conditions. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. . and the outer most garments. he is. at $orst. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. at best. As a system. . a. if $orn correctly. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. Socks. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. the insulation layers. uncomfortable and. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. ski bindings.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. $hich protect the soldier from the elements.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock.

c. En&er+ear. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. he . a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. %a* In severe $et conditions.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. he primary material in this product is polyester. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. &or the most part. If the user is $earing V< boots. . =nsu!ating 8ayers. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. b.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. /o$ever. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. In colder environments.

Figure 1-.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system.C!C+ correctly. Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . 6uter 8ayers. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. d. t$igs. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. and stones. as $ell as mud. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. e. he .. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. <aiters.

-an& (ear. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. hook(pile tape. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. and snaps. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. Figure 1-1. in most cases. %. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. f. $ill need to be locally purchased.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point.ven during the best climatic conditions. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt.. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot.C!C+ and. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. . . $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. Three types o# gaiters.

<oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. as $ell as replacement liners for both. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. =atural fibers. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. g. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. -an& +ear. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. . man( made fibers are preferred.Figure 1-4. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. %. -ea&+ear. predominately $ool.

up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. his covers the head. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. &or e"treme cold. Figure 1-5. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. Figure 1-6. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. i. h. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. $ye+ear.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. -e!mets. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. !hichever helmet is selected. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. neck. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. . a balaclava can be added. -e!mets.

. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. have been combined to make combined . &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .uropean economy. heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. :aintenance o# C!othing. .uropean norm %C. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. and comprises several commissions.=*.urope. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness.=* and C.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. It is based in -aris. Community . !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. &rance. to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. Figure 1-7. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances.uropean norm %. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.urope %C. and harnesses. >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. cord.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. $ebbing. j.

so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. $hich is. Its ability to stretch up to .egardless of the rope chosen.7( or . (e ing an& S!ings. his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. he . %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . &or most military applications.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. it should be >IAA certified. impact force. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. A static rope has very little stretch. factors affecting rope selection include intended use.:.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. b. If used for -rusik knots. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. .* .. Figure 1-". he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. . called slings or runners.opes an& Cor&. %. .(mm rope. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. abrasion resistance. Kernmant!e construction. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment.. a standard . and elongation..(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient.a. essentially. and is best used in rope installations.

can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. .(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. and anchors. the rope.. Figure 1-'.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make.uses for these simple pieces are endless.K. Tie& or se+n runners. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. . and have less bulk than the tied version. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . . . inch. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate.0 inches. carabiners. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. %. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. . -arnesses. and . and 0' inches. more durable. &or most military applications.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. $hich is stronger. are usually lighter.unners are predominately made from either 8K.)(inch or .unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.) inch. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. ' inches. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. c. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil.) inch.

%7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. . his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA.is unavailable. are more restrictive. %1* . At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. !hile these harnesses are safer. referred to as a seat harness.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. his type of harness. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn. !ith the remaining $ebbing. &itted properly.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive.:*. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . %.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.:*. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.:*. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to .

yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. given other options. his rope. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer.. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. +teel is still $idely used. a. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. . Cara iners. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. he oval.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. Figure 1-)*. the 2(shaped. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber.*. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. great care should be . !hen using a carabiner.

Figure 1-)).0*. the load is . Figure 1-). %.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength.

$hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. $afer.egardless of the type chosen. vertical cracks. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. horiAontal. and angles. hardened steel. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. %. the blade and eye are aligned. and length %&igure 1(. Figure 1-)1. A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. Dn vertical pitons. hey are described by their thickness. Aarious pitons. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. hey are made of malleable steel. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. specifically the locking version. along its minor a"is. . or other alloys. %1* . hese pitons are used in flush. and $ith the gate open.* 1ertical .itons. 9itons. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. design. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot.1*. and angle. b.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate.

he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. %1* Wafer . %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. hese pitons are used in flush. %)* Angle .'*. c. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks.itons. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions.>. flush cracks. ledges.itons. %'* 2nife 3lade . hey are small and fit into thin. %4* 3ong . he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability.itons. hey are designed to bite into thin.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. or flakes. $ebbing. hese pitons are used in shallo$.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. Dn horiAontal pitons.itons. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1.(inch s#uare. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner.itons.5 centimeters $ide. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. metal. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. 9iton -ammers. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade.itons. or leather is used to . .%0* Horizontal . %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. shallo$ cracks. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. shallo$ cracks.

7*. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. . creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons.0 to 07 ounces. 9iton hammer. into the rock. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. Chocks.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. Figure 1-)4. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. to be used as anchors. d. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself.7 centimeters long and $eigh . Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode.

reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. $hen used in the camming mode. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in.)*. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. Chocks. f. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. Three-point camming &e2ice. e. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and.4* provide convenient.Figure 1-)5. Figure 1-)6.

+BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. Figure 1-)7. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. Chock 9icks.semi(rigid point of attachment. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. saving time and effort. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. they can be purchased or homemade. g. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. . Cade from thin metal.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. hese are placed #uickly and easily. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. .5*. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture.

. dirt. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. <ecause of this re#uirement. Chock picks. and e"tremely noisy. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. $hich is driven into the rock. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. e"hausting."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. corrosion. h. %. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. . All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. hese re#uire a hammer. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock.Figure 1-)". %o!ts. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. <urrs. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type.8*. brands. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. and drilling anchor. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. $hich is time(consuming. and moisture. chips. Dnce emplaced. bolt driver. and $eights.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt.

egardless of the belay device choosen. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. %o!ts an& hangers. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. %e!ay De2ices. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. . <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. . the tuber. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. i.Figure 1-)'. %. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement.

Figure 1-. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. t$o ascenders $ork best. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. j. one ascender is sufficient. &or lo$er angle movement. &or difficult vertical terrain. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Descen&ers. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair.).*. k. Figure 1-. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction.*. 7scen&ers. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. . Figure-eights.

.Figure 1-. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. 7scen&ers. 9u!!ey. froAen $aterfalls(can . &or best results. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. Figure 1-. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. and strong. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*.1. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. l. light$eight.. A pulley should be small. 9u!!eys. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. glaciers.

hollo$ aluminum. self(arrest. . %0* As climbing becomes more technical. he adAe. a. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. head %pick and adAe*. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". belays. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. direct(aid climbing. used for chopping. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. =ce 7B. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. is perpendicular to the shaft. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. step cutting. therefore safer for mountaineering.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. It can be made of fiberglass. probing. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. anchors. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. %b* he head of the a". %. can have different configurations. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes.

. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. loose ends should be trimmed. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. Figure 1-. Crampons. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. inch of front point protruding. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured.b. . c.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. =ce -ammer.4. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. =ce aB an& ice hammers.

All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. %0* he rigid crampon. is rigid and does not fle".Figure 1-. but can be used on less vertical terrain. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. %.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done.5. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . as its name implies. It is designed to be used $ith soft. Crampons. fle"ible boots. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots.

6. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. %. d..4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. • • • ype I is . Figure 1-.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. hey are scre$ed into ice formations. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength. . . =ce scre+s. =ce Scre+s. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads.mountaineering boots. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*.

hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. Figure 1-. If any cracks or bends are noticed. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. flanged sides. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. e. bends. . he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by .7.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. =ce 9itons. f. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. hey are available $ith bent faces. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. and fi"ed cables. ho$ever. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. hey can. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. the scre$ should be turned in. =ce piton. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*.' centimeters.

and carrying gear. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. hey can be angled or (section stakes. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. chips. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. g. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. he ends should be filed smooth. If any cracks. for removing froAen obstacles. and other deformities. cracks.::: kilograms. Sno+ Sa+. mushrooming ends. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. broken $ire strands. and for cutting . bivouacs. It can be used in step cutting. the picket should be turned in for replacement.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters.. broken $ire strands. $ands*. a. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. Figure 1-. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks.". Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. he picket should be inspected for bends. or slippage is noticed. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. Sno+ 9icket. movement. If bent or cracked. in shelter construction. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide.

he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. he flag should be inspected for tears. $eather conditions %and visibility*. shelter construction. he handle should be telescopic. and missing or dull teeth. caches.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end.sno$ stability test pits. rust. and stability. fading. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. !ands are used to identify routes. it should be turned in. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. If the sa$ is beyond repair. he handle should be inspected for cracks. the $ands should be replaced. the hinge and nuts should be secure. (an&s. b. If the shovel is beyond repair. bends. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. d. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. number of haAards identified. to . and deformities. If any defects are discovered. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. and stability. light$eight aluminum alloy. frays. and removing obstacles. Sno+ Sho2e!. and discoloration. 72a!anche rescue equipment. sno$(bridges. It can be used for avalanche rescue. bends. cracks. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. crevasses. A file can repair most defects. burrs. and burrs.. Dn folding models. !ands are . he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. c. it should not be used. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. folding. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. step cutting. he handle should be inspected for cracks. $arping. he blade should be inspected for rust. and number of teams in the climbing party. bends. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. security to the shaft. bends.

hese are small. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. . %. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather.robe.* Avalanche . $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters.Figure 1-. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. 9acks. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. e."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. %0* . +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski.'.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. %. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. 72a!anche rescue equipment. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris.

%. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. !hen selecting a tent. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. factors that should be considered are $eight. f. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. fuel availability. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. he fly protects against .%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. Sto2es. !hen choosing a stove. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. g. and materials. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. kerosene. $eights. the better it $ill be. and its reliability. and are simple and light$eight. !hite gas. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. more harsh environment. Tents. %. and butane are the common fuels used. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges.

and carrying heavy packs. +ome ski poles are . +no$shoes are slo$er than skis.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. and become long and rigid. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. connect. h. j. they create the shape of the tent. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. Ski po!es. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. Skis. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. !hen carrying heavy packs. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. <efore using a ne$ tent. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. sno$shoeing. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. i. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. Sno+shoes. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching.

from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. . especially $hen hauling fuel. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. Figure 1-1*. k. !hichever sled is chosen.egardless of the siAe.:(man arctic tent system. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. a component of the . a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. %. -ea&!amps. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. A flashlight can provide light. . +leds vary greatly in siAe. to the one(person sko$. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. S!e&s. on some models.* !hen choosing a headlamp. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. l. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed.

$orn on the body. if needed. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. $ith canteens. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. climbing e#uipment. foul $eather shells. fuel. fire starting material. b. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. or lithium batteries. Dbviously. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. Caution4 Cotton clothing. first aid kits. ropes. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. !hen the light is being packed. $quipment 9acking . -ocket items should include a knife. $histle. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. magaAine pouches. notebook $ith pen or pencil. or jungle mountain environments. compass and or altimeter. stoves.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. a. sunglasses. the e"ception being hot. s$eater. 9ersona! <ear. and $ater procurement material. food procurement material. polypropylene top. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. Stan&ar& <ear.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. map. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. . and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. desert.conditions. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. $ater. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. nickel(cadmium. food. pressure bandage. sunblock and lip protection.

pile top. or unplanned bivouac.c. In the event of an injury. Climbing rack. &irst aid kit. +ling rope or climbing harness. +urvival kit. =onlocking carabiners. -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. d. >tility cord%s*. rain suit. Cold $eather hat or scarf. Climbing rack. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. Day 9ack. &lashlight or headlamp. Climbing rope. Bocking carabiner%s*. Climbing rope. or poncho. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. or s$eater. one per climbing team. Canteen. one per climbing team. Crampons. . . one per climbing team. Carabiners. . Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. 9loves. e. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site.appelling gloves."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members.appelKbelay device. one per climbing team. . Ice a". he carries a light day pack. casualty evacuation. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp.

The Ten $ssentia!s. boots. or navigational error. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. +ide shields. pants. %. %7* ()tra Clothing.* 5ap. s$eater or fleece jacket.• • • • +leeping bag. hat. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. and licking is best. . %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. under$ear. . blouse. gloves or mittens. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. +leeping mat.:: percent of ultraviolet light. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . &or lip protection. %'* ()tra +ood. %0* Compass. Altimeter. he clothing used during the active part of a climb.7 or higher.S. includes socks. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. injury. hey should filter 87 to . breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. +#uad stove.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. &uel bottle. f. $ashing. and or 6.

gauAe pads. a broken bone.%a* . +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. but commercially available headlamps are best. serious sprain. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. $hich is important $hile climbing.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. and blisters. elastic compression $rap. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear."tra hats or balaclavas. Ciniature flashlights can be used. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. ."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear."tra pair of heavy socks. -ressure dressings. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. and employing $eapons systems. . %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. cleanser. small adhesive bandages. . &inally. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. scissors. the mountain environment— steep. sharp tools. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. cutting the $ind. $orking around the camp. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. . /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag. moleskin. %4* +irst aid 2it. . herefore. 2ecentraliAed operations. butterfly bandages. adhesive tape. • • • • • .

%5* +ire Starter. %1* 4epair 2it. as $ell as for stream crossings. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper. Candles. 6ther $ssentia! <ear. hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. Dther repair items as needed. 2uct tape. -atches. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. harness. Cord and or $ire. Bighters are handy for starting fires. heat tabs. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. /eavy(duty thread. %0* 7ce A).:* 2nife. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. A$l and or needles. %8* 5atches and . In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. or pack.* Water and Water Containers. g. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*.ighter. +afety pins. and canned heat all $ork. %. %. .

Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. if not carried in hand. nearer the shoulder blades. he ice a". Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. $ater. emergency bivouac shelter. In most cases. e. b. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. and be securely . his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. the load is held high and close to the back. . c. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. d. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. e"tra ammunition* on top. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. <y packing the lighter. rope. climbing hard$are.%'* =nsect . A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing.epe!!ent.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. a. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. As much as possible. and $ater procurement. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. food. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. among others. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. more compressible items %sleeping bag. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain.

Coi!ing an& Carrying the . o start a mountain coil. . a. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. . :ountain Coi!. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. 9rasping the rope firmly. f. meter from the end $ith one hand. and knots later during deployment. as stated above.fastened. serious in!ury may occur. until the rope is completely coiled.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. . he rope may be given a .K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. care and maintenance procedures. management techni&ues. grasp the rope appro"imately . or building various installations. t$ists.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. If not. . the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. and 0nots. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. rappelling. his is repeated. When climbing. bring the hands together forming a loop. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. and then tied in place. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots .

begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. . Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. slung across the chest. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. >ncoil the last loop and. using this length of the rope. -ull the running end of the bight tight. doubling it and placing it under the flap. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. :ountain coi!. %utter#!y Coi!. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*.* In finishing the mountain coil. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*.* Figure 4-1. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. securing the coil. b.%.

-lace the doubled rope over the head. . %utter#!y coi!. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. and hold the center in one hand. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. !ith the bight in the left hand. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. . draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. In this configuration . Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. o start the double butterfly. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. %.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope.Figure 4-4.* Coiling.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. .

%&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. sling rope.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. . Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. . Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body. c. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. or for storage. 2ress it do$n tightly.* Figure 4-5. ensuring no kinks are in the rope. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness.ope. Cake three or more $raps. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope.0(inch bight is left. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. !rap that bight around the coil.

%. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$.D-. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. A smooth follo$ through is essential.e. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. !hen the rope is needed for use. feeding it to a lead climber. Thro+ing the . Dnce stacked. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. =e"t. . Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. hro$ up and out. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. and so on. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. !ith the left hand. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. a.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. A slight t$ist of the $rist.ope <efore thro$ing the rope.

Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. and hitches is almost endless. Class III—middle rope knots.b. In a strong cross $ind.1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . Class II—anchor knots.0. !ith e"perience and practice. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. /olding one $orking end in each hand. Anchor. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. Tying the Knot.. . up and out to$ard the horiAon. he stronger the $ind. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. a. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*.. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. Aiming just above the horiAon. + . hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. back feed. and stack the rope properly as described above. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. and Class IV—special knots.. adjustments must be made. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. + . he variety of knots. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations.. bends.. bights. It is a joining knot. + ..0. c.

+ . %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. Square knot. %. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied.* here are t$o interlocking bights. It is a joining knot. . Checkpoints. Figure 4-6...'.+ . b. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. Tying the Knot. a.. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot..

standing part of the opposing rope. Checkpoints. %1* ..1. a. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. %. Figure 4-7.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. Fisherman’s knot. It is a joining knot. Tying the Knot.. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug.+ . + . Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double .nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. .nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*.0. b.

. $hich contains the standing part %+ .0. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together. and 0*. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. Figure 4-".. + ... four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. !ith the $orking end of one rope. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + .+ . Dou !e #isherman’s knot.. %. + . Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. %1* ..* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart..1. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns.*.. Checkpoints. + . b.'.-+ . Insert the $orking end %+ ..nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails..

7. Tying the Knot. 2ress the knot do$n. Figure-eight en&.oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end...0. + . + . + . . grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. Figure 4-'..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. + .. a. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. . race the original knot to the standing end. .. + ..1.'.Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.. !ith the other hand.

1.:*. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot.. It is also called a ring bend. a. overhand retrace. or tape knot. + .. + . Checkpoints.. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. Tying the Knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. ..b. + . 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. %.0.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side.. &eed the other end back through the knot. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot.

Tying the Knot. a. . %.. %0* here is no slack in the knot.. one retracing the other. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. b. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions.* here are t$o overhand knots.*. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(.. (ater knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. + . It is an anchor knot. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*.. Checkpoints.Figure 4-)*.

7. %.1. and bring it back onto itself. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)). %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. + . &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. .each through the loop and pull up a bight.'..* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %o+!ine knot. .+ . + . -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ...0..oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . b.

. and one in the front*.0. + .0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*... + .un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact. Tying the Knot... %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.1.etrace /. a. .his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor.epeat + . + . Figure-$ight .oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor. It is an anchor knot.. . <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.0*.eroute& Figure-$ight0 . . %. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. + .oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. 2ress the knot do$n. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. Checkpoints.. distributing the load over the anchor.'. . Figure 4-).. b.

+ . + .1. he finished knot is dressed loosely. $rap the $orking end around the standing part... insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. and route the $orking end through the loop.1*.. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. + . . + . + . ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope... ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. ake the $orking end around the anchor point..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.0. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. by tying the knot in a retrace. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. /o$ever.'.7. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. . a. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.. + . !ith the $orking end.. Tying the Knot.). It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.

'*. Checkpoints %. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. a. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. Figure-eight retrace.* Middle of the Rope.Figure 4-)1. %. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. palms do$n $ith hands together.. . b... /old rope in both hands.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. depending on ho$ it is tied. + . C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. Tying the Knot.

+ . reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop.'. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. !ith the right hand. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard.'. + ... !ith the right hand. /old the standing end in the left hand. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. /old the loop in the left hand. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. + . .0... reach under the horiAontal anchor.+ . -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. + . 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. grasp the $orking end.1. and bring it in$ard.... he knot is tied.1. + .. + . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. %0* End of the Rope. 2ress do$n the knot. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.0.

%'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining.. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.Figure 4-)4.7*.7.'. !hen tying this knot. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. + . Tying the Knot.4.. and place it over the heel $rap. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(... ake up the slack from the anchor. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. It is a middle rope knot... + . + .1. + .. palm. %. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. . %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. b.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. a. Checkpoints. + .0. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + .. + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. and fingertip..). =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. C!o2e hitch.

%0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. . Tying the Knot.. (ireman’s knot.5. + .)*. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. It is a middle rope knot.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. b. %. Checkpoints..8. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.+ . a. Figure 4-)5. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.

&ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied... b. + . + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. it lays in$ard..+ . Cake one $rap around the palm. Figure 4-)6. the tail and the bight must be together. !ith the $rap thus formed.'. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.. Directiona! #igure-eight.. !hen dressing the knot do$n. Checkpoints. . + . %.0.1..* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop.

1. + . . a. + . &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly..'. It is a middle rope knot.. + .7. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.. Tying the Knot..4*.0. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. ie an overhand knot on a bight. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.. + . forming t$o loops. + . + . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.4.. + ..). %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .%0* he tail and bight must be together.

. b.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. Tying the Knot.. a. Checkpoints.5.* It is a middle rope knot. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.ight. >sing a doubled rope.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. %o+!ine-on-a. . %.. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.Figure 4-)7. form an . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. + .

Checkpoints.1. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. !ith the $orking end. + . /old the bight $ith the left hand. Figure 4-)".. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar.. + . form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. + . 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. 2ress the knot do$n.+ . . Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop. It is a middle of the rope knot. b.. a. Tying the Knot. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.7.8*. %. T+o-!oop #igure-eight. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.0.'..

+ .0.. a. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. b. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. + . . Checkpoints. 2ress the knot tightly. Figure-eight !oop.+ ... %1* he knot is tightly dressed. Tying the Knot.. form a loop in rope %standing part*. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. Figure 4-)'..1. It is a specialty knot.* he loop is the desired siAe. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. !ith the bight as the $orking end. %.

. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.1..1. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.0(inch bight. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.. + . >sing an arm3s length of rope. + . . .%.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.*: + . Figure 4-.. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.each do$n through the . + . Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is ..*. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension..0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. . 2ouble the short rope... =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.0.*. + ... and place it over the long rope.0. + . $ith the $orking ends even. forming a bight. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.

. + . &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.7. Bay the $orking end under the long rope.'. + ..nsure they are tight. Figure 4-. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. . Checkpoints.). $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. . b. parallel. and not t$isted.). here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. + .4.+ .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. It is a specialty knot. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. &orm a complete round turn in the rope... %.

3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. b.a.. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. %. + . %achman knot. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. + . !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner..1. + . %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. Tying the Knot. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . Figure 4-.0.... Checkpoints.

$ith a bight held in place by a loop. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied.. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. he standing portion is on the bottom. !ith the running end. not crossed. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.7.. /olding the bight loosely. %. bring a bight up through the loop..'.. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*.* A minimum of four $raps... + . >sing the standing part. hen..1. + . tie an overhand around all coils. single coil. b. .4.. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. Checkpoints. + .). +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. . leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.0. + . + . make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. a. It is a specialty knot. + .. + . Tying the Knot. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. he running end is to the back of the body. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times.

Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*.0.1.. + .. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. Tying the Knot. + .1. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.. Bay the loops to the right. !ith the right hand. a.'... &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. . form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. It is a specialty knot. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.Figure 4-. + . + .

. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. Checkpoints.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.7. It is a specialty knot.. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. b. Figure 4-. Three-!oop o+!ine. . a.+ .. + . %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Tying the Knot. &orm a . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.4. %. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops..

If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.7. + . standing end of the rope. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. .'.. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.. + .5. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.:u!e Knot0 . %. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.0 inches up the rope.0... + .each through the bight and grasp the long. b. Figure 4-. + . %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. Checkpoints.+ .).1. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .. Figure-eight s!ip knot. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.

Transport knot. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. a.0 inches long. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.6..0. K!eimhiest Knot . It is simply an overhand slip knot. + . Tying the Knot. %1* he bight is a minimum of .1. + .... &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. Figure 4-. + .* here is a single overhand slip knot.. Check 9oints. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. b. %.

2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.1. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .0. find the center of the rope and form a bight. Tying the Knot. + .. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. !ith the ends offset.'.7. + .he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable.. easily adjustable..0 inches. + .. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. !rap at least four complete turns.. + .. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. It is a special( purpose knot. + . . a. pass them through the bight %see + ..*... !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.

Figure 4-. Checkpoints.. It is a special(purpose knot. %. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. b.. + .0 inches. + ..7. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.0.: to .. Tying the Knot. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. K!eimhiest knot. a.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. .

%0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. Tying the Knot. :unter -itch .. <irth hitch. + .. b.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions. It is a special(purpose knot. a..Figure 4-. Frost knot. %.. Figure 4-.".: &orm a bight. %. Checkpoint. Checkpoints. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.1: Cinch the knot tightly. + . b. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. + . %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot.0: <ring the runner back through the bight.'.

$hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. !ith the right hand. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.1.. + . Bock the locking mechanism.0. palms do$n about . a. .* A bight passes through the carabiner.'.he munter hitch. b.. /old the rope in both hands. %... -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.. + . $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope.0 inches apart. Tying the Knot. Check 9oints.. %0* he carabiner is locked. + . /old the loop $ith the left hand. + . is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. !ith the right hand.

. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight..each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.Figure 4-1*. + . Tying the Knot. . ensuring they do not cross. thus creating a loop around the $aist. ..' feet or longer. a. It usually re#uires a sling rope . + . + . .0.1. :unter hitch... -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.*. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.'. + .

* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.4. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. + . -ull up on the ropes. tightening the seat. + . Figure 4-1). &rom rear to front. . b..+ ..appe! seat. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.). Check 9oints. .. %. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips.7.

. Tying the Knot. ..0. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. preferably ovals*. + . he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip... -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. a. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.

.Figure 4-1. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. b.* !hen properly dressed. it will fail.. Check 9oints.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. rope can only be pulled in one direction. %. <uar&e knot. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. or the e&uipment . 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing.

natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. boulders.*. . always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. /o$ever. When selecting or constructing anchors. rees. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. /o$ever.

alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. security. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. b. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. . Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. a. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. >se padding on soft. Figure 5-.Figure 5-). Trees use& as anchors. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. Chockstones should be checked for strength. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. In rocky terrain.. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. %ou!&ers use& as anchors.

a. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. the projection should be avoided. flakes.ock 9ro>ections . hese include blocks. horns. and clipping on a carabiner. If rock projections are used. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. . A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. If any of these signs e"ist. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. c. b. tying a rope to it. their firmness is important.Figure 5-1. Chockstones. and spikes. .

All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground.ock pro>ections. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*.Figure 5-4. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. As $ith trees. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. . .

S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. .Figure 5-5. Drape. Figure 5-6. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. !hichever method is used. and girth. a. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. $rap. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. %ushes an& shru s.

Drape. (rap. Figure 5-". (rap.Figure 5-7. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. b. .

Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor.:*. <irth. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. <irth. . Figure 5-'. 7nchoring (ith . he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. . it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. his re#uires less e#uipment.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor.c. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight. .

he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps.*. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. Tension!ess anchor.. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. Figure 5-)). to absorb the tension. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. more if necessary. 7rti#icia! 7nchors .Figure 5-)*.ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. . he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner.

as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles.* Barge boulders can be used. he"centrics.#uipment. a. As $ith natural anchors.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. $ould be ideal. such as skis. unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. sno$shoes. e#uipment. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. he sling is attached to the anchor. such as a railroad tie. can also be used if necessary. 9itons -itons have been in use for over .ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. chocks. Although still available. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. and ruck sacks. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. %A hefty timber. . are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. b. ice a"es. . &or training planning. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. . such as pitons and bolts.:: years. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. and +BC2s. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. In e"tremely hard. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. and the load to be placed on it. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural.

he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. as $ith any artificial anchor. c. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. practiced. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. clear the loose rock. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. %0* !hile it is being driven. should be studied.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. 9iton 9!acement. Disa&2antages. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. a. 7&2antages. dirt. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. %&igure 7(. !hen this type of rock must be used. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. %. b. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$.

%1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. herefore. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. Clip a carabiner into the loop. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. he piton should not spread the rock. . and on the type of rock. it $ill not be lost.out of the crack. thereby loosening the emplacement.1*. the firmer the anchor $ill be. Figure 5-). because the piton is too long. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock.. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack.

Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. d. there is any #uestion of its soundness. drive it into another place. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. . and $hen using chocks. -ero-!oop. Testing. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. upon driving it.K0 meter from the carabiner. ry to be in a secure position before testing. the emplacement is probably safe. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. drive the piton in as far as possible. e.emo2ing 9itons. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure.'*. to each side. o test pitons pull up about . Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. . If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if.Figure 5-)1. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. then grasp the rope at least . If the sound regains its original pitch. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. If the pitch has changed greatly. do$n$ard.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. Eerk vigorously up$ard. .

but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. a. but they must be checked for strength. <efore use. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. Disa&2antages. . and straightened may be reused. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. 7&2antages.asy to insert and remove. .Figure 5-)4. unless severely damaged. Bight to carry. but comple" in practice.eusing 9itons. having fallen and $edged in a crack. >sually easy to retrieve and. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. 9iton remo2a!. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. b. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. are reusable. removed. Also. +oft iron pitons that have been used. f. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. In training areas. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. provides an e"cellent anchor point. they may have been driven poorly the first time. A natural chockstone. vectors.

and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. %1* . A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. Dften provide only one direction of pull. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. %0* !hen selecting a chock. if possible. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. c.7*. $hich may accept pitons. 9!acement. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. then select a chock to fit it.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. %. . Avoid poor protection. Figure 5-)5. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . Book for a constriction point in the crack. cord. Chock p!acements. +ome cracks may have loose rock. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. grass. and dirt.

%b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. o test it. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. %a* . since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore.)*. After seating a chock. d. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. Testing. use pairs of chocks in opposition. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. . test it to ensure it remains in place.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull.

it may rotate and pull out. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. place the device into a crack. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. pull the retractor bar back. S8CD p!acements. %o!ts . he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. b. and release the retractor bar. a. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall.Figure 5-)6. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it.

and runners. and should be tested $ith a hammer. .<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. or cracking. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. . c.4*. a. flaking. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. $hich bores the hole. /o$ever. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. <olts should be used $ith carriers. !hen using bolts. carabiners. since this permanently $eakens it. . their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. b. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts.

Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. Figure 5-)". A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. . the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)7. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor.8*. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor.5*. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. It is aimed in the direction of the load. a.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. b. his not only provides greater anchor strength.

Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. terrain hazards. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. and the enemy for the length of the climb. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load.Figure 5-)'. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. therefore. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided.

trained in the basics of climbing. . +orward observers. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles.6 to the top looking for cracks. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes.6 . the climber studies all possible routes. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet.ven before getting on the rock. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. . the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. reconnaissance personnel. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-. using the hands primarily for balance. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. !hen picking the line. or 6lines. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. ledges. nubbins.*. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. he mentally climbs the route. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability.

he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. /o$ever. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. dry rock. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. 9reparation In preparation for climbing. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . C7ET=63 . !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. In the training environment. If the soles are $et or damp. In later lessons. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. such as a rock or climbing gear. falls from climbers above.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole.Terrain Se!ection #or Training .oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. the boot soles should be dry and clean.

lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. and reduce the impact of a fall. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. helping to minimiAe fatigue. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. and movement. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. his vibration.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. a$ay from the rock. and so on. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. help the climber land feet first. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. lo$ering the heel. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. comfortable stance is essential. or moving on to a more . $eight shift. %&igure )(. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. sho$s a correct climbing stance. b. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. Stance or %o&y 9osition. and body %trunk*. left foot. If strained for too long. A rela"ed. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. a. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. left hand. right foot. kno$n as 6.

. he hands are used to maintain balance. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. Correct c!im ing stance.restful position. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. Figure 6-. the hips and shoulders should be .a!ance& o2er oth #eet. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock.* !henever possible. Figure 6-). %. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold.

and movement %movement being either the foot. hand. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be.: + . the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. or body*. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. C!im ing Sequence. as the climbing progresses. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go.D=. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. $hen footholds are small. creating more stress. In most cases.centered over both feet.* + . +ometimes. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. shift.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. Dn lo$(angle slopes. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. intermediate holds. c. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. he basic steps are $eight. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. . his is normally done on #uick. Dn steep rock. Again. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location.

If both legs are bent. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.: + . through 1 for remaining foot.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.: + . but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.epeat steps . $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs.&D>. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance. 2uring this movement./. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. %. . the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability...&IV.+ . + .

Typica! c!im ing sequence.Figure 6-1. .

Figure 6-1. . Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.

usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. because the legs are much stronger. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. these movements become more critical. his type of lifting is inefficient. %. to rest on. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. even painful. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. Dther than being uncomfortable. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. not the arms.Figure 6-1. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. Sa#ety 9recautions . -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs.

c.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. and to reduce the impact of a fall. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. >pon hearing the $arning. If on a lo$(angle climb. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. a fi"ed rope should be installed. !hen personnel must climb at the same time.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. grasping for any possible hold available. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. +hould a climber fall. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. do not do it. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. follo$ing the same line. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. b. a. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. let the rope provide protection. e. immediately shout the $arning 6. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. If the rock $ill endanger your second. d. !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. a spotter can be used for safety. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. tossing it do$n. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. If conducting a roped climb. . C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body.

Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight.. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. his may simply be a #uick. !hen climbing. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. a. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. C!im ing (ith The Feet .&D. !hen in doubt. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. b. sedimentary(type rock. !hen the rock is $et. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. g. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit.f. +ometimes. !hen leading a group of climbers. depending on it. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it.

he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction.* Maximum Sole Contact. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. easy or difficult. In the early learning stages of climbing. . also applies in climbing. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. a.* %a* +mooth. .emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. he principle of using full sole contact. the entire foot cannot be used. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. %. forgetting to use the feet properly. as in mountain $alking. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. Also.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. . b. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. &ailure to climb any route. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. In this case. %b* Dn some large holds. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. is usually the result of poor foot$ork.

$ell(defined ledges. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. !henever possible.* %a* Dn smaller holds.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. %0* Edging. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. edging $ith the front of the boot. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. Again. >sually. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. or toe. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. . the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. may be used.Figure 6-4. .

. Figure 6-5. $ith its softer sole.* %a* .ounded. . .%b* . !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. therefore.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. %1* Smearing. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. he stiffer the sole. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. intermediate holds. he Army mountain boot. the better the edging capability.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and.

such as edges. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. ball of the foot. .* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays.Figure 6-6. pockets. depending on the siAe of the crack. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. hands. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. resisting a do$n$ard pull. arms. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. like a camming device. inside and $ithin reach. the possibilities are endless. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. or the entire foot can be used. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. than others. +ome positions are more tiring. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. and even more painful on the foot. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. and so on. he toes. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. restful position. %'* Jamming.

he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. Dn lo$er(angled rock. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. Dur hands grip. +ometimes. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. a. our body $eight is on our legs. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. As stated earlier. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain ."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. +econdly. $Bamp!es o# >amming.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. !hen removing the boot from a crack. b. Core often though. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. . As the individual climbs. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Figure 6-7. $ith the $eight centered over the feet.

or 6pinching.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand.our balance and footing on the ladder. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. Ideally. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. Dn smaller holds. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. and on occasion.* Push olds. his is fine. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. the fingers. %. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. -ushing side$ays. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. Df course. . he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. the side of the palm. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure.

pull holds are often over$orked. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. %0* Pull olds.Figure 6-". also called 6cling holds. and. <ecause of this increased feeling of security.* %a* Bike push holds. making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. just good techni#ue. creating an unbalanced stance. therefore. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. Again. side$ays. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. or up$ard. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. . it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. -ull holds. . hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from.

Dn small holds. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. his helps to hold the finger tips in . <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. =ormally. creating a stronger hold. Figure 6-'. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions.

Bike foot jams. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. kno$n as a 6ring grip. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold.* Figure 6-)*. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. %&igure )(. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. his hand configuration. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. knuckles. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. %1* Pinch olds. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. %'* Jam olds. ape also adds friction . or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand.

* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. he hand is then clenched as much as possible.. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. /o$ever. . o jam or cam an arm. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. sho$s e"amples of jam holds.6 re#uiring the use of arm. or 6off $idths. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. only the fingers $ill fit. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. and fle"ed to fit the crack.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. %b* In smaller cracks.to the hand in jammed position. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. !hen the arm is straightened. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. &or off $idths. leg. . sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. or body into an off $idth. %&igure )(. from the calf to the thigh. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. hands. leg. and body jams. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. he leg can be used. the principle is the same as for fingers. is another techni#ue.

As the climber gains e"perience. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. &rom these fundamentals. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. feet. numerous combination techni#ues are possible. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. . Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance.Figure 6-)).

o prevent an off balance situation.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. mantling begins $ith pull holds. or other body parts tire.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. %0* Mantling.* Change Step. arms. +hort of turning back. +ometimes. +till. Combination possibilities are endless. %.otating . he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. %&igure )(. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. b. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold.a. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. yet #uickly. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. o make the move. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. he change step. $here the pull holds become push holds. or hop step. t$o solid handholds should be used. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. . $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. even on an easy route. before the hands.

Dnce balanced over the foot. !ith the foot on the ledge. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. $eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. Dnce the arms are locked. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. . momentarily. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge.

>nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. also. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard.. or body tension. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge.Figure 6-).1*. applying an up$ard pull. :ant!ing sequence. he arms and legs . forming a bulge or small overhang. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. %1* !ndercling. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(.

a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. En&erc!ing. Figure 6-)1. . body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. $hichever seems to produce the most friction.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. more or less. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. he climber bends at the $aist. the climber $ill . Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence. putting the body into an B( shaped position. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. %'* "ie#ack. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at.

Figure 6-)4. or for a rest position. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. %7* Stemming.'*. 8ie ack on a #ace. rather than muscle. Dften.likely fall. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance.7*. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. . or vice versa. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features.

he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. kno$n as chimneys. parallel cracks. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. . or body as an integral contact point. >sually. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. Stemming on a #ace.Figure 6-)5.)*. legs. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. although smearing may $ork best in some instances.

Chimney sequence. .Figure 6-)6.

forcing the body against the opposing $all. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. face features. %c* . Chimney sequence /continue&0. or a much narro$er crack irotection. . %)* Sla# Techni$ue. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( .4*.Figure 6-)6. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. A slab is a relatively smooth. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver. if any holds. . /o$ever. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain.

ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. Dn steeper slab. to increase friction. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. Dften. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. S!a technique. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. or the . the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. . Also. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. Figure 6-)7.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. . the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever.

!hen in doubt. 0. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. and slips are more likely to occur. use a roped descent. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing.. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. a$ay from the rock. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. he can often turn side$ays. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. %a* Dn easier terrain. !hatever the case may be. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . !hen in doubt. the climber can face out$ard. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. use a roped descent. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. As the steepness and difficulty increase. Dn the steepest terrain. If the handholds are too high. C7ET=63S .abilities of others to follo$.

using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. reducing friction. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds.planned landing area. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. %d* Dn steeper slab. as in ascending. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. and a tendency to move too #uickly. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. is usually best on steeper slab. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. . the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. &acing the rock. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet.5*. facing out$ard or side$ays. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(.

length. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. ropes must be used to proceed. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. . may induce further injuries. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. A severe fall.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. . +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever.. . 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. Tying-=n to the C!im ing .ope Dver the years.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. is highly unlikely in most instances.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. . All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. they offer little support to the climber.

%. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. including cost. specialiAed e#uipment. /o$ever. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. Seat -arness. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. it is not for a belay anchor. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. such as a prese$n harness.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. also. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. . $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. $hen used correctly. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. a.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. -rese$n harness are bulky. =o assembly is re#uired.

especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. such as padding. or ease of adjustment.b. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. gear loops. Dne(inch $ebbing . and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. Chest -arness. he s$ami belt is a simple. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. at the chest. %. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. than an improvised chest harness. S+ami %e!t.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. c. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. a. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends.

he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. any tie(in around the $aist only could . b. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. !I /D> /. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot. In a severe fall.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould.V. raditionally. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. %.$ill provide more comfort. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!.. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. Figure 6-)'. &ABB.8*. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*..

* Bocate the center of the rope. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*.ven in a relatively short fall. and comfortable. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. Dff to one side. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. . A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. A safe. 9rasping both ends. $rapping to the outside. %. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. . Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. $ith the knots to the front.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. . %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. and hold it in place on the hip. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. c. like a parachute harness.

. forming t$o loops. he t$ist. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness.*. and drape the sling over the shoulders. Appro"imately ) to . he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. %. or cross. d. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist.Figure 6-. just as you $ould put on a jacket. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. but remember that $ith $ebbing. .: feet usually $orks.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot.

his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. the standing part of the rope is then . and comes off the harness in a fall.I ICAB BI=?. %.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness. or incorrectly. in effect. at the chest. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. create a type of full(body harness. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. 7ttaching the . C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. If using a chest harness. e. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. f. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly.

and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. %. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. or third loop formed in the knot. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. If using the three loop bo$line. ensure the end. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard.clipped into the chest harness carabiner.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. %e!ay Techniques . is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. and possibly the e#uipment available. Figure 6-)". rather than tying the rope to it.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying.

Dn steep terrain. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. if one person falls. rope team members can often move at the same time. sitting position $henever possible. and snug. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. Dne person climbs at a time. >se a $ell braced.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. e"posed terrain. or a 6brake. . ho$ever. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. the procedure should become 6second nature.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. independent.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. • • • • . <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations.6 can be applied to halt a fall. but $ith practice. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. In some instances. . he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. for an up$ard pull.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. . +tack the rope properly.

the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. the rope management procedure is basically the same. ho$ever. aking up rope.BAI D=..• . he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.V. a. b. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the .nsure anchor attachments. removed from the rope. there is no belay.BAI. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. • • .6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. If the brake hand is removed. guide carabiner %if applicable*. !hen giving slack.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. or run through a friction device.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(.A9. otal control means the brake hand is =. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the .6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. and apply the brake to halt a fall.

%'* 9rasp both parts of the rope. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay.. step '*. :anaging the rope. Figure 6-. he other hand is the brake hand.).* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. to the front of the brake hand. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0.. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0. %.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. step . . step )*. place it behind the back and around the hips...brake hand remains on the rope at all times.. step 0*. %)* .. slide the guide hand out. step 1*. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand.*. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0.

he leg on the 6guide . the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. re#uiring no special e#uipment. %o&y %e!ay. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. stiff. It is best to sit in a slight depression. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. or fall force. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. !hen perfectly aligned. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. and froAen. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. using terrain to his advantage. he body belay. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. in its various forms. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. especially for beginners. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. a. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. . letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. %. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. the belay may have to absorb. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. +ometimes. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. and the amount of load. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. It is the simplest belay.* Sitting 'ody 'elay.

as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible.. Figure 6-. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. . %0* Standing 'ody 'elay. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. Sitting o&y e!ay. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard..

he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. . If the rope runs too lo$. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively.1. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. rendering the belay useless. dumping the belayer out of position. If the rope runs too high. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening.Figure 6-. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake.

b. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. attaching both to the carabiner. he carabiner must be large enough. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. to allo$ this function. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. /o$ever.Figure 6-. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. $hich forms an obvious. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate.4. and of the proper design. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. As a climbing belay. or pearabiner. -ut some . &or the most part. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. useless hitch. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads. %. :echanica! %e!ay. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. is designed for the Cunter hitch.* Munter itch.

to$ards the load. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. rather than around the belayerUs body.+ =D change the function of the hands. :unter hitch. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body.5.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. or load. is al$ays the guide hand. though developed as a rappel device. Figure 6-. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. As a belay device. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. . he hand on the rope running to the climber. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope.

Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness.6. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. >nlike the other devices. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. Figure 6-. %b* As a lo$ering belay. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. . +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. A short. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. . but have no moving parts. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. Figure-eight &e2ice.%a* As a climbing belay.ope management is performed as in a body belay. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner.

the most commonly used. Additionally. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. . Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. a. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. he air traffic controller %A C*. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. b. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. An indirect belay. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . If the belay is correctly established.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. slotted plate. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. the belayer is not locked into a position. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. Direct %e!ay. if the second falls or $eights the rope. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. Also. =n&irect %e!ay.

ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. %. c. a. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. the belayer selects his position. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. sitting stance are preferred.* . as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. If this placement fails under load. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. . Dnce the climbing line is picked.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. rela"ed stance. b. !ith the belay position selected. and in line $ith the first protection placement. 7nchor the %e!ay. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. . 7im the %e!ay.

the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. his is not mandatory. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. 6independent6. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. reach back.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. o accomplish this.%0* . If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. . %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. and 6snug6. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. say after a severe fall. saving the slings for the climb.

and applies the actual . Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. 7nchoring a e!ay. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber.* Dn small ledges. %. or on the ledge. e. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. he rope should be stacked on the ground. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task.Figure 6-.ope. d. Stack the . the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. 7ttach the %e!ay. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile.7. !ith the rope properly stacked.

". Anchor attachments. he gives the signal.belay techni#ue. the force. If the belay is set up correctly. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. Figure 6-. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. If using a body belay. if any. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. 6<. !hen belaying the 6second6. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. %. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side.BAI D=W6. final inspection of his belay. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. guide carabiner. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull.* he belayer should make one #uick. the anchor attachments. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. guide carabiner if applicable. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. If the climber takes a fall. %e!ay setup.

ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. e"posed routes.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. Top-. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases.* %$87D$. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. A solid. . he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing.7CT=63 T7K$3 . Aer a! Comman&s able )(. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. or at the top at the anchor. :$73=3<. C8=:%$. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions.

+tart looking for the ne"t belay position. 6 . Climber selects a belay position. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left.=( I( &IV.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. apply brake. and again. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area.6 . 6+BAC?6 .DC?6 -roceed.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. If multipitch climbing. 9. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.6<. <elayer removes brakeKtension. <elayer takes in rope. .D-. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. 6 A?.DC?6 6. <elayer removes slack and applies brake.6 6 !.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. I am falling. the rope $ill be managed as necessary.S$8F F.6T$CT D6E. ensure climbers belo$ hear. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope. and hold me. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.

BAI6 belay. anchoring and putting the second on belay. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. -repares to climb. . or at the back of a ledge. the most important command is 6<. I have finished climbing and I am anchored.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. his is the signal for 6<. remaining anchored. <elayer removes the belay and. prepares to climb..=6 Iou have appro"imately . &or a rope tug command. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. . Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. Iou have 7 feet of rope left.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. or $hen the climber is around a corner. Iou have no more rope.emoves the 6D&& <. 6&IV.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . Climber sets up the belay. use only one. a. remains anchored. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& .6 +et up the belay. above an overhang. .7 feet of rope left.BAI D=.ope comman&s. Ta !e 6-).6&I&( . !hile a lead climb is in progress. !ith the issue of this command. his is especially true in $indy conditions.. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. +et up the belay position. b. Iou may remove the belay. .

If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. . he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor.6 6pro placements. b. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only.6 and so on. a leader or climber. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. you can easily avoid the climb itself. Top-. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors .6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.ven if the climbing is for another purpose.6 6pieces of pro.In military mountaineering. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements.6 6pieces. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication. &or training. If you can easily access the top of a climb. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. rope%s*. As he climbs the route. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. a.6 6pro. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above.

each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. or 6leap frogging. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. or other rope installations. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. c. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . a. b. he belayer simply adjusts his position. belays. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. ice.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup.established for other purposes. and is responsible for selecting the route. taking on the role of lead climber. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. such as rappel points. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. +$inging leads. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. $ill be referred to as 6anchors.

in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. thus minimiAing friction. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. he leader then begins climbing. !hen the leader is ready. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. it can be called for. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. %1* <efore the climb starts. only as a courtesy. >nless told other$ise by the climber. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. until the climber tells him other$ise. again. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury.ne"t belay. .* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. he leader can then signal. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. the belayer signals. $hether by sight or feel. to remove any protection that the leader may place. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. !hen the belay is ready. he double checks the belay. is responsible for belaying the leader. only as a courtesy. %. %0* he other member of the climbing team. If he cannot see the climber. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. nut tool. %'* !hile belaying. or 6rope drag6. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*.BAI D=6. removing the belay anchor. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. 6CBIC<I=96.. such as a piton hammer. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. etc. 6<. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope.

the leader sets an anchor.* he leader $ill assemble. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. each on a separate carabiner. In this situation. . . $ith t$o carabiners on each.BAI6. he must also determine ho$ much. d. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. At this position.BAI D=6 is given. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. or 6rack. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. Assorted he"entrics.D-. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. &ive to ten standard length runners. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. !hen the leader has completed the connection. or the clip. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. !hen the leader selects a particular route. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route.%7* As the leader protects the climb. each on a separate carabiner. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. %. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. and $hat types. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. the command 6 A?.

$ith t$o carabiners on each. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. • .(inch $ebbing."tra carabiners. =ut tool. <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing.• • • $o to three double length runners."tra carabiners.(inch $ebbing. 0: feet of . the necessary e#uipment. • • . Cordellette.: feet of . 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. to some degree. . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. Bong -rusik sling. .appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*.

If the climbing is difficult. Dnce an anchor is placed. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. and <.e. for both the leader and second if either should fall. is re#uired.. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement.* Placing Protection. If the climbing becomes easier.&D. saving hard$are for difficult sections. moving past a difficult section. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. or pendulum. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. As the leader begins this type of move. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. and upon completion of any traverse. protection can be placed farther apart. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. 9enerally. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . protection should be placed more fre#uently. kno$n as a traverse. placement of protection. during. %. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to.

%b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. C7ET=63 . a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. $hen released. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. If the clip is made correctly. %a* If the route changes direction.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. !hen placing protection. in a . In addition. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. /o$ever. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist.

here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection.'.leader fall. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to .5: degrees. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. Figure 6-. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. rotate the carabiner up$ards . If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. =o matter ho$ direct the route. C!ipping on to protection. o prevent this possibility.

inducing a fall. . Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. or anchor. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners.ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position. Figure 6-1*. o prevent this. . Ese o# s!ings on protection. C7ET=63 .

2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. As the climber moves above the placements.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. . Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. or runner. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. even $hen used 6actively6. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. All $ired chocks used for . even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. Figure 6-1). .*. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous.

such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. .. Figure 6-1. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. &urthermore. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. ry to use the shortest runners possible. %e* . 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. therefore. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. +ome of the larger chocks. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position.

or 6cleaning the pitch6. %. !hen removing the protection. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. no$ the climber. !hen the second is ready.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. &ollo$ing.6 and the leader can. he can. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. as a courtesy.BAI D=. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. signal 6CBIC<I=9. he second has to issue commands to the leader. $hile the final preparations are taking place. !hen removing protection. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. again as a courtesy. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. +harp rocks. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb.* h.f. or seconding. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. reply $ith 6CBIC<. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb. If necessary. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. rock fall. unless other$ise directed.BAI D=.6 he second.BAI6 to the belayer. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. g. he belayer maintains tension on the rope.

he should immediately connect to the anchor. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. %.D-. If too much slack develops. $quipment. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. .6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes.egardless of the type of protection used. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. Dnce secured.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. +$inging leads.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 .6 he leader removes the belay. Dnce the second completes the pitch. he belayer simply adjusts his position. the method of aid climbing . taking on the role of lead climber. or 6leap frogging. he should signal 6 A?. a. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. he can signal 6D&& <.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece.BAI. If removing a piton. . he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.reaches a more secure stance.=+ID=.

In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer.is the same. +ince pitons are multidirectional. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. bolts can be used for aid climbing.* Pitons. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. %0* 'olts. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. /o$ever. $ith or $ithout the hanger. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. %. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool.

+BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.0 inches. although in aid climbing. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. or steps. %5* -scenders. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. appro"imately every .asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. %)* Etriers .triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. %7* %aisy Chains. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight.or -iders. %'* Chocks. . split(shaft rivets. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. although in aid climbing. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. A fifi hook is a small. %4* (ifi ook. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. %1* S"C%s. . . place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*.. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness.* .

elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. Technique. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. into the steps in the aider. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands.b. he big difference is the movement up the rock. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. you are no$ standing above your support. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. again. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. %4* . &rom this height. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. the climb continues as follo$s: %. If this happens. aiders.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. one at a time. !ith the daisy chains. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain.

C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch.* >nlike lead climbing. o ascend the route. move the ascenders. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. one at a time. o make this easier. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks.. a serious fall could result. Secon&ing. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. the arms need not support much body $eight. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. After ascending another 0: feet.epeat entire process until climb is finished c.nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . . o prevent this possibility.:* . Clear each knot as you unclip it. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. %. !hen adjusted to the correct height. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. above the piece. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. tie in short on the rope every .:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. !hen the pitch is completed. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. repeat this procedure. 3otes4 . If the ascender is too high. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner.

he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. his is in effect a self(belay. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. e. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. 0. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. +BC2s. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. possibly resulting in the protection failing. and other protection placed easily by hand. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. to get caught as you move up$ard.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. d. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. he hook . a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. hooks. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. /o$ever. %. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. o make this safer and easier. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did.as you ascend. do not tie into the end of the rope. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. !hile leading an aid traverse. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached.

::(foot climb $ith a . 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. hese types of devices due to their passive application. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. &or e"ample: a . If the climb is only one pitch. only t$o are described belo$.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . the methods $ill vary. a. b.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep. $hich involves more difficulties. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber.::(foot climb $ith a . $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. although bolts can be used. belayed climb. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. 9iven one rope. a forty foot fall could result. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. protected traverses .

he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. !hen number 1 receives 6<. !hen using t$o ropes. !hen number . Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. %. he again sets up a ne$ belay. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. !hen the leader completes this pitch. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*.Us . If using one rope. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. ascends belayed by number 0. /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. climber. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. and number 1. he second. !hen the leader completes the pitch. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber .BAI6 from the leader. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch.BAI D=. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. or number . or number 0 climber.$ill re#uire additional time..

the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0.: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. such as the tuber type. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. number 1 performs no belay function. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. %d* =ormally.. !hen number 1 is not climbing. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay.belay is ready. he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. %d* In this method. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. his $ould save time for a team of three. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. he remains anchored to the rock for security.

he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. . leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. even worse. H )i.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. but adds to total mission $eight. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. faster. and safer.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& .in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. he use of harnesses. =nsta!!ation . However. ascenders.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne.

Dther$ise. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. -rusik. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion.*. Dnce the anchor is rigged. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. . An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. >pon reaching the end of the pitch. autoblock*. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. he $ill stack and manage the rope. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. If the leader placed protection.o install a fi"ed rope. Esing a #iBe& rope. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. Figure 7-). /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second.

e!ay. If not. .ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. FiBe& . it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*.Figure 7-. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above.etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. Esing a se!#.. . he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope.

$o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb.Figure 7-1. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. he second sets up a standard belay. a. actical considerations are met. avoids obstacles. . ease of negotiation. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*. =nsta!!ation. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors.

his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. double figure(eight*. and attaches the rope to the anchor. !hen he reaches an anchor point. . %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point.ope crossovers should be avoided.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. . he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. As the leader climbs the route. %. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. he temporarily anchors the rope. 3ote4 . /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. %o&y . he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. . he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. and back over the opposite shoulder. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. 9loves are $orn. o brake.Figure 7-4. and his back straight to reduce friction. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. -asty rappe!. b. diagonally across the chest. /e then pulls the rope from behind.appe! %&igure 4(7*. the rope runs to the brake hand. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. and runs it around either hip. &rom there. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability.

he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. Seat--ip . /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. . 0. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. 3otes4 . %o&y rappe!.appe! %&igure 4()*.Figure 7-5.. c. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$.

If using a right(hand brake. If a single rope is used. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. stand to one side of the rope. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*.Figure 7-6. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. and is fast and safe. his method has minimal friction. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. /o$ever. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. %. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . Seat-hip rappe!.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. stand to the right of the rappel rope.

Figure 7-7.* o use the figure(eight descender. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. he brake hand goes on the slack rope.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. d. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. . -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. %. Figure-$ight Descen&er. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. &or this reason.

he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. . Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. d.) of an inch in siAe. $Bten&ing the .Figure 7-". Figure-eight &escen&er. 6ther De2ices. e. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope.appe! De2ice. It also allo$s for easier self( belay. f. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. hese include slots or plates and tubers.

e!ay.Figure 7-'. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. depends on the techni#ue. .( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. 6ne-. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. /o$ever.

he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. If crossing a ravine or gorge. c.:. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. a. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. the s$immer must be belayed across. b. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. If t$o carabiners are used. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. are al$ays preferred. Dnce across. At that time. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. the gates $ill be opposing. he anchor should be $aist high. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. . =atural anchors. $iremanUs.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. such as large trees and solid rock formations. If crossing a stream. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle.

or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(.1*.*. e. d.Figure 7-)*.0*. . A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. Transport tightening system.. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(.

Transport knot . . Figure 7-).Figure 7-)).oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.. .

?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. 3ote4 2uring training.:. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. $eb $rap. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. Dnce across. Tension!ess anchor knot. . c.Figure 7-)1. the far side man anchors the rope. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. a. b. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage.

As the rope is pulled tight.d. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. e. Figure 7-)4. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. g. here are several methods of accomplishing this. f. transport knot. . !hen the rope is tight. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. and is run back to the near side anchor. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. F-pu!!ey tightening system. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. from inside to outside.

all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(.a. he may $ear it over both shoulders. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. -referably. :etho& o# Crossing. o recover if he falls over. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. %. attach it to the bridge. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. Comman&o cra+!. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. monkey cra$l. If dry crossing is impossible. and yrolean traverse. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. Figure 7-)5.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. and pull the rucksack across. . /e pulls $ith his hands and arms.7*.)*. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation.

:onkey cra+!.Figure 7-)6. . If crossing $ith rucksacks. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.4*. . /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. he rappel seat method is the preferred method. Figure 7-)7.appe! seat metho&. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across.

use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. %0* -"0CE Packs. and carabiners.* Machine /uns. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. cordage %various siAes*. . Any special e#uipment. ammunition.b. Figure 7-)". ABIC. o rig machine guns. All the slack is pulled to the near side. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge.5*. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. or supplies. A unit +D.may dictate the rigging of these items. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. he other end is anchored on the near side. such as cre$(served $eapons. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. &inally. %.igging Specia! $quipment. -au!ing !ine. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. a. Construction. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. . An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit.

.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. %. :o2ing . -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. c. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge.ucksacks. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. a. he far side remains anchored.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge.b. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. assembled on the far side. . :o2ing 8itters. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. . %'* A three(man pull team. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. If the < C chooses the dry method. Dn each side of this carabiner.

the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. chasms. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. inserts a carabiner. Figure 7-)'.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. Site Se!ection . and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. and up or do$n a vertal. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side.%)* Dnce across. b. and then pulls the rope across. ravines. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. removes the knots. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. Suspension tra2erse. %.

and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. $quipment. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied.* .nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors.'(foot sling ropes are needed. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. leaving about . All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. hree to five . -osition this knot on . Construction. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. %0* !ith a sling rope. %. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. .* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. $o sturdy poles are needed. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. and mark the ape" on both poles.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side.0 feet long.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame. a. b. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. 7-#rames. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . c. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. an A(frame must be used.

pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*.*.* Figure 7-. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. ensure it is in the same direction as the . 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:.*. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. . +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied.

un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. dig the legs in about ) inches. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. If the ground is soft. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. . Figure 7-. %. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. the direction of kick.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0.).* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. %4* If the ground is a hard surface.*. . Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. =nsta!!ation Construction. d. If more than one sling rope is needed. . he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. 7-#rame sprea&er. Adjust the A( . -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.

his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots..frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame.0*. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. Figure 7-. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.. not forcing it in a lateral direction. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot.. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. Eoin the ends of a . . his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope.

2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. 2ue to the constant . tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground.1. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending.Figure 7-. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope.

he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. or supplies Figure 7-. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. use a mechanical belay.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. use a relay man.4.tension maintained on the belayer. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. herefore. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. . rucksacks.

.* Figure 7-. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. if necessary.0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape". and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. find the middle. a. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. o maintain the . and anchor it. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope.5. 2ouble one installation rope. %+ee &igure 4(07. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside.0(inch bight.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. .

use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. o anchor the A(frame. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the .0 inches apart. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position.b. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. or to. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . directional figure(eight. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. g. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. $hich is tied to the A(frame.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. he angle should be . +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. f. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. belay from the top using the hauling line. d. c. e. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. . the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame.

c. and the rope condition. the load rubbing against the rock $all. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:.educe e"cessive friction on the system. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. . . >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. . terrain. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. load $eight. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. Simp!e . the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. Consi&erations. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. Construction. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. and availability of anchors. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line.. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. Theory. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. b. pull the other side from belo$. a. !hen it is no longer needed. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. e#uipment. . If only e#uipment is being hauled up.h. !hen in use. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. $eather.

>sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots.* . %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. . A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. place a pulley into the carabiner.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot.%. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot. . and run the hauling rope through the pulley. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope.

load $eight. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. e#uipment. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. a. $eather. and availability of anchors. &or greater efficiency. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. d.6. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. F-pu!!ey system. >se belays and backup safeties. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. 6ther Factors. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. If the t$o pulleys touch. Consi&erations. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation.Figure 7-. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. terrain. .

the load rubbing against the rock $all. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. Construction. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley.. and the rope condition.b. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. %.* Anchor the hauling rope. %7* Construct a second anchor. Theory. c.7. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. his is the -C2. . -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. E-pu!!ey system. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. Figure 7-.

through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. H In addition to proper techni#ue. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. the slo$er the pace. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. he trained. conditioning. produces early fatigue. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. pace. pace is adapted to conditions. and a unit can cover a given . H he terrain. proper training. hen. $eather. H <reaks are kept to a minimum.est. . !hen a moderate pace is set. acclimatiAation. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. rappelling. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. and results in loss of climbing time. s0iing or snow shoeing. even under ideal conditions. rugged terrain. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. good nutrition and hydration. he more adverse the conditions. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. empo. the need for rest halts decreases. Coving too fast. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. or number of steps per minute. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. technical roc0 and ice climbing. he mountaineer sets a tempo. re#uires more rest halts. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start.

distance in a minimal time. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. enabling an easier. breathe deeply. hydrate. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. supports the $eight. steady. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. deeper inhale. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. rock. %. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. %. and snack on trail food. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. to . a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. the soldier pauses briefly. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. If possible. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . sno$fields. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. %1* his slo$. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps.7 hours. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. and higher elevations. <listers and . rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery.. If possible. not muscle. he soldier e"hales strongly. soldiers lean against a tree.* After each step for$ard.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. %'* After a climb.

rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. as the slope steepens. knee damage.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. through thick brush. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. back injury. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. animal trails.* !hen ascending. %. !hile traversing. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack.blackened toenails. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. H -ar& <roun&. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. and loss of balance. $ould be from $alking straight up. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. try to s$itchback periodically. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. %. and back pain may follo$. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step.. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. in lo$ brush or heather. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. A normal progression. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. surface.efer to Chapter . +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. ice a". /ard ground is firmly compacted. and on scree and talus slopes. . A ski pole. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. for techni#ues and use of the ice a". the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. o turn at the end of each traverse. to a herringbone step. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. If side hill travel is necessary. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route.

each one improving the step as he ascends. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. steps off. returning to the in(balance position. and they $ill not be as secure. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. he ice a".0 Step Kicking. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique.. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . $hich must be done in a positive. held in the uphill hand. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front.H Sno+ S!opes. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. aggressive manner. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. and plants his foot solidly. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. and $eighting the trail leg. /. $hich take half of the boot. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. simply $alk straight do$n. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. he soldier performs a basic rest step. he soldier faces out. . he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. his is the in(balance position. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints.

!hen looking for a firmer travel surface. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. $here the ground is more level. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. and the upper leg is used only for balance. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. brush is both a help and a hindrance. %. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes.* !hen ascending. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. H Thick %rush. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. !hen traversing. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. In this techni#ue. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. trees. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. H <rassy S!opes. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. &or the military mountaineer. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on .

%. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. H Ta!us S!opes. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. ascending or descending. and then repeats the process. H Scree S!opes. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. back straight. and heels dug in. feet pointed do$nhill. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. !hen $alking in talus. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. After determining that the step is stable. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. if possible. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. o .

the location of a target objective. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. the $arning. grass. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. digging into the slope $ith hands. sno$. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. and route finding. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. knees and toes. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. he use of the map. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. 6. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. navigation.prevent rock fall injuries.ockW6 is shouted immediately. . All other basics of mountain $alking apply. and do not look up. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. compass and identifiable terrain features. is the foundation of good navigation. Backing cover. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. elbo$s. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured.

+ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained.1 inches has occurred. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale. 7!timeters. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. <y measuring air pressure. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. route planning. checking progress and terrain identification.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team.. or millibars. %. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. millimeters of mercury. usually inches of mercury. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. . a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. and bad $eather should be e"pected.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. usually attached to a cord. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. a loss of barometric pressure of . the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. b. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation.H . Compasses. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. a. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes.::: feet of elevation.

his can result in faulty elevation readings. he 9-+ is a space(based. and so forth* is reached. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. It can determine the latitude. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. it can provide position %accurate up to .) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. stream(trail intersections. causing them to give poor readings. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. global. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. survey monuments. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. %4* . rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. . %. saddles.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. <!o a! 9ositioning System. all($eather.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. longitude and elevation of the individual user. c.

it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. after choosing critical checkpoints. Canyons. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. Dther$ise."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. but due . and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots.%1* 2uring route planning. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. enter their coordinates as $ay points. d. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. or plateaus are better. &or navigation. %4* . summits. terrain association. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. spurs. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. deep valleys.idgelines. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. or altimeter navigation. %'* +ince the 0. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. open valleys. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. saddles. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. the better the system performs. start point and objective. 3a2igation Techniques. . he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals.

%. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. slope %+D+. orientation. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. elevation. than as a primary navigational aid. catching features. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. . checkpoints. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. . he shape. navigational corridors. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply.eckoning. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. siAe. and not a precise point. bo"ing(in areas. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. /eavy fog. !hen clear cut. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel.* Dea& . Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. and attack points are all used. burned(over. /andrails. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. glacier.

H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. H !hen the light is poor. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. H !hen looking over a smooth. and in $eather prediction. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. H !hen looking do$n a straight. such as sno$. in resection. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. dusk. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. open road or track. hey aid in orientation. in computing rates of ascent or descent. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. such as da$n. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. but not behind the object being vie$ed. check the . H !hen the object blends into the background. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. $ater. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. uniform surface. or desert. $atercourse.

9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. %.altimeter. studying it for climbing routes. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. light conditions %time of day*. sno$fields and glaciers. such as couloirs or gullies. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. In this case. and the physical condition of the team. !atch the mountain during the approach march. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. gross bedding planes of rock. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. cliffs. cliff bands. and crevasse Aones become visible. e.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. along $ith $eather conditions. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls.ates of travel. . &ault lines. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. may present themselves. . are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. In addition.

(inter . Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . 2uring movement. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement.oute Se!ection. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. avalanche danger.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. shovel tests. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. individual ski abilities. and the siAe of the unit. %. constrain your choice of terrain.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. &or $eaker skiers. 2uring calm $eather. and impact on your route choices. 3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. g. vegetation. sno$ pits. If you must cross one. terrain relief. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. are often steeper. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. f. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. $ater features. pays off in more efficient travel.

travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. If $eak skiers are in the group. %4* 2uring ski movements. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$.danger is still present. east. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. Avoid north. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. . %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. H >se a steady. !eather and tactical situation permitting. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. and so on to get accurate readings. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. ice a". H -reset aAimuths on your compass. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. If the $eather turns bad.

particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. %'* /andling maps. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. short hours of daylight. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts.* In $inter. drastically limit visibility. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. caused by large ore deposits.h. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. hick vegetation and rough. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. trails. kno$ledge of the enemy . fog.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. 9ro !ems. and drifting sno$. sno$fall. %. $hiteouts. . At times. especially above tree line. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. Careful map reconnaissance. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. compasses. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. . bliAAards.

Areas above tree line.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. verbal descriptions. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. cable and tram$ays are often found. An .::: maps can be used if available. A . Aerial.situation. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover.0. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. obli#ue angle.::: map and should be used $henever possible. pay close attention to the marginal information. terrain analysis of the operational area.::: map depicts greater detail than a .econnaissance. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations.:07. %. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. :ap . /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. In addition.:.:7:. Civilian . Along $ith sketch maps. even larger scale maps are desirable. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. such facilities as ski lifts. a. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. clear cuts. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads.

re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. barns. . %0* Dbstacles. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. but should still be e"pected.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. c. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. roads. %1* /elicopter support. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. bridges. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. and plans made to avoid them. e"tractions. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. such as rivers and gorges. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. impassable torrents. they have a marked advantage.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green.uins. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. b. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. and large open areas above tree line. are factored in. $nemy Situation.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. . trails. $eather permitting. resupply and medevac.

therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. . +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. including the geology. and ground cover. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. %. and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. good friction@ use of pitons. camming units*. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. d. mountain structure and forms. especially $hen there is sno$ cover. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . e. %0* .* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain.*. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. smooth rock@ bolts. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. Time-Distance Formu!as. Enit 7ssessment. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background.outes through granite rock %long cracks.success. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment.

K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance.' to . indicates. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than .0 to ' kph +kiing . Time-&istance #ormu!as..) to 1. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year.. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.0 kph 1.) to 1.) kph '..0 kph 0 to 1. %.0 kph 0 to 1. foot . his distance plus . it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains.. $eights in order to obtain accurate.5 to 7. basic mountaineering gear.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. should take this into account. actical movements. Add one hour for each . . and clothing for mountain travel. realistic rates of march.country* $alking* Dn foot %less than .) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). %0* As able 5(. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel.::: feet of ascent or 0. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. In order to do this. helicopter support cannot be relied on. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. first measure the map distance.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units. to 7. foot of .

Se!ect a . %1* . clearings. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. a. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. and the likelihood of crevasses. his includes degree of slopes. and trails accurately. b. .equire& $quipment. roads. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. c. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. vegetation. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. $idth of trails. sno$ condition reports. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain. avalanche probability. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. sno$ depth. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. aerial photos. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. Se!ect a Current :ap. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find..oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route.* Tra##ica i!ity. avalanche probability. -lot start and end points. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. Additionally. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. $eather reports. Consider the follo$ing: %. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission.oute.

econnaissance . depending upon the type of stream. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. and depth of the water. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. speed of the current. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area.Capa i!ities o# Enit. ake into consideration their present health. its width. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints. . 2ead spaces or communications holes are common.Contro! 9oints. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. !hen plotting a route on the map. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated.%7* Communications. swift. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. %4* Checkpoints. >se all available information and plan accordingly. When rivers or streams must be crossed. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. %)* Con&itions. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. an alternate route should be used. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. . 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. or deep. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen.

sno$. the rivers rise. 2epending upon the time of year. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation.econnaissance of the route %map. depending on the distance from the source. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. if . 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. As glaciers. b. a. Crossigs. A distant vie$. the closer you are to the source. In a s$amp. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. or head$aters. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. or ice melt during the day. perhaps from a ridge. for e"ample.. photo. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. Figure '-).*. If a dry crossing is unavailable.

is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. above the tree line for e"ample. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. if any. firm bottom. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. Dnce a log jam is formed. =atural anchors are not a necessity. %1* Cany mountain streams.made during the early morning. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. ho$ever. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. and thus shallo$est. ho$ever. contain sections $ith numerous channels. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. .ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. In some areas. point of the river or stream. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease.

H If you must cross on the upstream side. binoculars. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. temperature of the air and $ater*. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. +DI. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. if available. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. he could easily dro$n. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. b. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. as in the higher alpine Aones. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. %)* !hen possible. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. <oots should be $orn . -reparation includes the follo$ing. papers. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. a. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. tactical situation. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. All pockets are buttoned. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. !rap radios.

he may choose to face more side$ays as this . It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. f. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. socks and inner soles should be removed. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. a. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. /o$ever. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. Dn the far side. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. At times. c. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming.to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. e. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. d. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams.

the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. c. /e should take short. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. If an obstacle is encountered. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. a long ice a". and if available. sturdy tree limb. deliberate steps. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. he staff should be moved first. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. e. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. b. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. o increase balance. d. .

stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. . he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. but $ith the added support of each other. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep.. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. he line formed faces the far bank. &or chain crossing. a team crossing may be used.Figure '-.

$sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. and the distance from the near and far anchors. a.Figure '-1. height of the anchors above the $ater. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. he stream at this point may be impassable. .ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. . Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. Cany times though. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. Chain metho& #or stream crossing.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use.

as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. %.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*.$ill pendulum back.. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. should he fail to reach the far bank. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. then a rope bridge should be installed as such. If this is impossible. . /e should =. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*.V. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety.

/ere again. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. %.Figure '-4. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. An appropriate knot is tied into the . pulled tight. rather than straight across the stream. and anchored on the near bank. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees.

$hichever appears easiest. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. Figure '-5. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. %7* >nder most circumstances. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. . he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore.middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank.

.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. such as mortars. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. especially heavier $eapons. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. e. f. and individual e"perience. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. Sa#ety . A lookout should be posted 7: to . then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. stream bottom configuration. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. a. and so on. c.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. $idth of the stream.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. d. or choose another route. b. speed of the current. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream.%)* . use a different techni#ue. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. recoilless rifles.

and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. facing do$nstream. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$. h. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. b. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. seek out the closest and safest spot.g. . /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. e. such as a sandbar. 2o not try to fight the current. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. d. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. a. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. In either case. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. for assistance or rescue. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. c. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. If the shore is too difficult to reach. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B. and traverse. As the slope steepens.*. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet.:(.egardless of the techni#ue used. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. d. Figure )*-)*. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short.: and . . If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. !henever possible.degrees..:(. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . . Dn steep terrain. descend straight do$n the fall line.

/erringbone step straight up the slope. e. &ront(pointing. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. . >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. logical progression.Figure )*-)). he techni#ues can be used in any combination. 3orma! 9rogression.* Crampons. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. raverse $ith feet flat. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. <acking up the slope %crab position*. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. %0* =ce 7B.

epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". .e. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to .:(.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. . a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .1*.:(. >sing most of these positions. f. C!im ing Sequence. in some cases. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately. and move the hand up the a" shaft.. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. C!im ing sequence. Figure )*-). +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure .0*. Step Cutting.

Dnce the step is formed. %0* =ce. %.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. !hen changing direction. If handholds are cut. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. In descending. a traverse is also the preferred method. they should be smaller than footholds. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. =e"t. In ascending. steps may be cut straight up the slope.* Sno+. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. and angled more. then cut one bet$een those t$o. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. %'* -an&ho!&s. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. . +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made.

he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. . possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury.'*. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting.:(. 2uring movement on steep ice. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. g. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. Se!#-7rrest. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. or arrest. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*.Figure )*-)1. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. a fall %&igure .

Figure )*-)4. . Se!#-arrest technique.

back to the slope. . and feet pointed do$nslope. stomach on the slope. H /ead do$nslope. and feet pointed upslope. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope. the climber must first gain control of his body.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. H /ead do$nslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. H /ead upslope. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force.Figure )*-)4. stomach on the slope. back to the slope. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. %. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. and feet pointed upslope.

:(. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. controlled. . $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. could severely injure his ankles and legs. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. stomach do$n position. %d* In the fourth position. If crampons are not $orn. e"cept skis . %b* In the second position.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . $ith the pick pointed into the slope. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". %'* !hen a fall occurs.7*. the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip.%a* In the first position. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. 9lissading is similar to skiing. stomach on the slope. %c* In the third position. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. rapid descent. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional.

are not used. pick. and the other hand on the shaft. $hich serves as the rudder. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. Squatting <!issa&e. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. c. b. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. and guide for the glissade. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. . and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. as painful injury could result. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". Sitting <!issa&e. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. brake. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. Also. Sa#ety. he same balance and control are necessary.

&ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs.: inches in length. %. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. ice scre$s. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. flukes. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. or any large items. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. backpacks. <!issa&ing techniques. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . =ce 9itons.Figure )*-)5. sleds. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. skis. >sed singularly. deadman(type anchors. . and ice pitons. a.

move to another spot and replace it. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. Figure )*-)6. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. making further use difficult. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. are multidirectional. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. he pair of pitons. such as top roping. c.)*. =ce Scre+s. !hen an ice piton is removed. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded.:(. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure .:( . +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. $hen placed correctly. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. or the ice may crack or soften. the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: .4*. =ce piton pair. If it pulls out or appears $eak.

he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced.%. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. . must be removed before further use.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. Figure )*-)7.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. such as top roping. %. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. the ice that has accumulated in the tube.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. or the ice may crack or soften. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in.

this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. the $idth should not be less than . -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels.: feet. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is.d. In ice. depending on the strength of the ice. Figure )*-)".5*.:(. e. . 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. %. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. !hen constructed of sno$. or other e#uipment for added strength. pickets. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots.

he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. should be at a right angle to its length. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. %&igure .8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. . such as a picket or a". $qua!i@e& 7nchors.* !henever possible. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. %.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . A similar anchor. he direction of pull on long items. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. or other fi"ed rope installations. also. t$o or more anchors should be used. ski poles. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy.%. skis. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. f. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. rappel points. . it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. frayed.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. sno$shoes. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface.:(.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock.

for more information*. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. Covement on 9laciers.:(4. all climbers move simultaneously. Figure )*-)'. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. b. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. <y using this . &or climbing on sno$ and ice. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. !hen crevasses are e"pected. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. the tie(in is modified slightly. a. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. :o2ement. %+ee paragraph . $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. +hould any member fall. . a three(man rope team is recommended. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9.e#ualiAed anchor. Tie-=n :etho&. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing.

his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep.* %oot-7B %e!ay. %. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. .*. c. %oot-aB e!ay. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure .method. Dn steeper slopes. Figure )*-.:(0:*. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. called the 6team arrest. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. 9enerally.

%0* %o&y %e!ay. ridgelines. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. d. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time.opes. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. or cliffs. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. also. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. %1* :unter -itch. H . H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. . he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. FiBe& . he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. As the movement continues.

* Figure )*-.). Characteristics an& De#initions.:(0. and &igure . %&igure . his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. sho$s a cross section of a glacier. .a.:(00 depicts common glacier features. <!acier cross section. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers.

%1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer... <!acier #eatures. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. %. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt.Figure )*-. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. .

:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. . %. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. As you approach this area. he firn line can change annually. %. %. %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. %. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more.. <e cautious. .0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers.

In $inter. %. %0. and ice avalanches.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. $hen visibility is poor. %.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. %. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. o$ard the end of the summer. b. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. icefalls.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. %. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous.%. %. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased.

his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. %. criss(crossed $ith crevasses. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse.in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.1. .:(01*.:(0'*. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure . Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Figure )*-.

%'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. o locate the positions.4. the remaining members go into team arrest. If the team members need to assemble in one area. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person.Figure )*-. If four people are on a team. assess the situation. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. use the -rusik to belay each other in. ie in to the bights and the ends. he simplest and most common . if three people are on a team.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. . double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired.

. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. A roped team of t$o. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. c. .method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed.:(07*. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. he best combination is a three(man rope team. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. halting the fall. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure .ope& :o2ement. $hile ideal for rock climbing. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. their security being the team arrest. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. 9enerally.

9reparations #or rope& mo2ement.Figure )*-.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. %0* . %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. $hether improvised or premanufactured. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness.* . he remaining 6thirds6 . %. <ecause of this. as for a four(person team.5. the rope should be divided into thirds. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes.

forming endless loops or slings. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. attached to the rucksack. $ith double fishermanUs knots. !hen .0(foot ropes. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness.ucksack. the chance of it failing is much greater. Securing the %ackpack. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. or carried over the head and shoulder. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. d. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations. If necessary. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. may be e"tremely difficult. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. <efore movement.. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. by itself. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . /o$ever. he ends of the ropes are tied together. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. &or safety reasons. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. if $arm clothing is needed. e. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue.

f. steep terminal or lateral moraines. %. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. they only supplement. and do not take the place of. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. heavily crevassed portions. Dpen crevasses are obvious. the sno$. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. . In this Aone. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. %. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. =arro$ cracks may be covered. large crevasses remain open. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. $hereas the glacier ice is gray.outes. the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. $hich covers glacier ice. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. Crossing Cre2asses. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier.* In the area of the firn line. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. and icefalls. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. /o$ever. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. connecting both sides of it. g.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. .hanging from the drop cord. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$.

%0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. h. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. its detection is difficult.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. . <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. and may form firmer bridges. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. If he is. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. and gradually turn into glacier ice. In such a situation. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. but difficult to detect in flat light. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. %. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. the team may proceed. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. a crevasse is probably present. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. Sno+ %ri&ges.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged.

until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. 2o not stamp the sno$. =umber t$o belays number three across. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. . i. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. Dnce the second is across. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. %c* he leader should move for$ard.: feet back from the edge. %1* In crossing crevasses. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. he assumes the belay position. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion.

he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. using the -rusik as a self belay. if the person $as almost across. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. =umber 1 must al$ays be . or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope. to anchor the rope. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. /o$ever. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so.%. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. % his scenario is for a team of three. the rope is al$ays kept taut. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position..

his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number .. Cre2asse . /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number .Us anchor. number . the procedure is the same e"cept that number . j. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. assumes the role of number 1. $ould anchor the rope by himself.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope.escue Techniques. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. close to number 0. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . onto the anchor. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. if the middle person should fall through. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. as a minimum. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. =ormally. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load.

In some situations. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . In order to reduce friction. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. such as an ice a". If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. . clips number 1Us rope to himself. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. =umber . %0* FiBe& . place padding. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. If the fallen climber is not injured. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. As the assisting team pulls. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . ski. %. thus relieving the strain on the sno$.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope.edge. on the edge of the ice.ope Teams. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues.ope. or backpackKrucksack.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. ski pole. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . If necessary.

it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. /o$ever. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. %&igure . he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome.6 of the long sling. Dther times. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible.person in the crevasse. %f* he procedure is repeated. or 6stirrup. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . to ascend the rope. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness.

a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse.. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. A pulley can be used here if available.:(04*. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. % his scenario is for a team of three. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . In actual field use. and they have decided to install the V rig. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . If additional rope teams are not immediately available. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. 9rusik ascen&ing technique.6 system. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system. Figure )*-. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue.6. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. to the anchor.::(pound load $ith this system. In theory. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope.support.

C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised .6 system. he system is no$ ready for another haul. H !ith the 61(to(. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. . %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage.

a crevasse is present. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. . Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis.7. poles.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse.Figure )*-. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. and so on.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. at least eight feet in length. a. =ormally.

d. probe again after digging. distance to be moved. Under these conditions. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . %. and e)isting installations. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. In deep soft sno$. the weather. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. If a dugout latrine is necessary. e. If a latrine area is needed. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. c. :ountain . build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. terrain. Cultiple tent sites can be connected.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. Air evacuation is preferred: however. At a minimum. $hich keeps tents closer together. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers.b. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. by 0 feet. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. ry to find a solid platform. Dccasionally $hile probing. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. therefore.* &or block construction. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. by . he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. tactical situation. 7t is.

&or a planned rescue. c. %. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay.evel 7 and . 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. . .escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations.* Assume command. medic%. Dne person.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. a. physician/s assistant.evel 777 supervising. b. . !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake.nsure that the C. and one person only. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. /o$ever. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. and maintain moderate body $armth. ho$ever. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose.2. resume victimUs breathing. . is overall in charge at all times. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. control serious bleeding. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. .sufficient. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. hey are.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a .

escue 6perations . possibility of falling rocks*. and terrain at hand. hanging glacier. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. or any other immediate haAard. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. T-$ . +peed is less important than correct action. . should be used for evacuation. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation.esist the urge for action. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample.If the victim is unconscious. 9!anning . avalanche run(out Aone. environmental haAard. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. . vehicle. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. a. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. continually monitor pulse. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. or a change in $eather.$SCE$. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. if available.

$hen. and the nature of their injuries. H Are additional personnel.b. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. he task must be identified. rescue.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. and ho$ the situation happened. tactical immediate*.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. routine. H . and evacuation. H -lan the action. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. H . H errain features and location of the casualties. $here. treatment. c. security. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. In planning a rescue. priority. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. $hy.* After identifying the task. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. d. he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. $hat. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. H actical situation. medical. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. Cake a realistic estimate of time available .

ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. and so on*. lo$ering lines. %c* !hen performing all rescues. the situation. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. tents. . Ca"imum use of secure. reliable trails or roads is essential. and the personnel and e#uipment available. bivouac sacks. blood pressure. and rescue belay points*. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital.* In estimating time available. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. Age and physical condition may vary. anchor points. $arm clothes. ropes. drugs started. sleeping bags. If the victim is airlifted out. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. hot food and drinks. e. !ith all rescue techni#ues. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. ime becomes the critical element. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. $alking trails. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. fi"ed lines.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. and stretchers. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. stove. pulse rate.

4 he logistics removal of dead personnel. e"treme cold. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.%1* . a.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning.ST ST7<$4 .=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. Specia! Training .=6. H F=.emove dead personnel. .=TD T-. available time is drastically reduced. or gusting $inds.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. . such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. H S$C63D ST7<$4 . b. separate stages are taken. H 9. H F6E. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential. . but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.=6.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.=TD F6E. H 9. .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance.ST7<$4 .T.=6. In high altitudes. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. H T-=.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.D ST7<$4 . %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations.=6.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. H 9.

saddleback. rough handling.* re#uires a '.ope Carry. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. piggyback. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. 6ne-:an Carries. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. four(hand. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated. it can be lost through carelessness.(. herefore. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. %. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. difficult terrain. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment.* S!ing-. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. t$o(hand. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. a. the best method of manual transportation is selected. pistol belt. or inade#uate protection from the elements. . he sling(rope carry %&igure ..

he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. %0* . %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) .K0( meter coiled rope.ope Coi! Carry.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. crosses the ends. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. . %a* -lace the casualty on his back. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. S!ing-rope carry. and back around to the front of the bearer. around the casualtyUs thighs. %f* he rope must be tight. Figure ))-). $hen available. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. -adding.

his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. . If this is not done. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. b. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer.appe!. In this case. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. pulling the casualty onto his back. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. %u&&y . the bearer carefully stands. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest.

%. %0* A '. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. across the carrierUs chest. from left to right. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. from right to left. he rope is run diagonally. and back under the victimUs left armpit. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. he victim straddles the carrier. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. from right to left. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice.0(meter sling rope is used. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. across the victimUs back. %7* he rope is run diagonally. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. . over his left shoulder. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks.

Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. $hich are se$n on one side. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. behind the neck. . It can be improvised $ith poles. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying.* he poleless. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. :anu#acture& 8itters. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. and then do$n along the other arm. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. easy to carry. and then routed up along the handling arm. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. he rope is folded in half. and e#uipment available. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. If the litter must be carried. over the shoulder. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. as described above. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation. nature of injuries. %. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. and then carried again. and readily available. depending on the terrain.%.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. on traverse lines. a. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. belayed. his litter may be used $hen rappelling.

.1. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters. .* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it.5. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. $hich is a potential breaking point. %+ee &C 5(.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue.

tent supports. such as a blanket. /o$ever. these objects should be padded. tarpaulin. sacks.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. bags. Figure ))-. a large item.. %. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. skis.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . ponchos. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim. ladders. cots.0.. A litter can be improvised from many different things. . shelter halves. If possible.(0):(. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. . -oles can be improvised from strong branches. the hood must be up and under the victim.6*-). $indo$ shutters. If a poncho is used. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. scoop stretchers. benches.. shirts. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. and other similar items. +uch objects include boards. and poles. b. %0* If poles cannot be found. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. or mattress covers. and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. jackets.(0*.. not dragging on the ground.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. doors.

%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . . starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. little material e"ists to construct litters. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. centimeters long. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing.ope !itter. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope. 3ote4 Above the tree line. Figure ))-1.(1*. . sleeping bags. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches.ach clove hitch should be about . It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ).7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete.. . empty bo"es. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. make a clove hitch over each bight.

%e!ay 7ssist. a. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends.(meter poles.escue Systems . ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available. 2o not remove the belay.7 centimeters. %. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. %7* -ull up on the rope. A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. and place a carabiner into the loop. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about . -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot.* &irst. . . %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. ake t$o . and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. After placing the clove hitches over the bights.

then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. attach the climbing rope from the belay device. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. %5* . and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. b. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. %e!ay $scape. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times.* After a climber has been injured. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. o improve this system.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. %7* . . %.

aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved.aising System. transferring the $eight to the anchor. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber.%)* . <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. backup safety -rusiks are used to . $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. belays. . >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. . rope(edge friction. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation.aising systems. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. %. . and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system.* . +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. $hich must be surmounted. In practice. %0* %e!ays. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. and other variables. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. are often encountered along the evacuation path. a. hand $inches.

the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform.safeguard the system. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. b. %. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. . Descen&ing S!opes.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. he litter is prepared as already described.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. taking care not to jar the casualty. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. if possible. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points.aising the 8itter. % his is the signalman or relay man. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion.( '*. . he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed.. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. %. c. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage.

practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. if used. good loading and unloading platforms. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. clearance for the casualty along the route.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . and anchor points for the A(frame.&escen&ing. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. %1* he most direct. b. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation . many different techni#ues can be used..Figure ))-4. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure .(7*: a. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best.

the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. Figure ))-5. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . c. C!i## e2acuation &escent. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. d.:1814 Inches . $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty.

7.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots .14 1. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but..) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. 18. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.1814 . If any indication of the location of the victim is found.. after two hours. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent.robability of survival drops rapidly and.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous. chances of survival are remote.05. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. .14 .:105. .. random probing starts in that vicinity. <enera! 9roce&ures .:81) . if a member of your group is in an avalanche.)0.

Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. hats. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. several factors influence the bodyUs location. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. A human body. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. . >sing this and any other information.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. make an initial probe search in that area. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. >nless other$ise indicated. goggles. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. poles. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. Book for skis. if enough personnel are available. and mark all clues. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. . start the coarse probe at the deposition area. urbulence. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. boots. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. b. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid..esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. gloves. packs.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. terrain. . ice a"es. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. If using avalanche beacons. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. usually the toe of the slide. a.

An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. a. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. Conversely. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. • Vegetation. .: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole.fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . Although this type of pole . especially in a high $ind. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. rocks. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. and other obstacles act as snares. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. 9ro e 9o!es. although they may operate differently in the search mode. the greater $ill be his burial depth. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. • . In the case of large and violent avalanches. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. Cany models of transceivers are available. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. All currently available transceivers are compatible.

probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. he probe is left in contact and the line continues."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. c. As evidenced by their names. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. $enty per line is satisfactory. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. b. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. . o ensure systematic and orderly probing.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. coarse probing implies a . $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. he only sure check is by digging. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. %.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole.* . &or the probing operation to be effective. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. 9ro ing Techniques. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %. 9ro ing 8ines.performs best. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. the number of personnel per line should be limited. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. %0* If no probing poles are available. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made.

Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated..!A. a . A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace.D<. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. $ith feet about .* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.2.&D. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: .D<. +trict discipline and firm.7 inches apart. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. he probers themselves $ork silently. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.6 <y using these commands.::(percent chance of locating the body. &ine probing is the concluding measure.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. $hile the fine probe has. $hich almost guarantees finding the body. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander.. clear commands are essential for efficient probing. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string.. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.6 6>. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass. essentially. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -.6 6+ .-. %.

-.6 6+ .%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.ach man probes in front of his left foot. foot. foot and repeats the probing se#uence.6 6C..D<.6 6>. the line advances . %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.D<.. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.-.= . then in the center of his straddled position.. %b* Dn command.D<. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.&D.D<.6 6>. . .. and finally in front of his right foot. $hich is then moved ahead .6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe...6 6.: inches from the adjacent one.I9/ -.& -.2.D<.. .D<.-..6 6>.-.!A. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.ach probe is made .

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