Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

/o$ever. + .. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.etrace /. a... Checkpoints. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. ..1*..epeat + .eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.. .'.1. 2ress the knot do$n.+ . %. . + . b.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.0..* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses. Figure-$ight . + . It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. Tying the Knot. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. by tying the knot in a retrace. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith.. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. Figure 4-).

. + .emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n.+ . Figure-eight retrace.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side.7. !ith the $orking end. he finished knot is dressed loosely.. + .'. Checkpoints %...). forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. . + . leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.1. + . b. ake the $orking end around the anchor point. $rap the $orking end around the standing part.. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse. . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. and route the $orking end through the loop.0. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. Figure 4-)1.

Tying the Knot. depending on ho$ it is tied. /old the standing end in the left hand..0.* Middle of the Rope. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. !ith the right hand. %0* End of the Rope. + ... he knot is tied. a. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. %.'.. reach under the horiAontal anchor. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right.0.. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.1. + . /old the loop in the left hand. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. + . + . + ..'*. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. /old rope in both hands... .%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. and bring it in$ard. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. palms do$n $ith hands together. grasp the $orking end. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. + .

Checkpoints. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. b. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other... + . C!o2e hitch. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. Figure 4-)4. Tying the Knot. !ith the right hand. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. + . .. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.'. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar.. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. It is a middle rope knot. !hen tying this knot. %. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. 2ress do$n the knot.+ .7*. ake up the slack from the anchor..1. a.

b.5.0. + . +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. + . Checkpoints. + . +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop.. + .. + .. (ireman’s knot. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel..'... and place it over the heel $rap. and fingertip.4. + . A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. .). +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.. palm. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot.8.+ .1. Figure 4-)5. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger..7. + .

!hen dressing the knot do$n. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. + .0.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. !ith the $rap thus formed. a. + .. . It is a middle rope knot...1. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single.'.. Tying the Knot. the tail and the bight must be together. + . it lays in$ard. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. + .. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. Cake one $rap around the palm..)*.%.

%o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( .Figure 4-)6. b. %0* he tail and bight must be together. %.4*. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. Directiona! #igure-eight. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. . It is a middle rope knot. Checkpoints.

A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. Tying the Knot. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip.7. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. + . + . 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.. + . follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. + . 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.)..1. + ..4.0. + ... &rom the end %ape"* of the bight. + . -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n..a.. forming t$o loops.. .'. ie an overhand knot on a bight.

5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left... a. Tying the Knot. . form an .5. b. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %.. + . Checkpoints.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip. %o+!ine-on-a.Figure 4-)7. T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.* It is a middle rope knot. >sing a doubled rope. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight.ight.

/old the bight $ith the left hand. + . Tying the Knot. 2ress the knot do$n.. Figure 4-)". %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot.. a. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. !ith the $orking end. Checkpoints. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.0. b. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. %.+ . . + .8*. It is a middle of the rope knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand..7. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.. + .'. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.1. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot.

It is a specialty knot. Figure-eight !oop. Checkpoints.. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. + . Tying the Knot.1.* he loop is the desired siAe. 2ress the knot tightly.. b. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. %. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. + .. . a... %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.+ . %1* he knot is tightly dressed.0. form a loop in rope %standing part*. Figure 4-)'. !ith the bight as the $orking end.

.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.. forming a bight... and place it over the long rope.1. + . 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.*.*. $ith the $orking ends even.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik...0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. + . he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:.*: + .1.0.. + . >sing an arm3s length of rope..0.. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is . .each do$n through the . . + ..%. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.0(inch bight. Figure 4-. . 2ouble the short rope. + .

2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.. and not t$isted. + .nsure they are tight. %. . + . It is a specialty knot.+ . Figure 4-.). $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. Checkpoints. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. parallel. Bay the $orking end under the long rope... + .4. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.'. b.). %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. .7. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik..

0. %achman knot. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. b. Figure 4-.. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints.1. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %.a.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender... %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . + . %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing... + . + .

.. /olding the bight loosely..). >sing the standing part. .nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. b. + . place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder.'. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end.. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. + . $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. single coil.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*.* A minimum of four $raps. bring a bight up through the loop. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. tie an overhand around all coils.. he running end is to the back of the body. + . %. not crossed. hen. he standing portion is on the bottom. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.. + .1. Checkpoints. a.4. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. It is a specialty knot..0. + . Tying the Knot. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. + . 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.7. + .. !ith the running end..

Tying the Knot. It is a specialty knot. !ith the right hand. a.Figure 4-. + .1. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts.. ..0. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!..1. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.. + . reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system.. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. Bay the loops to the right. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. + .. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.'. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. + .

.. a. %. Three-!oop o+!ine. &orm a . Tying the Knot. Figure 4-.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. . %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts...* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. It is a specialty knot. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.+ . Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.4.7. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. + . b. Checkpoints.

%1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. + ..7. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. %. + ...).5. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n..:u!e Knot0 . -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .0 inches up the rope. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.1. b. Figure-eight s!ip knot. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. + .each through the bight and grasp the long.+ . Checkpoints.0.'. .* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.. + . Figure 4-. standing end of the rope.

Figure 4-. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. K!eimhiest Knot .. + .. %. + .. Tying the Knot.6.0 inches long. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.. Transport knot. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.0. + . It is simply an overhand slip knot. a. %1* he bight is a minimum of .* here is a single overhand slip knot. Check 9oints. b.. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.1.

!rap at least four complete turns. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope.'. pass them through the bight %see + .0. + .0 inches... It is a special( purpose knot. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.. + . Tying the Knot. !ith the ends offset. + .. + .7. find the center of the rope and form a bight. easily adjustable.1.*. a.. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . + .. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. .. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .

. Checkpoints... + . %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. . Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*. b. %..* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. %0* All $raps are tight and touching.Figure 4-.: to .7. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . + . a. It is a special(purpose knot. Tying the Knot.0. K!eimhiest knot.0 inches.

Tying the Knot. + . Frost knot.. <irth hitch. Checkpoints. b. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. b. It is a special(purpose knot. %. a. %. + .'.. Figure 4-.Figure 4-.. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot.".* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.: &orm a bight. + .1: Cinch the knot tightly. :unter -itch .. Checkpoint.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.

. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*.he munter hitch. + . /old the rope in both hands. palms do$n about . /old the loop $ith the left hand. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. b. %.. !ith the right hand. Check 9oints. %0* he carabiner is locked. Bock the locking mechanism. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope..* A bight passes through the carabiner. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner.0 inches apart. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.1.. . Tying the Knot.0.'. a. !ith the right hand... + . + . + .

-ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.. It usually re#uires a sling rope ..1. + .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. a. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. :unter hitch.Figure 4-1*. Tying the Knot. .. . + ..*. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight.'.appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.. + . + . . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.0.' feet or longer.. ensuring they do not cross. thus creating a loop around the $aist.

tightening the seat. + .).* here are t$o overhand knots in the front. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.4.appe! seat. &rom rear to front. Check 9oints.+ . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots.. . %. . + .. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. -ull up on the ropes. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers.7. Figure 4-1).. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. b.

he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. preferably ovals*. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. .. + .0. + . -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*.. Tying the Knot. a.

<uar&e knot. rope can only be pulled in one direction.* !hen properly dressed. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once . Check 9oints. Although mountain operations have not changed. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. %. b. several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities.Figure 4-1. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load..

).A2DC. &ort <enning. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. Inclement $eather. both men and $omen are included. evacuation. and training.<D.+.).mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. ice climbing. Countain Dperations. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. Army Infantry +chool. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning. illness and injury. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*. anchors. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II.). for training %see Appendi" A*. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. he proponent of this publication is /F . his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build.8:7(7781. and urban vertical environments. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. >.ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. e#uipment. >nless other$ise stated. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts. glaciers. movement on glaciers. ho$ever. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. 9A 1. $henever the masculine gender is used. A =: A +/(. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. sno$(covered mountains. and actions. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings.unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. Weather and terrain combine to challenge . rock climbing.

which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. and $ell(led troops. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Df the appro"imately 0. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. sno$fields. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather. rehearsals. single ridges. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. Spring storms. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees.::: kno$n minerals. surprise. conditioning. compartments. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. AcclimatiAation. glaciers.

and de$. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. d. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. After a rain. ne$ sno$. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. Bimestone has pockets. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0.ockfall danger is high. ho$ever. dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay."cept for calcite. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. <ranite. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. granite dries #uickly. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. conglomerate type stones may be loose. . Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. San&stone. face climbing. S!ate an& <neiss. use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. and it is usually difficult to protect. &ace climbing can be found. After long. b. found in limestone.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. e. f. <rassy S!opes. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. and cracks. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced. Cha!k an& 8imestone. . +topping a slide on small. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. . . Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. c.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards. a. it cannot be protected. &ace climbing is possible. . but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult.

Ascending scree is a tedious task.ocks. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. a. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. . he magma may move up$ard. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. h. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. but smaller than boulders.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". /o$ever. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". Ta!us.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. propelled by its o$n lo$er density. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising . Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. . under pressure. if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. his results in an intrusive rock.ocks. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. %. =gneous .ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". or. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface. !hen the cooling occurs at depth. g. and over time. If possible. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. Scree. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. internal heat. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. avoid scree $hen ascending.ock C!assi#ications .

%0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld. or clusters of segregated minerals. Fuieter eruptions. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. $hich cut across the strata. %1* Cointing . this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged. .6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe. . $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks.ocks."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. +ierras. forced bet$een sedimentary strata. Dccasionally. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates.ockies. =orth Cascades. $hen a ledge suddenly ends.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family. Adirondacks. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads. herefore.and crystalliAing. produce basalt. and dikes. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. it is called 6tuff. Barge %.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. In plutonic rocks. In the Alps.ocks. .6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted.

$hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement.b. only slightly altering the sediments. or oceans. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. In fact. %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. but cleavage or foliation. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys.ocks. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. hese changes may be minimal. and limestone to marble. c. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. $hich offers .* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. Se&imentary . +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains. %. %. After sediments are solidified. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. +hale changes to slate or schist. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. :etamorphic . !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites. <ecause of this cleavage.ocks.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. As sediments accumulate. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. lakes. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. especially in limestone. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite. he Canadian .

and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. forming fault(block mountain ranges. . and to pull apart and crack. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. =evada. and heavier. e"posing the central igneous core. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. a. ocean trenches. the Dlympics of !ashington. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. and the /igh >intahs of >tah. granitic continental crust. 9!ate Tectonics. and mountain ridge systems. often accompanies up$arp.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. volcanoes. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. he breakage e"tends . :ountain Structure. $hich results in fault(block mountains. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. . and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. %. &aulting.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers.$orld class climbing. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. b. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates.* Dome :ountains. $hich also provides solid climbing. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. heaving up fold mountains.

to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. he best kno$n is the 6. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. ho$ever. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. Core often. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. 9eologists call folds geosynclines.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. %'* Ao!canic :ountains. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. %1* Fo!& :ountains. $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. ectonic forces. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains. it is faulted on one side of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . central core is all that remains. $hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. the oldest. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps.

south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. there are folds measured by a rope length. !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. the Caucasus region. %7* Comp!eB :ountains. In addition. . A mountain front may be formed from a single fault. a. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. Asian arc. and the Cediterranean."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic .do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. he I2+ classes are: . these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded. domed. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain.ift Valley of . and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. . and have the skills to accomplish the plan.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever.idge. often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. and the . and faulted.

H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure. often combined $ith small belay points. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced.* Class 7. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. hree points of contact are necessary. H Class 1—Climbing.* b. /igh physical conditioning. %)* Class 7. %4* Class 7. . /ands are necessary to support balance.)—Cedium difficulty. H Class '—<elayed climbing."posed positions.7—Coderate difficulty. climbing techni#ue.4—9reat difficulty. %1* Class 7. . % his is moderate to difficult scrambling.5—Very great difficulty.—/iking trail. .H Class . Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. belay and emplace intermediate protection. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.'—Bittle difficulty. and e"perience re#uired. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue."traordinary difficulty. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions.:(7.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. %'* Class 7. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. $hich may have some e"posure. %7* Class 7."tremely great difficulty. his is the simplest form of free climbing. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition.8—.:—.. %0* Class 7. Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training.

and d categories starting from 7. b. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs. 7. re#uiring more climbing ability.: to 7.* A:—M&rench(free. c. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7. Additional classifications include the follo$ing.asy aid. %0* A.. e"perience. %&or e"ample. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6..6 indicates periods of run(out $here. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out..5. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing. and energy e"penditure.6 or 6L.'—9reater increases of difficulty.* Classes are further divided into a. %. if a fall $as e"perienced. %5* Class 7. Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. 7. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. c. ground fall $ould occur.6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area.. in a classification of 7. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars.:d*.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area. .—. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling.. d...8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route.' %for e"ample. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable.(7. the 6.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.5J*.

K0 days %usually not less than 7.5*. e.%1* A0—Coderate aid. VI — 9reater than 0 days. /o$ever."treme aid. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. hese falls. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %4* A)—. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard. If the leader falls. >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. All protection is sketchy at best. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. ho$ever. such as A1J or A1(. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. II — /alf of a day. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. %7* A'—+erious aid. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. V — . 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length.4*. . -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. III — About three(fourths of a day. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. . long fall potential does e"ist."tremely severe aid. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. %'* A1—/ard aid. %)* A7—. =o serious fall danger. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations.K0 to 0 . It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$.

7b 7.c 0a. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.c )a.a.a..b VIII . H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in . 'c 7.c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.b.1 IIIsup . sho$s a comparison of these systems.b.:a VII( .c VIII . 'b hard severe.0.c 7b.(.1 7. H <raAilian—<raAil uses .'a 'a. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates.'..5 VI( severe.c 7b. H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs. 'a severe.7 .0 7.8 IIsup . H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty..1.8 0: 0. hard severe.'a 1b.:c VII .1a 1b.. hard very 7.: 7..:d VIIJ .7b 7. Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems.1K.* moderate %CD2* .b..4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.7b 7...urope.).:b VII .K.. his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.b.c 'a.)a 7.f.b 7b.c .7b(7c 7. 7.c )a.c 7b.c 7b. III .)a 7.b.8 VI 7a 7.'a 1b.....)b .* easy %.4 ..c. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe...c.7 7.c )a. able .5 .:.b 0a. Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup . DDS Class .0...' 7.* easy %.) 7.c 7a.b. hard severe.c...'.a VIII( .b.b 0c...

. H V — A long climb in a remote setting. .)c 4a VIII 0) ..)K4.0b 7. all in a remote area. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. 2ifficult physically and mentally.7. easy climb near the road. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour. AI %alpine ice*.0a 7.ating systems.0d IL( IL IL ILJ . and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. %. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.7. g. and the route might be prone to avalanche.0c 7.)K4. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. H I — A short. .verything a grade VI has.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.. A difficult and involved approach and descent. $ith objective haAards ever(present..7. $ith sustained technical climbing.)c 4a VIIIsup 04 . possibly $ith a haAardous descent.atings.4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-).. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself. his route is subject to objective haAards. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in . H VII — ..)c 4a 05 . H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. -ossibly days to approach the climb. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance..oman numerals.* Commitment . and more of it. $ith little objective haAard. . he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*.)K4.7. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings.)K4. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.

he pitch may be shorter. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good. re#uiring agility and creativity.atings. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. erratic $eather. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. H .%0* Technica! . additional information may be needed about siAe. . H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. $ith places to rest. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. An e"tremely tough pitch. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. !hen planning mountain operations. physically and mentally. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. — A froAen lake or stream bed. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. H 7 — A long. possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. location. strenuous pitch. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. a. but on featureless ice. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection.

the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. if possible. H If lost. H 2o not rush. Co2er an& Concea!ment . and calm. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. c. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. stay $arm. and amounts of precipitation.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. dry. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. types. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack.b. the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. H ?eep $arm. but do not overdress. H ?eep dry. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. during severe mountain storms. put on dry clothing. %. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm.

ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. heavy vegetation. such as volcanic tuff. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. b. sno$. /o$ever. As in all operations. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. hail. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. Conversely. like observation. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. sleet. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. . are e"cellent at long ranges. and fog can limit visibility. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. /o$ever. dead space is a problem at short ranges. In other areas. . hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds.!hen moving in the mountains. are easily e"cavated. outcroppings. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. in depth. a. +ome rock types. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. boulders. rain. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. In alpine environments.

Conditions greatly change $ith altitude. a. If an une"pected $ind strikes. It varies from stormy $inds to calm. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. b. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality.:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. latitude. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. sno$ conditions. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. . especially in $inter. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. rainfall. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. . or a rise in temperature. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. and $eather factors. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast.

. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. At higher altitudes. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. such as those found in desert regions. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. b. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. he barometer usually drops 0. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. d. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. <ecause of this increased dryness. In tropical regions. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. (eather Characteristics . 2ue to the cold. +ome mountains. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. a.ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. drier air has a reduced molecular content and. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. conse#uently.c. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. the thinner. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard.

Associated $ith clear skies. !eather is a result of an atmosphere. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. he higher the pressure. ho$ it is being moved. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6.:.80 inches of mercury %hg* or . Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. the better the $eather $ill be. he higher in altitude. Bo$ pressure. oceans. In order to understand this. and if it is being lifted or not. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6.* -igh 9ressure. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. land masses.he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. the lo$er the pressure. b. humidity %moisture content*. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Associated $ith bad $eather. and the earth3s rotation. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps..::: feet. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. a. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. on the other .1 millibars %mb*. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. air pressure %barometric pressure*. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. !ith lo$er air pressure.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. %.

commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. >sually. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. . his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. !ith increasing $ind strength. or at high altitudes. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. =ormally. and sinks to the earth3s surface. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. b. Above hot surfaces. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. dense clouds fill the air. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit.hand. Dn a $eather map. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. a. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. c. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. <ecause of these funneling effects. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. c. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. 2uring the $inter season. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction.6 (in& In high mountains. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth.

but do not necessarily affect the $eather. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. there are three prevailing $inds: %. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. In the =orthern /emisphere. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east.d. . Caritime -olar — cold. f. Continental ropical — $arm.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. Caritime ropical — $arm. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. due to the earth3s rotation. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. $et air mass. g. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. e. dry air mass. $et air mass. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. dry air mass. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast. has settled to the surface.

sno$.%. If the air contains a great deal of $ater.. a.::: feet of elevation gained or lost.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds. . $ind meter. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds.:: percent relative humidity*. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. fog. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point.7 degrees &ahrenheit per . and thermometer. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit. clouds are formed. condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. rain.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . the more moisture it can hold.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. and so on*.. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. b. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. de$. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. the $armer the air. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen.:: percent relative humidity. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7.

6rographic 8i#ting.(0*. b. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. d. his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain.a. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. and . Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . a. An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. !hen temperatures are cold enough. . Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point.(. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. +ince air masses $ill not mi". Fronta! 8i#ting. it has no$here to go but up. Bo$(level clouds %: to ). Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. hey can be classified by height or appearance. mid(. Clouds can be described in many $ays.7:: feet. c. Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ). 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation.

.('*. %. 3im ostratus C!ou&s. Stratus C!ou&s.Figure )-). Figure )-1. Figure )-. Cumu!us C!ou&s.(1 and .* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . .

$hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. !ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky.Figure )-4. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. especially if the cloud is more than 1. Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een.::: feet . %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus.

* b. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds.::: feet* have a prefi" of alto. Cid(level clouds %bet$een ).(7 and . have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets.thick. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . Figure )-5. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Cold clouds. 7!tocumu!us. .7:: to 0:. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. especially if they are rising over time. Figure )-6.()*. though usually hours a$ay. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &. 7!tostratus. :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s.::: feet thick.

::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. Cirrus. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. humidity rises.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. !ith altostratus. and $inds become southerly or south easterly.(4 and &igure . produces a ring of light around the moon. As the storm approaches. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. c. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. in a blue sky. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure .(5*. emperatures are $arm. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. at night. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. . becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. Figure )-7. are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front.%.

Figure )-". d. %. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s. ?no$n for their flat bases and . signifying an increased production of ice crystals. hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick.* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. Cirrostratus. or seemingly all tangled together. hey can be nearly straight. .::: feet.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front.::: feet. shaped like a comma. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. releasing incredible amounts of energy. %. As a result. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals.

hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air.(8*. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms.distinct outlines. fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. large hail. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. and tornadoes. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations.vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. damaging $inds. an artifact of erosion. . 9iven suitable conditions. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. ho$ever. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. . As the air rises. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure . $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. >nder favorable conditions. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears.::: feet or higher. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. ice crystals dominate the composition.

similar to a 6flying saucer. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. 6ther C!ou& Types. and cools. and contrails. >pon reaching the mountain top. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes.(. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. Initially. stable air encounters a mountain. bad $eather can be e"pected. Dnce the air returns to its original height.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. lenticulars. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. is lifted up$ard. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. . !ith continued descent. If they gro$ and descend.:*. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. $arming as it descends. /o$ever. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height.Figure )-'. e. hey are orographic clouds. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. Cumu!onim us. %. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure .

C!ou& =nterpretation.Figure )-)*. 8inticu!ar.(. especially if the sky is . f.. Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate.*. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. Figure )-)). Contrai!s. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover.

A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. it becomes a stationary front.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. . !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. Co!& Front. cold. and nimbostratus. b. occluded. (arm Front. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. Dccasionally. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts. cumulus. nimbostratus %producing rain*. c. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. being more dense than $arm air. he four types of fronts are $arm. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. Cold air. to the local sky. cirrostratus. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion.covered $ith cumulus clouds. altostratus. 6cc!u&e& Front. it is a $arm occlusion. d. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. Stationary Front. and fog. and stationary.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. cirrostratus. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. a. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. $ill force the $arm air up. <ecause $arm air is less dense. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. there . A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass.

and precipitation*. . higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. At high altitudes. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. fog. Conse#uently. and heat loss through thermal radiation. An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. <esides permitting rapid heating.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. Temperature =ormally. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness. clear. his cooler. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. the temperature of the air drops typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night.. the temperature of the air drops 1. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. and mid(latitudes. b.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. calm mornings..::: feet of elevation gain. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes.. subarctic. due to convection currents. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. sno$. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . a. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley.::: feet of elevation gain.

!eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast.* 9ersistence :etho&. the amount of data available.c. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. if today $as hot and dry. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %. b. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience.. or the =ational !eather <ureau. o be effective. are also helpful. >+=. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude. thermometer. temperature. . herefore. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . . but more slo$ly %1. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. a. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. $ind meter. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. including >+A&.

and clouds and precipitation.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. this may not al$ays be the case.* If an anemometer is available. /o$ever. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years.%0* Tren&s :etho&. bushes. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. (in& Spee&. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. and so forth. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. . Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. Assess $ind speed in knots. &or e"ample. such as trees. b. %. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. %'* 7na!og :etho&. %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. c. high( and lo$(pressure centers. a. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. under changing conditions. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. . Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. %0* If no anemometer is available. Aisi i!ity in :eters. are blo$ing. Ideally. assess speed to the nearest knot. tents. estimate the speed in knots. (in& Direction. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts.

Count the sections $ith cloud cover. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. . heavy do$npours. If clouds are not touching terrain. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. Cei!ing -eight. =ote if bases are above all terrain.5 J 10 P '. then estimate to the best of your ability. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . &og. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. . $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths. 7 degrees C " . %. 9resent (eather. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning..ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. hail. haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. $Bamp!e4 '. he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon. o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. Temperature.. g. total cloud cover is 'K5.77 P 7 degrees C.* !ith a thermometer. degrees &. . %&or e"ample.d. Assess total cloud cover in eighths.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.77. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft. degrees & Q 10 " . e. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm.5 times C plus 10.* f. colder temperatures. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots.

%0* !ithout a thermometer. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. i. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. Changes in obstructions to visibility. Carked $ind speed increases. Increasing cloud coverage. 9ressure Tren&. . !ith a barometer or altimeter. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. as $ell as an estimated temperature. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. assess the pressure trend. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. %. he closer the isometric lines are.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. h. 6 ser2e& (eather. %. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. Increase in precipitation. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise. Carked cooler temperature changes. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain. Carked increase in humidity.

and poor judgment. or as a combination %human trigger*. overe"ertion. man(made %caused by an individual. and flooding %especially in gullies*. or e"cessive use. overestimating ability. Fa!!ing. carelessness. $ind. or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. If the possibility of falling e"ists. choice of route. tour. Ep&ate. /umidity decreases. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. over(fatigue.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. e#uipment misuse*. j. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample. c. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. rope in. such as lack of preparation. climbing above one3s ability. a. improper diet. a hold breaking a$ay. %i2ouac Site. companions. $quipment. Increasing barometric pressure. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . dehydration. lightning. or other reasons. age.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. . bad $eather. avalanche run(out Aones. &alling can be caused by carelessness. b. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. heavy e#uipment.

Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. storms. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness. e. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. 72a!anches. .ock#a!!.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches.7:: feet*. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. d. Aisi i!ity. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs.* f. icefalls.: kilograms %about 0. and debris are channeled do$n gullies. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. and so on.ock. As this slope increases .::: pounds*. <u!!ies. If you must cross these danger areas.efer to paragraph . a. endurance and concentration is reduced. If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. At high altitudes %especially over ). acclimatiAe slo$ly. it is best to rope up. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. c. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. b. . <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. lightning. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. sno$. 7!titu&e. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. stay hydrated. Avoid."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. +leep $ell. g. If you must move under these conditions. If ice is in the gully. if at all possible. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. rockfalls. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass. rain. >se a route sketch and march table. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. %. hanging glaciers and seracs. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. Cre2asses. climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. darkness. &og.

"treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. b. (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . the force #uadruples. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. and a bluish light %+t. c. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. haAardous icefalls can be formed. e. a. hair standing on end. ridges. A clear. d. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. and rock needles. caves*. Above appro"imately 5. . sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. cracks that guide $ater. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. Bightning is fre#uent. fi"ed $ire installations.: kilometers apart. as a glacier makes a bend. Air is dryer at higher altitudes. shallo$ overhangs. cracks filled $ith earth. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. isolated trees.from 07 to 1: degrees. %. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. humming of metal objects. +eek shelter around dry. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. but dehydration is of greater concern. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. . shallo$ depressions.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. rock $alls. herefore.::: feet. crackling. Bike$ise. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. violent.* Avoid peaks. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. .

/igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. If already rappelling. $indburn. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly.5 inches@ ho$ever. 2rink plenty of fluids.::(meter rise in altitude. even if overcast. f.0 to . i."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys. $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring.* . <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist.%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. If half $ay up the rock face. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. j. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. g. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. If it is sno$ing. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. &or each . >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . h. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. . his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. $hich may bury the trail. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. the sno$ #uickly melts. and sno$. 2uring and after rain. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor. and debris being blo$n about. especially $hen combined $ith $ind. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. rain. % able .

S!ope Sta i!ity. but may occur on concave slopes. +lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep.Ta !e )-. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. +lopes as gentle as . %. %1* S!ope 7spect. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter. a. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist..* S!ope 7ng!e.7 degrees have avalanched.

-assing helicopters.* Temperature. %1* (in&. . e"plosions. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. %'* (eight. . the sno$ pack has little to anchor to. c. +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. Dn grassy slopes or scree.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. $arm days. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. %'* <roun& Co2er. b. +ustained $inds of . %. Triggers.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. %0* 9recipitation. heavy e#uipment. At temperatures above freeAing. the potential for avalanche is high. Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. Sno+ 9its. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. %Dn at least one occasion. About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm.sunny. %. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important. %7* Ai ration. Various factors trigger avalanches. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early.7 centimeters per hour or greater*.

o isolate the rear of the column.utschblock test. smooth the face $ith a shovel. s#uat once.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. %. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. =e"t. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. Dnce the pit is complete. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. to the ground. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. If the block is still holding up.6 Although they happen most fre#uently . here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column.pit across the fall line. o conduct the test. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. Dnce above. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. place the other foot on the block. then t$ice. place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. through all the sno$. and so on. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. %1* Conduct a . isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. d.

he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. a drop in temperature of . Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. Barge avalanches of this type.during the $inter sno$ season. 9rotecti2e :easures. Dther measures include: . Although any avalanche can kill you. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. . lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. %b* As slabs become harder.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. settled sno$.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm. d. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes.: degrees Celsius %. &or normal density. slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches. he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. +lab release is rapid. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$.

Iour pack can act as a flotation device. f.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. climb to the side of the avalanche path. $hich is al$ays the best choice. ridges. far from the bottom of slopes.* 9ersona! Sa#ety. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. and not directly up the center. 2eploy avalanche cord. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday. %. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. e.%. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. -ut your hood on. If you must traverse. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer.oute Se!ection. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. . avoid moving during these periods. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. -repare to discard e#uipment. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. as $ell as protect your spine. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. %0* <roup Sa#ety. %. . >se them for lunch and rest stops. . %1* ake advantage of dense timber.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps.

hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. their pulse rate declines. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. Sur2i2a!. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. and the body temperature is lo$ered. hold your breath.. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. do not fight it. %1* If your head goes under the sno$.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. If you feel your feet touch the ground. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface. If you feel yourself about to pass out. %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried.%0* Fracture 8ines. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. g. shut your mouth.* 2iscard e#uipment. %1* Soun&s. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. %.* :ountain 8i2ing . no one can hear you scream. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. BI&. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. . 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen. ID>. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. they $ould avoid the avalanche. &I9/ &D. %)* ry to rela". he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$.

shelter considerations. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. &luids lost through respiration. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. raining should include: psychological preparation. /yperventilation and the cool. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. health haAards. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. communications. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. locating $ater. he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources.(4)*. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. a. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. fire building.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. #ormal activities $navigation. perspiration. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. or the . Dne #uart of $ater.

Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. rain. severe cramping may result. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply. and a loss of . Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly. +no$. mountain streams. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. thirst should be satisfied in increments. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. springs.e#uivalent. . Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. . should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. juices. physical activity must be reduced.0 #uarts %. If the $ater supply is insufficient. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed. -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. d. e.ven $hen $ater is plentiful. ho$ever. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. c.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. -urification must be accomplished. b. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for .7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent. &ruits. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. Conserve $ater for drinking. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply.

In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . assembly area. f. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. !ater is scarce above the timberline. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. If possible.'."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste . !ater that is unfit to drink. After sundo$n. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater.::: feet*. a.(4)*. . he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. precautions must be taken. defense*.drinking $ater. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition. b. a $atering party should be employed. high mountain areas freeAe. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. but other$ise not dangerous. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits.

%0* Fats. . Although there is no physiological need for hot food. vegetables.* 9rotein. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body.of cold rations. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. eggs. Dther foods such as cereals. butter.7'(pound man. he amino acids. or milk proteins. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy. amino acids. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. and loss of appetite. energy. fiber. %. regardless of physical activity. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. fish. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. and carbohydrates. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. is 5 ounces for a . Cain sources of fats are meats. milk. eggs. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. vitamins. and minerals. cheese. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. and meats. consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion. hese food components provide energy. resulting from digestion of protein. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. poultry. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. Df the total daily caloric intake. metabolic changes. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. nuts. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. fats. c. and legumes also provide amino acids. and cheese. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. milk.

the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. and fruit. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. .ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier .: days. vegetables. vitamin supplements should be considered. %. %7* Cinerals. phosphorous. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. . he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. vegetables.. and ?. especially if this period is to e"ceed . %'* Aitamins. depending on the soldier. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver. In the form of glucose.%1* Car ohy&rates. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use. =utritionally. he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. iron. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. 2. a balanced diet is a necessity. fruits. fruits*. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . vegetables.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. and meats. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. . and Ainc. $hich are found in cereals.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. d. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest.

7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1. marked. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often.s $ith breakfast bars. Carbohydrates. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation.. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. and hot chocolate are diuretics. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups.. herefore. . candies. juices. tea. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. fires. /ot beverages of soup."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. the cooking time may be doubled.$orks. fruits. !hen cooking. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. stoves.7:: calories for garrison activity. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. >se stoves and heat . %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. and cider should also be considered. and be eaten hot or cold. and illness. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a .::(pound man*. %1* . Commanders may consider supplementing C. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C. +ince coffee. . juices. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. o conserve fuel. %About '. shortness of breath. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. metal containers. At higher elevations. are important in maintaining energy levels. thus releasing heat. po$dered milk. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. cereal bars. and chocolate. he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. cramps.

the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. nose. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. and eyelids. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. a. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. 9ersona! -ygiene. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. If possible. herefore. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. As all missions are tactical. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. +unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. alcohol. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. %7* Certain drugs. garbage should be burned or deep buried. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks. and burial sites. no trace of a unit should be detected.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. his is especially important in the high mountains. !hen operating in areas . his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. %. and judgment of soldiers. perspiration. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. ahkios. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. hydration. In freeAing $eather. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. mainly during periods of cold $eather. medications. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period.

each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. blisters. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. If latrines are constructed. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. dried. In tactical situations. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes. and discoloration. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. and kept as dry and clean as possible. $hich may cause blisters. In rocky or froAen ground. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles. &eet should be $ashed daily. Sanitation. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. !henever changing socks. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. the soldier in a designated. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. cracks.$here resupply is not possible. digging latrines is usually difficult. but must be #uickly dried. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. If laundering of clothing is difficult.6 +ince $aste freeAes. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. b. it can . +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged.

'. Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes.'.::: to .'. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain .4.*. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations. $here altitude illness is the rule. and training of soldiers.5. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond .::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. . Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7. starting at about 5.::: feet. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore. he e"pectation that freshly deployed.::: feet.::: to .::: feet and ending at . most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary.::: feet.::: feet %high elevation*. /o$ever. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen.::: to 5. Very high altitude is the region from . /ere. Areas above .5. some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations.::: to 5. Coderate altitude is from covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. At these altitudes. Altitude illness is common here. employment of the local population may be advantageous.::: feet.*. conditioning. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. In rocky areas above the timberline. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. Above 5. $aste may be covered $ith stones. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-.::: feet.

apid ascent to . only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation.4. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude.'. Boss of appetite. . +lurred speech.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms.apid ascent to elevations of .::: to . 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. b. a. Increased irritability in some individuals. . operational unit. nutrition and physical activity it is about .0 to .::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. the rate of ascent. +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks.::: feet*. he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude.'.:.5 percent may have severe symptoms. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months.7:: feet causes severe. +leep disturbances. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).apid ascent to . . Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated. Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ).::: feet.0. 2eterioration of memory. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations. Irregular breathing. /eadache.

!hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. >. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain.+. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • .::: feet for at least 0' hours*. a.+. and enemy situation. As $ith all military operations.. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions.unacclimatiAed personnel. herefore. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. environment.+. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . -riorities of training must be established.

these drugs are diuretics. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. food. $ith the unit. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation.. >nits can leapfrog. $ater purification supplies.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater.::: to 0. !ater. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+.* Above 5. . deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. c.::: feet. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. and. time to ac#uire $ater. a unit should ascend at a rate of . and rest must be considered as priorities. mission. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. if in a $inter environment.::: feet per day. Additionally. taking an e"tended rest period. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party.

his conditions the back and legs. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. f.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. climbing. e. he better the physical condition of the soldier. his increases the soldier3s endurance. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion.egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. At the same time. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. and calisthenics. A different group of muscles are used. raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions. . A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. d. $hile carrying D. . the soldier3s . the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. $hich must be developed and hardened. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. and special e#uipment loads. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. the metabolism becomes more efficient. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease.

-hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. he heart rate. personnel can still become injured %sprains. back. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. . . there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development. As $ith any other injuries. frostbite. arms.epetitive practice. to the point of instinctive reaction. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. fractures. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. After acclimatiAation. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. conditioning. metabolism. lungs. and trench foot*. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. g. strains. strains. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control. >pon deploying to high elevations. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills.capacity for e"ertion is increased. and circulatory support. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. abrasions. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. hese include sprains. abdomen. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. hypothermia. :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. legs. contusions and fractures. breathing management. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. .

burning.7::. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods.:: and . bandage. and seek medical attention. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. 2o not pop blisters. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. %1* o treat sunburn. and headaches may occur. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. Sun urn. he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. %. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. . he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. Immediate first aid is given on site. fever. he skin may be $arm to the touch. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen. In severe cases chills. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. a.. If blisters do break. 2ue to rough terrain. $ash thoroughly. he .Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather.* Contributing factors include fair skin. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather.

>ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. an +-& of . red. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. . b. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain. -roper sunglasses should provide .7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. %Currently. If still painful. he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. the >. +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. Avoid rubbing the eyes.+. %1* o treat sno$blindness. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T .* In an emergency. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . Sno+ !in&ness. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. Administer pain medication if needed.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. ice. and $ater. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache.* 2uring sustained activity. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe. %'* o prevent sunburn. %. %&or e"ample.

: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. +imple tasks take longer to perform.*. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. and fight in $inter conditions. rest. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. b. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. and nutrition. dehydration.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. personnel. /o$ever. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as . Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. . +oldiers must be prepared to survive. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. dissemination. All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite.0. move. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater. but freeAing temperatures are not. and immersion foot. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results. a.

Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. %'* 7m ient Temperature. &or e"ample.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased .Figure . %1* <eographic 6rigin. -ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. %0* . he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. %. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. (in& chi!! chart. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor.ace. c.-). If a soldier has had a cold injury before.

in mind.danger Aone or beyond. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and.6. ?eep dry. issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. 6—Dverheating. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries.8. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. therefore.D. accumulation of perspiration. %4* Terrain. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection. he lo$er the $ind chill. D—2ry. • • • . he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less. %5* C!othing. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. %)* Type o# :ission. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. Avoid overheating. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. !et clothing loses insulation value.

%. %. %. In cold $eather the human body needs special care.* 7ge. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. age is not a significant factor. .a&ica! Changes in the (eather. he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration.1* Concomitant =n>ury. Individuals must retain their body fluids. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. %. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration.7* 3utrition.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. %. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken. d.. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. $hich in turn can accelerate shock. especially in higher elevations.:* Dehy&ration. %. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day.0* Fatigue. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. %.%8* :oisture. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.4* . . !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*. !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. %. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et.

his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. <ody heat may be lost through radiation. -erform emergency first aid. f. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*.* . he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition. . %0* Con&uction. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. e. %. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat.%.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. or evaporation. Dn cold days. convection. . and careful. reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. conduction. deliberate.a&iation.

!et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. g. s$eating. insulates. Any illness or injury can produce shock. unconsciousness. %.levate the back and head. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. administer $ater. %b* 'reatment. fear. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. and loss of blood. o treat shock. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin. . If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. . Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. %'* $2aporation. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. rapid and faint pulse. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. cold skin. his condition may digress into incoherence.* Shock. and e"cessive thirst. pain. his is usually caused by . Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. shortness of breath. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. !ind chill is convection cooling. or feet. %0* Dehy&ration. slo$er heart beat. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries. %a* Symptoms. Clothing that ventilates.%1* Con2ection. and possibly death.

this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . and unconsciousness. the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. tiredness. upset stomach. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. headache. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. rapid heartbeat. hey may. o distinguish bet$een them. higher temperature. %a* Contributing +actors. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. /o$ever. he is probably dehydrated. lack of appetite. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. diAAiness. Cold causes fre#uent urination. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. fainting. the air is dry. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. dry mouth. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. mental sluggishness. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. At high altitudes. If the stomach is cold. decreased amounts of urine being produced. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. %b* Symptoms. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. in fact.

/ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. In advanced cases. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. %c* 'reatment. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. Accidental immersion in $ater. 2iarrhea.dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. %a* Contributing +actors. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. Change in $eather. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. %1* -ypothermia. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. . -oor nutrition. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. Allo$ the victim to rest. /igh $inds. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. 2ecreased physical activity.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

$armth. If untreated. &urosemide %Basi"*. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures.::: to 0. hydration.::: feet of altitude gained. may become irreversible and cause death. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion.. decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. /A-. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth.• -rogressive shortness of breath. • • d. is prevented by good nutrition. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment. e. is planned for every 1. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . if left untreated. $hich is a diuretic. Crackling.est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. /A-. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions.0: to . rapid heartbeat %pulse . given orally can also be effective. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. • • • . his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*. rest. and death results. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. >nconsciousness. using mannitol could be fatal. reatment of /A-.::: to 1. are prone to second attacks. A rest day. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*.):*. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles. /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient. . and o"ygen.

include mild personality changes. and /AC. -revention of /AC. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain.. . -reventive measures include good eating habits. . he main symptom of /AC.. can cause death. /AC. paralysis. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. and lack of coordination. Beft untreated.apid descent and medical attention. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. /A-. a. stupor. immediate descent is mandatory.est. and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. . maintaining hydration. coma. c. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. may occur in e"perienced. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. $armth. b. +upplemental o"ygen. is the same as for /A-. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. headaches. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. convulsions. reatment for /AC. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. inability to concentrate. +ymptoms of /AC. d. confusion. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. vomiting. hallucinations. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions.. is a severe headache. decrease in urination. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. and unconsciousness.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-.

cools down and heats up differently. Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. &rom this. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. . the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier. occurs. . edema. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals.rovided all tactical concerns are met. therefore. . he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. both cerebral and pulmonary. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. move faster.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. cause increased proteins in the plasma. and /AC. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure. or the fluid portion of the blood.

providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. he inner boot provides support. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces. b. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits.*. Foot+ear Currently. as $ell as insulation against the cold.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain.*. /o$ever. c. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. he outer . %. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. a lace( up configuration. he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. a. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal.

he is. a. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. %. at best. Socks. if $orn correctly. socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. remove e"cess moisture. .egardless of climatic conditions. the insulation layers. ski bindings. C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. and the outer most garments. uncomfortable and. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. !hen clothing is $orn properly.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. at $orst. !hen $orn improperly. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. . he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. Figure 1-). Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. develops hypothermia or frostbite. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. As a system. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. socks provide cushioning for the foot.

the vapor barrier sock is not recommended.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. En&er+ear. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. If the user is $earing V< boots. &or the most part. he primary material in this product is polyester. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. c. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. he . In colder environments. =nsu!ating 8ayers. . A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. b. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. /o$ever. %a* In severe $et conditions.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad.

Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the ..C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. as $ell as mud. and stones. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind.Figure 1-. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. 9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. he . he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$.C!C+ correctly. d. 6uter 8ayers. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . t$igs. e. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. <aiters.

he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. and snaps. $ill need to be locally purchased. %. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. hook(pile tape. 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. . in most cases. his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper. f. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. -an& (ear. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it.. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves.* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. Figure 1-1. Three types o# gaiters.C!C+ and. .ven during the best climatic conditions.

%0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers. as $ell as replacement liners for both. %. =atural fibers. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. As $ith clothes and hand $ear. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. -an& +ear. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet. predominately $ool. man( made fibers are preferred. -ea&+ear.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer.Figure 1-4. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. . he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. g.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times.

Figure 1-5. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. $ye+ear. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*. +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. h. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. his covers the head. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. -e!mets. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . i. &or e"treme cold. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. neck. Figure 1-6. a balaclava can be added. . 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a. !hichever helmet is selected. -e!mets.

American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. It is based in -aris. . Community . to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*. j.urope %C. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. :aintenance o# C!othing. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness. heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope.uropean norm %C. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. and comprises several commissions. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined .uropean norm %. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. . $ebbing. Figure 1-7. and harnesses.urope. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains.=*. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best. cord. !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards.uropean economy. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging. &rance. have been combined to make combined . >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in .=* and C.

a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. . similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*. (e ing an& S!ings. it should be >IAA certified. he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. Figure 1-". . A static rope has very little stretch. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. abrasion resistance.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent.* .:.a. $hich is.(mm rope. essentially. Kernmant!e construction. &or most military applications. . Its ability to stretch up to .K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall..opes an& Cor&. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. called slings or runners. a standard .7( or . his refers to their ability to stretch under tension. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering.egardless of the rope chosen.. impact force. If used for -rusik knots. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and . he . the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . and elongation. %. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. and is best used in rope installations.. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. b. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment.

and have less bulk than the tied version. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil. Tie& or se+n runners. . hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K.0 inches. he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material .) inch. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. ' inches. . can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. more durable. c. the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. and . %.K. Figure 1-'.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger.)(inch or . carabiners.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. . and 0' inches. $hich is stronger. .unners are predominately made from either 8K.uses for these simple pieces are endless.) inch. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. are usually lighter. &or most military applications. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. inch. the rope.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. .. and anchors. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. -arnesses.

%.:*. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. are more restrictive. . he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. !ith the remaining $ebbing. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall. his type of harness.:*.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . &itted properly. !hile these harnesses are safer. %1* . Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment. %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn.:*. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. referred to as a seat unavailable. they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible.

*. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. he oval. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. !hen using a carabiner. Cara iners. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. . C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. +teel is still $idely used. and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. the 2(shaped. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. his rope. Figure 1-)*. <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. a. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. but is not preferred for general mountaineering.. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner. given other options. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls. great care should be .

Figure 1-)). 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use.. Figure 1-).* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. %. 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(.0*. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. <ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. the load is .

A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades.1*. and angles. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. hey are made of malleable steel. horiAontal. hey are described by their thickness. Figure 1-)1. 9itons. the blade and eye are aligned. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. hese pitons are used in flush.egardless of the type chosen. %. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. .* 1ertical . hardened steel. design. vertical cracks. along its minor a"is. and angle. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly.itons. b. $afer. Dn vertical pitons. %1* . is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. or other alloys. specifically the locking version. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. and $ith the gate open. Aarious pitons. and length %&igure 1(.

hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset. hey are designed to bite into thin. he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight.itons. metal.itons.%0* Horizontal . %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality .(inch s#uare. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. shallo$ cracks. %'* 2nife 3lade . his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances. $ebbing. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. or flakes. 9iton -ammers. . he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. ledges. hey are small and fit into thin. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. %)* Angle . A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. %4* 3ong . %1* Wafer . Dn horiAontal pitons. <ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er. hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions.'*. hese pitons are used in shallo$. the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade.5 centimeters $ide. c.itons. flush cracks. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about .itons. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. hese pitons are used in flush.>.itons.itons. shallo$ cracks. or leather is used to . +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons.

he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly. his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. . d. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. Chocks. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar.7*. to be used as anchors. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use. Figure 1-)4. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself.7 centimeters long and $eigh . 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. into the rock. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. 9iton hammer.0 to 07 ounces. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks.

f. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks.)*.4* provide convenient. e. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. Figure 1-)6. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . $hen used in the camming mode.Figure 1-)5. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. Chocks. Three-point camming &e2ice. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in.

. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. Cade from thin metal. hese are placed #uickly and easily.5*. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. Chock 9icks. Figure 1-)7. saving time and effort. . Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture. g. they can be purchased or homemade.semi(rigid point of attachment.

$hich is driven into the rock. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. <urrs. <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced.8*. . a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. and moisture."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. Dnce emplaced. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. . <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. and $eights. Chock picks. $hich is time(consuming. %. %o!ts. and drilling anchor. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. hese re#uire a hammer. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. dirt. brands. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. corrosion. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool. bolt driver. e"hausting.Figure 1-)". h. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. chips. and e"tremely noisy. <ecause of this re#uirement. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace.

%o!ts an& hangers. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. .egardless of the belay device choosen. %.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. the tuber. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. i.Figure 1-)'. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. . <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube. %e!ay De2ices. he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position.

Figure 1-. one ascender is sufficient. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. Figure 1-. Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Figure-eights. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam.*. k. A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices. &or lo$er angle movement.).*. Descen&ers. t$o ascenders $ork best. 7scen&ers. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction. . j. &or difficult vertical terrain. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair.

glaciers. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. light$eight. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. and strong. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. Figure 1-. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings. A pulley should be small. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope.Figure 1-. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. froAen $aterfalls(can . 7scen&ers.1. l. the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields... -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided. 9u!!eys. &or best results. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used. 9u!!ey.

It can be made of fiberglass. step cutting.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. direct(aid climbing. probing. . and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. he adAe. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. belays. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. anchors. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. can have different configurations. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. used for chopping. =ce 7B. or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. therefore safer for mountaineering. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". %. he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. a. head %pick and adAe*. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. self(arrest. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. %b* he head of the a". is perpendicular to the shaft. hollo$ aluminum. he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes.

loose ends should be trimmed.b. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. =ce -ammer. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe.4. inch of front point protruding. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. c. . Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous. =ce aB an& ice hammers. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*. Figure 1-.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid. Crampons. +traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long. . and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer.

he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . %0* he rigid crampon. It is designed to be used $ith soft. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. fle"ible boots. Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system. as its name implies. %. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. Crampons. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. but can be used on less vertical terrain.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done.5. All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. is rigid and does not fle". he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types.Figure 1-.

Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced.. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle.6. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads.mountaineering boots. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. =ce Scre+s. %. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. hey are scre$ed into ice formations.* !hen selecting ice scre$s. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. d. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening. • • • ype I is . $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. =ce scre+s. . Figure 1-. .

he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. f. . he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton.7. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. hey can. the scre$ should be turned in. Figure 1-. flanged sides. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. ho$ever. Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel.' centimeters. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. =ce 9itons. bends. and fi"ed cables. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. hey are available $ith bent faces. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. =ce piton. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. If any cracks or bends are noticed. e. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s.

• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters. and other deformities. and for cutting . Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. broken $ire strands. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. cracks. he picket should be inspected for bends. or slippage is noticed. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide. mushrooming ends. bivouacs.::: kilograms.". having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain. hey can be angled or (section stakes. Figure 1-. a. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. the picket should be turned in for replacement. Sno+ 9icket. movement. It can be used in step cutting. and carrying gear. he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. in shelter construction. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. If bent or cracked. broken $ire strands. $ands*. the sno$ anchor should be turned in.. he ends should be filed smooth. If any cracks. Sno+ Sa+. chips. g. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . for removing froAen obstacles. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing.

. !ands are used to identify routes. burrs. Sno+ Sho2e!. he handle should be inspected for cracks. he handle should be inspected for cracks. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. b. !ands are . he shovel should be inspected for cracks. it should be turned in. and stability. it should not be used. $arping. d. Dn folding models. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. number of haAards identified. to . 72a!anche rescue equipment. If the shovel is beyond repair. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. frays. light$eight aluminum alloy.sno$ stability test pits. he blade should be inspected for rust. step cutting. and removing obstacles. c. security to the shaft. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. fading. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$. and burrs. he flag should be inspected for tears. (an&s. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. If any defects are discovered. bends. A file can repair most defects. he handle should be telescopic. $eather conditions %and visibility*. the hinge and nuts should be secure. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. the $ands should be replaced. caches. rust.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. and stability. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. and discoloration. crevasses. bends. shelter construction. bends. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. If the sa$ is beyond repair. he sno$ shovel is made of a special. sno$(bridges. bends. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. and number of teams in the climbing party. folding. and missing or dull teeth. and deformities. cracks.

his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. 72a!anche rescue equipment. he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. hese are small. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. 9acks.robe. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. %0* .'. %.Figure 1-.* Avalanche . %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. . he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier. %. e. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering.

he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. $eights. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. g. kerosene. and its reliability. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. more harsh environment. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. !hen selecting a tent. %. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. and materials. and are simple and light$eight. f. he fly protects against . he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. factors that should be considered are $eight. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. and butane are the common fuels used. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent. %. !hite gas. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. Sto2es. the better it $ill be. Tents. fuel availability. A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. !hen choosing a stove.

but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. and carrying heavy packs. +ome ski poles are . +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. sno$shoeing. they create the shape of the tent. i. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. Sno+shoes. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. and become long and rigid. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. !hen carrying heavy packs.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. Skis. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. h. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. connect. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. Countaineering skis are $ide and short.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. j. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. Ski po!es. <efore using a ne$ tent.

collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. especially $hen hauling fuel.egardless of the siAe. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small.:(man arctic tent system. -ea&!amps. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. S!e&s. +leds vary greatly in siAe. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. Figure 1-1*.* !hen choosing a headlamp. k. Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. . It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. %. a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. on some models. . Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners. a component of the . he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. l.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. to the one(person sko$. +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. !hichever sled is chosen. A flashlight can provide light. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es.

-ocket items should include a knife. ropes. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. $ater. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. sunblock and lip protection. $quipment 9acking . stoves. . the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. or lithium batteries. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. climbing e#uipment. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots. if needed. or jungle mountain environments. Stan&ar& <ear. compass and or altimeter. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. the e"ception being hot. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing. magaAine pouches. Dbviously. $histle. polypropylene top. $ith canteens. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. notebook $ith pen or pencil. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. and $ater procurement material. nickel(cadmium. food procurement material. fuel. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. b.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. sunglasses. pressure bandage. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. fire starting material. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers.conditions. first aid kits. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. food. desert. a. 9ersona! <ear. !hen the light is being packed. Caution4 Cotton clothing. $orn on the body.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. foul $eather shells. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. s$eater. map.

&lashlight or headlamp. . or s$eater. . Ice a". -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. Day 9ack. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. one per climbing team. he carries a light day pack. >tility cord%s*. casualty evacuation. or unplanned bivouac. 9loves.appelKbelay device. or poncho. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. one per climbing team. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • .ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. Canteen. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. rain suit. . e.c. +ling rope or climbing harness. =onlocking carabiners.appelling gloves. +urvival kit. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. Crampons. d. one per climbing team. Climbing rack. &irst aid kit. Bocking carabiner%s*. Carabiners. pile top."tra insulating layer: polypropylene. Climbing rope. one per climbing team. Climbing rack. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. In the event of an injury. . Cold $eather hat or scarf. Climbing rope.

blouse. under$ear.• • • • +leeping bag. . &uel bottle. s$eater or fleece jacket.7 or higher. %7* ()tra Clothing. and or 6. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. injury. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. %0* Compass. he clothing used during the active part of a climb. $ashing. +ide shields.S. Altimeter. The Ten $ssentia!s. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. . pants. and licking is best. +leeping mat.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. +#uad stove. f. includes socks. boots. hat. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains.:: percent of ultraviolet light. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging.* 5ap. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. or navigational error. %'* ()tra +ood. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. &or lip protection. and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of . and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. gloves or mittens. hey should filter 87 to . a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. %.

sharp tools."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear. and employing $eapons systems. -ressure dressings. but commercially available headlamps are best. the mountain environment— steep. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs. . cutting the $ind. 2ecentraliAed operations. herefore. and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit."tra pair of heavy socks. a broken bone. moleskin. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. . Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. Ciniature flashlights can be used. scissors. butterfly bandages. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. &inally. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. gauAe pads. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. . inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. cleanser. %4* +irst aid 2it. adhesive tape. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter. . small adhesive bandages. • • • • • . $hich is important $hile climbing. serious sprain."tra hats or balaclavas.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. .%a* . and blisters. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather. $orking around the camp. elastic compression $rap."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag.

Bighters are handy for starting fires. Dther repair items as needed. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source.ighter. and canned heat all $ork. g. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt. Cord and or $ire.:* 2nife. %. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. %. -atches. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*. harness. %0* 7ce A). hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. %8* 5atches and . 6ther $ssentia! <ear. It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. %1* 4epair 2it. A$l and or needles.* Water and Water Containers. . Candles. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. +afety pins. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts.%5* +ire Starter. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. as $ell as for stream crossings. 2uct tape. heat tabs. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. or pack. /eavy(duty thread. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper.

a. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. among others. $ater. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. if not carried in hand. e"tra ammunition* on top. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. nearer the shoulder blades. thus placing the most $eight on the hips. he ice a". placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. b. .#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. d. climbing hard$are. speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. e. emergency bivouac shelter.epe!!ent. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. rope. the load is held high and close to the back. and $ater procurement. this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies. <y packing the lighter. c. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. more compressible items %sleeping bag. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items.%'* =nsect . In most cases. As much as possible. and be securely . food.

and 0nots. .ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this. If not. 9rasping the rope firmly.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. a. care and maintenance procedures.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. or building various installations. and knots later during deployment. he rope may be given a . 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. rappelling. :ountain Coi!.fastened. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. and then tied in place. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. meter from the end $ith one hand. . t$ists. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology.ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. o start a mountain coil. grasp the rope appro"imately . Coi!ing an& Carrying the . his is repeated. until the rope is completely coiled. as stated above. serious in!ury may occur. . Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . management techni&ues. bring the hands together forming a loop.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. f. . When climbing.

he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. :ountain coi!. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. . $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. >ncoil the last loop and.* Figure 4-1. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil. Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil.* In finishing the mountain coil. b. %0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. doubling it and placing it under the flap. %utter#!y Coi!.%. securing the coil. slung across the chest. -ull the running end of the bight tight. using this length of the rope.

. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight. !ith the bight in the left hand. In this configuration . Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself. -lace the doubled rope over the head.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils.* Coiling. o start the double butterfly.Figure 4-4.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders. %. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope. Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. %utter#!y coi!. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. . . ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. and hold the center in one hand. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils.

or for storage. ensuring no kinks are in the rope.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate .* Figure 4-5. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . Cake three or more $raps. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. %utter#!y coi! tie-o##. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil. !rap that bight around the coil. %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off. sling rope. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack. 2ress it do$n tightly. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself.ope. c. .0(inch bight is left. . -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body.

he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. . <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. feeding it to a lead climber. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. =e"t.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. Dnce stacked. !ith the left hand. A smooth follo$ through is essential.e. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. Thro+ing the . hro$ up and out. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. and so on. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. a.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. %. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. A slight t$ist of the $rist. !hen the rope is needed for use.D-. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand.

he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. + . ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. a. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. In a strong cross $ind.. Aiming just above the horiAon. and Class IV—special knots.. Tying the Knot.b..0. It is a joining knot. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. !ith e"perience and practice. bights. and hitches is almost endless. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. he variety of knots. . Anchor. + . vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class.1. + . Class II—anchor knots. Class III—middle rope knots.. back feed. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. bends. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + . c. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations.. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. /olding one $orking end in each hand. up and out to$ard the horiAon. he stronger the $ind. and stack the rope properly as described above. adjustments must be made..0. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance.

%0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. Square knot. Figure 4-6. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. + . It is a joining knot..+ . Checkpoints. Tying the Knot. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope..* here are t$o interlocking bights.'.. . Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. b. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. a. %..

nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. Fisherman’s knot.1. .+ .0.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. a. %1* .* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double . Checkpoints. Tying the Knot. standing part of the opposing rope. It is a joining knot. b. + . %... -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. Figure 4-7. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

. !ith the $orking end of the other rope. and 0*. + ... b.. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight...nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. !ith the $orking end of one rope. + .. %. + . Checkpoints.1.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %1* .+ .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope. Figure 4-". $hich contains the standing part %+ . . -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.*. Dou !e #isherman’s knot.. Insert the $orking end %+ .-+ .0. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns... tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel.'.

Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*.0. .1.. Figure 4-'.. + . . a... -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight.7. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + . 2ress the knot do$n..oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. . Figure-eight en&. + .'. + . Tying the Knot.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. !ith the other hand... 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + .

&eed the other end back through the knot. overhand retrace. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends.:*. It is also called a ring bend. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. + . he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. or tape knot. Checkpoints. Tying the Knot. .b. + .. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse.. + . a.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot..0.. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. %.1..

%0* here is no slack in the knot. (ater knot.* here are t$o overhand knots.. %. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. + .. Tying the Knot.*. b. one retracing the other. a. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. Checkpoints. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor.. . It is an anchor knot..Figure 4-)*.

+ . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.1.each through the loop and pull up a bight... &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. + .0. b. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + . . . + .. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight. Checkpoints. %o+!ine knot.'. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. and bring it back onto itself.7. Figure 4-)).. %.

a. + .0*... Figure-$ight .'. b.oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.1. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. distributing the load over the anchor.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.. + .. .his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*... + . and one in the front*. + .eroute& Figure-$ight0 . It is an anchor knot.0. . 2ress the knot do$n.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.epeat + .etrace /. Checkpoints. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. .0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. . Figure 4-). %.. Tying the Knot.un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.

he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse.0..'. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. !ith the $orking end. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. + .7. by tying the knot in a retrace. $rap the $orking end around the standing part.1... ake the $orking end around the anchor point. + .). /o$ever. + . + .. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. . it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. .. he finished knot is dressed loosely...1*. + .. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. a. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. Tying the Knot. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. and route the $orking end through the loop. + .

Tying the Knot. depending on ho$ it is tied. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness. %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.. palms do$n $ith hands together. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. + . +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. b. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(. %.'*.Figure 4-)1. Checkpoints %...* Middle of the Rope.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. Figure-eight retrace. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. a. . /old rope in both hands.

. 2ress do$n the knot... and bring it in$ard. + . + . + . -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. + . !ith the right hand.. grasp the $orking end. assume that the anchor is horiAontal.. /old the standing end in the left hand. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. !ith the right hand.1. reach under the horiAontal anchor. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*.. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. + . /old the loop in the left hand. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.'.0. he knot is tied. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.. .'.1.+ .0. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. + . %0* End of the Rope..

It is a middle rope knot. C!o2e hitch. + ..7. and place it over the heel $rap. + . + . b. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + . ake up the slack from the anchor. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. !hen tying this knot.). Tying the Knot.. a.4. + . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.. and fingertip.0. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. Checkpoints. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot.Figure 4-)4. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.1.. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to...'. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other.7*. . (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. palm. %.. + .. + .* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar..

.+ . It is a middle rope knot.. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. Tying the Knot. b. Figure 4-)5.8. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. (ireman’s knot. %. + .)*.5. a. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends.. Checkpoints.

b. !hen dressing the knot do$n. + . Figure 4-)6. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. !ith the $rap thus formed. + .0. it lays in$ard..* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Cake one $rap around the palm.+ .1. the tail and the bight must be together. . Checkpoints. + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm... Directiona! #igure-eight. %...'.

&orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be.'.. + . ie an overhand knot on a bight.. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.%0* he tail and bight must be together. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. forming t$o loops. + . spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. a.7. + .. It is a middle rope knot...0.4. .4*..1.. + . 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. + . + . %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly..). Tying the Knot. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. + .

>sing a doubled rope.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. Checkpoints. a. form an . T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. + .Figure 4-)7. %o+!ine-on-a..ight.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip..* It is a middle rope knot. . %.5.. Tying the Knot. b.

+ . !ith the $orking end..1. . Tying the Knot. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. %. b. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. It is a middle of the rope knot. + .. Checkpoints..'. + . a.8*. Figure 4-)". /old the bight $ith the left hand. + . 2ress the knot do$n. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.7. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction..0.

. b. !ith the bight as the $orking end..* he loop is the desired siAe. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system.+ . %1* he knot is tightly dressed.0.1. Figure 4-)'. Tying the Knot. a. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik. + . %. . %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. Figure-eight !oop.. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. + . It is a specialty knot.. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. 2ress the knot tightly. form a loop in rope %standing part*.. Checkpoints.

-ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope.*: + .. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.each do$n through the . + .*. + .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. and place it over the long rope. + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.. Figure 4-. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:..1.. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.0. forming a bight. >sing an arm3s length of rope. . 2ouble the short rope.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. + . + ... $ith the $orking ends even. .... .*.. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .0. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.1.%.0(inch bight.

'..+ .* &our $raps $ith a locking bar.). parallel. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping. b.4. It is a specialty knot. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.7. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed.. + .. &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension.nsure they are tight.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.). + . %. . Checkpoints. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. . Figure 4-. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. + . and not t$isted. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot.

0. Checkpoints. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! ... %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. Tying the Knot.1. b. %.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. + . + . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. + . %achman knot. Figure 4-. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender... !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing..a.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.

>sing the standing part. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. he standing portion is on the bottom.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.* A minimum of four $raps. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body..nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. hen. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. + . not crossed. !ith the running end. place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. a. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. + . -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top...1. bring a bight up through the loop. %.). It is a specialty knot. + . %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied.0. . tie an overhand around all coils.. + . 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand.. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body. single coil. + . leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail... + . !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. + ..7. he running end is to the back of the body.'. . b. Checkpoints. /olding the bight loosely. Tying the Knot.4. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps..

.1. !ith the right hand.1. It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. It is a specialty knot.. /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body.Figure 4-.. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight.0. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. + . Tying the Knot. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself.. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. Bay the loops to the right. a.. + . .'. + ..

. &orm a . Three-!oop o+!ine. b.. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. . %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops.. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. a. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. Tying the Knot. Checkpoints.0(inch bight in the end of the rope.+ . Figure 4-. It is a specialty knot. + .. %. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.7.4.

.each through the bight and grasp the long. b. . + . -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. + . If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. Figure 4-.0 inches up the rope. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. Figure-eight s!ip knot.. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. %.:u!e Knot0 .5. + ..* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight.. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot.. /old the center of the bight in the right hand. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope.7. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight.+ . t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.0. + . Checkpoints. standing end of the rope.1. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .).'.

Figure 4-. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. Transport knot. b. K!eimhiest Knot . %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.1. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.0 inches long. %1* he bight is a minimum of .. + . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope..* here is a single overhand slip knot.. Tying the Knot. It is simply an overhand slip knot. Check 9oints.0. + . a.6. %.. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + ..

0... + .. pass them through the bight %see + .. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.*. + . It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .1. find the center of the rope and form a bight.he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.0 inches. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull.. + . !rap at least four complete turns. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. + . It is a special( purpose knot.7.'.. a. !ith the ends offset. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.. easily adjustable.. Tying the Knot. + . . >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by .

%.7. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about .. %0* All $raps are tight and touching..0. Checkpoints. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. a.: to . It is a special(purpose knot. b. .. Tying the Knot.. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.0 inches.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.Figure 4-. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. + . K!eimhiest knot. + .

Figure 4-. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. + . It is a special(purpose knot.. + . b.. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Figure 4-..: &orm a bight. a.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. Checkpoint.". Frost knot. %.. <irth hitch. Tying the Knot. + . %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. b.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.1: Cinch the knot tightly. :unter -itch .'. %0* he knot is dressed tightly. Checkpoints. %.

. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. + .. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. a..1. %0* he carabiner is locked.. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. /old the loop $ith the left hand.0 inches apart. /old the rope in both hands. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand.0. !ith the right hand. Tying the Knot. b.'.* A bight passes through the carabiner. + . Check 9oints. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop.he munter hitch. ... + . Bock the locking mechanism. %. palms do$n about . $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. !ith the right hand. + .

.. It usually re#uires a sling rope .each around behind and grab a single strand of rope.0. . a. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. ensuring they do not cross..appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.' feet or longer..'. + . + . + . &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. :unter hitch..Figure 4-1*.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope.1.. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.*. + . . thus creating a loop around the $aist. Tying the Knot.

+ ... -ull up on the ropes. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. + . %. Figure 4-1). -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. tightening the seat. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.appe! seat. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. &rom rear to front.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.4. <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. + . Check 9oints. . ..7.). b.

. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners... + . . <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot.0. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. + . preferably ovals*. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners.. a. Tying the Knot.%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.

7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. it will fail. b.. <uar&e knot.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. rope can only be pulled in one direction. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. 7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. %. .Figure 4-1. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. Check 9oints. or the e&uipment .* !hen properly dressed.

.* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. /o$ever. rees. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof. /o$ever. boulders.*. When selecting or constructing anchors.

Chockstones should be checked for strength. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. security. b. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid.. a. In rocky terrain. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable. >se padding on soft.Figure 5-). Trees use& as anchors. Figure 5-. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted. All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. . sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use.

and spikes. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. c. If rock projections are used. b. tying a rope to it. If any of these signs e"ist. a. A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. the projection should be avoided.Figure 5-1. their firmness is important. Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. and clipping on a carabiner. . hese include blocks. Chockstones.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. flakes.ock 9ro>ections . +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. . horns.

he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction.ock pro>ections. . All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground.Figure 5-4. As $ith trees. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. .

!hichever method is used.Figure 5-5. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. Correct!y oppose& cara iners. a. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. $rap. . Figure 5-6. %ushes an& shru s. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. and girth. Drape. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used.

(rap. . (rap. b. !rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. Drape.Figure 5-7. Figure 5-".

<irth. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(.ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. 7nchoring (ith . <irth. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. . his re#uires less e#uipment. . A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues.:*.ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. . Figure 5-'.c. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension. ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight.

A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$.. he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(.*. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps. 7rti#icia! 7nchors .ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. . to absorb the tension. Tension!ess anchor. Figure 5-)).Figure 5-)*. more if necessary. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner.

%A hefty timber. $ould be ideal. and ruck sacks. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. e#uipment.#uipment.* Barge boulders can be used. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. . Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. &or training planning. and the load to be placed on it. he sling is attached to the anchor. ice a"es. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons. .>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable. As $ith natural anchors. he"centrics. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. such as skis. a. and +BC2s. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. b. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. such as pitons and bolts. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. Although still available. such as a railroad tie. chocks. sno$shoes. . In e"tremely hard. can also be used if necessary. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment.:: years.

c. practiced. dirt.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. clear the loose rock. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. as $ith any artificial anchor. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. a. %. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . Disa&2antages. 9iton 9!acement. 7&2antages. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. b. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. !hen this type of rock must be used. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. %&igure 7(. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in. should be studied. %0* !hile it is being driven. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton.

3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. because the piton is too long. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. he piton should not spread the rock. thereby loosening the emplacement.out of the crack. Clip a carabiner into the loop. herefore. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. Figure 5-). it $ill not be lost. the firmer the anchor $ill be. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand.. and on the type of rock. . +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack.1*. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements.

upon driving it.epeat these actions as many times as necessary.'*. the emplacement is probably safe. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement. If the sound regains its original pitch. there is any #uestion of its soundness. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. o test pitons pull up about . d. and $hen using chocks. e. . ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. If the pitch has changed greatly. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. then grasp the rope at least . drive it into another place. do$n$ard. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed.Figure 5-)1. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. drive the piton in as far as possible. -ero-!oop. to each side. Testing.emo2ing 9itons.K0 meter from the carabiner. Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. Eerk vigorously up$ard. ry to be in a secure position before testing. . Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure. . If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(.

Disa&2antages. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. Also. but comple" in practice. 9iton remo2a!. are reusable. removed. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. they may have been driven poorly the first time.eusing 9itons. a. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. b. f. >sually easy to retrieve and. 7&2antages. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time. unless severely damaged. . vectors. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades.Figure 5-)4. Bight to carry. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. +oft iron pitons that have been used. but they must be checked for strength. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. <efore use. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory.asy to insert and remove. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. A natural chockstone. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . provides an e"cellent anchor point. . and straightened may be reused. having fallen and $edged in a crack. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. In training areas.

Dften provide only one direction of pull. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. $hich should be removed before placing the chock. and dirt.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. %0* !hen selecting a chock. Book for a constriction point in the crack. Chock p!acements. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. Figure 5-)5. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. 9!acement. Avoid poor protection.7*. grass. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. . -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. c. A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. if possible. cord. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. %. +ome cracks may have loose rock.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks. %1* . A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. then select a chock to fit it. $hich may accept pitons.

%a* . %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem. After seating a chock. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. o test it. Testing. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug.)*. d. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. test it to ensure it remains in place. .mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore. Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. use pairs of chocks in opposition. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand.

he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. pull the retractor bar back. a. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. place the device into a crack. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. b. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. %o!ts . S8CD p!acements. it may rotate and pull out.Figure 5-)6. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. and release the retractor bar. +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks.

. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. flaking. and runners. $hich bores the hole.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. c. and should be tested $ith a hammer. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. since this permanently $eakens it. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection.4*. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. a. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. <olts should be used $ith carriers. b. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. /o$ever.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. !hen using bolts. . or cracking. carabiners. . his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole.

Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor.5*. A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(.Figure 5-)7. . A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. his not only provides greater anchor strength. his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e.8*. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points. b. $qua!i@ing 7nchors . A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. a. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. It is aimed in the direction of the load. Figure 5-)".#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually.

Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. therefore. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and.Figure 5-)'. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. terrain hazards. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. and the enemy for the length of the climb. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be .

6 . taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. reconnaissance personnel. !hen picking the line. C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations.6 to the top looking for cracks.trained in the basics of climbing.ven before getting on the rock. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-.*. the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. he mentally climbs the route. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. or 6lines. . and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. nubbins. the climber studies all possible routes. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. ledges. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles.oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. +orward observers. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever. using the hands primarily for balance. .

dry rock. 9reparation In preparation for climbing.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. If the soles are $et or damp. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object. /o$ever. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers. the boot soles should be dry and clean. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. falls from climbers above. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. C7ET=63 . In later lessons. In the training environment. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall. such as a rock or climbing gear. dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing.

Fi2e %o&y 9arts. A rela"ed. Stance or %o&y 9osition. b. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. sho$s a correct climbing stance. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. left foot. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. right foot. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. and body %trunk*. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. or moving on to a more . helping to minimiAe fatigue. lo$ering the heel. a. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. left hand. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. his vibration. help the climber land feet first.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. %&igure )(. If strained for too long.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. and reduce the impact of a fall. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. kno$n as 6. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. comfortable stance is essential. $eight shift. and so on. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. a$ay from the rock. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. and movement. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock.

a!ance& o2er oth #eet. Figure 6-. Correct c!im ing stance.restful position. Figure 6-).* !henever possible. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. %. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. the hips and shoulders should be . =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. he hands are used to maintain balance..

+ometimes. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. or body*. the hips are pushed closer to the rock. . and movement %movement being either the foot. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock.centered over both feet. Dn steep rock. Dn lo$(angle slopes. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. hand. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position.D=. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. In most cases. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. his is normally done on #uick. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. shift. he basic steps are $eight. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. as the climbing progresses. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. intermediate holds.!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. c. he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. $hen footholds are small. creating more stress.* + . C!im ing Sequence. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be.: + . the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. Again.

: + . $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved./.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs...+ . Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.: + . but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased. through 1 for remaining foot. + . . 2uring this movement.epeat steps . If both legs are bent. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability.+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.&IV.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. %. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms.&D>.

.Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence.

Figure 6-1. . Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.

Figure 6-1. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. not the arms. even painful. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. to rest on. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. these movements become more critical.* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. Dther than being uncomfortable. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. Sa#ety 9recautions . %. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. because the legs are much stronger. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*. his type of lifting is inefficient.

!hen personnel must climb at the same time. If the rock $ill endanger your second. If conducting a roped climb. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. a fi"ed rope should be installed. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route. c. immediately shout the $arning 6. +hould a climber fall. grasping for any possible hold available.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. d. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. >pon hearing the $arning. a. do not do it.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. e. . !hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope. let the rope provide protection. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. b. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. follo$ing the same line. If on a lo$(angle climb. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. a spotter can be used for safety. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. and to reduce the impact of a fall. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. tossing it do$n. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear.

but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. b. depending on it. g. !hen in doubt. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. !hen leading a group of climbers. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. a. !hen the rock is $et. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. !hen climbing. +ometimes. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. sedimentary(type rock.&D. his may simply be a #uick. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. C!im ing (ith The Feet . he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards.f. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit.. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member.

It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever.emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. . %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. also applies in climbing. the entire foot cannot be used.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet. . b. %b* Dn some large holds. he principle of using full sole contact.* Maximum Sole Contact. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. %. In this case. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used.* %a* +mooth. . &ailure to climb any route. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. easy or difficult. In the early learning stages of climbing. Also. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. a. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock. as in mountain $alking. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. forgetting to use the feet properly.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember.

>sually. . more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot.emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact.* %a* Dn smaller holds. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. may be used. !henever possible. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. edging $ith the front of the boot. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. $ell(defined ledges. Again. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small.Figure 6-4. %0* Edging. . or toe.

but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. . the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. .ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. Figure 6-5.* %a* .ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear. . he stiffer the sole. therefore. the better the edging capability. he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever.ounded. %1* Smearing. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. intermediate holds. he Army mountain boot. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging. !hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue.%b* . do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. $ith its softer sole.

or the entire foot can be used. %'* Jamming. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. arms.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. Aside from these t$o basic ideas. and so on. and even more painful on the foot. the possibilities are endless. Cany cracks $ill have facial features. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming. depending on the siAe of the crack. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. resisting a do$n$ard pull. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. like a camming device. . Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. such as edges. restful position. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. than others.Figure 6-6. ball of the foot. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. +ome positions are more tiring. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. pockets. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. inside and $ithin reach. he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. hands. he toes.

Dur hands grip. As stated earlier.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. Core often though. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain . a. As the individual climbs. +ometimes. !hen removing the boot from a crack. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. Dn lo$er(angled rock. +econdly. he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. b. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. . Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. $Bamp!es o# >amming. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand. our body $eight is on our legs. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays. Figure 6-7. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking.

and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. and on occasion. his is fine. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. . %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. -ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. Dn smaller holds. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. the fingers. +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. %. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. -ushing side$ays. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. Df course.* Push olds. the side of the palm. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure.our balance and footing on the ladder. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock. or 6pinching. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*. Ideally.

and. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. -ull holds. pull holds are often over$orked.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for. or up$ard. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. also called 6cling holds. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet.* %a* Bike push holds. creating an unbalanced stance.emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold. it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. just good techni#ue. therefore. side$ays. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. Again. %0* Pull olds. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. .Figure 6-". . making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. <ecause of this increased feeling of security.

he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. Dn small holds. here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er. Figure 6-'. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. his helps to hold the finger tips in . grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. creating a stronger hold. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. =ormally. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever.

%&igure )(. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. ?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. and reduces muscle strain in the hand. kno$n as a 6ring grip. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. %'* Jam olds.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. %1* Pinch olds. his hand configuration.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever.* Figure 6-)*. Bike foot jams. ape also adds friction . prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock.

leg. !hen the arm is straightened.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. or body into an off $idth. and fle"ed to fit the crack. and body jams. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard.. /o$ever. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$. or 6off $idths. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal the hand in jammed position. hands. &or off $idths. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. he leg can be used. is another techni#ue. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. %b* In smaller cracks.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. leg. o jam or cam an arm. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. %&igure )(. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. . the principle is the same as for fingers. .6 re#uiring the use of arm. only the fingers $ill fit. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. from the calf to the thigh. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place.

numerous combination techni#ues are possible. &rom these fundamentals. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. As the climber gains e"perience. and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. feet. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s.Figure 6-)). . he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance.

yet #uickly. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. t$o solid handholds should be used. before the hands. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. b.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. mantling begins $ith pull holds. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. %&igure )(. or hop step. Combination possibilities are endless. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. arms.* Change Step. or other body parts tire. +ometimes. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. o prevent an off balance situation. he change step. %0* Mantling.a. +till. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. $here the pull holds become push holds. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence. he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. . +hort of turning back. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles.otating . even on an easy route. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. %. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. o make the move. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet.

$eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. Dnce balanced over the foot. !ith the foot on the ledge. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. . %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. most individuals should be able to support their $eight.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. momentarily. Dnce the arms are locked.

Figure 6-). applying an up$ard pull. or body tension. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. :ant!ing sequence. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. %1* !ndercling. he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge. forming a bulge or small overhang.. An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(.1*. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets. he arms and legs . also.

%a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard. putting the body into an B( shaped position. a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. the climber $ill . he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. he climber bends at the $aist. more or less. %'* "ie#ack. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. En&erc!ing. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. . Figure 6-)1. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical.

. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring. or vice versa. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. Dften.likely fall. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. rather than muscle. %7* Stemming.'*. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. or for a rest position. the maneuver is kno$n as stemming.7*. 8ie ack on a #ace. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. Figure 6-)4.

. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. >sually. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. parallel cracks.Figure 6-)5. kno$n as chimneys. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms.)*. he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . or body as an integral contact point. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction. legs. Stemming on a #ace. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys.

Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence. .

he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. face features. . forcing the body against the opposing $all.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. Chimney sequence /continue&0. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys. A slab is a relatively smooth. . %)* Sla# Techni$ue. /o$ever. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( .Figure 6-)6. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. if any holds.4*. he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. or a much narro$er crack irotection. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack. %c* .

or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. S!a technique. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability. to increase friction. Also. Dn steeper slab.%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. or the . the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. Figure 6-)7. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. . do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. Dften. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. . 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip.

a$ay from the rock. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. Dn the steepest terrain. %a* Dn easier terrain.. he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. !hen in doubt. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . 0. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. use a roped descent. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. he can often turn side$ays. Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this.abilities of others to follo$. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. If the handholds are too high. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. use a roped descent. !hatever the case may be. and slips are more likely to occur. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. !hen in doubt. the climber can face out$ard. As the steepness and difficulty increase. C7ET=63S .

to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. as in ascending.5*. but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. %d* Dn steeper slab. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. &acing the rock.planned landing area. is usually best on steeper slab. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. facing out$ard or side$ays. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. reducing friction. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. and a tendency to move too #uickly. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. . 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending.

and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. . 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely. and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. ropes must be used to proceed. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock.oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. is highly unlikely in most instances.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . . +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever. especially for most personnel involved in military climbing.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. they offer little support to the climber. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. . length. . may induce further injuries. A severe fall.ope Dver the years..

including cost. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. /o$ever. reduce the fle"ibility of gear. Seat -arness. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. =o assembly is re#uired. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. %. a. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. also. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. . It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. it is not for a belay anchor. such as a prese$n harness. -rese$n harness are bulky. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. specialiAed e#uipment. $hen used correctly.

usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. Dne(inch $ebbing . S+ami %e!t. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. than an improvised chest harness. c. at the chest. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. Chest -arness. gear loops. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope.b. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. a. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. such as padding. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. %.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. he s$ami belt is a simple. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. or ease of adjustment. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point.

b. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. In a severe fall.8*. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot.V. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. -D++I<IBI I D& A +. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. raditionally. !I /D> /. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material..* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. &ABB. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort. any tie(in around the $aist only could . he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment.. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!.$ill provide more comfort. Figure 6-)'. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. %. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot.

?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. . . if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end. $rapping to the outside.* Bocate the center of the rope. c. %. Dff to one side. like a parachute harness. 9rasping both ends. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. $ith the knots to the front. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. . the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. and hold it in place on the hip. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness.ven in a relatively short fall. and comfortable. A safe. Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch.

he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness.: feet usually $orks. forming t$o loops. just as you $ould put on a jacket. . d. Appro"imately ) to . but remember that $ith $ebbing. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. and drape the sling over the shoulders. . he t$ist. in the sling should be in the middle of the back. making a sling 1 to ' feet long.*. %0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling.Figure 6-. or cross. %.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot.

reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. If using a chest harness.I ICAB BI=?. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. in effect. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece.* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. the standing part of the rope is then . his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. or incorrectly. create a type of full(body harness. 7ttaching the . at the chest. the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. f. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. %. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. e. and comes off the harness in a fall. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C.

is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. or third loop formed in the knot. A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. rather than tying the rope to it. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. %. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. ensure the end.clipped into the chest harness carabiner. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. If using the three loop bo$line. %e!ay Techniques . C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. and possibly the e#uipment available. Figure 6-)". he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner.

. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers. Dne person climbs at a time. +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. ho$ever. for an up$ard pull. the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. rope team members can often move at the same time. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. In some instances. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. independent. but $ith practice. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. +tack the rope properly. sitting position $henever possible. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. or a 6brake. Dn steep terrain. . >se a $ell braced. if one person falls. e"posed terrain.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. • • • • .emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. and snug.6 can be applied to halt a fall. the procedure should become 6second nature. .

re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the .6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.BAI. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <.V. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body.. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. removed from the rope. there is no belay. aking up rope.BAI D=.nsure anchor attachments.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . and apply the brake to halt a fall.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. the rope management procedure is basically the same. If the brake hand is removed. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. take up rope to remove e"cess slack. • • . guide carabiner %if applicable*.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(.A9.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. !hen giving slack.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. otal control means the brake hand is =. b.• . at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. a. or run through a friction device. ho$ever.

brake hand remains on the rope at all times. :anaging the rope. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0.*. slide the guide hand out.* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands.. step 1*. step 0*. . he other hand is the brake hand. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0.. %)* .). he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0.. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope.. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay. place it behind the back and around the hips. step )*. to the front of the brake hand.. step '*.. step . %. Figure 6-. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure.

he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues. a. he body belay. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. . It is the simplest belay. %. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. re#uiring no special e#uipment. using terrain to his advantage. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. the belay may have to absorb. and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. %o&y %e!ay. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. and froAen. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. or fall force. +ometimes. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. especially for beginners. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber. !hen perfectly aligned. It is best to sit in a slight depression. stiff. in its various forms. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. he leg on the 6guide . A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. and the amount of load.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers.

he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*... . !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard. Sitting o&y e!ay. Figure 6-.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. %0* Standing 'ody 'elay. he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load.

the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. . he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. If the rope runs too high. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. rendering the belay useless. the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. If the rope runs too lo$. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer.1. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage.Figure 6-. dumping the belayer out of position. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks. %a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips.

or pearabiner. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope.* Munter itch.4. %. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. -ut some . A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. /o$ever. is designed for the Cunter hitch. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. to allo$ this function. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. attaching both to the carabiner. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads.Figure 6-. &or the most part. :echanica! %e!ay. and of the proper design. he carabiner must be large enough. he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. b. $hich forms an obvious. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. useless hitch. As a climbing belay.

is al$ays the guide hand. rather than around the belayerUs body.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. :unter hitch. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. he hand on the rope running to the climber. . he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body. As a belay device. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. to$ards the load. though developed as a rappel device. Figure 6-.5.+ =D change the function of the hands. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*. or load.

Figure-eight &e2ice. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. Figure 6-. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. %b* As a lo$ering belay.ope management is performed as in a body belay. A short. . >nlike the other devices. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use.6. but have no moving parts. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. . he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased.%a* As a climbing belay. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber.

creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. Additionally. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. =n&irect %e!ay. An indirect belay. and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. the most commonly used. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. b. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. If the belay is correctly established. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. the belayer is not locked into a position. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . Direct %e!ay. Also. slotted plate. a. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. . $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. he air traffic controller %A C*. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. if the second falls or $eights the rope.

c. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. rela"ed stance. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. 7im the %e!ay. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. Dnce the climbing line is picked. Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. b. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. %. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay. !ith the belay position selected. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. a. .the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber. Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. and in line $ith the first protection placement. sitting stance are preferred. . ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line.* . A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. the belayer selects his position. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. If this placement fails under load. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. 7nchor the %e!ay. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced.

If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. say after a severe fall. =ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. 6independent6. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. reach back. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. o accomplish this. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. .%0* . he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. saving the slings for the climb. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. his is not mandatory. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments. and 6snug6.

7ttach the %e!ay. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. Stack the .ope. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. or on the ledge. !ith the rope properly stacked. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber. %. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile. 7nchoring a e!ay. and applies the actual . he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. e. d. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay.* Dn small ledges. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position.7. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. he rope should be stacked on the ground. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task.Figure 6-.

Anchor attachments. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. final inspection of his belay. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same .* he belayer should make one #uick. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock. If the belay is set up correctly.". Figure 6-. If using a body belay. guide carabiner. If the climber takes a fall. !hen belaying the 6second6. %e!ay setup. 6<. the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. guide carabiner if applicable. he gives the signal.BAI D=W6. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. the force. the anchor attachments. If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake.belay techni#ue. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. %. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. if any.

he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber. :$73=3<. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. e"posed routes.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. Top-. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. A solid.* %$87D$. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. or at the top at the anchor.7CT=63 T7K$3 .side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. C8=:%$. .

6 . If multipitch climbing. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6. Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. the rope $ill be managed as necessary. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left. ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route.S$8F F.DC?6 -roceed.DC?6 6. apply brake. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area.6<. and again. . ensure climbers belo$ hear.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed.6T$CT D6E.6 . <elayer removes brakeKtension. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. 9. Climber selects a belay position. <elayer removes slack and applies brake. and hold me.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. 6 A?.=( I( &IV.6 6 !. 6+BAC?6 .=+ID=6 ake all the slack. <elayer takes in rope.D-. I am falling.

Ta !e 6-). Iou have 7 feet of rope left. ..BAI D=.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. !hile a lead climb is in progress. &or a rope tug command. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. prepares to climb. remaining anchored.ope comman&s.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope.BAI6 belay. Iou may remove the belay.7 feet of rope left. . Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet. . !ith the issue of this command. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands.emoves the 6D&& <.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. . I have finished climbing and I am anchored. Iou have no more rope. 6&IV.6&I&( . the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. b. <elayer removes the belay and. or $hen the climber is around a corner.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. Climber sets up the belay. a. or at the back of a ledge.6 +et up the belay. use only one. the most important command is 6<. +et up the belay position. his is especially true in $indy conditions.=6 Iou have appro"imately . above an overhang. his is the signal for 6<.. -repares to climb. remains anchored. anchoring and putting the second on belay. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& .

op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements.6 6pro placements.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb. a. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer.6 6pieces of pro. Top-. his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. If you can easily access the top of a climb.In military mountaineering. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. a leader or climber. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. rope%s*. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. you can easily avoid the climb itself. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . &or training. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor.ven if the climbing is for another purpose. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. .6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection. b. &or standardiAation $ithin this publication.6 and so on.6 6pieces. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb.6 6pro. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. As he climbs the route.

a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. and is responsible for selecting the route. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. or 6leap frogging. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. belays. or other rope installations. !hichever techni#ue is chosen. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. c. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. ice.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. b. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. +$inging leads.established for other purposes.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. a. taking on the role of lead climber. such as rappel points. he belayer simply adjusts his position. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break.

etc. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. is responsible for belaying the leader. to remove any protection that the leader may place. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. until the climber tells him other$ise. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. >nless told other$ise by the"t belay. the belayer signals. again. !hen the belay is ready. %'* !hile belaying.. 6<. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. he leader then begins climbing. %0* he other member of the climbing team. only as a courtesy. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. nut tool. If he cannot see the climber. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. %1* <efore the climb starts. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. $hether by sight or feel. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. he leader can then signal. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. it can be called for. he double checks the belay. %. such as a piton hammer. 6CBIC<I=96. !hen the leader is ready. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. removing the belay anchor.BAI D=6. or 6rope drag6. . the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. only as a courtesy.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. thus minimiAing friction. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements.

BAI D=6 is given. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. !hen the leader selects a particular route. the command 6 A?.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. Assorted he"entrics. he must also determine ho$ much. %. the leader sets an anchor. +BC2s of re#uired siAe. In this situation. . he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. &ive to ten standard length runners. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment.* he leader $ill assemble. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. d.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner. and $hat types.%7* As the leader protects the climb. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<.D-. each on a separate carabiner. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*.BAI6. At this position. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness. each on a separate carabiner. $ith t$o carabiners on each. . or the clip. !hen the leader has completed the connection. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. or 6rack.

. =ut tool."tra carabiners. Cordellette. • • .(inch $ebbing. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling.• • • $o to three double length runners. • . <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*.(inch $ebbing. %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. $ith t$o carabiners on each. 3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. 0: feet of .: feet of . the necessary e#uipment. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. Bong -rusik sling."tra carabiners. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. to some degree. .

&D. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. or pendulum. he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. protection should be placed more fre#uently. moving past a difficult section. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . saving hard$are for difficult sections. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second.e. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. is re#uired. kno$n as a traverse. %. placement of protection. protection can be placed farther apart. for both the leader and second if either should fall. If the climbing becomes easier. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. and <. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. Dnce an anchor is placed. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction.* Placing Protection. If the climbing is difficult.. As the leader begins this type of move. during. 9enerally. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. and upon completion of any traverse.

!hen placing protection. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. Dnce leaving that piece of protection. $hen released. he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. In addition.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. %a* If the route changes direction. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. /o$ever. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped. If the clip is made correctly. C7ET=63 . in a . the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist.

+traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. rotate the carabiner up$ards . C!ipping on to protection.5: degrees. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. o prevent this possibility.leader fall. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. =o matter ho$ direct the route. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. Figure 6-. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations.'. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route. If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to .

Ese o# s!ings on protection. Figure 6-1*. . .ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position.some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. o prevent this.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. inducing a fall. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. C7ET=63 . the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. or anchor. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*.

Figure 6-1). . he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner.ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. even $hen used 6actively6.*. Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling. or runner. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. . As the climber moves above the placements.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment. All $ired chocks used for . it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction."tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line.

ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper. or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. %e* . ry to use the shortest runners possible. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. Figure 6-1. . resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. therefore. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. +ome of the larger chocks. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. &urthermore. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag..

% his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. g.BAI6 to the belayer. as a courtesy. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. or seconding. rock fall. %. !hen removing the protection. he can. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. If necessary. reply $ith 6CBIC<. signal 6CBIC<I=9. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. no$ the climber.6 he second. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. or 6cleaning the pitch6. again as a courtesy. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. +harp rocks.* h. !hen removing protection.f. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. he second has to issue commands to the leader. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$.BAI D=. he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. $hile the final preparations are taking place. unless other$ise directed. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb.6 and the leader can. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second .6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. &ollo$ing. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. !hen the second is ready.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations.BAI D=. he belayer maintains tension on the rope.

valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads.egardless of the type of protection used. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection.6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer.reaches a more secure stance. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. Dnce the second completes the pitch. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. $hile remaining attached to an anchor.6 he leader removes the belay. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. +$inging leads. the method of aid climbing .BAI. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike.D-.=+ID=. and is the simplest form of aid climbing. .6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. Dnce secured. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. or 6leap frogging.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. If removing a piton. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. he belayer simply adjusts his position. %. taking on the role of lead climber. he should immediately connect to the anchor. a.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . . $quipment. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. he can signal 6D&& <. If too much slack develops. he should signal 6 A?. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers.

%b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . /o$ever. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. $ith or $ithout the hanger. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing.* Pitons. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. %. +ince pitons are the same. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. bolts can be used for aid climbing. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. %0* 'olts. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart.

%7* %aisy Chains. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. . smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. . Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. %'* Chocks. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into. appro"imately every .0 inches.. %1* S"C%s. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope.* . !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. although in aid climbing.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. . but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate.or -iders.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. %)* Etriers . 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. %5* -scenders. %4* (ifi ook. $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. or steps. A fifi hook is a small. although in aid climbing. split(shaft rivets.

%the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. %4* . he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also. !ith the daisy chains. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. If this happens. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. Technique. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. one at a time. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. again.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. the climb continues as follo$s: %. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. you are no$ standing above your support. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted.b. aiders. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. into the steps in the aider. &rom this height. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. he big difference is the movement up the rock.

one at a time. !hen the pitch is completed. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. 3otes4 . adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. %. Clear each knot as you unclip it.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. the arms need not support much body $eight. !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. Secon&ing. o ascend the route. repeat this procedure. o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. above the piece.* >nlike lead climbing. o make this easier. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. move the ascenders. If the ascender is too high. !hen adjusted to the correct height. use ascenders instead of -rusiks. o prevent this possibility. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. After ascending another 0: feet. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route.. .nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . tie in short on the rope every . a serious fall could result. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. as you approach the protection on the ascenders.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch.:* .

do not tie into the end of the rope. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. he hook . If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. !hile leading an aid traverse. possibly resulting in the protection failing. to get caught as you move up$ard. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. 0.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping you ascend. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. d. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. o make this safer and easier. /o$ever. %. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. his is in effect a self(belay. +BC2s. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. and other protection placed easily by hand. hooks. his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. e. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope.

protected traverses . a forty foot fall could result. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. 9iven one rope. $hich involves more difficulties. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope.::(foot climb $ith a . At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement.7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. hese types of devices due to their passive application. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . a. belayed climb.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. only t$o are described belo$. the methods $ill vary. although bolts can be used. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope. If the climb is only one pitch. &or e"ample: a . b. %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods.::(foot climb $ith a .

!hen using t$o ropes.. he again sets up a ne$ belay. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes.Us .BAI D=. %. and number 1. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. he second. he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. climber. or number 0 climber. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. or number . %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0.BAI6 from the leader. If using one rope. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. !hen number 1 receives 6<. !hen number . is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. !hen the leader completes this pitch. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. ascends belayed by number 0. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. !hen the leader completes the pitch. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired.$ill re#uire additional time.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position.

Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least . he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. !hen number 1 is not climbing. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. %d* =ormally. he remains anchored to the rock for security. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. number 1 performs no belay function.belay is ready. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. %d* In this method. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number ..: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay. his $ould save time for a team of three. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. such as the tuber type.

'hey can limit the battlefield and.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable. ascenders. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. H )i. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. =nsta!!ation . he use of harnesses. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. faster. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. even worse. he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. However. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . . As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult.ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable. and safer. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. but adds to total mission $eight. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment.

o install a fi"ed rope. Esing a #iBe& rope. -rusik. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. Dther$ise. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. . he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. If the leader placed protection. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. Figure 7-). Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope.*. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion. he $ill stack and manage the rope. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. Dnce the anchor is rigged. autoblock*. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. >pon reaching the end of the pitch.

he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. FiBe& . If not. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. Esing a se!#. Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes..etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. .Figure 7-.ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope.e!ay. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t. .

avoids obstacles. =nsta!!ation. he second sets up a standard belay. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. Area is safe from falling rock or ice. . a. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*.Figure 7-1. ease of negotiation. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. actical considerations are met.

he temporarily anchors the rope. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. %. and attaches the rope to the anchor. 3ote4 .* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. As the leader climbs the route. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. !hen he reaches an anchor point. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. .ope crossovers should be avoided. double figure(eight*. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process.nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom. . 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.


BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B


I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI


Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.


A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

appe! %&igure 4(7*. -asty rappe!. b. 9loves are $orn. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample.Figure 7-4. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. %o&y . /e then pulls the rope from behind. the rope runs to the brake hand. . o brake. diagonally across the chest. and back over the opposite shoulder. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. &rom there. and runs it around either hip. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. and his back straight to reduce friction. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock.

c. 0.appe! %&igure 4()*.Figure 7-5. 3otes4 .. he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. %o&y rappe!. 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns. Seat--ip . /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. . his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods.

repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. Seat-hip rappe!.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness. If using a right(hand brake. %. his method has minimal friction. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. If a single rope is used. stand to one side of the rope. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake. and is fast and safe. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . /o$ever. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side.Figure 7-6. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. stand to the right of the rappel rope.

. d. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. &or this reason. he brake hand goes on the slack rope. Figure 7-7. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope.* o use the figure(eight descender. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. Figure-$ight Descen&er.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. %.

$Bten&ing the . &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. f. Figure-eight &escen&er. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*.appe! De2ice. he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness.) of an inch in siAe. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. . he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. d. 6ther De2ices. e. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K.Figure 7-". It also allo$s for easier self( belay. hese include slots or plates and tubers.

depends on the techni#ue. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about .( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#. 6ne-. /o$ever.Figure 7-'. .ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope.e!ay. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed. or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.

the s$immer must be belayed across. If t$o carabiners are used. are al$ays preferred. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. At that time. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. a.:. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. If crossing a stream. Dnce across. such as large trees and solid rock formations. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. b. If crossing a ravine or gorge. $iremanUs. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. =atural anchors. c.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. . he anchor should be $aist high. the gates $ill be opposing. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope.

Transport tightening system. d. .1*.0*. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. e. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure.Figure 7-)*. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(..*.

.Figure 7-)).. Transport knot . Figure 7-). .oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight.

a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety. a. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. b. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing.:. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. Tension!ess anchor knot. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(. . the far side man anchors the rope.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. Dnce across. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. $eb $rap. 3ote4 2uring training. c. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock.Figure 7-)1. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank.

g. transport knot.d. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. e. F-pu!!ey tightening system. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. and is run back to the near side anchor. . he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. As the rope is pulled tight. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. !hen the rope is tight. Figure 7-)4. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. f. he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. here are several methods of accomplishing this. from inside to outside.

If dry crossing is impossible. Figure 7-)5. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope.7*. attach it to the bridge. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. and yrolean traverse. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. monkey cra$l. . and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. he may $ear it over both shoulders. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. -referably. :etho& o# Crossing. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. %. Comman&o cra+!. and pull the rucksack across.a. o recover if he falls over. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(.)*. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line.

Figure 7-)7. a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge.4*.Figure 7-)6. he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. he rappel seat method is the preferred method.appe! seat metho&. If crossing $ith rucksacks. /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress. . he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge. . %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. :onkey cra+!.

but many e"pedient methods e"ist. or supplies. -au!ing !ine. ABIC.igging Specia! $quipment.may dictate the rigging of these items.* Machine /uns. %0* -"0CE Packs. Construction. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. %. . he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. ammunition. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. A unit +D.5*. All the slack is pulled to the near side. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. o rig machine guns. and carabiners. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. such as cre$(served $eapons. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. cordage %various siAes*. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. Figure 7-)".b. &inally. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. he other end is anchored on the near side. . Any special e#uipment. a. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge.

-ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times. :o2ing . . the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side. Dn each side of this carabiner. a. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. :o2ing 8itters. and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor.emove the slack bet$een the carabiners. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. If the < C chooses the dry method. %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. . c.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. he far side remains anchored. %'* A three(man pull team. assembled on the far side. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. . he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge.ucksacks. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop.b. %.

inserts a carabiner. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. chasms. removes the knots.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer.%)* Dnce across. and then pulls the rope across. %. ravines. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. Site Se!ection . any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. Figure 7-)'. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop. Suspension tra2erse. and up or do$n a vertal. b. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor.

he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking. Construction. $o sturdy poles are needed.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. $quipment. =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. . +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection.* . he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation. hree to five . %. depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame.0 feet long. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. a. %0* !ith a sling rope. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. 7-#rames. -osition this knot on .nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors. an A(frame must be used. -lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. c. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance.'(foot sling ropes are needed. leaving about .5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole. b.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. and mark the ape" on both poles.

Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. .* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. ensure it is in the same direction as the . ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap.*.* Figure 7-.the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. Cake the $raps as tight as possible. %+ee &igure 4(0:&. !hen starting the first vertical $rap. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps.*.

emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs. Figure 7-. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. .un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. dig the legs in about ) inches.). 7-#rame sprea&er.nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. %4* If the ground is a hard surface. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point. ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. d. . -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. Adjust the A( . he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. =nsta!!ation Construction. the direction of kick. If the ground is soft. If more than one sling rope is needed. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot.*. . %. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear.

* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( . his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined..'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. .. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope. not forcing it in a lateral direction. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope.0*. It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*.. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(. Figure 7-. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. Eoin the ends of a . 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame. his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position.

%5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. 2ue to the constant .1.Figure 7-. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions. a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope.

.4. herefore.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. use a mechanical belay. Aertica! hau!ing !ine. or supplies Figure 7-.tension maintained on the belayer. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed. use a relay man. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural . rucksacks.

and anchor it. find the middle. o maintain the . and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. 2ouble one installation rope. a.0(inch bight.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. if necessary.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. .* Figure 7-. %+ee &igure 4(07. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. .0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape".5. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment.

0 inches apart. belay from the top using the hauling line. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. or to. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered. directional figure(eight.b. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. he angle should be . . ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. o anchor the A(frame. f. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. +pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . d. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line .7 to 07 degrees unloaded. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads. g. c.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. $hich is tied to the A(frame. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. e. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs.

etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route.. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. !hen in use. . he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. $eather. pull the other side from belo$. . a. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. !hen it is no longer needed. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. Simp!e . &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. terrain. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. e#uipment. Construction.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain. Theory. Consi&erations. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. c. . the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks.educe e"cessive friction on the system. >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. and the rope condition. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope. the load rubbing against the rock $all.h. . b. load $eight. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. and availability of anchors.

. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope. -lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. place a pulley into the carabiner. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. and run the hauling rope through the pulley.* . ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots.%. . %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*.

a. &or greater efficiency. If the t$o pulleys touch. d. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. F-pu!!ey system.6. e#uipment. 6ther Factors. $eather. and availability of anchors. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage.Figure 7-. >se belays and backup safeties. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. load $eight. Consi&erations. . +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. terrain.

%1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load. . he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. c. and the rope condition. the load rubbing against the rock $all. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. his is the -C2. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. Construction. E-pu!!ey system. %. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners.7. Theory.b. Figure 7-.* Anchor the hauling rope.. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. %7* Construct a second anchor. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor.

according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. the slo$er the pace. acclimatiAation. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess. good nutrition and hydration. he trained. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. conditioning. !hen a moderate pace is set. he more adverse the conditions. . and light conditions affect the rate of climb. produces early fatigue. Coving too fast. $eather. pace. H In addition to proper techni#ue. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. and a unit can cover a given . rugged terrain. s0iing or snow shoeing. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. re#uires more rest halts.est. pace is adapted to conditions. even under ideal conditions. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. and results in loss of climbing time. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. empo. he mountaineer sets a tempo. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. proper training. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. or number of steps per minute. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. H he terrain. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. hen. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. the need for rest halts decreases. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. rappelling. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. technical roc0 and ice climbing. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently.

At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one.. enabling an easier. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. and higher elevations. If possible. <listers and . deeper inhale. %1* his slo$. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. the soldier pauses briefly.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. %'* After a climb. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. not muscle. supports the $eight. to . %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. %. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply. hydrate. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed. rock. steady. It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps. %. soldiers lean against a tree. and snack on trail food. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. If possible.distance in a minimal time. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic.* After each step for$ard. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed.7 hours. he soldier e"hales strongly. rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. sno$fields. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. breathe deeply. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing.

and on scree and talus slopes. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. and back pain may follo$. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability. H -ar& <roun&. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. as the slope steepens.efer to Chapter . A ski pole.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock. A normal progression. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route.* !hen ascending. !hile traversing. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. %. and loss of balance. knee damage. in lo$ brush or heather. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. /ard ground is firmly compacted. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. try to s$itchback periodically. If side hill travel is necessary. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. to a herringbone step. surface. through thick brush. o turn at the end of each traverse. back injury. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. %. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. animal trails. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground.blackened toenails. $ould be from $alking straight up. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. ice a". on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. . for techni#ues and use of the ice a"..

At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. and plants his foot solidly. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security. he soldier performs a basic rest step. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. simply $alk straight do$n. Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. $hich must be done in a positive. each one improving the step as he ascends.. It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints.H Sno+ S!opes. his is the in(balance position. /. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . /10 Descen&ing Sno+. he soldier faces out. held in the uphill hand. . If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. aggressive manner. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. and $eighting the trail leg. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. steps off. and they $ill not be as secure. he ice a".0 Step Kicking. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. returning to the in(balance position. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. $hich take half of the boot.

he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. H <rassy S!opes. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. brush is both a help and a hindrance. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. trees.* !hen ascending. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. H Thick %rush. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. &or the military mountaineer. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. $here the ground is more level. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. and the upper leg is used only for balance. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. In this techni#ue. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. %. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. !hen traversing.

o .* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. back straight. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. H Scree S!opes. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree.the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. !hen $alking in talus. and then repeats the process. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. ascending or descending. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. After determining that the step is stable. %. and heels dug in. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. H Ta!us S!opes. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. feet pointed do$nhill. if possible.

and do not look up. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes. All other basics of mountain $alking apply.ockW6 is shouted immediately. knees and toes. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. . navigation. the $arning. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. digging into the slope $ith hands. and route finding. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. he use of the map. sno$. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. is the foundation of good navigation. the location of a target objective.prevent rock fall injuries. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. compass and identifiable terrain features. grass and scree as $ell as sno$. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. 6. elbo$s. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. grass. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. Backing cover.

the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. checking progress and terrain identification. usually attached to a cord. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. good judgement and sound tactical instincts.::: feet of elevation. %. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. b. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. or millibars. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. millimeters of mercury. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . and bad $eather should be e"pected. It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location. a loss of barometric pressure of . <y measuring air pressure.* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. . he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team.H . usually inches of mercury.1 inches has occurred. Compasses. 7!timeters. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters. route planning. a.. it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale.

survey monuments. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. global. he 9-+ is a space(based. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. c. Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. longitude and elevation of the individual user. <!o a! 9ositioning System. his can result in faulty elevation readings.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. and so forth* is reached. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. it can provide position %accurate up to . %4* . causing them to give poor readings. . he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. saddles. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. It can determine the latitude. his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. stream(trail intersections. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. %. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates. all($eather.

he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. Canyons.%1* 2uring route planning. . three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. %'* +ince the 0. or altimeter navigation. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems. the better the system performs. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. or plateaus are better. summits. after choosing critical checkpoints. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. 3a2igation Techniques. terrain association. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. d. &or navigation. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. start point and objective.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. Dther$ise. but due .idgelines. deep valleys. open valleys. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. spurs. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. saddles. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. %4* . enter their coordinates as $ay points.

and attack points are all used. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered. than as a primary navigational aid. /andrails. navigational corridors. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. bo"ing(in areas. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route.eckoning. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. siAe.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature. burned(over. he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. !hen clear cut. . orientation. slope %+D+. . /eavy fog. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field.* Dea& . %. and not a precise point. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. he shape. elevation. %0* Terrain the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. checkpoints. glacier. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. catching features.

Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. such as da$n. uniform surface. $atercourse. check the . but not behind the object being vie$ed. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. H !hen the object blends into the background.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. in computing rates of ascent or descent. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. open road or track. or desert. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. dusk. H !hen the light is poor. and in $eather prediction. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. hey aid in orientation. in resection. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. H !hen looking over a smooth. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. $ater. H !hen looking do$n a straight. such as sno$.

sno$fields and glaciers. !atch the mountain during the approach march. In this case. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. may present themselves. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. In addition. such as couloirs or gullies. . H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. and the physical condition of the team. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. !eaknesses in the mountain $alls. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. %. cliff bands. &ault lines.ates of travel. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. gross bedding planes of rock. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. studying it for climbing routes. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. and crevasse Aones become visible. light conditions %time of day*. cliffs. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. 7pproach 6 ser2ations. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. . e. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n. along $ith $eather conditions.altimeter. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map.

3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. vegetation. $ater features. f. individual ski abilities. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. %. constrain your choice of terrain. pays off in more efficient travel. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. and impact on your route choices. as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. 2uring calm $eather. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. are often steeper.oute Se!ection. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles. sno$ pits. 2uring movement. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. and the siAe of the unit. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. shovel tests. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . g. terrain relief. (inter . he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. avalanche danger.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and. If you must cross one. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. &or $eaker skiers.

H -reset aAimuths on your compass. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. east. H >se a steady. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. If the $eather turns bad. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. %4* 2uring ski movements. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs. If $eak skiers are in the group. ice a".danger is still present. Avoid north. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. !eather and tactical situation permitting. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. . Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. and so on to get accurate readings. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high.

he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. compasses. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult. short hours of daylight.h.* In $inter.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. $hiteouts. hick vegetation and rough. drastically limit visibility. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. sno$fall. . especially above tree line. . At times. 9ro !ems. kno$ledge of the enemy . steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. caused by large ore deposits. Careful map reconnaissance. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. and drifting sno$. particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements. trails. are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. %. fog. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. bliAAards. %'* /andling maps.

<ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale.econnaissance. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. A . Areas above tree line. such facilities as ski lifts. obli#ue angle. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations.0. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues.::: map depicts greater detail than a . even larger scale maps are desirable. :ap . often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. clear cuts. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process. Along $ith sketch maps. terrain analysis of the operational area. Civilian . !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields.:07. %. cable and tram$ays are often found. verbal descriptions.:. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain.::: maps can be used if available.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance.situation. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. In addition. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*.:7:. Aerial. pay close attention to the marginal information. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. a.::: map and should be used $henever possible. An . or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help. he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue.

important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. $nemy Situation. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. . Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors. . trails. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. &ords and river crossing sites should be identified. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. c. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. e"tractions. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. and plans made to avoid them. %0* Dbstacles.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. barns. impassable torrents. such as rivers and gorges. are factored in. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present. $eather permitting. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. %1* /elicopter support. b. and large open areas above tree line. resupply and medevac. roads. they have a marked advantage. but should still be e"pected. bridges.uins.

and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* .ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. %0* . he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. Enit 7ssessment. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. especially $hen there is sno$ cover.outes through granite rock %long cracks. %1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. good friction@ use of pitons. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. . %.success. he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. and ground cover. Time-Distance Formu!as. smooth rock@ bolts. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. camming units*. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment.*. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. mountain structure and forms. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l. including the geology. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. e. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. d.

and clothing for mountain travel. In order to do this. it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. to 7. $eights in order to obtain accurate.' to . basic mountaineering gear. Time-&istance #ormu!as... sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march. .5 to 7. indicates. his distance plus . %0* As able 5(.* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing .0 kph 0 to 1. realistic rates of march. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC..) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically.) to 1.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel. should take this into account. %. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times..0 kph 1. foot . such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.::: feet of ascent or* $alking* Dn foot %less than .) to 1. actical movements. helicopter support cannot be relied on.0 to ' kph +kiing . Add one hour for each . foot of .0 kph 0 to 1.) kph '. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year. Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain. first measure the map distance.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.

aerial photos. his includes degree of slopes. Se!ect a Current :ap. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. clearings. avalanche probability. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. . ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. sno$ condition reports. a. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. Additionally. sno$ depth. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. avalanche probability. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. Consider the follo$ing: %.oute. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route. roads. vegetation. <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. Se!ect a .oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. %1* .* Tra##ica i!ity. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. and trails accurately. $idth of trails.. $eather reports. -lot start and end points. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain.equire& $quipment. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. c. b. and the likelihood of crevasses.

When rivers or streams must be crossed. %)* Con&itions. swift. ake into consideration their present health. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. depending upon the type of stream. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement. its width. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. . %4* Checkpoints. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen.Capa i!ities o# Enit. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. and depth of the water. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence. an alternate route should be used.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. .Contro! 9oints. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. or deep. :ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. >se all available information and plan accordingly. !hen plotting a route on the map. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area.%7* Communications. speed of the current. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints.econnaissance .

As glaciers. if . Crossigs. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. In a s$amp. b. for e"ample. the rivers rise.. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. or ice melt during the day. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. depending on the distance from the source. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening. A distant vie$. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. the closer you are to the source. 2epending upon the time of year.econnaissance of the route %map. If a dry crossing is unavailable. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. a. perhaps from a ridge. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. sno$. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. or head$aters. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. photo. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor.*. Figure '-).

and thus shallo$est. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. point of the river or stream. above the tree line for e"ample. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards.made during the early morning. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. =atural anchors are not a necessity. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. . A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. Dnce a log jam is formed. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. if any. Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. ho$ever. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel.ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. firm bottom. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. contain sections $ith numerous channels. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. ho$ever. %1* Cany mountain streams. In some areas.

should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. b. -reparation includes the follo$ing. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. H If you must cross on the upstream side. he could easily dro$n. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. as in the higher alpine Aones. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. !rap radios. %)* !hen possible. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore. +DI. papers. <oots should be $orn . 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. if available. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. a. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. binoculars. tactical situation. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. temperature of the air and $ater*. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. All pockets are buttoned.

a. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. /o$ever. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. the risk of head injury if a person slips is protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. Dn the far side. At times. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. e. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . f. socks and inner soles should be removed. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. d. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. c.

he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. a long ice a". $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. deliberate steps. o increase balance. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. c. b. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. sturdy tree limb. /e should take short. If an obstacle is encountered. e.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it. he staff should be moved first. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. d. . and if available. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual.

=n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. but $ith the added support of each other.. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep. &or chain crossing. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. .Figure '-. a team crossing may be used. he line formed faces the far bank. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*.

he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. he stream at this point may be impassable. Chain metho& #or stream crossing.K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. height of the anchors above the $ater. .escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. and the distance from the near and far anchors. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. the chosen site must be closely e"amined. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. a. he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible.ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. . If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. Cany times though.Figure '-1. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed.

If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. If this is impossible. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. =nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*. should he fail to reach the far bank. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank.$ill pendulum back. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner.. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. . then a rope bridge should be installed as such. /e should =. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time.V. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it. %.

or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor.Figure '-4. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. An appropriate knot is tied into the . %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank. Stream crossing using a han&!ine. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. and anchored on the near bank. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. /ere again. pulled tight. %. rather than straight across the stream.

It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. the handline should be crossed one person at a time. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks. .middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. %7* >nder most circumstances. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. $hichever appears easiest. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. Figure '-5.

recoilless rifles. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place. use a different techni#ue. stream bottom configuration. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. or choose another route. $idth of the stream.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. and so on.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. speed of the current. A lookout should be posted 7: to . Sa#ety . c. he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. especially heavier $eapons. f. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. . e. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected. d. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. such as mortars. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. b. and individual e"perience. a.%)* .

In either case. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. b. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. h. such as a sandbar. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. If the shore is too difficult to reach. e. c. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. a. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. 2o not try to fight the current. for assistance or rescue. seek out the closest and safest spot. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$.g. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. . /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. d. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. facing do$nstream. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

As the slope steepens. and traverse.:(. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet. !henever possible. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures . . F!at-#ooting in the cra position. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es.egardless of the techni#ue used. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. d. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B.:(..degrees. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending. . bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting.: and . Figure )*-)*. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". descend straight do$n the fall line. Dn steep terrain.*.

raverse $ith feet flat. logical progression. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual.Figure )*-)). &ront(pointing. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. .* Crampons. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. %0* =ce 7B. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. e. <acking up the slope %crab position*. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %. /erringbone step straight up the slope. 3orma! 9rogression. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side.

in some cases.e. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure .. <egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. . >sing most of these positions. Step Cutting. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to .epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a". C!im ing sequence. . C!im ing Sequence. a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .:(.0*.:(. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. f. and move the hand up the a" shaft. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.1*. Figure )*-).

%0* =ce. Dnce the step is formed. In ascending. steps may be cut straight up the slope. then cut one bet$een those t$o. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made. a traverse is also the preferred method. Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. they should be smaller than footholds. . /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. In descending. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. %'* -an&ho!&s. although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. If handholds are cut. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. and angled more. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger.* Sno+.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. %. =e"t. !hen changing direction. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut.

he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. 2uring movement on steep ice. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. . and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact. a fall %&igure .:(. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. Se!#-7rrest. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice. C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent.Figure )*-)1. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall.'*. or arrest. A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. g.

Figure )*-)4. . Se!#-arrest technique.

the climber must first gain control of his body. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. %. H /ead do$nslope. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. and feet pointed do$nslope. stomach on the slope. H /ead upslope. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope.Figure )*-)4. H /ead do$nslope. stomach on the slope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. and feet pointed upslope. back to the slope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. back to the slope. . and feet pointed upslope.

rapid descent. the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope.:(. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. %b* In the second position. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope.7*.%a* In the first position. he a" is held diagonally across the chest. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. If crampons are not $orn. stomach on the slope. controlled. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. . Dne hand grasps the head of the a". the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. stomach do$n position. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. e"cept skis . his could cause the climber to tumble and also. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times. %'* !hen a fall occurs.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. 9lissading is similar to skiing. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. %d* In the fourth position. could severely injure his ankles and legs. %c* In the third position.

he same balance and control are necessary.are not used. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. Also. and guide for the glissade. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. brake. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". pick. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". Sa#ety. $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. c. Squatting <!issa&e. $hich serves as the rudder. b. and the other hand on the shaft. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. Sitting <!issa&e. as painful injury could result. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen. . a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin.

%. skis. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military. and ice pitons. a. . ice scre$s. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. backpacks. &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. <!issa&ing techniques. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. or any large items. flukes. deadman(type anchors. =ce 9itons. >sed singularly. sleds.Figure )*-)5. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is .: inches in length.* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*.

he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. he pair of pitons. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. are multidirectional. c. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . =ce Scre+s. such as top roping. move to another spot and replace it. !hen an ice piton is removed.4*.:( . making further use difficult. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed.)*. $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. =ce piton pair. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited. $hen placed correctly. If it pulls out or appears $eak. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. or the ice may crack or soften. If repeated use is necessary for one installation.:(. Figure )*-)6.

he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited.%. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning. must be removed before further use. 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. . such as top roping.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. %. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n.emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. or the ice may crack or soften.:: degrees from the lo$er surface. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . Figure )*-)7.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary.

a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. %. !hen constructed of sno$. . he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. Figure )*-)". or other e#uipment for added strength. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth.: feet. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. the $idth should not be less than .* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes. %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. depending on the strength of the ice. he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$.d. his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure .5*. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. e. In ice.:(. the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. pickets.

8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor.%. sno$shoes. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. ski poles. should be at a right angle to its length.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. %. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor. frayed.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. he direction of pull on long items. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. f. also.6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried.* !henever possible. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. skis.:(. he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. A similar anchor. t$o or more anchors should be used. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. . such as a picket or a". A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. %&igure . !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. or other fi"ed rope installations. . rappel points.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. $qua!i@e& 7nchors.

=ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. +hould any member fall. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. . b. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall. Tie-=n :etho&. %+ee paragraph .:(4. <y using this . the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. for more information*. :o2ement. Covement on 9laciers.e#ualiAed anchor.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. Figure )*-)'. a three(man rope team is recommended. a. !hen crevasses are e"pected. $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers. he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9. the tie(in is modified slightly.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. all climbers move simultaneously.

called the 6team arrest.* %oot-7B %e!ay. and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce. c. 9enerally. Dn steeper slopes.:(0:*. he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". Figure )*-. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. .method. %.*. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. %oot-aB e!ay.

H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. As the movement continues. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. H . .%0* %o&y %e!ay. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. also. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. d. %1* :unter -itch. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$.opes. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. ridgelines. or cliffs. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. FiBe& . he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed.etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice.

:(0.). Characteristics an& De#initions. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.* Figure )*-. <!acier cross section. %&igure .a.:(00 depicts common glacier features. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers. his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. and &igure . .

%0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall. %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %.Figure )*-. Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall.. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier. <!acier #eatures.. .

%7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. <e cautious. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. %. %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. he firn line can change annually. %.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. As you approach this area. %.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice. . he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. Cost of these are formed by the $ind. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. .. %.

%00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. b. +no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. %.%. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. In $inter.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. %.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. %0. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. icefalls.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. Dangers an& 6 stac!es. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. and ice avalanches. $hen visibility is poor. %. %. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$. %. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses. o$ard the end of the summer.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier.

* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. criss(crossed $ith crevasses.1. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers. he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. %.:(01*. Figure )*-. .:(0'*. his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure . Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.

the remaining members go into team arrest. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. use the -rusik to belay each other in. o locate the positions. assess the situation. . three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person. If the team members need to assemble in one area. %0* !hen conditions $arrant. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even. If four people are on a team. if three people are on a team. form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully.Figure )*-. ie in to the bights and the ends.4. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. he simplest and most common .

he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker. A roped team of t$o. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. halting the fall. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. 9enerally. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. $hile ideal for rock climbing. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. their security being the team arrest. c. .ope& :o2ement. .:(07*. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. the other members immediately perform self(arrest. he best combination is a three(man rope team.

%. as for a four(person team.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues.* .5. he remaining 6thirds6 . he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. the rope should be divided into thirds. %0* .Figure )*-. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people. <ecause of this. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner. $hether improvised or premanufactured. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope.

it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. !hen . Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall. $ith double fishermanUs knots. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel. Securing the %ackpack. d. the chance of it failing is much greater. forming endless loops or slings. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. if $arm clothing is needed. by itself. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. &or safety reasons. If necessary. he ends of the ropes are tied together. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever.. may be e"tremely difficult. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. e. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel.ucksack. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. <efore movement.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations.0(foot ropes. /o$ever. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. attached to the rucksack. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. or carried over the head and shoulder. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. Ese o# 9rusik Knots. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue.

the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. . %. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. and icefalls.* In the area of the firn line.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams.hanging from the drop cord.outes. large crevasses remain open. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. Dpen crevasses are obvious. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. Crossing Cre2asses. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. $hich covers glacier ice. connecting both sides of it. /o$ever. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. In this Aone. the sno$. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. and do not take the place of. heavily crevassed portions. g. . on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points. f. steep terminal or lateral moraines. =arro$ cracks may be covered. %. they only supplement. $hereas the glacier ice is gray.

It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. and may form firmer bridges. a crevasse is probably present. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. %. If he is. In such a situation. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. h. and gradually turn into glacier ice. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. its detection is difficult. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. the team may proceed. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals. . but difficult to detect in flat light. Sno+ %ri&ges. such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse.

i. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion. he assumes the belay position. 2o not stamp the sno$. %c* he leader should move for$ard. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. %1* In crossing crevasses. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. . distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope.: feet back from the edge. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. =umber t$o belays number three across. Dnce the second is across.

/o$ever.%. it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. to anchor the rope. if the person $as almost across. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. =umber 1 must al$ays be . and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. the rope is al$ays kept taut. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope.. % his scenario is for a team of three. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. using the -rusik as a self belay. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse.

$ould anchor the rope by himself. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse.escue Techniques. and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. onto the anchor. and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. assumes the role of number 1. Cre2asse . If number 1 should fall through a crevasse.Us anchor.. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. as a minimum. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. close to number 0. number . %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number .: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . =ormally. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. if the middle person should fall through.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. j. he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load.

=umber . he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. place padding. or backpackKrucksack. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. As the assisting team pulls. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. %.edge. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse.ope. If necessary. /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . %0* FiBe& . here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. ski.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique. the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. such as an ice a". ski pole. In order to reduce friction. on the edge of the ice. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. If the fallen climber is not injured. clips number 1Us rope to himself.ope Teams. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. In some situations. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. . the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$.

he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. Dther times. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. to ascend the rope. the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . %f* he procedure is repeated. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik.6 of the long sling. %&igure . the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness.person in the crevasse. /o$ever. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. or 6stirrup.

he basic V rig is a 61(to(.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . A pulley can be used here if available. Figure )*-. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse.. to the anchor. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. In actual field use. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . 9rusik ascen&ing technique. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system. In theory. and they have decided to install the V rig. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system.:(04*. /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( .::(pound load $ith this system. % his scenario is for a team of three.6 system. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number .6. he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a .

If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. H !ith the 61(to(. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. he system is no$ ready for another haul. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage. the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope.Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. . %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised .6 system.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number .

* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. =ormally. at least eight feet in length. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. a crevasse is present. Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system. poles. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. a. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n.Figure )*-.7. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. . %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. and so on. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers.

d. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. Under these conditions. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. $hich keeps tents closer together. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. probe again after digging.* &or block construction. the weather. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. by . :ountain . Cultiple tent sites can be connected. 7t is. Air evacuation is preferred: however. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. distance to be moved. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation.b. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. If a dugout latrine is necessary. At a minimum. terrain. %. ry to find a solid platform. e. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. In deep soft sno$. he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . c. therefore. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . by 0 feet. If a latrine area is needed. tactical situation. Dccasionally $hile probing. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. and e)isting installations.

evel 777 supervising. and maintain moderate body $armth. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. physician/s assistant. resume victimUs breathing.2.evel 7 and . there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations. . hey are. . 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. a. and one person only. %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues.nsure that the C. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. medic%. c. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. &or a planned rescue. %. . /o$ever. Dne person. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake.* Assume command. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. . he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue. ho$ever. b. control serious bleeding. is overall in charge at all times.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . .sufficient.

!hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. a. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. !hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people.esist the urge for action.$SCE$. or any other immediate haAard. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample.escue 6perations . evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. +peed is less important than correct action. and terrain at hand. 9!anning . %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. . continually monitor pulse. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD. vehicle. .very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. T-$ . or a change in $eather. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards. hanging glacier. %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. possibility of falling rocks*. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation.If the victim is unconscious. if available. should be used for evacuation. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. environmental haAard. avalanche run(out Aone.

H errain features and location of the casualties. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. $hat. H . that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. and evacuation. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. and the nature of their injuries. $hen. priority. d. c.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. H . he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved.b. tactical immediate*. H Are additional personnel. $hy. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. security. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . $here. medical. and ho$ the situation happened. H -lan the action. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. In planning a rescue. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. routine.* After identifying the task. H actical situation. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. rescue. he task must be identified. treatment. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances.

%'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. Age and physical condition may vary. and so on*. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. stove. reliable trails or roads is essential. ropes. e. bivouac sacks. . drugs started. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety. tents. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. If the victim is airlifted out. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. sleeping bags. blood pressure. and the personnel and e#uipment available. hot food and drinks. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. and stretchers. $arm #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. and rescue belay points*. %c* !hen performing all rescues. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. lo$ering lines. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. fi"ed lines. ime becomes the critical element. Ca"imum use of secure. $alking trails.* In estimating time available. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty. the situation. pulse rate. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. !ith all rescue techni#ues. anchor points.

H 9.=TD F6E. In high altitudes. .%1* . and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. or gusting $inds.=6. separate stages are taken.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential. H T-=. . a. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. Specia! Training .emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. b.=6. . e"treme cold.=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. H F6E.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated. o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation.$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance.=TD T-. .vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. H 9. H F=.ST ST7<$4 .4 he logistics removal of dead personnel.D ST7<$4 .emove dead personnel. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all.T. H 9. H S$C63D ST7<$4 .=6. available time is drastically reduced.ST7<$4 .=6.

:anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers. he sling(rope carry %&igure . %. saddleback. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. four(hand. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated.ope Carry. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. .<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever.(. he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. herefore. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders. or inade#uate protection from the elements.. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. t$o(hand. a. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. the best method of manual transportation is selected.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. rough handling.* S!ing-. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. pistol belt. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. it can be lost through carelessness. <ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury. 6ne-:an Carries. piggyback. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. difficult terrain.* re#uires a '. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay.

. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim. %0* . Figure ))-). crosses the ends. $hen available. should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . forming t$o almost e#ual groups. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. %f* he rope must be tight.K0( meter coiled rope. and back around to the front of the bearer. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. -adding. S!ing-rope carry. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil.ope Coi! Carry. around the casualtyUs thighs.

A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope. . his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. If this is not done. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. pulling the casualty onto his back. tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. In this case. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. the bearer carefully stands. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. b. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. %u&&y . the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils.appe!. he victim is top(rope belayed from above.

depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. he victim straddles the carrier.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. from left to right. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. he rope is run diagonally. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. . from right to left. and back under the victimUs left armpit. %0* A '. across the carrierUs chest. over his left shoulder. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip.%. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. %7* he rope is run diagonally. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. across the victimUs back. from right to left.0(meter sling rope is used. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip.

he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. and e#uipment available. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. It can be improvised $ith poles. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. depending on the terrain. a. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. easy to carry. and then do$n along the other arm.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. nature of injuries. :anu#acture& 8itters. belayed. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units.%. depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. he rope is folded in half. as described above. $hich are se$n on one side. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. . nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. on traverse lines. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation.* he poleless. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. and then carried again. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. and readily available. If the litter must be carried. and then routed up along the handling arm. %. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. over the shoulder. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly. behind the neck.

%)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations. $hich is a potential breaking point. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. . %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter.1. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. %+ee &C 5(. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it. . !hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever. his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters.5. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(.* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment.

%0* If poles cannot be found. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-..6*-). and other similar items. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe.. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. skis. and poles. ponchos. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. shirts. shelter halves. these objects should be padded. such as a blanket. ladders. benches. Figure ))-. -oles can be improvised from strong branches. +uch objects include boards. %.(0):(. /o$ever.0. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. or mattress covers.. cots. bags. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center.%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. b. sacks. tent supports.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. a large item. If a poncho is used.. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. $indo$ shutters. doors. not dragging on the ground. .(0*. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim.* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. A litter can be improvised from many different things. scoop stretchers. tarpaulin. the hood must be up and under the victim. . If possible. jackets.

sleeping bags. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ). make a clove hitch over each bight.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. &our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. 3ote4 Above the tree line. %b* !ith the remainder of the rope.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches.ach clove hitch should be about . ..(1*.ope !itter. . empty bo"es. It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. Figure ))-1. centimeters long. little material e"ists to construct litters. %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. . %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter.

. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about .escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot.7 centimeters.%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. . 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available.* &irst. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord.(meter poles. %. and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. a. After placing the clove hitches over the bights.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary.escue Systems . %7* -ull up on the rope. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles. %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord. 2o not remove the belay. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. ake t$o . %e!ay 7ssist. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. and place a carabiner into the loop. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it.

%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through.* After a climber has been injured. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. . 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. %. %7* . attach the climbing rope from the belay device. b.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. %e!ay $scape. o improve this system. %5* . the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot.

<ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes.aising systems.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems.aising System.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations. . the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails.* . %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber. backup safety -rusiks are used to . transferring the $eight to the anchor.%)* . A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. . $hich must be surmounted. %. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. and other variables. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. hand $inches.aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. belays. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. rope(edge friction. %0* %e!ays. In practice. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team. . $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. are often encountered along the evacuation path. a. %1* %ackup Sa#eties.

( '*. he litter is prepared as already described. %. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. assisting him in lo$ering the litter.* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. . another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. if possible. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. . the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform.safeguard the system. Descen&ing S!opes. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. % his is the signalman or relay man. taking care not to jar the casualty. c.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man.. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. %.aising the 8itter. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. b.

clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation .(7*: a. %1* he most direct. clearance for the casualty along the route. +ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points. if used. and anchor points for the A(frame. As long as safety principals are follo$ed. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope.vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure .. many different techni#ues can be used.&escen&ing.Figure ))-4. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of . b. good loading and unloading platforms. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders.

Figure ))-5. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. C!i## e2acuation &escent.:1814 Inches .the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. c. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. d. ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters . Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated.

If any indication of the location of the victim is found. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities. after two hours. chances of survival are remote.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes.05.robability of survival drops rapidly and.1814 . they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations.:81) . .escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.14 . 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but. <enera! 9roce&ures .. if a member of your group is in an avalanche. A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides.:105.. Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .)0. collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent.7.. random probing starts in that vicinity. 18.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search. .14 1.

b. and mark all clues. packs. make an initial probe search in that area. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible.. goggles. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. . . immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. A human body. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. . If using avalanche beacons. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial. or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. Book for skis. if enough personnel are available. urbulence. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. >sing this and any other information. several factors influence the bodyUs location. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. boots. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or. usually the toe of the slide. hats. poles. >nless other$ise indicated. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. terrain. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. a. ice a"es.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point. gloves. a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points.

All currently available transceivers are compatible. especially in a high $ind. but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. • Vegetation. Although this type of pole .fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. and other obstacles act as snares. a. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. the greater $ill be his burial depth. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. • . he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . Cany models of transceivers are available. although they may operate differently in the search mode. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. In the case of large and violent avalanches. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. rocks. Conversely. all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. Bonger poles are difficult to manage. 9ro e 9o!es. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide. . 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area.

the number of personnel per line should be limited. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. coarse probing implies a . probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. &or the probing operation to be effective. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made. $enty per line is satisfactory. 9ro ing Techniques. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. . probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. c. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe. %. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried.* ."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. he only sure check is by digging. 9ro ing 8ines. %0* If no probing poles are available. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. %. b.performs best. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. As evidenced by their names. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed.

+trict discipline and firm. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace. $ith feet about . %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span.-.2.::(percent chance of locating the body. &ine probing is the concluding measure. he probers themselves $ork silently.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander.. %.&D. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . $hich almost guarantees finding the body.. clear commands are essential for efficient probing. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe. a . $hile the fine probe has.7 inches apart..6 6+ . Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass.* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -.D<.6 6>. although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. essentially.D<. the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.!A.6 <y using these commands.

D<. . the line advances . Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.I9/ -.-.!A.6 6>. foot.-.ach man probes in front of his left foot.6 6C. .6 6...D<..6 6+ .D<.6 6>.= .%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.-. -. .D<.... >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.D<.ach probe is made .6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe.2. then in the center of his straddled position..D<. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.6 6>.. %b* Dn command.& -. $hich is then moved ahead .&D.: inches from the adjacent one. and finally in front of his right foot. foot and repeats the probing se#uence. %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.

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