Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots, Class II—anchor

knots, Class III—middle rope knots, and Class IV—special knots. he variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. !ith e"perience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. /olding one $orking end in each hand, place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. + ,- 0. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. + ,- 1. -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + ,- 0. + ,- '. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot.

Figure 4-6. Square knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o interlocking bights. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. + ,- 0. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope.

+ ,- 1. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together.

Figure 4-7. Fisherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long, standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double ,nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. It is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. !ith the $orking end of one rope, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.

+ ,- 0. Insert the $orking end %+ ,- .* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight. + ,- 1. !ith the $orking end of the other rope, $hich contains the standing part %+ ,-+ . and 0*, tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + ,- .*. Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight. + ,- '. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.

Figure 4-". Dou !e #isherman’s knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns, four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. %1* ,nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure-$ight %en&

he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight. + ,- 0. !ith the other hand, grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end. + ,- 1. -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. + ,- '. ;oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end. race the original knot to the standing end. + ,- 7. ;emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers. 2ress the knot do$n.

Figure 4-'. Figure-eight en&. b. Checkpoints.

%.* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side. %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(.:*. It is also called a ring bend, overhand retrace, or tape knot. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. + ,- 0. &eed the other end back through the knot, follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + ,- 1. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* here are t$o overhand knots, one retracing the other. %0* here is no slack in the knot, and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(..*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor, from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. + ,- 0. &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor. + ,- 1. ;each through the loop and pull up a bight. + ,- '. -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight, and bring it back onto itself. =o$ dress the knot do$n. + ,- 7. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.

Figure 4-)). %o+!ine knot. b. Checkpoints. %.* he bight is locked into place by a loop. %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety. ,oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension %&igure '(.0*. It is an anchor knot. a. Tying the Knot. + ,- .. ;oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front*. ;un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.

oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches. + . 2ress the knot do$n..epeat + . %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining.. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. . + .1*.. Figure 4-).1. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*.* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.'. Checkpoints. %. by tying the knot in a retrace. b.0. + .. a.+ . Tying the Knot.etrace /... It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot.. .eroute& Figure-$ight0 he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop. leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. . Figure-$ight . /o$ever..

+ .. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope.7.. forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.. . ake the $orking end around the anchor point. he finished knot is dressed loosely. . + .).emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. !ith the $orking end.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. Checkpoints %. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part..1.0. Figure 4-)1. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor.'. b. Figure-eight retrace. + . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse.. + . o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. and route the $orking end through the loop.+ .

%0* End of the Rope. + . /old the standing end in the left hand. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping.'. + . %.. + . and bring it in$ard. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.* Middle of the Rope. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.. + . a.. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. Tying the Knot.0. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions.1. grasp the $orking end. palms do$n $ith hands together. he knot is tied. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor.. . -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. /old the loop in the left hand. + .... It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot.. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right.0. !ith the right hand.. /old rope in both hands.'*. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. 3ote4 &or instructional purposes.%0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. + . depending on ho$ it is tied. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop. reach under the horiAontal anchor..

ake up the slack from the anchor.7*. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.+ . face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to. %. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. C!o2e hitch. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(. 2ress do$n the knot. !ith the right hand.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. a.. b. Figure 4-)4. !hen tying this knot. 9rasp the $orking end of the rope. It is a middle rope knot. Checkpoints.. and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right.. + .'. + . Tying the Knot.1. ...

1. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop. + .. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger.5. and fingertip. palm..'.0. + ...8. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. (ireman’s knot.. Figure 4-)5.. + . b.7.+ . + .. Checkpoints. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap. =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel. and place it over the heel $rap. -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot.4. + .). . + . + ..

it lays in$ard...)*.'. Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. the tail and the bight must be together. a. + .1.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point.0... &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. !hen dressing the knot do$n. . Cake one $rap around the palm. + . !ith the $rap thus formed. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(. It is a middle rope knot.%. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. + . Tying the Knot. + ... Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.

Checkpoints. . %. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly. %0* he tail and bight must be together.Figure 4-)6. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . b.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. Directiona! #igure-eight. It is a middle rope knot.4*. %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side.

forming t$o loops. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight.7.1. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot. Tying the Knot. + ..4. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.a.. A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull.. + . ie an overhand knot on a bight..0. + .).. + . &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be.. . /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard. + ...'. + . 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.. + .

a.5..* It is a middle rope knot. .Figure 4-)7. %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot.ight. Tying the Knot.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left. form an . b.. + . T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(. >sing a doubled rope. Checkpoints. %o+!ine-on-a. %.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip..

T+o-!oop #igure-eight. + . Tying the Knot. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. a.0. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(.. + . Checkpoints.8*. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.1. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. /old the bight $ith the left hand. b. %. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. + .7. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar. Figure 4-)". It is a middle of the rope knot.. 2ress the knot do$n. !ith the $orking end. .'. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand.+ ...

* he loop is the desired siAe..+ .. !ith the bight as the $orking end. 9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. b. 2ress the knot tightly. It is a specialty knot. Figure-eight !oop. %. a.. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. Checkpoints. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other. . &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop. Figure 4-)'. form a loop in rope %standing part*.0. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik... Tying the Knot. + . + .1.

1. + .*: + .*. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.0. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope. $ith the $orking ends even. + .... + . . + ..epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.%.. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .0. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope..0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart. and place it over the long rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:..0(inch bight..each do$n through the .* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0.1. forming a bight.*. 2ouble the short rope.. + . ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. Figure 4-. .. . >sing an arm3s length of rope.

. %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. Bay the $orking end under the long rope.. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. %.7. and not t$isted.. here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope.). Checkpoints. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.nsure they are tight. . + .4.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n.+ . &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. It is a specialty knot. parallel. .).. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. + . Figure 4-. + . %'* Dther than a finger -rusik.'. %0* he locking bar faces the climber. b. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot.

0.a. + . %achman knot. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. Figure 4-.. b. 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender... !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner.1. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner. Checkpoints. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . %.. + .* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner.. Tying the Knot. make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.. + .

+ . . he running end is to the back of the body.. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. hen. tie an overhand around all coils. + . place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body.1. Tying the Knot. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.. + . dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. !ith the running end. . single coil. + . + .. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. he standing portion is on the bottom. %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. a. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps.nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself. /olding the bight loosely..'. + . +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. %.. not crossed.). + . leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail.. bring a bight up through the loop. Checkpoints.* A minimum of four $raps.0. b.7. >sing the standing part. 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand... It is a specialty knot.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*..4.

. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. . It is a specialty knot. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise.1.. + . It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope.. Bay the loops to the right.0. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself. !ith the right hand. + . + . /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts..'.Figure 4-. a.. + . %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.1. Tying the Knot. !ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body..

Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. a. %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Three-!oop o+!ine.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied. + . b. Figure 4-. Checkpoints.4. &orm a . %....+ .. .7.0(inch bight in the end of the rope. It is a specialty knot. Tying the Knot. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.

). Figure 4-. %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n.0.. %. standing end of the rope. + . Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot.'. -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight. + .:u!e Knot0 .+ . Figure-eight s!ip knot.each through the bight and grasp the long. b. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .. + .0 inches up the rope. + . Checkpoints. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise. take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot..5.1.7. ...

.0.1. + . + .0 inches long. It is simply an overhand slip knot.* here is a single overhand slip knot. &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope..6. K!eimhiest Knot .. %1* he bight is a minimum of . Transport knot. %. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. a. Figure 4-. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + ..he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*.. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. Check 9oints. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight. Tying the Knot. b.

1. !ith the ends offset. It is a special( purpose knot.. find the center of the rope and form a bight. pass them through the bight %see + . + . + .. 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot. Tying the Knot..'. high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*.*. a..0 inches. !rap at least four complete turns.. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull..0. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by ..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. + . + .. + . .7. 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip .. easily adjustable. Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.

Tying the Knot. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . K!eimhiest knot.0 inches. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. %.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull.7. It is a special(purpose knot. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. + . . a.. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly. + .0. Checkpoints.. b. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier. Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.Figure 4-..: to ..

Figure 4-. Tying the Knot. %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. Checkpoints. b. Frost knot. b. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. + . <irth hitch.1: Cinch the knot tightly.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Checkpoint..'. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. a. :unter -itch .. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.". It is a special(purpose knot.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps. + . Figure 4-..: &orm a bight. %.* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.. + . %.

.* A bight passes through the carabiner. Check 9oints. . a. b. Tying the Knot... -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. %. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. + .'.0 inches apart. + .. %0* he carabiner is locked.. Bock the locking mechanism. /old the rope in both hands.1..he munter hitch.0. palms do$n about . form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner. + . !ith the right hand. + . /old the loop $ith the left hand. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. !ith the right hand.

thus creating a loop around the $aist.' feet or longer.. + .*. ensuring they do not cross. It usually re#uires a sling rope .Figure 4-1*. + .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.. :unter hitch.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope. + . &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. . a. + . 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip.0. Tying the Knot..'.. <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope..1. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs. .. .

.. + . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. b. &rom rear to front.appe! seat.7. Check 9oints. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist.. + . . %. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot.4. tightening the seat. -ull up on the ropes.* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.).+ .. Figure 4-1).

a. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. + . %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side.. + . he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied.. preferably ovals*..0.. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. .%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs. Tying the Knot.

several advancements in e#uipment and transportation have increased the soldiers3 capabilities. he helicopter no$ allo$s access to terrain that $as once .* !hen properly dressed. Check 9oints. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. Although mountain operations have not changed. b. his pattern $ill not change@ therefore. <uar&e knot. %. soldiers $ill fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. rope can only be pulled in one direction.Figure 4-1. =ntro&uction Countains e"ist in almost every country in the $orld and almost every $ar has included some type of mountain operations..

Weather and terrain combine to challenge .).).unreachable or could be reached only by slo$ methodical climbing. -ersonnel should be certified as Bevel I. and urban vertical environments.).ecommended Changes to -ublications and <lank &orms* and for$ard to the Commander. may place various restrictions on the capabilities of air assets available to a commander. $henever the masculine gender is used. &ort <enning. +ubmit changes for improving this publication to doctrineGbenning.A2DC. :ountain Terrain? (eather? an& -a@ar&s Commanders must consider the effects terrain and weather will have on their operations. for training %see Appendi" A*. glaciers. and actions. his field manual is a training aid for use by #ualified personnel in conjunction $ith &C 1(84.mil or on 2A &orm 0:05 %. and training.<D. tactics. Countain Beader before using &C 1(84. e#uipment. anchors. his field manual details techni#ues soldiers and leaders must kno$ to cope $ith mountainous terrain. sno$(covered mountains. evacuation. Assault Climber@ or Bevel III. should attend a recogniAed 2epartment of 2efense Countain !arfare +chool for proper training. he proponent of this publication is /F . illness and injury. A =: A +/(. ho$ever. Army Infantry +chool. =mproper use o# techniques an& proce&ures y untraine& personne! may resu!t in serious in>ury or &eath. both men and $omen are included. mainly on their troops and logistics efforts.army.+. hey must be applied to the various situations encountered to include river crossings. Inclement $eather. rock climbing. 9A 1. he degree to $hich this training is applied must be varied to conform to kno$n enemy doctrine. Appendi" < contains a measurement conversion chart for your convenience. hese techni#ues are the foundation upon $hich the mountaineer must build. >nless other$ise stated. -ersonnel using &C 1(84. his &C also discusses basic and advanced techni#ues to include acclimatiAation. movement on glaciers. $hich is used for planning operations in mountainous terrain. >. Countain Dperations. he unit must then possess the necessary mountaineering skills to overcome adverse terrain to reach an objective. <asic Countaineer@ Bevel II. ice climbing.8:7(7781. he measurements in this manual are stated as they are used in training %either metric or standard*.

seven rock(forming minerals make up most of the earth3s crust: #uartA and feldspar make up granite and sandstone@ olivene and pyro"ene give basalt its dark color@ and amphibole . Commanders must be familiar with the restraints that the terrain can place on a unit. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Countains may consist of an isolated peak. attacks can succeed by using detailed planning. sno$fields. H Mountain Terrain H Mountain Weather H Mountain Hazards :ountain Terrain Dperations in the mountains re#uire soldiers to be physically fit and leaders to be e"perienced in operations in this terrain. Composition All mountains are made up of rocks and all rocks of minerals %compounds that cannot be broken do$n e"cept by chemical action*. and $ell(led troops. AcclimatiAation. compartments. which may deposit a foot of snow on dry roads. Helicopters are a valuable asset for use in moving men and supplies. +lopes commonly range from ' to '7 degrees. surprise. conditioning. glaciers. Chances for success in this environment are greater $hen a leader has e"perience operating under the same conditions as his men. rehearsals.efforts in moving supplies to forward areas. but commanders should not plan to use them as the only means of movement and resupply.::: kno$n minerals. Df the appro"imately 0. -roblems arise in moving men and transporting loads up and do$n steep and varied terrain in order to accomplish the mission. combined with unprepared vehicles create hazardous situations. and training are important factors in successful military mountaineering. or comple" ranges e"tending for long distances and obstructing movement. Spring storms. single ridges. Units scheduled for deployment in mountainous terrain should become self sufficient and train under various conditions. Countains usually favor the defense@ ho$ever. De#inition Countains are land forms that rise more than 7:: meters above the surrounding plain and are characteriAed by steep slopes. Alternate methods must be planned due to the variability of weather.

dry spells clumps of the slope tend to break a$ay. After a rain. +late and gneiss can be firm and or brittle in the same area %red coloring indicates brittle areas*. and it is usually difficult to protect. he follo$ing paragraphs discuss the characteristics and haAards of the different rocks and slopes. . use flat hand push holds instead of finger pull holds. . Bimestone has pockets."cept for calcite. ne$ sno$. a. leftover sno$ patches in late spring can be difficult. Climbers must be$are of large loose boulders. 9rassy slopes are slippery after rain.ockfall danger is high. !eight should be distributed evenly@ for e"ample. 9ranite is abrasive and increases the danger of ropes or accessory cords being cut. &ace climbing can be found. S!ate an& <neiss. -enetrating roots and increased frost cracking cause a continuous loosening process. but jagged edges make pulling rope and raising e#uipment more difficult. conglomerate type stones may be loose. . +topping a slide on small. &ace climbing is possible. ho$ever. After long.and biotite %mica* are the black crystalline specks in granitic rocks. d. <ranite. Cost climbing holds are found in cracks. Cha!k an& 8imestone. but any out$ard pull $ill break off handholds and footholds. face climbing. Chalk and limestone are slippery $hen $et. San&stone. . found in limestone. and de$. <rassy S!opes. and cracks. Firm Spring Sno+ /Firn Sno+0. +andstone should be allo$ed to dry for a couple of days after a rain before climbing on it— $et sandstone is e"tremely soft.outes should be planned to avoid these dangers. 9ranite produces fe$er rockfalls. b. . e. Cost climbs follo$ a crack. Bimestone is usually solid@ ho$ever. c. they all contain silicon and are often referred to as silicates. +andstone is usually soft causing handholds and footholds to break a$ay under pressure. f. it cannot be protected. granite dries #uickly. +elf(arrest should be practiced before encountering this situation. Chocks placed in sandstone may or may not hold. and small rocks may break off $hen pulled or $hen pitons are emplaced.ock 7n& S!ope Types 2ifferent types of rock and different slopes present different haAards.

Dne can run at full stride $ithout $orry—the $hole scree field is moving $ith you. +cree is small rocks that are from pebble siAe to dinner plate siAe. since the minerals formed are relatively large and inter$oven into a solid matri". if a talus rock slips a$ay it can produce more injury than scree because of its siAe. or. g. &irn sno$ is easier to ascend than $alking up scree or talus. creating a volcanic or e"trusive rock. . friction and radioactive decay creates magmas %melts of silicate minerals* that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. a surface $ith numerous knobby holds. alus is rocks that are larger than a dinner plate. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matri". Ta!us. hey can be used as stepping(stones to ascend or descend a slope. internal heat. under pressure. he scree does not provide a solid platform and $ill only slide under foot. and over time. he magma may move up$ard. =gneous .ocks. 2eep $ithin the earth3s crust and mantle.<eginning climbers should be secured $ith rope $hen climbing on this type surface.ock is classified by origin and mineral composition. -ieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body $hile it $as rising .ocks. %. /o$ever. avoid scree $hen ascending. Climbers must be$are of larger rocks that may be solidly planted under the scree. the minerals in the magma crystalliAe slo$ly and develop $ell. +lo$ crystalliAation from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing. making coarse(grained plutonic rock. but smaller than boulders. his results in an intrusive rock.* 9!utonic or =ntrusi2e . h. $hich makes for either a rough(surfaced rock $ith e"cellent friction. Ascending scree is a tedious task. either melting and combining $ith the overlying layers or forcing them aside. a. !eathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals.unning do$n scree is an effective method of descending in a hurry. Climbers can glissade do$n firn sno$ if necessary. if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matri". propelled by its o$n lo$er density. Scree. !hen the cooling occurs at depth.ock C!assi#ications . If possible. .

. joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or e"pansion $hen overlying rock erodes or e"foliates. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the $orld."plosive eruptions eject molten rock so #uickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystalliAed glass %obsidian*. produce basalt. or clusters of segregated minerals. may $eather differently than the main rock mass and form 6chicken heads.6 Cost plutonic rock is in the granite family.and crystalliAing. $hen a ledge suddenly ends. . . herefore. Dccasionally. !hen this ash consolidates $hile molten or after cooling. Fuieter eruptions.ocks. <asaltic rocks are fine(grained and often sharp(edged.ockies. %0* Ao!canic or $Btrusi2e . In the Alps. %1* Cointing . differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. and dikes. In plutonic rocks. %b* +mall plutonic intrusions are stocks. Barge %. +ierras. it is called 6tuff.6 a $eak rock that breaks do$n #uickly and erodes easily. +ome joints tend to follo$ a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their e"istence can often be predicted. !hen molten rock e"trudes onto the surface as a lava flo$ or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill. this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars $ith usable vertical cracks such as 2evil3s o$er in !yoming. =orth Cascades.ocks. $hich cut across the strata. $here $idespread lava flo$s from large fissures. forced bet$een sedimentary strata.6 %a* Intrusions are named according to location and siAe.:: s#uare kilometers or larger* masses of plutonic rock are called 6batholiths6 and small ones 6stocks. Adirondacks. the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. and most other ranges this core is at least partly e"posed. the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be e"tremely haAardous. Cany of these small intrusive bodies are #uickly cooled and thus may look like e"trusive rock.

he Canadian . only slightly altering the sediments. c. the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating ground$ater. or oceans. sandstone and conglomerate into #uartAite. lo$er grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement. lakes. %. !ith the e"ception of the 2olomites.* hough in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas. As sediments accumulate. %0* /igher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the /imalayas and the Alps. by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in fla$less surfaces. $hich is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock.ocks. +hale changes to slate or schist. high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystalliAe. In fact. especially in limestone. :etamorphic . %0* Cost high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high(angle climbing comparable to that of granite.b. After sediments are solidified. 9ravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates@ sandy beaches into sandstone@ beds of mud into mudstone or shale@ and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite. he bedding planes %strata* may also be distorted by folding and s#ueeAing. <ecause of this cleavage. %. $here erosion grinds do$n debris and moves it do$n to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys.ocks.ockies are almost e"clusively limestone. a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. he +ha$angunks of =e$ Iork are an e"cellent e"ample of high(grade conglomerate #uartAite. hese changes may be minimal. and limestone to marble. or e"tensive enough to produce gneiss. $hich offers . Se&imentary . but cleavage or foliation. +edimentary rocks are born high in the mountains.* Cetamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding. pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. hese are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures $ithin the earth.

b. ocean trenches. =e$ Iork3s Adirondacks. A simple up$ard bulge of the crust forms dome mountains such as the DAarks of Arkansas and Cissouri. granitic continental crust. %. often accompanies up$arp. heaving up fold mountains.rosion may strip a$ay the overlying layers. or cracking of the crust into large chunks. hese plates are made up of portions of lighter. forming fault(block mountain ranges. Volcanoes are constructed from lava and ash. $hich also provides solid climbing. Cany forms are created by the motion of these chunks along these faults. e"posing the central igneous core. volcanoes. ectonic activity causes plates to collide. the Dlympics of !ashington. hey are usually the result of the up$ard movement of magma and the folding of the rock layers overhead. . :ountain %ui!&ing he t$o primary mechanisms for mountain(building are volcanic and tectonic activity. and >tah provide the clearest display of faulting. :ountain Structure. $hich results in fault(block mountains. $hich begin $ithin the earth as magma. &aulting. and heavier. a. . and mountain ridge systems.ach type of stress produces a typical structure. he center of the 9reen Countain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist. he breakage e"tends . and most mountains can be described in terms of these structures. he different horiAontal and vertical stresses that create mountains usually produce comple" patterns. their movement relative to each other creates earth#uakes. &loating slo$ly over the more malleable asthenosphere. he massive slabs composing the outer layer are called tectonic plates. basaltic oceanic crust attached to slabs of the rigid upper mantle. and to pull apart and crack. %a* he ranges of the desert country of California. 9!ate Tectonics.* Dome :ountains. and the /igh >intahs of >tah.$orld class climbing. =evada. %0* Fau!t-%!ock :ountains.

$hile on the other side the block bends but does not break. he etons of !yoming and the +ierra =evada display this—along the single Aone of faults the range thro$s up impressive steep scarps.ainier and Count +aint /elens* . $hich is belo$ sea level and could not have been carved by erosion. continental crust melts and turns to magma $ithin the mantle. 9eologists call folds geosynclines. An e"ample of a dropped block is California3s 2eath Valley. his e"plains $hy older rocks are often found perched on top of younger ones. in $hich continental plates collide or ride over each other. and parts of the rocks are pushed side$ays and override neighboring formations. $hich correspond to continental margins around the $orld. Isolated blocks of the over thrust mass may form $hen erosion strips a$ay links connecting them $ith their place of origin. !hen the s#ueeAing of a range is intense the rocks of the mountain mass first fold but then may break. %a* hese volcanoes are found in belts. +ince it is less dense than the surrounding material it rises and erupts to form volcanoes. !hen erosion strips do$n the overburden of rock from folded mountain ranges. he best kno$n is the 6. have given rise to the most common mountain form—fold mountains.to the surface and often during earth#uakes—caused by slippage bet$een the blocks—fresh scarps many feet high develop. he Alps and the Appalachians are e"amples of fold mountains. >p$ard folded strata are anticlines and do$n$ard folds are synclines. it is faulted on one side only. leaving a gentler slope from the base of the range to the crest. %1* Fo!& :ountains. ho$ever. Along convergent plate boundaries volcanic activity increases. Almost every range of folded mountains in the $orld e"hibits an over thrust of one sort or another. central core is all that remains. As it is forced underneath an overriding neighbor. Core often. the oldest. %b* +ometimes a block is faulted on both sides and rises or falls as a unit. ectonic forces.ing of &ire6 encircling the -acific Dcean from ?atmai in Alaska through the Cascades %Count . %'* Ao!canic :ountains.

the mountain leader can place his life and the life of other soldiers in e"treme danger. Assessment of a vertical obstacle re#uires e"perience in the classifications of routes and understanding the levels of difficulty they represent. . !ithout a solid understanding of the difficulty of a chosen route. A mountain front may be formed from a single fault."amples of this are the Cid(Atlantic . he I2+ classes are: . %7* Comp!eB :ountains.ast Africa $ith ?ilimanjaro3s cone. In =orth America the Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem %I2+* is used to rate the difficulty of routes in mountainous terrain. In addition. Dne massive fold can make an entire mountain peak@ ho$ever. %b* Volcanic activity also arises at boundaries $here t$o plates are moving a$ay from each other. and have the skills to accomplish the plan.ift Valley of . A block may have been simply pushed up$ard $ithout tilting $ith other portions folded.oute C!assi#ication Cilitary mountaineers must be able to assess a vertical obstacle. and then east through =e$ 9uinea into the -acific. creating deep rifts and long ridges $here the crust has cracked apart and magma $ells up to create ne$ surface material.do$n through Ce"ico3s -opocatepetl to the smokes of ierra del &uego. . domed. a. and faulted. and the . often $ith a sprinkling of volcanoes. but smaller faults that form ledges and gullies may also be present. develop a course of action to overcome the obstacle. +maller volcanic belts are found along the Indonesian(+. these processes occur both at the macro and the micro level. $hich has created Iceland and the AAores. his belt then runs $est do$n the Aleutian chain to ?amchatka. Asian arc. Cost ranges are comple" mountains $ith portions that have been subject to several processes. south to the volcanoes of Eapan and the -hilippines. and tiny folds found $ithin a handhold. Ignorance is the most dangerous haAard in the mountain environment. the Caucasus region. there are folds measured by a rope length.idge. and the Cediterranean.

. %)* Class 7. climbing techni#ue. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. $hich may have some e"posure. % his is moderate to difficult scrambling. his is sometimes referred to as advanced rock scrambling. Bonger stretches of climbing re#uiring several points of intermediate protection. he climber can e"perience vertical position or overhangs $here good grips can re#uire moderate levels of energy e"penditure."posed positions.—/iking trail."tremely great difficulty.)—Cedium difficulty. often combined $ith small belay points.* Class 7.H Class . Climb only $ith improved e#uipment and intense training. % his class re#uires climbers to be roped up. H Class '—<elayed climbing. %7* Class 7. Class 7 is further subdivided into the follo$ing classifications: %. ..5—Very great difficulty. -assages of the difficult sections can often be accomplished under good conditions. /ands are necessary to support balance. %1* Class 7.e#uires $ell above average ability and e"cellent condition.8—. Considerable climbing e"perience is necessary. %0* Class 7. Increasing amount of intermediate protection is the rule. . belay and emplace intermediate protection.* H Class 7—&ree climbing. %'* Class 7.'—Bittle difficulty.7—Coderate difficulty. use of ropes for beginners %moderate scrambling*."traordinary difficulty.:—. /igh physical conditioning. /igher levels of energy e"penditure $ill be e"perienced.* b. %4* Class 7.4—9reat difficulty.:(7. hree points of contact are necessary. H Class 0—Dff(trail scramble. H Class 1—Climbing. his is the simplest form of free climbing. and e"perience re#uired. <esides acrobatic climbing techni#ue.

—.N his techni#ue involves using a piece of gear to make progress@ for e"ample.: to 7. e"perience. if a fall $as e"perienced. and energy e"penditure. his techni#ue re#uires etriers and is fast and simple.. 7.* A:—M&rench(free.6 indicates periods of run(out $here. %&or e"ample. Climbs are represented by a single 6star6 up to five 6stars@6 a five(star climb is a classic climb and is usually aesthetically pleasing.5. clipping a sling into a bolt or piece of protection and then pulling up on it or stepping up in the sling..asy aid. %5* Class 7. Aid climb difficulty classification includes: %. %. >sually only needed to get past one or t$o more difficult moves on advanced free climbs.' %for e"ample.5J*.8 and belo$ $ith JK( categories %for e"ample.'—9reater increases of difficulty. b.. %0* Classes are also further divided from 7.* Classes are further divided into a.. 7.. %'* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6stars. %0* A. %1* All class 7 climbs can also be designated $ith 6. the 6.(7. re#uiring more climbing ability. Additional classifications include the follo$ing. and d categories starting from 7.. c.6 $hich indicates a run(out on a climb.* Al$ays check the local guidebook to find specific designation for your area.6 or 6L. Dften combined $ith aid climbing %A:(A'*. in a classification of 7. he placement of protection is straight for$ard and reliable..6 hese refer to the popularity of the climb to the local area. ground fall $ould occur. . Dnly talented and dedicated climbers reach this level. his means that placement of intermediate protection is not possible on portions of the route. here is usually no high risk of any piece of protection pulling out. c. d.mastery of refined security techni#ue is indispensable.:d*.

are usually clean and $ith no serious bodily harm. %'* A1—/ard aid. long fall potential does e"ist. the $hole rope team $ill probably e"perience ground fall. If the leader falls. V — . ho$ever. >sually no protection placed on the entire route can be trusted to stop a fall. . >sually A0 involves one or t$o moves that are difficult $ith good protection placement belo$ and above the difficult moves.5*. VI — 9reater than 0 days. 9rade ratings %commitment grades* inform the climber of the appro"imate time a climber trained to the level of the climb $ill take to complete the route. his techni#ue re#uires testing your protection. H H H H H H I — +everal hours. such as A1J or A1(. 9enerally solid placements $hich $ill hold a fall and are found $ithin a full rope length.K0 to 0 .4*. e. Continuous A7 climbing $ith A7 belay stations. but placement can be a$k$ard and strenuous. /o$ever. -rotection placed $ill usually only hold a climber3s $eight and falls can be as long as t$o(thirds the rope length. %)* A7—. III — About three(fourths of a day. his techni#ue re#uires lots of training and practice. II — /alf of a day.K0 days %usually not less than 7. %5* Aid climbing classes are also further divided into JK( categories. All protection is sketchy at best. . IV — Bong hard day %usually not less than 7. %7* A'—+erious aid."treme aid. %4* A)—. =o serious fall danger. Beads $ill usually take e"tended amounts of time $hich cause the lead climber to doubt and $orry about each placement. It involves several a$k$ard and strenuous moves in a ro$.%1* A0—Coderate aid."tremely severe aid. $ith falls of ': to ): feet and intermediate protection on the a$k$ard placements failing. Core like $alking on eggs so none of them break. he placement of protection is generally straight for$ard. hese falls. $hich $ould simply refer to easy or hard.

.b VIII .0 7.7 .1 7..1a 1b.c.b.0.c )a.7b(7c 7.c 7b. H Australian—Australia uses only numbers to designate difficulty.c 0a.* easy %.b 0a.c )a.f.c VIII . Climbing difficulties are rated by different systems. 00 01 0' French %ra@i! 7ustra!ia moderate %CD2* difficult %2I&&* hard difficult very difficult hard very difficult mild severe severe.. hard severe.a. H &rench— he &rench use numbers and letters to designate the difficulty of climbs.1.1K.'a 1b..c ' 7 ) 4 II 5.:c VII .K...b.:a VII( .5 VI( severe.. 'c 7.7b 7. able .'a 'a.c )a..urope.* moderate %CD2* .8 0: 0.) 7.b.:d VIIJ .c. hard very 7.... DDS Class ..b 0c..7b 7.4 E=77 %ritish I II III III( III IIIJ IV( IV IVJ V( V VJ easy %.1 IIIsup . hard severe.'..7 7.c 7a.'.c 'a..b.b. 'b hard severe.c 7b. 7.b 7b.)a 7. H >IAA %>nion des International Alpine Association*—>sed in . H <ritish— he <ritish use adjectives and numbers to designate the difficulty of climbs..oman =umerals and adjectives to designate difficulty. III .c .* easy %.' IV IVsup V Vsup VI VIsup VII VII VIIsup .0.)b .7b 7.b.). H <raAilian—<raAil uses . his system can be confusing if the climber is not familiar $ith it.4 .a VIII( .:.(.c.c 7b.'a 1b. H I2+ %Iosemite 2ecimal +ystem*—>sed in the >nited +tates..' 7.:b VII .c 7b.5 ..8 VI 7a 7.8 IIsup . Class 0 Class 1 Class ' 7...: 7..a.)a 7.. 'a severe. sho$s a comparison of these systems.b.

.)K4. H IV — A multipitch route at higher elevations@ may re#uire several hours of approach on skis or foot.0a 7. -ossibly days to approach the climb. .)c 4a VIII 0) . his route is subject to objective haAards. 2ifficult physically and mentally. .)c 4a VIIIsup 04 . $ith little objective haAard. possibly $ith a haAardous descent. Ice climbing ratings can have commitment ratings and technical ratings. H II — A route of one or t$o pitches $ithin a short distance of rescue assistance. H III — A multipitch route at lo$ elevation..verything a grade VI has. and objective haAards rendering survival as #uestionable. or C %mi"ed rock and ice*. he route re#uires any$here from a fe$ hours to a long day to complete.0b 7. $ith objective haAards ever(present. $ith sustained technical climbing. A difficult and involved approach and descent. and the route might be prone to avalanche. H VII — .0c 7. H V — A long climb in a remote setting. Commitment ratings are e"pressed in .. AI %alpine ice*..0d IL( IL IL ILJ .4a 4a 08 Ta !e )-).)K4.* Commitment .)K4. H I — A short.e#uires many rappels off anchors for the descent.oman numerals. easy climb near the road. he numerical ratings are often prefaced $ith !I %$aterfall ice*.7. his route has sustained e"posure to avalanche or other objective haAards.7. %. g. $ith no avalanche haAard and a straightfor$ard descent. .. Dnly elite climbers $ill complete it in a day. H VI — A long ice climb in an alpine setting.. or a one(pitch climb $ith an approach that takes about an hour.7.)c 4a 05 ..ating systems. re#uiring all day to complete the climb itself. and more of it.)K4. he descent may re#uire building rappel anchors.atings. all in a remote area.7.

possibly of poor #uality@ re#uires efficiency of movement and ability to place protection $hile in a$k$ard stances.%0* Technica! . a. H . re#uiring agility and creativity. possibly 7: meters of 57( to 8:( degree ice $ith fe$ if any rests bet$een anchors. but on featureless ice. H 4 — A full rope length of thin vertical or overhanging ice of dubious adhesion. and characteristics of landforms@ drainage@ types of rock and soil@ and the density and distribution of vegetation. H ) — A full 7:(meter pitch of dead vertical ice. H 5 — +imply the hardest ice climbing ever done@ e"tremely bold and gymnastic. — A froAen lake or stream bed. erratic $eather. H ' — A sustained pitch that is vertical or slightly less than vertical@ may have special features such as chandeliers and run( outs bet$een protection. A pre(operations intelligence effort should include topographic and photographic map coverage as $ell as detailed $eather data for the area of operations. H 7 — A long. . additional information may be needed about siAe. An e"tremely tough pitch. strenuous pitch. 9ood skills at placing protection are re#uired. he pitch may be shorter. but it re#uires skill at placing protection and setting anchors. location.atings. and communication problems inherent to mountainous regions. !hen planning mountain operations. $ith places to rest. physically and mentally. H 0 — A pitch $ith short sections of ice up to 5: degrees@ lots of opportunity for protection and good anchors. Control must be decentraliAed to lo$er levels because of varied terrain. Cross-Country :o2ement +oldiers must kno$ the terrain to determine the feasible routes for cross(country movement $hen no roads or trails are available. echnical ratings are e"pressed as Arabic numerals. H 1 — +ustained ice up to 5: degrees@ the ice is usually good.

the follo$ing precautions should be observed: H Caintain visual contact. $hich can cause e"cessive perspiration and dampen clothing. he logistical problem is important@ therefore. dry. Co2er an& Concea!ment . stay $arm. %.b. H ?eep dry. H 2o not rush. H If lost. H ?eep $arm.* Covement above the timberline reduces the amount of protective cover available at lo$er elevations. As soon as the objective is reached and shelter secured. the dampness of rain and sno$ and the penetration of $ind cause soldiers to chill #uickly. and calm. types. capable commanders may use reduced visibility to achieve tactical surprise. but do not overdress. c. and amounts of precipitation. %0* Covement during a storm is difficult due to poor visibility and bad footing on steep terrain. Although climbers should get off the high ground and seek shelter and $armth. H 2o not use ravines as routes of approach during a storm as they often fill $ith $ater and are prone to flash floods. each man must be self(sufficient to cope $ith normal $eather changes using materials from his rucksack. Covement is often restricted due to terrain and $eather. he erratic $eather re#uires that soldiers be prepared for $ide variations in temperature. H Avoid high pinnacles and ridgelines during electrical storms. put on dry clothing. during severe mountain storms. Caintain energy and body heat by eating and drinking often@ carry food that can be eaten #uickly and $hile on the move. !ear $et($eather clothing $hen appropriate. H Avoid areas of potential avalanche or rock(fall danger. Although the temperature is often higher during a storm than during clear $eather. !hen the tactical situation re#uires continued movement during a storm. /asty movement during storms leads to breaks in contact and accidents. if possible.

/o$ever. +everal D-s may need to be established laterally. the nature of the terrain can be used to provide concealment from observation. 6 ser2ation Dbservation in mountains varies because of $eather and ground cover. he selection of dug(in positions re#uires detailed planning. hail. b. he contrast from lighted to shaded areas causes visual acuity in the shaded regions to be considerably reduced. like observation. .ange determination is deceptive in mountainous terrain. positions and routes must be camouflaged to blend in $ith the surrounding terrain to prevent aerial detection. and intermediate terrain can provide cover and concealment. !hen forces cannot be positioned to cover dead space $ith direct fires. and fog can limit visibility. rain. In other areas. Countainous regions are subject to intense shado$ing effects $hen the sun is lo$ in relatively clear skies. are e"cellent at long ranges. he rugged nature of the terrain often produces dead space at midranges. his concealment can be obtained in the dead space. and at varying altitudes to provide visual coverage of the battle area. As in all operations. rapidly changing $eather $ith fre#uent periods of high $inds. boulders and other loose rocks can be used for building hasty fortifications. dead space is a problem at short ranges. in depth. +ome rock types. outcroppings. heavy vegetation. hese shado$ed areas can provide increased concealment $hen combined $ith other camouflage and should be considered in maneuver plans. /o$ever. /igh $ind speeds and sound often mask the noises of troop movement. sleet. In alpine environments. Bo$ cloud cover at higher elevations may neutraliAe the effectiveness of D-s established on peaks or mountaintops. 2igging fighting positions and temporary fortifications is difficult because soil is often thin or stony.!hen moving in the mountains. boulders. Conversely. . a. such as volcanic tuff. sno$ and ice blocks may be cut and stacked to supplement dug(in positions. +oldiers must routinely train in range estimation in mountainous regions to maintain their proficiency. sno$. mines and obstacles or indirect fire must be used. are easily e"cavated. Fie!&s o# Fire &ields of fire. he dominating height of mountainous terrain permits e"cellent long(range observation.

It varies from stormy $inds to calm. depends upon a change of a fe$ degrees of temperature above or belo$ the freeAing point. errain that can be crossed s$iftly and safely one day may become impassable or highly dangerous the ne"t due to sno$fall. Bimited visibility can be used as a combat multiplier. and $eather factors. Cilitary operations plans must be fle"ible. a. he reverse can happen just as #uickly. he severity and variance of the $eather causes it to have a major impact on military operations. depending on ho$ $ell it is understood and to $hat e"tent advantage is taken of its peculiar characteristics. he clouds that often cover the tops of mountains and the fogs that cover valleys are an e"cellent means of concealing movements that normally are made during darkness or in smoke. rainfall. especially in $inter. he $eather must be anticipated to allo$ enough time for planning so that the leaders of subordinate units can use their initiative in turning an important $eather factor in their favor. . Conditions greatly change $ith altitude.ase and speed of travel depend mainly on the $eather. especially in planning airmobile and airborne operations. but patterns are less obvious in mountainous terrain than in other areas. he prevalence of avalanches depends on terrain. If they look outside and see dark clouds they may decide to take rain gear. .:ountain (eather Cost people subconsciously 6forecast6 the $eather. he safety or danger of almost all high mountain regions. latitude. A conscious effort to follo$ $eather changes $ill ultimately lead to a more accurate forecast. An analysis of mountain $eather and ho$ it is affected by mountain terrain sho$s that such $eather is prone to patterns and is usually severe. Countain $eather can be e"tremely erratic. !eather often determines the success or failure of a mission since it is highly changeable. sno$ conditions. people glance to the sky for other bad signs. or a rise in temperature. and e"posure to atmospheric $inds and air masses. and from e"treme cold to $armth $ithin a short time or $ith a minor shift in locality. b. If an une"pected $ind strikes. Consi&erations #or 9!anning Countain $eather can be either a dangerous obstacle to operations or a valuable aid.

Cold air has a reduced capacity to hold $ater vapor. . he dry air also re#uires soldiers to increase consumption of $ater. conse#uently. e#uipment does not rust as #uickly and organic material decomposes slo$ly. such as those found in desert regions. <ecause of this increased dryness. -ressure is lo$ in mountainous areas due to the altitude. especially $hen combined $ith a sno$ cover that reflects the rays up$ard. +ome mountains. /igh rocky crags $ith glaciated peaks can be found in mountain ranges at most latitudes along the $estern portion of the Americas and Asia. he reduced $ater vapor in the air causes an increase in evaporation of moisture from the skin and in loss of $ater through transpiration in the respiratory system. hese problems can be minimiAed $hen men have been trained to accept the $eather by being self(sufficient. the thinner. he air at higher altitudes is thinner as atmospheric pressure drops $ith the increasing altitude. (eather Characteristics .ays are absorbed or reflected in part by the molecular content of the atmosphere. he barometer usually drops 0. drier air has a reduced molecular content and.c. he intensity of both visible and ultraviolet rays is greater $ith increased altitude. 2ue to the cold. a. +evere $eather may decrease morale and increase basic survival problems. lush jungles $ith heavy seasonal rains and little temperature variation often cover mountains.7 centimeters for every 1:: meters gained in elevation %1 percent*. hese conditions increase the chance of sunburn. his effect is greater at lo$er altitudes. :ountain 7ir /igh mountain air is dry and may be drier in the $inter. At higher altitudes. he altitude has a natural filtering effect on the sun3s rays. a reduced filtering effect on the sun3s rays. b. most soldiers do not naturally consume the #uantity of fluids they $ould at higher temperatures and must be encouraged to consciously increase their fluid intake. d. In tropical regions. are dry and barren $ith temperatures ranging from e"treme heat in the summer to e"treme cold in the $inter. Countain soldiers properly e#uipped and trained can use the $eather to their advantage in combat operations.

:. ho$ it is being moved. 2epicted as a red 6B6 on $eather maps. Dther$ise kno$n as an 6anticyclone6. on the other .he earth is surrounded by an atmosphere that is divided into several layers. he higher the pressure. he $orld3s $eather systems are in the lo$er of these layers kno$n as the 6troposphere. 2epicted as a blue 6/6 on $eather maps. land masses.1 millibars %mb*. he characteristics of a high(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • • he airflo$ is clock$ise and out.6 his layer reaches as high as ':. and if it is being lifted or not. %0* 8o+ 9ressure. Air pressure is the 6$eight6 of the atmosphere at any given place. he $eather found in any one place depends on many things such as the air temperature.* -igh 9ressure. Associated $ith clear skies. he average air pressure at sea level is 08. Associated $ith bad $eather. air pressure %barometric pressure*.::: feet. Areas $ith a high level of this 6li#uid6 e"ert more pressure on an area and are called high(pressure areas. !eather is a result of an atmosphere.80 inches of mercury %hg* or .. %. he higher in altitude. In order to understand this. Dther$ise kno$n as a 6cyclone6. the $eather $ill more than likely be $orse. oceans. humidity %moisture content*. imagine that the air in the atmosphere acts like a li#uid. Air from a high(pressure area is basically trying to flo$ out and e#ualiAe its pressure $ith the surrounding air. Areas $ith a lo$er level are called lo$(pressure areas. 9enerally the $inds $ill be mild. Bo$ pressure. a. !ith lo$er air pressure. the better the $eather $ill be. une#ual heating and cooling from the sun. he characteristics of a lo$(pressure area are as follo$s: • • • • he airflo$ is counterclock$ise and in. and the earth3s rotation. b. the lo$er the pressure.

gusts become more important and may be 7: percent higher than the average $ind speed. a. !ith increasing $ind strength. he rocky debris or chunks of sno$ crust are hurled near the surface. b. !inds are formed due to the uneven heating of the air by the sun and rotation of the earth. soldiers should lay on the ground during gusts and continue moving during lulls. Dn a $eather map.6 (in& In high mountains. these differences in pressure are depicted as isobars. $ind blo$ing at ': knots pushes four times harder than a $ind blo$ing at 0: knots. c. $hich causes atmospheric instability resulting in bad $eather. or at high altitudes. $here it rises and moves to the poles again. air e"pands and moves to colder areas $here it cools and becomes denser. commanders must be constantly a$are of the $ind(chill factor and associated cold($eather injuries %see Chapter 0 ( Countain Biving*. Isobars resemble contour lines and are measured in either millibars or inches of mercury. 2uring the $inter season. the local $ind direction is controlled by topography. Cuch of the $orld3s $eather depends on a system of $inds that blo$ in a set direction. <ecause of these funneling effects.hand. he results are a circulation of air from the poles along the surface of the earth to the e#uator. $ind speed increases $ith altitude since the earth3s frictional drag is strongest near the ground. !inds are accelerated $hen they converge through mountain passes and canyons. the ridges and passes are seldom calm@ ho$ever. If a hurricane( force $ind blo$s $here there is sand or sno$. Above hot surfaces. he areas of high pressure are called 6ridges6 and lo$s are called 6troughs. dense clouds fill the air. his effect is intensified by mountainous terrain. and sinks to the earth3s surface. the $ind may blast $ith great force on an e"posed mountainside or summit. =ormally. . strong $inds in protected valleys are rare. !hen $ind strength increases to a hurricane force of )' knots or more. c. is building up vertically by pulling air in from outside itself. he force e"erted by $ind #uadruples each time the $ind speed doubles@ that is. >sually.

his air comes in parcels called 6air masses. but do not necessarily affect the $eather. dry air mass.d. %1* 3ortheast Tra&e+in&s. hese $inds originate from appro"imately 1: degrees north latitude from the $est. Caritime ropical — $arm. Caritime -olar — cold. In the =orthern /emisphere. Combining these parcels of air provides the names and description of the four types of air masses: • • • • Continental -olar — cold. he jet stream is a long meandering current of high(speed $inds often e"ceeding 07: miles per hour near the transition Aone bet$een the troposphere and the stratosphere kno$n as the tropopause. Continental ropical — $arm. there are three prevailing $inds: %. /eating and cooling together $ith the rotation of the earth causes surface $inds. $et air mass.6 hese air masses can vary from the siAe of a small to$n to as large as a country. e. hese air masses are named from $here they originate: • • • • Caritime — over $ater. ropical — south of ):O north latitude. dry air mass. hese $inds blo$ from a generally $esterly direction dipping do$n and picking up air masses from the tropical regions and going north and bringing do$n air masses from the polar regions. . Continental — over land -olar — north of ):O north latitude. %0* 9re2ai!ing (ester!ies. his is air that has cooled and settled at the poles. he patterns of $ind mentioned above move air. hese are $inds from the polar region moving from the east. hese are $inds that originate from appro"imately 1:o north from the northeast.* 9o!ar $aster!ies. $o types of $inds are peculiar to mountain environments. g. f. $et air mass. due to the earth3s rotation. has settled to the surface. his is an area $here prematurely cooled air.

fog. Any time air is lifted or cooled beyond its saturation point %. All air holds $ater vapor even if it cannot be seen. hese $inds blo$ up mountain valleys to replace $arm rising air and are usually light $inds. rain.:: percent relative humidity*.7 degrees &ahrenheit per .. %0* Kata atic (in& /:ountain (in&0. If air is cooled beyond its saturation point. he adiabatic lapse rate is the rate at $hich air cools as it rises or $arms as it descends. Air can hold only so much $ater vapor@ ho$ever. his rate varies depending on the moisture content of the air. b. and so on*. condensation can occur at a temperature of )5 degrees &ahrenheit.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. clouds are formed. sno$. +aturated %moist* air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 1. the more moisture it can hold. 2ry air $ill $arm and cool appro"imately 7. . he four $ays air gets lifted and cooled beyond its saturation point are as follo$s. he temperature at $hich this happens is called the 6condensation point6.::: feet of elevation gained or lost. observers can forecast $eather $ith little need for additional e#uipment such as a barometer. -umi&ity /umidity is the amount of moisture in the air.. !hen air can hold all that it can the air is 6saturated6 or has . condensation may not form until the temperature drops to 10 degrees &ahrenheit or even belo$ freeAing. hese $inds blo$ do$n mountain valley slopes caused by the cooling of air and are occasionally strong $inds. the air $ill release its moisture in one form or another %clouds.%. C!ou& Formation Clouds are indicators of $eather conditions. $ind meter. but if the air is dry and does not hold much moisture. and thermometer.:: percent relative humidity.* 7na atic (in& /Aa!!ey (in&s0. de$. <y reading cloud shapes and patterns. If the air contains a great deal of $ater.0 degrees &ahrenheit per . the $armer the air. he condensation point varies depending on the amount of $ater vapor contained in the air and the temperature of the air. a.

it has no$here to go but up. Dnce this air reaches the center of the lo$ pressure. Types o# C!ou&s Clouds are one of the signposts to $hat is happening $ith the $eather. b. &rontal lifting creates the majority of precipitation.7:: feet* are either cumulus or stratus %&igures . An area of lo$ pressure pulls air into its center from all over in a counterclock$ise direction. hey can be classified by height or appearance. !hen temperatures are cold enough. these clouds may also contain ice particles and sno$. or even by the amount of area covered vertically or horiAontally.a. Clouds can be described in many $ays. 6rographic 8i#ting. a. his effect happens due to the sun3s heat radiating off the . Bo$(level clouds %: to ). Clouds are classified into five categories: lo$(. A front is formed $hen t$o air masses of different moisture content and temperature collide. Fronta! 8i#ting. +ince air masses $ill not mi". mid(.7:: feet. and . his happens $hen an air mass is pushed up and over a mass of higher ground such as a mountain. Air continues to lift until it reaches the saturation point. &rom there it is cooled and then reaches its saturation point. $armer air is forced aloft over the colder air mass. . and high(level clouds@ vertically(developed clouds@ and less common clouds. Air is cooled due to the adiabatic lapse rate until the air3s saturation point is reached. Bo$(level clouds are mostly composed of $ater droplets since their bases lie belo$ ).(.arth3s surface causing air currents %thermals* to rise straight up and lift air to a point of saturation. 8o+-8e2e! C!ou&s. Cyc!onic 8i#ting. Con2ecti2e 8i#ting. c.(0*. d.

('*. Figure )-1. .(1 and .. 3im ostratus C!ou&s. Stratus C!ou&s.* he t$o types of precipitating lo$(level clouds are nimbostratus and stratocumulus %&igures . Cumu!us C!ou&s.Figure )-). Figure )-. %.

!ith your arm e"tended to$ard the sky. deciphering bet$een the t$o cloud types is easier. %0* Bo$(level clouds may be identified by their height above nearby surrounding relief of kno$n elevation. lo$(level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation. %b* +tratocumulus clouds generally appear as a lo$. especially if the cloud is more than 1. altocumulus elements are about the siAe of a thumbnail $hile stratocumulus are about the siAe of a fist. the cloud base is typically e"tremely diffuse and difficult to accurately determine.Figure )-4. <ecause the individual elements of stratocumulus are larger than those of altocumulus. he sun or moon is not visible through nimbostratus clouds. %a* =imbostratus clouds are dark. <ecause of the fog and falling precipitation commonly found beneath and around nimbostratus clouds. +tratocumulus vary in color from dark gray to light gray and may appear as rounded masses $ith breaks of clear sky in bet$een.::: feet . Bo$(level clouds usually indicate impending precipitation. Stratocumu!us C!ou&s. $hich distinguishes them from mid(level altostratus clouds. lumpy layer of clouds that is sometimes accompanied by $eak precipitation. Cost precipitation originates from lo$(level clouds because rain or sno$ usually evaporate before reaching the ground from higher clouds.

::: feet* have a prefi" of alto.7:: to 0:. 7!tostratus. altocumulus and altostratus clouds %&igures . :i&-8e2e! C!ou&s. have distinct edges that grade gradually into the surrounding sky. Figure )-5.()*. composed mainly of ice crystals and usually colder than (1: degrees &.(7 and . Cid(level clouds %bet$een ). though usually hours a$ay. Cold clouds. 7!tocumu!us. Figure )-6. Alto clouds $ith sharp edges are $armer because they are composed mainly of $ater droplets. . especially if they are rising over time. here are t$o types of mid(level clouds.thick.::: feet thick. Bo$ering middle clouds indicate potential storms. Ciddle clouds usually indicate fair $eather. Ciddle clouds appear less distinct than lo$ clouds because of their height.* b. %Clouds that appear dark at their bases are more than 1.

::: feet above ground level* are usually froAen clouds. a characteristic $hich makes them distinguishable from high(level cirrocumulus. emperatures are $arm.* Altocumulus clouds can appear as parallel bands or rounded masses. Cirrus. at night.(5*. -igh-8e2e! C!ou&s. he arrival of cirrus indicates moisture aloft and the approach of a traveling storm system. he one distinguishing feature is that a halo is not observed around the sun or moon. produces a ring of light around the moon. . becoming altostratus and eventually stratus. Altocumulus clouds that are scattered rather than even. and $inds become southerly or south easterly. the sun or moon is only vaguely visible and appears as if it $ere shining through frosted glass. indicating air temperatures at that elevation belo$ (1: degrees &ahrenheit. As the storm approaches. in a blue sky. Altocumulus clouds usually form in advance of a cold front. he sky is often covered $ith a thin veil of cirrus that partly obscures the sun or. he t$o types of high(level clouds are cirrus and cirrostratus %&igure . are called 6fair $eather6 cumulus and suggest arrival of high pressure and clear skies.%. -recipitation is often 0' to 1) hours a$ay. the cirrus thickens and lo$ers. %0* Altostratus clouds are often confused $ith cirrostratus. $ith a fibrous structure and blurred outlines. ypically a portion of an altocumulus cloud is shaded. !ith altostratus.(4 and &igure . c. he presence of altocumulus clouds on a $arm humid summer morning is commonly follo$ed by thunderstorms later in the day. /igh(level clouds %more than 0:. Figure )-7. humidity rises.

hey are relatively transparent and can cover the entire sky and be up to several thousand feet thick. releasing incredible amounts of energy. he t$o types of clouds $ith vertical development are fair $eather cumulus and cumulonimbus.::: feet. %. high(level clouds composed of ice crystals. Cirrostratus. As a result.Figure )-".* &air $eather cumulus clouds have the appearance of floating cotton balls and have a lifetime of 7 to ': minutes. Cirrus can be observed in a variety of shapes and siAes. he sun or moon can be seen through cirrostratus. ypically found at altitudes greater than 0:. +ometimes the only indication of cirrostratus clouds is a halo around the sun or moon. ?no$n for their flat bases and ."tensive cirrus clouds are associated $ith an approaching $arm front. . or seemingly all tangled together. signifying an increased production of ice crystals. Cirrostratus clouds tend to thicken as a $arm front approaches. cirrus are composed of ice crystals that form $hen super(cooled $ater droplets freeAe.* Cirrus clouds are the most common of the high(level clouds. %0* Cirrostratus clouds are sheet(like. Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair $eather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. Aertica!-De2e!opment C!ou&s.::: feet. Clouds $ith vertical development can gro$ to heights in e"cess of 18. the halo gradually disappears and the sun or moon becomes less visible. d. hey can be nearly straight. shaped like a comma. %.

.::: feet or higher. his do$n$ard motion inhibits further convection and gro$th of additional thermals from do$n belo$. As the air rises. damaging $inds. making it heavier and producing sinking motion outside the cloud.distinct outlines. +uper(cells are large thunderstorms $ith deep rotating updrafts and can have a lifetime of several hours. large hail. the cloud begins to erode and eventually disappears. Ioung fair $eather cumulus clouds have sharply defined edges and bases $hile the edges of older clouds appear more ragged. these clouds can later develop into to$ering cumulonimbus clouds associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms. harmless fair $eather cumulus clouds can #uickly develop into large cumulonimbus associated $ith po$erful thunderstorms kno$n as super(cells. the tops of cumulonimbus clouds can reach 18. 9iven suitable conditions. and tornadoes. !ithout a continued supply of rising air. an artifact of erosion. $hich is $hy fair $eather cumulus typically have e"panses of clear sky bet$een them. &ueled by vigorous convective updrafts. >nder favorable conditions. $ith the cloud tops designating the limit of the rising air. hey can e"ist as individual to$ers or form a line of to$ers called a s#uall line. . fair $eather cumulus e"hibit only slight vertical gro$th. &air $eather cumulus clouds are fueled by buoyant bubbles of air kno$n as thermals that rise up from the earth3s surface. $here the temperatures are $ell belo$ freeAing. ice crystals dominate the composition. the $ater vapor cools and condenses forming $ater droplets. %0* Cumulonimbus clouds are much larger and more vertically developed than fair $eather cumulus %&igure .vaporation along the cloud edges cools the surrounding air. hese storms tend to develop during the afternoon and early evening $hen the effects of heating from the sun are the strongest. +uper(cells produce fre#uent lightning. Bo$er levels of cumulonimbus clouds consist mostly of $ater droplets $hile at higher elevations.(8*. ho$ever.

Initially.* Drographic clouds develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth3s topography. !ith continued descent.(. Dnce the air returns to its original height. stable air encounters a mountain. similar to a 6flying saucer. it has the same buoyancy as the surrounding air. and cools. Cumu!onim us. 6ther C!ou& Types. Benticulars should al$ays be $atched for changes. the air becomes $armer then the surrounding air and accelerates back up$ards to$ards its original height. Air passing over a mountain oscillates up and do$n as it moves do$nstream. If the air cools to its saturation temperature during this process. If they gro$ and descend. %. the air does not stop immediately because it still has momentum carrying it do$n$ard. lenticulars.Figure )-'. is lifted up$ard. Cloud caps $ith a lens shape. e. hey are orographic clouds.6 indicate e"tremely high $inds %over ': knots*. hese clouds are a collection of miscellaneous types that do not fit into the previous four groups. %0* Benticular clouds are cloud caps that often form above pinnacles and peaks. and usually indicate higher $inds aloft %&igure . /o$ever. . $arming as it descends. the air is heavier than the environment and $ill sink do$n the other side.:*. >pon reaching the mountain top. the $ater vapor condenses and becomes visible as a cloud. and contrails. Another name for this type of cloud is the lenticular cloud. bad $eather can be e"pected.

then there is impending bad $eather %usually about 0' hours prior to a front*.*.Figure )-)*. If it takes longer than t$o hours for contrails to evaporate.. especially $hen cloud cover must be reported to another location. especially if the sky is . Figure )-)). C!ou& =nterpretation. 8inticu!ar. Contrails evaporate rapidly in fair $eather. +erious errors can occur in interpreting the e"tent of cloud cover. Contrai!s. %1* Contrails are clouds that are made by $ater vapor being inserted into the upper atmosphere by the e"haust of jet engines %&igure . Cloud cover al$ays appears greater on or near the horiAon. f.(.

cumulonimbus clouds $ill be seen during the summer months. there . and nimbostratus. he cloud progression observed $ill be cirrus. altostratus. !hen crossing from one side of a stationary front to another. and fog. nimbostratus %producing rain*. A $arm front occurs $hen $arm air moves into and over a slo$er or stationary cold air mass. Clouds observed $ill be cirrus. he cold fronts eventually overtake $arm fronts and the $arm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. Cold air. and stationary. Cloud cover estimates should be restricted to sky areas more than ': degrees above the horiAon—that is. Fronts &ronts occur $hen t$o air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. it once again becomes a $arm or cold front. it is a $arm occlusion. since the observer is looking more at the sides of the clouds rather than bet$een them. cold. 6cc!u&e& Front. A stationary front is a Aone $ith no significant air movement. Cold fronts generally move faster than $arm fronts. Assess the sky by dividing the 1): degrees of sky around you into eighths. Co!& Front. cirrostratus. d. -recipitation can be from light to heavy. he cloud types seen $hen a $arm front approaches are cirrus. Stationary Front.ecord the coverage in eighths and the types of clouds observed. it becomes a stationary front. !hen a $arm or cold front stops moving. A cold front occurs $hen a cold air mass overtakes a slo$er or stationary $arm air mass. it $ill rise up and over the cooler air. Dccasionally. cirrostratus. a. .covered $ith cumulus clouds. and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of sho$ers. he Aone of division bet$een cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a 6cold occlusion. <ecause $arm air is less dense. $ill force the $arm air up. (arm Front. he four types of fronts are $arm. Dne of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. being more dense than $arm air. to the local sky. occluded. c. Dnce this boundary begins for$ard motion. cumulus. b. Cost land areas e"perience more occlusions than other types of fronts.6 If the air behind the front is $armer than the air ahead.

and heat loss through thermal radiation. &or air moving up a mountain $ith condensation occurring %clouds. he difference in temperature felt on the skin bet$een the sun and shade is normally 4 degrees &ahrenheit. $here solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by dust and $ater vapor..::: feet of elevation gain. subarctic. +pecial care must be taken to avoid sunburn and sno$ blindness.7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . An e"pedient to this often occurs on cold. Conse#uently. his reversal of the normal cooling $ith elevation is called temperature inversion. he inversion continues until the sun $arms the surface of the earth or a moderate $ind causes a mi"ing of the $arm and cold layers. higher temperatures may often be encountered as altitude is gained. due to convection currents. he $eather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front. fog. and mid(latitudes.0 degrees &ahrenheit $ith every . the temperature of the air drops 1.::: feet gain in altitude is encountered in motionless air. emperature inversions are caused $hen mountain air is cooled by ice.. At high altitudes. calm mornings. he important effect of altitude is that the sun3s rays pass through less of the atmosphere and more direct heat is received than at lo$er levels. Temperature =ormally. sno$. a temperature drop of 1 to 7 degrees &ahrenheit for every . solar heating is responsible for the greatest temperature contrasts.is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in $ind direction. and precipitation*. Cuch of the chilled air drains do$n$ard. 2uring a troop movement or climb started in a valley. <esides permitting rapid heating.::: feet of elevation gain. so that the differences bet$een day and night temperatures are greater in valleys than on slopes. the temperature of the air drops 7.. b. his is particularly true for dark metallic objects. a. his cooler. &or air moving up a mountain $ith no clouds forming. Core sunshine and solar heat are received above the clouds than belo$. emperature inversions are common in the mountainous regions of the arctic. 2ifferences of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit may occur bet$een surface temperatures in the shade and surface temperatures in the sun. denser air settles into the valleys and lo$ areas. the temperature rises fast after sunrise and drops #uickly after sunset. the clear air at high altitudes also favors rapid cooling at night. clear. .

his method assumes that the conditions at the time of the forecast $ill not change@ for e"ample. o be effective. and hygrometer help in making local $eather forecasts. the level of difficulty that the forecast situation presents. air and $inds on the lee$ard slope are considerably $armer than on the $ind$ard slope. . Bocal $eather patterns force air currents up and over mountaintops. the persistence method predicts that tomorro$ $ill be the same.0 degrees &ahrenheit per .* 9ersistence :etho&.c. !eather at various elevations may be #uite different because cloud height. but more slo$ly %1. $ith mountains rising above the lo$ overcast into $armer clear $eather. $ind meter. !eather reports should be used in conjunction $ith the locally observed current $eather situation to forecast future $eather patterns. including >+A&.::: feet* if clouds are forming due to heat release $hen $ater vapor becomes li#uid. Air is cooled on the $ind$ard side of the mountain as it gains altitude.. and barometric pressure $ill all be different. and the degree of accuracy needed to make the forecast. this heat gained from the condensation on the $ind$ard side is added to the normal heating that occurs as the air descends and air pressure increases. 6 oday e#uals tomorro$6 is the simplest $ay of producing a forecast. b. $hich is referred to as Chinook $inds. Dn the lee$ard side of the mountain. he five $ays to forecast $eather are: %.eports from other localities and from any $eather service. here may be overcast and rain in a lo$er area. +everal different methods can be used to create a forecast. he method a forecaster chooses depends upon the forecaster3s e"perience. herefore. temperature. thermometer. >+=. or the =ational !eather <ureau. a. . he heating and cooling of the air affects planning considerations primarily $ith regard to the clothing and e#uipment needed for an operation. a forecast must reach the small(unit leaders $ho are e"pected to utiliAe $eather conditions for assigned missions. (eather Forecasting he use of a portable aneroid barometer. are also helpful. the amount of data available. if today $as hot and dry.

%0* If no anemometer is available. under changing conditions. Ideally.%0* Tren&s :etho&. this may not al$ays be the case. his method e"amines a day3s forecast and recalls a day in the past $hen the $eather looked similar %an analogy*. are blo$ing. c. . %7* 3umerica! (eather 9re&iction. bushes.ecor&ing Data An accurate observation is essential in noting trends in $eather patterns. Assess $ind speed in knots. Eudge the $ind speed by the $ay objects. Assess $ind direction as a magnetic direction from $hich the $ind is blo$ing. and clouds and precipitation. %. (in& Direction. Aisi i!ity in :eters. assess speed to the nearest knot. his method is difficult to use because finding a perfect analogy is difficult. 6=o$casting6 involves determining the speed and direction of fronts. estimate the speed in knots. &or e"ample. if a cold front moves 1:: miles during a 0'( hour period. %'* 7na!og :etho&. %1* C!imato!ogy :etho&. and so forth. tents. Dbserve the farthest visible major terrain or man(made feature and determine the distance using any available map. high( and lo$(pressure centers.* If an anemometer is available. his method uses computers to analyAe all $eather conditions and is the most accurate of the five methods. A minor shift in the $inds may signal an approaching storm. b. his only $orks $ell $hen the pattern is similar to the follo$ing years. trends $ill be noted in some $eather parameters. such as trees. his method averages $eather statistics accumulated over many years. a. (in& Spee&. $e can predict that it $ill travel 1:: miles in another 0'( hours. . /o$ever.

Assess total cloud cover in eighths. Assess temperature $ith or $ithout a thermometer. heavy do$npours. e. tornadoes %not too fre#uently*. hail. colder temperatures. o convert &ahrenheit to Celsius: C P & minus 10 times . o convert Celsius to &ahrenheit: & P . total cloud cover is 'K5. +no$ — continuous and steady froAen precipitation that $ill last at least one hour.* f. !inds commonly e"ceed 17 knots. and strong gusty $inds at the surface and aloft.. Tota! C!ou& Co2er. degrees &.d.stimate $here the cloud base intersects elevated terrain. $hich gives the total cloud cover in eighths.77.5 times C plus 10. then estimate to the best of your ability.ain — continuous and steady li#uid precipitation that $ill last at least one hour. If clouds are not touching terrain.5 J 10 P '. 2ivide the sky into eight different sections measuring from horiAon to horiAon.77 P 7 degrees C. . Include any precipitation or obscuring $eather. %. if half of the sections are covered $ith clouds. . he follo$ing are e"amples of present $eather: • • • • • • . Temperature. +no$ sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy froAen do$npours that rarely last more than one hour. g. degrees & Q 10 " . haAe — obstructs visibility of ground objects. hunderstorms — a potentially dangerous storm. 7 degrees C " . &og. . %&or e"ample. 9resent (eather. Cei!ing -eight. $Bamp!e4 '. hunderstorms $ill produce lightning. Count the sections $ith cloud cover. assess temperature in degrees Celsius %use &ahrenheit only if Celsius conversion is not available*. =ote if bases are above all terrain.ain sho$ers — short(term and potentially heavy do$npours that rarely last more than one hour..* !ith a thermometer.

Increasing cloud coverage. as $ell as an estimated temperature. i. %. • • • • • • • • %0* Improving trends include: • • • +teady $ind direction. 9ressure Tren&. h. A lo$ pressure system $ind flo$s counterclock$ise.%0* !ithout a thermometer. !ith a barometer or altimeter. assess the pressure trend. Carked increase in humidity. estimate temperature as above or belo$ freeAing %:OC*. the greater the differential of pressure %greater $ind speeds*. he closer the isometric lines are. Increase in precipitation. Carked $ind speed increases. %0* A lo$ pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate higher elevation. =ote changes or trends in observed $eather conditions. 2ecreasing barometric pressure. %. $hich could indicate that a cold front is passing through. Clearing of obstructions to visibility. $hich indicates a lo$er pressure system is moving through the area. 2ecreasing $ind speeds. 6 ser2e& (eather. Bo$ering cloud ceilings. Changes in obstructions to visibility. A high pressure system $ind flo$s clock$ise.* 2eteriorating trends include: • Carked $ind direction shifts. $hich indicates no change in $eather systems in the area. A steady driAAle is usually a long( lasting rain.* A high pressure moving in $ill cause altimeters to indicate lo$er elevation. Carked cooler temperature changes. .

lightning. bad $eather. Combinations of objective and subjective haAards are referred to as cumulative haAards. . or a short climb is seemingly lo$ of dangers. 2ecreasing cloud coverage. the tent and all e#uipment may have to be tied do$n. c. or other reasons. a. or as a combination %human trigger*. %i2ouac Site. and flooding %especially in gullies*. 6 >ecti2e -a@ar&s . /umidity decreases.opes are not total security@ they can be cut on a sharp edge or break due to poor maintenance. e#uipment misuse*. heavy e#uipment. <ivouac sites must be protected from rockfall. companions. rope in. improper diet. Continue to evaluate observed conditions and update the forecast. climbing above one3s ability. $ind. If the possibility of falling e"ists. here are t$o kinds of haAards $hile in the mountains —subjective and objective. and poor judgment. over(fatigue. tour. Ep&ate. :ountain -a@ar&s /aAards can be termed natural %caused by natural occurrence*. such as lack of preparation. emperature changes slo$ly $armer. a hold breaking a$ay. Fa!!ing. b. choice of route. Increasing height of cloud ceilings. $hich indicates that a higher pressure system is moving through the area. or e"cessive use. Increasing barometric pressure. man(made %caused by an individual. dehydration. overe"ertion. &alling can be caused by carelessness. age. overestimating ability. Iou should al$ays pack emergency and bivouac e#uipment even if the $eather situation. Su >ecti2e -a@ar&s Sub!ective haAards are created by humans@ for e"ample.• • • • • • 2ecreasing or ending precipitation. $quipment. avalanche run(out Aones. j. carelessness.

climbing at night may be better because the $arming of the sun $ill loosen stones and cause rockfalls. Dne cubic meter of glacier ice $eighs 8. Avoid. and so on. a. &og. +torms can form #uickly and lightning can be severe. hanging glaciers and seracs."b!ective haAards are caused by the mountain and $eather and cannot be influenced by man@ for e"ample. c. and or blo$ing sno$ can lead to disorientation. Cut do$n on smoking and alcohol. storms. At high altitudes %especially over ). As this slope increases . and debris are channeled do$n gullies.: kilograms %about 0. +leep $ell. or $hen a glacier separates from the rock $alls that enclose it.efer to paragraph . darkness. lightning.ock. d. Aisi i!ity. he second man $ill use the first man as an aiming point $ith the compass.::: pounds*. and be a$are of signs and symptoms of high( altitude illnesses. if at all possible. hey $ill fall $ithout $arning regardless of the time of day or time of year. icefalls. Crevasses are formed $hen a glacier flo$s over a slope and makes a bend. Cold combined $ith fog can cause a thin sheet of ice to form on rocks %verglas*. e. !hiteout conditions can be e"tremely dangerous. %. +pring melt or $arming by the sun of the rockKiceKsno$ causes rockfall. Avalanches are caused by the $eight of the sno$ overloading the slope. <locks and scree at the base of a climb can indicate recurring rockfall. . If you must move under these conditions. . If the tactical situation does not re#uire it. <u!!ies. >se a route sketch and march table.* f. If ice is in the gully.ock#a!!. If you must cross these danger areas. -anging <!aciers an& Seracs. ake note of your e"act position and plan your route to safety before visibility decreases. acclimatiAe slo$ly. Cre2asses. sno$. it is best to rope up. 72a!anches. 7!titu&e. rockfalls. g. b.(07 for more detailed information on avalanches. A slope of only t$o to three degrees is enough to form a crevasse. do so #uickly and keep an interval bet$een each person. /ave the point man move to the end of the rope. stay hydrated. rain. endurance and concentration is reduced.7:: feet*. Bight colored spots on the $all may indicate impact chips of falling rock. plan route so as not to get caught by darkness.

Al$ays pack some sort of emergency gear. ridges. Above appro"imately 5. and a bluish light %+t. the force #uadruples. +igns indicative of thunderstorms are tingling of the skin. sunny day in Euly could turn into a sno$storm in less than an hour. shallo$ overhangs. his causes more fre#uent and denser fog on the $ind$ard slope. crackling. !inds are stronger and more variable in the mountains@ as $ind doubles in speed. .from 07 to 1: degrees. so e#uipment does not rust as #uickly. . (eather -a@ar&s !eather conditions in the mountains may vary from one location to another as little as . isolated trees. Approaching storms may be hard to spot if masked by local peaks. cracks that guide $ater.: kilometers apart. rock $alls. the safest route on a glacier $ould be to the inside of bends. and a$ay from steep slopes and icefalls. caves*. Bightning is fre#uent. %. hair standing on end. +eek shelter around dry. but dehydration is of greater concern. haAardous icefalls can be formed. shallo$ depressions.lmo3s fire* on especially prominent metal objects %summit crosses and radio to$ers*. A clear.* Avoid peaks. and rock needles."treme care must be taken $hen moving off of or onto the glacier because of the moat that is most likely to be present. b. humming of metal objects. Bike$ise. e. . herefore. fi"ed $ire installations. violent. as a glacier makes a bend. -recipitation occurs more on the $ind$ard side than the lee$ard side of ranges. ?eep at least half a body3s length a$ay from a cave $all and opening. d. Air is dryer at higher altitudes.::: feet. and normally attracted to high points and prominent features in mountain storms. a. c. clean rock $ithout cracks@ in scree fields@ or in deep indentations %depressions. it is likely that crevasses $ill form at the outside of the bend. sno$ can be e"pected any time of year in the temperate climates. cracks filled $ith earth.

even if overcast. <e especially alert for falling objects that the rain has loosened. j. f. g. !ear protective clothing and plan the route to be finished before bad $eather arrives. especially $hen combined $ith $ind.* . h. e"pect slippery rock and terrain in general and adjust movement accordingly. the temperature drops appro"imately one degree &ahrenheit. 72a!anche =ssues Avalanches occur $hen the $eight of accumulated sno$ on a slope e"ceeds the cohesive forces that hold the sno$ in place. +no$shoes or skis may be needed in autumn or even late spring. $hich may bury the trail. i. the sno$ #uickly melts. rain. If half $ay up the rock face. Al$ays $ear or pack appropriate clothing. If it is sno$ing. touch the $all $ith both feet together and hurry to the ne"t anchor.(0 sho$s an avalanche haAard evaluation checklist. Cool $inds at higher altitudes may mislead one into underestimating the sun3s intensity. % able .5 inches@ ho$ever. &or each . $indburn. If already rappelling. +#uat on your haunches or sit on a rucksack or rope. and sno$. A climber can be $ashed a$ay or even dro$ned if caught in a gully during a rainstorm. 2uring and after rain.::(meter rise in altitude. being blo$n about %especially $hile rappelling*. secure yourself $ith more than one point—lightning can burn through rope. and debris being blo$n about. 2rink plenty of fluids."pect flash floods in gullies or chimneys.0 to .%0* Assume a one(point(of(contact body position. /igher altitudes provide less filtering effects. $hich leads to greater ultraviolet %>V* radiation intensity. >ne"pected sno$storms may occur in the summer $ith accumulations of . his can cause hypothermia and frostbite even in summer. . $hich can lead to sunburns and other heat injuries. >se sunscreen and $ear hat and sunglasses. gullies may contain avalanches or sno$ sloughs. -ull your knees to your chest and keep both feet together. 2angers from impending high $inds include frostbite %from increased $ind( chill factor*.

+lopes above ): degrees often do not build up significant #uantities of sno$ because they are too steep. +no$ on north facing slopes is more likely to slide in mid$inter.. +lopes as gentle as . +outh facing slopes are most dangerous in the spring and on . but may occur on concave slopes. %0* S!ope 9ro#i!e. Cost avalanches occur on slopes bet$een 1: and '7 degrees. a.* S!ope 7ng!e.Ta !e )-. +lope stability is the key factor in determining the avalanche danger. %. 72a!ance ha@ar& e2a!uation check!ist. 2angerous slab avalanches are more likely to occur on conve" slopes. %1* S!ope 7spect. S!ope Sta i!ity.7 degrees have avalanched.

%7* Ai ration. especially $hen accompanied by $ind. especially if temperatures rise #uickly. +no$ deposits may vary greatly $ithin a fe$ meters due to $ind and sun variations. /igh rates of sno$fall %0. settlement and adhesion occur slo$ly. c. +torms $ith a rise in temperature can deposit dry sno$ early. %0* 9recipitation. %.ough terrain is more stable than smooth terrain. %. . . About 8: percent of avalanches occur during or $ithin t$enty(four hours after a sno$storm. !hen the temperature is e"tremely lo$. $hich bonds poorly $ith the heavier sno$ deposited later.7 miles per hour and over transport sno$ and form $ind slabs on the lee side of slopes. e"plosions. At a temperature just belo$ freeAing. Cost avalanches occur during the $armer midday. b. +ustained $inds of . +no$ pits can be used to determine slope stability. the potential for avalanche is high. Dn grassy slopes or scree.* Temperature. the sno$pack stabiliAes #uickly.* 2ig the sno$ pit on the suspect slope or a slope $ith the same sun and $ind conditions. -assing helicopters. 2ig a 0(meter by 0(meter . Avalanches that occur during e"treme cold $eather usually occur during or immediately follo$ing a storm. At temperatures above freeAing. $arm days. Cost victims trigger the avalanches that kill them. +lopes on the $ind$ard side are generally more stable than lee$ard slopes. %'* (eight. a sno$ pit dug across the fall line triggered the suspect slope*. are usually responsible for major periods of avalanche activity.ain falling on sno$ $ill increase its $eight and $eakens the sno$pack.sunny. and earth tremors have triggered avalanches. heavy e#uipment. %'* <roun& Co2er. Sno+ 9its. %Dn at least one occasion. %1* (in&. the sno$ pack has little to anchor to.7 centimeters per hour or greater*. Triggers. Various factors trigger avalanches. he rate at $hich sno$ falls is important.

6 Although they happen most fre#uently . isolate a column slightly longer than the length of your sno$shoes or skis %same method as for the shovel shear test*. Types o# Sno+ 72a!anches.utschblock test. to the ground. 2ig out the sides of the column $ithout pressing against the column $ith the shovel %this affects the strength*. s#uat once. his test provides a better understanding of the sno$pack strength. place the other foot on the block. he ne"t stage is adding $eight to the first leg. here are t$o types of sno$ avalanches: loose sno$ %point* and slab. the person carefully places one sho$shoe or ski onto the block $ith no body $eight for the first stage of the test. he core of this test is to isolate a column of the sno$pack from three sides. and so on. he surface that eventually slides $ill be the layer to look at closer. &or greater results you $ill need to do this test in many areas and formulate a scale for the varying methods of tapping the shovel. o conduct the test. =e"t. %a* A shovel shear test puts pressure on a representative sample of the sno$pack. he remaining stage is to jump up and land on the block. smooth the face $ith a shovel. %1* Conduct a . place the shovel face do$n on the top of the column. %0* Conduct a shovel shear test. o isolate the rear of the column. Dnce above.pit across the fall line. he column should be of similar siAe to the blade of the shovel.* Boose sno$ avalanches start at one point on the sno$ cover and gro$ in the shape of an inverted 6V. Dne person moves on their skis or sno$shoes above the block $ithout disturbing the block. ap $ith varying degrees of strength on the shovel to see $hat force it takes to create movement on the bed of the column. If the block is still holding up. then t$ice. d. %b* If the column remained standing $hile cutting the rear. through all the sno$. use a rope or string to sa$ from side to side to the base of the column. %. Dnce the pit is complete.

slab avalanches are generally considered more dangerous than loose sno$ avalanches.: degrees Celsius %. hey often fall as many small sluffs during or shortly after a storm.5 degrees &ahrenheit* $ould cause a sno$ slope 1:: meters $ide to contract 0 centimeters. their behavior becomes more unpredictable@ they may allo$ several people to ski across before releasing.during the $inter sno$ season. Dther measures include: . his process removes sno$ from steep upper slopes and either stabiliAes lo$er slopes or loads them $ith additional sno$. lubricated and $eighed do$n by melt$ater or rain can travel long distances and have tremendous destructive po$er. Although any avalanche can kill you. . they can occur at any time of the year in the mountains. -acked sno$ e"pands and contracts $ith temperature changes. %b* As slabs become harder. settled sno$. &or normal density. %0* !et loose sno$ avalanches occur in spring and summer in all mountain ranges. %a* Cost slab avalanches occur during or shortly after a storm $hen slopes are loaded $ith ne$ sno$ at a critical rate. Cany e"perts believe they are susceptible to rapid temperature changes. Avoiding kno$n or suspected avalanche areas is the easiest method of protection. a drop in temperature of . he fracture line $here the moving sno$ breaks a$ay from the sno$pack makes this type of avalanche easy to identify. +lab release is rapid. %1* +lab avalanches occur $hen cohesive sno$ begins to slide on a $eak layer.arly ski mountaineers in the Alps noticed that avalanches sometimes occurred $hen shado$s struck a previously sun( $armed slope. Barge avalanches of this type. d. he old rule of never travel in avalanche terrain for a fe$ days after a storm still holds true. Coastal ranges that have high temperatures and fre#uent rain are the most common areas for this type of avalanche. 9rotecti2e :easures.

as $ell as protect your spine. +pend as little time as possible on open slopes. Sta i!ity 7na!ysis. . Book for nature3s billboards on slopes similar to the one you are on. >se them for lunch and rest stops. !hen you must ascend a dangerous slope. -ut your hood on. +electing the correct route $ill help avoid avalanche prone areas. . f. Close up your clothing to prepare for hypothermia. %0* Avoid cornices from above or belo$. e. -repare to discard e#uipment. Iour pack can act as a flotation device. ridges.* 9ersona! Sa#ety.oute Se!ection. and not directly up the center. ?eep your pack on at all times—do not discard. pick a line $here you can traverse do$nhill as #uickly as possible. far from the bottom of slopes. %'* +ince most avalanches occur $ithin t$enty(four hours of a storm and or at midday.* $2i&ence o# 72a!anching. Coving at night is tactically sound and may be safer. avoid moving during these periods.emove your hands from ski pole $rist straps. . Al$ays allo$ a $ide margin of safety $hen making your decision. %0* <roup Sa#ety. $hich is al$ays the best choice. 2eploy avalanche cord. slightly on the $ind$ard side@ the ne"t safest route is out in the valley. +end one person across the suspect slope at a time $ith the rest of the group $atching. +hould you encounter a dangerous slope. 2etach ski runa$ay cords. All members of the group should move in the same track from safe Aone to safe Aone. If you must traverse. either climb to the top of the slope or descend to the bottom—$ell out of the $ay of the run(out Aone. %. Cake avalanche probes and shovels accessible. climb to the side of the avalanche path. Book for recent avalanches and for signs of $ind(loading and $ind(slabs. %1* ake advantage of dense timber.%.* he safest routes are on ridge tops. %. or rocky outcrops as islands of safety.

no one can hear you scream. give a hard push and try to 6pop out6 onto the surface.%0* Fracture 8ines. %'* !hen you sense the slo$ing of the avalanche. hey may suggest a radical settling of the sno$pack. their pulse rate declines. <e$are of hollo$ sounds—a 6$humping6 noise. shut your mouth. and the body temperature is lo$ered.. &I9/ &D.#uipment can injure or burden you@ discarded e#uipment $ill indicate your position to rescuers. If you feel yourself about to pass out. and position your hands and arms to form an air pocket in front of your face. do not fight it. all of $hich reduce the amount of o"ygen needed. 2on3t shout unless you hear rescuers immediately above you@ in sno$.* :ountain 8i2ing . %7* !hen the sno$ comes to rest it sets up like cement and even if you are only partially buried. %0* +$im or roll to stay on tope of the sno$. 2on3t struggle to free yourself—you $ill only $aste energy and o"ygen.* 2iscard e#uipment. If you feel your feet touch the ground. !ork to$ard the edge of the avalanche. he respiration of an unconscious person is more shallo$. he follo$ing steps should be follo$ed if caught in an avalanche. -eople trigger avalanches that bury people. g. hold your breath. +everal victims have been found #uickly because a hand or foot $as sticking above the surface. Cany avalanche victims suffocate by having their mouths and noses plugged $ith sno$. it may be impossible to dig yourself out. %+ee Appendi" C for information on search and rescue techni#ues. . %1* Soun&s. they $ould avoid the avalanche. ID>. %. %1* If your head goes under the sno$. Sur2i2a!. BI&. you must try your hardest to reach the surface. If these people recogniAed the haAard and chose a different route. Avoid any slopes sho$ing cracks. %)* ry to rela".

he sense of thirst may be dulled by high elevations despite the greater threat of dehydration. a. /yperventilation and the cool. and urination must be replaced if the soldier is to operate efficiently. &luids lost through respiration. 'raining should be conducted as realistically as possible. communications. and movement% re&uire specialized techni&ues. fire building. Caintaining fluid balance is a major problem in mountain operations. raining in $ater discipline should be emphasiAed to ensure soldiers drink $ater only from approved sources. 'raining should reflect the harsh mountain environment and should consider the following* H H H H H H H emperature and altitude e"tremes /ygiene and sanitation Bimited living space %difficulty of bivouac* Clothing re#uirements Survival Acclimatization and Conditioning Medical Considerations Sur2i2a! he soldier trained to fight and survive in a mountain environment $ill have increased confidence in himself. preferably under severe conditions so the soldier gains confidence. he soldier must make an effort to drink li#uids even $hen he does not feel thirsty. (ater Supp!y Countain $ater should never be assumed safe for consumption. or the . locating $ater. /ard $ork and overheating increase the perspiration rate. Dne #uart of $ater. shelter considerations. dry atmosphere bring about a three( to four(fold increase in $ater loss by evaporation through the lungs. #ormal activities $navigation. ()tended training e)ercises test support facilities and e)pose the soldier to the isolation common to mountain operations. and techni#ues for obtaining food %see &C 0.Units deploying to high elevations must receive advanced training to survive in the harsh mountain environment. health haAards. raining should include: psychological preparation.(4)*. perspiration.

ven $hen $ater is plentiful. If he is hot and the $ater is cold. and lakes provide good sources of $ater supply.0 #uarts %. ho$ever. If the $ater supply is insufficient. juices. hree to si" #uarts of $ater each day should be consumed.e#uivalent. no matter ho$ clear the sno$ or $ater appears. d. mountain streams. and po$dered beverages may supplement and encourage $ater intake %do not add these until the $ater has been treated since the purification tablets may not $ork*. Conserve $ater for drinking. rain. should be drunk every four hours@ more should be drunk if the unit is conducting rigorous physical activity. +alt lost by s$eating should be replaced in meals to avoid a deficiency and subse#uent cramping. =onpotable $ater must not be mistaken for . -ure $ater should al$ays be kept in reserve for first aid use. All $ater that is to be consumed must be potable. Fuickly drinking a large volume of $ater may actually slo$ the soldier. e. +no$. About 47 percent of the human body is li#uid. Any temporary deficiency should be replaced to maintain ma"imum performance. -otable $ater in the mountains may be in short supply. . springs. $hich assists in removing to"ic $astes and in maintaining an even body temperature. 2rinking $ater must be taken only from approved sources or purified to avoid disease or the possible use of polluted $ater. b. Consuming the usual military rations %three meals a day* provides sufficient sodium replacement. A basic rule is to drink small amounts often. physical activity must be reduced.7 percent of body $eight* is usually fatal. and a loss of . thirst should be satisfied in increments. A loss of t$o #uarts of body fluid %0. +alt tablets are not necessary and may contribute to dehydration. . 2o not contaminate or pollute $ater sources. severe cramping may result. All chemical activities in the body occur in $ater solution. +oldiers cannot adjust permanently to a decreased $ater intake. c. &ruits.7 percent of body $eight* decreases physical efficiency by 07 percent.mphasis must be placed on the three rules of $ater discipline: • • • 2rink only treated $ater. -urification must be accomplished. Celting sno$ into $ater re#uires an increased amount of fuel and should be planned accordingly.

but other$ise not dangerous. !ater should be collected at midday $hen the sun tha$ available. !ater is scarce above the timberline. he follo$ing elements are characteristic of nutritional acclimatiAation in mountain operations: • • • • !eight loss during the first t$o to three days at high elevation.drinking $ater. defense*. Increased fatigue may cause soldiers to become disinterested in eating properly. !ater should be treated $ith purification tablets %iodine tablets or calcium hypochlorite*. In areas $here $ater trickles off rocks. and sno$ and ice may be available for melting to provide $ater. high mountain areas freeAe. a shallo$ reservoir may be dug to collect $ater %after the sediment settles*. may be used for other purposes such as bathing. the tolerance of fattyKhigh(protein foods rapidly decreases. assembly area. a. a $atering party should be employed. !ater should be protected from freeAing by storing it ne"t to a soldier or by placing it in a sleeping bag at night. At progressively higher elevations %greater than . or by boiling at least one to t$o minutes. +oldiers must be trained to avoid $asting $ater. . f. precautions must be taken. A loss of appetite $ith symptoms of mountain sickness. After sundo$n. !ater that is unfit to drink.::: feet*.(4)*. 2ecreased consumption may result in malnutrition because of the unpleasant taste .'. b. $hich may re#uire personnel to heat their individual rations. +olar stills may be erected if time and sunlight conditions permit %see &C 0. 3utrition +uccess in mountain operations depends on proper nutrition."ternal cooling %pouring $ater over the head and chest* is a $aste of $ater and an inefficient means of cooling. Boss of $eight usually stops $ith acclimatiAation. <ecause higher altitudes affect eating habits. 2rinking $ater often is the best $ay to maintain a cool and functioning body. at least one hot meal each day should be eaten. If possible. &iltering $ith commercial $ater purification pumps can also be conducted. A high carbohydrate diet may lessen the symptoms of acute mountain sickness and is digested better than fat at high altitudes. After setting up a perimeter %patrol base.

%0* Fats. energy. milk. fish. are an effective means of increasing carbohydrates. c. &ats provide the body around 8 kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire less energy for the body to digest than protein but more than carbohydrates. -rotein re#uires $ater for digestion and may facilitate dehydration. cheese. and are harder to digest at higher altitudes. Beaders should ensure that fuel tablets and s#uad stoves are available. +ources of readily useable animal proteins include eggs. hese food components provide energy. he minimum daily protein re#uirement. hree major food components are re#uired to maintain a $ell(functioning body: proteins. . he amino acids. &ats re#uire more $ater and o"ygen. Carbohydrate(containing beverages. it does increase morale and a sense of $ell being. %. 07 to 1: percent may be supplied as fats. -roteins consist of a large number of amino acid units that are linked together to form the protein. and loss of appetite. is 5 ounces for a . consuming e"cess protein is inefficient and may increase the $ater intake needed for urea nitrogen e"cretion.* 9rotein. All three components must be provided in the correct proportions to maintain a healthy body. eggs. vegetables. vitamins. fiber. Boss of $eight in the first fe$ days occurs because of dehydration. butter. milk. poultry. eggs.of cold rations. are absorbed through the intestine into the blood. Dther foods such as cereals. or that natural flammable materials are used if possible. Although there is no physiological need for hot food. and legumes also provide amino acids. +ince amino acids are either o"idiAed for energy or stored as fats. and cheese. -roteins provide the body about four kilocalories of energy per gram and re#uire the most energy for the body to digest. Df the total daily caloric intake. or milk proteins. and li#uid intake $hen the normal appetite response is blunted at altitude. nuts. Cain sources of fats are meats. and minerals. fats. &ats are the most concentrated form of food energy.7'(pound man. hese proteins are not as balanced in essential amino acid composition as meat. &ats are the body3s natural stored source of energy. and are used to make or replace body proteins %muscle and body tissue*. regardless of physical activity. amino acids. and meats. metabolic changes. resulting from digestion of protein. such as fruit juices and sports drinks. and carbohydrates.

=utritionally. +ince most $ater(soluble vitamins are not stored. %. Vitamins are classified into t$o groups on the basis of their ability to dissolve in fat or $ater. he fat(soluble vitamins include vitamins A. d. A balanced diet containing ade#uate amounts of vitamins and minerals ensures an efficient metabolism. and Ainc. and magnesium@ and trace elements needed in amounts of only a fe$ milligrams a day such as iodine. 2. and ?. +ince climbing is a strenuous activity and demands high(energy use.e#uired minerals are contained in a balanced diet %meats. $hich are found in cereals. . he $ater(soluble vitamins include the < vitamins and vitamin C. In the form of glucose. a balanced diet is a necessity. and fruit. Carbohydrates provide the body around four kilocalories of energy per gram and are the easiest to digest. depending on the soldier. iron.. the most useful sources of carbohydrates are foods such as unrefined grains. %7* Cinerals. Dver 7: percent of caloric intake is released as heat and is not available $hen the soldier . fruits*.ating a balanced diet provides the energy needed to conduct daily activities and to maintain the internal body processes. carbohydrates are found in the most important energy(producing cycles in the body3s cells. . and meats. A $ell(balanced diet provides all of the re#uired vitamins. Cineral elements can be divided into t$o groups: those needed in the diet in amounts of . fruits. Carbohydrates are an important source of calories.: days.:: milligrams or more a day such as calcium. %'* Aitamins. If an improper and unbalanced diet is likely to occur during a deployment.* he efficiency of the body to $ork above the basal metabolism varies from 0: to ': percent. a proper diet is necessary to ensure ade#uate levels of these vitamins. vegetables. phosphorous. especially if this period is to e"ceed . vitamin supplements should be considered. Carbohydrates should compose up to 7: percent of the total daily caloric intake. vegetables. . If carbohydrate intake e"ceeds energy needs. Barger amounts are converted into fats and stored in that form. vegetables. moderate amounts are stored in the muscles and liver.%1* Car ohy&rates.

he 6internal thermostat6 initiates and causes the muscles to shiver. . cereal bars. . cramps. &ood should be light$eight and easy to digest. metal containers. +ince fats and protein are harder to digest. less digestive disturbances may occur if meals are eaten before resting. and cider should also be considered. and fuel tablets should be protected from the $ind. %0* !ith an abrupt ascent to high altitudes. >se stoves and heat . A diet high in carbohydrates is not as dense in energy and may re#uire eating more often.7:: calories are e"pended for strenuous $ork and 1.s $ith breakfast bars. o conserve fuel. +hivering also re#uires energy and burns up to 00: calories per hour %estimated for a . +ince coffee. and hot chocolate are diuretics. the soldier e"periences physiological acclimatiAation. Carbohydrates. Ceals( ready(to(eat %C.* /eat is a by(product of e"ertion. Barge meals re#uire the digestive system to $ork harder than usual to assimilate food. are important in maintaining energy levels."tra fuel should be stored in tightly sealed. %About '.::(pound man*.$orks."tra food should be carried in case resupply operations fail. %'* !arm meals should be provided $hen possible."ertion causes e"cessive bodily heat loss through perspiration and increased radiation. po$dered milk. 2uring inactivity in cold $eather. the metabolism may not provide enough heat. marked. thus releasing heat. relatively light meals that are high in carbohydrates are best $hile acclimatiAing at higher elevations. fruits.s* meet these criteria and provide all of the basic food groups. Commanders may consider supplementing C. fires. the consumption of these beverages should not be relied upon for hydration. !hen cooking. and illness. /ot beverages of soup. -ersonnel should eat moderately and rest before strenuous physical activity. juices. and chocolate... candies. and be eaten hot or cold. the heat source must be kept a$ay from e#uipment and ammunition. herefore. he circulatory system labors to provide the needed o"ygen to the body. tea.7:: calories for garrison activity. Barge meals may be accompanied by indigestion. juices. stoves. beginning in the morning and continuing through mid(afternoon. At higher elevations. the cooking time may be doubled. <ouillon cubes can replace $ater and salt as $ell as $arming cold bodies and stimulating the appetite. %1* . shortness of breath.

+unscreens and chap sticks should be used on lips. the soldier should e"amine his skin and clean it often. they should be avoided $hen operating in e"tremely cold conditions or at high altitudes. and smoking have adverse effects on the circulation. a. and as reinforcement to discipline and morale. !ater(based creams and lotions should be avoided in cold environments since this $ill further dehydrate tissues and induce frostbite by freeAing. +oldiers should shave at rest periods in the shelter so that oils stripped in shaving $ill be replenished. In freeAing $eather. mainly during periods of cold $eather. If possible. %. Canteen cups and utensils should be cleaned after use. ahkios. alcohol. medications. he non$ater(based creams can be used for shaving in lieu of soap. he teeth must also be cleaned to avoid diseases of the teeth and gums.* +no$ may be used instead of toilet paper. and eyelids. his is especially important in the high mountains. hydration. %7* Certain drugs. and judgment of soldiers. As all missions are tactical. Commanders must conduct fre#uent inspections to ensure that personal habits of hygiene are not neglected. +no$ baths in lieu of a $ater bath are recommended. and burial sites. If bathing is difficult for any e"tended period. his can result in skin infections and vermin infestation. opical steroid ointments should be carried for rashes. A beard may mask the presence of frostbite or lice. 9ersona! -ygiene an& Sanitation he principles of personal hygiene and sanitation that govern operations on lo$ terrain also apply in the mountains. !hen operating in areas . All food items and garbage are carried $ith the unit. nose. Caution must be taken to prevent animals from foraging through rucksacks.tabs for $arming food and boiling $ater. no trace of a unit should be detected. perspiration. 9ersona! -ygiene. herefore. but this should not be considered a substitute for bathing. garbage should be burned or deep buried. >nder$ear should be changed $hen possible. +tandards must be maintained as a deterrent to disease. his helps reduce skin infections and aids the comfort of the soldier. the soldier may neglect $ashing due to the cold temperatures and scarcity of $ater.

alc or antifungal po$der should be used $hen massaging@ e"cess po$der is brushed off to avoid clumping. =ails should be trimmed but not too short. Bong nails $ear out socks@ short nails do not provide proper support for the ends of the toes.$here resupply is not possible. they should be located do$n$ind from the position and buried after use. Sanitation. In rocky or froAen ground. +ocks should be $orn $ith no $rinkles since this causes blisters on the feet. it can . and kept as dry and clean as possible. cracks. b. If regular foot $ashing is impossible. %'* 2uring periods of e"treme cold. %1* &eet should be sprayed t$o or three times a day $ith an aluminum chlorohydrate antiperspirant for a $eek and then once a day for the rest of the $inter. %0* he principles of foot hygiene must be follo$ed to protect the feet from cold injuries. it is best to discontinue spraying until they are healed or to spray less often to control s$eating. his condition is brought about by the desire to avoid the inconvenience and discomfort of defecating. socks should be changed often %at halts and rest periods or at least once a day* and feet massaged. the soldier in a designated. +leeping bags must be regularly cleaned and aired. dried. he causes of such injuries are present throughout the year in high mountains. each soldier should carry a complete change of clothing. blisters. there is a tendency for the soldier to become constipated. clothes should be shaken and air(dried. &eet should be $ashed daily. If fissures or cracks occur in the feet. If latrines are constructed. If laundering of clothing is difficult. do$n$ind location a$ay from $ater sources may dig 6cat holes. Ade#uate $ater intake plus a lo$ protein. his process stops about 4: percent of the s$eating in the feet. <oots should be laced tightly $hen climbing to provide needed support but not so tight as to constrict circulation. In tactical situations. high roughage diet can be helpful in preventing constipation. $hich may cause blisters. &eet can be cleaned $ith sno$. Cedical attention should be sought for any possible problems. !henever changing socks. but must be #uickly dried. soldiers should closely e"amine their feet for $rinkles.6 +ince $aste freeAes. and sprinkled $ith foot po$der. digging latrines is usually difficult. and discoloration.

::: feet.ven the physically fit soldier e"periences physiological and psychological degradation $hen thrust into high elevations.::: feet. ime must be allocated for acclimatiAation.::: feet.'. he acclimatiAation process begins immediately upon arrival at the higher elevation. Areas above .::: feet. $here altitude illness is the rule. Attempts to acclimatiAe beyond .be covered $ith sno$ and ice or pushed do$n a crevasse. high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-.::: feet and ending at .*.::: feet %high elevation*. If the change in elevation is large and abrupt.::: feet are considered e"treme altitudes. In rocky areas above the timberline. $aste may be covered $ith stones. 2isappearance of the symptoms of acute mountain . arterial blood is greater than 80 percent saturated $ith o"ygen. Very high altitude is the region from . starting at about 5.::: to .4. $here arterial blood o"ygen saturation ranges from 80 percent do$n to 5: percent.::: to . some soldiers can suffer from acute mountain sickness %AC+*. . Symptoms an& 7&>ustments A person is said to be acclimatiAed to high elevations $hen he can effectively perform physically and mentally. and could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatiAed. some soldiers $ill have some impairment of operating efficiency at these lo$ altitudes.::: to 5. or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC. Above 5.::: feet results in a degradation of the body greater than the benefits gained. arterial blood is 8) percent saturated $ith o"ygen in most people.::: to 5.*. and training of soldiers. 7cc!imati@ation errestrial altitude can be classified into five categories. unacclimatiAed troops can go immediately into action is unrealistic.::: feet.'. most unacclimatiAed soldiers may display some altitude effects. raining should be conducted at progressively higher altitudes. /ere. At these altitudes. he e"pectation that freshly deployed. conditioning. and effects of altitude are mild and temporary. /igh altitude e"tends from 5. raining in mountains of lo$ or medium elevation %7. Bo$ altitude is sea level to 7.5. employment of the local population may be advantageous. Altitude illness is common here.5.'. /o$ever.::: feet* does not re#uire special conditioning and acclimatiAation procedures. he indigenous populations can out(perform even the most acclimatiAed and physically fit soldier $ho is brought to this altitude@ therefore. Coderate altitude is from 7. +oldiers deployed to high mountainous elevations re#uire a period of acclimatiAation before undertaking e"tensive military operations.

::: feet. the rate of ascent.::: to . Increased irritability in some individuals.:.::: feet e"perience some mild symptoms. nutrition and physical activity it is about .apid ascent to . only minimal physical $ork can be performed because of physiological changes. incapacitating symptoms in almost all individuals. Eudgment and self(evaluation are impaired the same as a person $ho is into"icated.4.apid ascent to . Impairment of night vision and some constriction in peripheral vision %up to 1: percent at ). and the level of e"ertion and individual susceptibility.::: feet causes mild symptoms in 47 percent of personnel. Boss of appetite.'. Vigorous activity during ascent or $ithin the first 0' hours after ascent $ill increase both the incidence and severity of symptoms. . he roughness of the terrain and the harshness and variability of the $eather add to the problems of . he altitude at $hich complete acclimatiAation is possible is not a set point but for most soldiers $ith proper ascent.::: feet $ill result in moderate symptoms in over 7: percent of the soldiers and . Irregular breathing.'. b. 2uring the first fe$ days at a high altitude.apid ascent to elevations of . +ome of the behavioral effects that $ill be encountered in unacclimatiAed personnel include: • • • • • • • • • • • Increased errors in performing simple mental tasks. he incidence and severity of AC+ symptoms vary $ith initial altitude. +leep disturbances.0 to .0. a.7:: feet causes severe. . 2eterioration of memory.sickness %from four to seven days* does not indicate complete acclimatiAation. 2ecreased vigilance or lethargy. en to t$enty percent of soldiers $ho ascend rapidly %in less than 0' hours* to altitudes up to ).::: feet*. . leaders have e"treme difficulty in maintaining a coordinated. /eadache. operational unit. Immediately upon arrival at high elevations.5 percent may have severe symptoms. 2ecreased ability for sustained concentration. he process of adjustment continues for $eeks or months. +lurred speech.

environment. Certain factors must be considered: • • • !hat are the climatic and terrain conditions of the area of operationsR /o$ much time is available for conditioning and trainingR !ill the unit conduct operations $ith other >.::: feet for at least 0' hours*. herefore. and enemy situation. 9hysica! an& 9sycho!ogica! Con&itioning he commander must develop a conditioningKtraining program to bring his unit to a level $here it can operate successfully in mountain conditions. >nits must be physically and psychologically conditioned and adjusted before undertaking rigorous mountain operations. most closely resemble the area of operationsR • • • • • • .+. forces do not routinely train in mountainous terrain.unacclimatiAed personnel. the total impact still results in errors of judgment. Although strong motivation may succeed in overcoming some of the physical handicaps imposed by the environment. -riorities of training must be established. e"tensive preparations are needed to ensure individual and unit effectiveness.+. >nits must be conditioned and trained as a team to cope $ith the terrain. or Allied forcesR Are there language barriersR !hat assistance $ill be re#uiredR !ill training and conditioning be re#uired for attached personnelR !hat additional personnel $ill accompany the unitR !ill they be available for training and conditioningR !hat is the current level of physical fitness of the unitR !hat is the current level of individual e"pertise in mountaineeringR !hat type of operations can be e"pectedR !hat is the composition of the advance partyR !ill they be available to assist in training and acclimatiAationR !hat areas in the >. a.. he should be evacuated to a lo$er altitude %a descent of at least . As $ith all military operations. or he suffers from an incapacitating headache. !hen a soldier cannot $alk a straight line and has a loss of balance.+. >. training is a major influence on the success of mountain operations.

he rigors of establishing an assembly area e"haust most unacclimatiAed personnel. >nits can leapfrog. and rest must be considered as priorities. food. $ater purification supplies. time to ac#uire $ater.. he time schedule should allo$ for longer and more fre#uent periods of rest. . +ince the acclimatiAation process cannot be shortened.::: to 0. taking an e"tended rest period. !hen the unit arrives in the area of operations.::: feet. terrain*R 2oes the unit have enough of the re#uired e#uipmentR 2o personnel kno$ ho$ to use the e#uipmentR !ill the e#uipment go $ith the advance party. and the absence of acclimatiAation hampers the successful e"ecution of operations. $ith the unit. $hich results in higher hydration levels %at least 07 percent increase per man per day*. c.::: feet per day. these drugs are diuretics. all personnel re#uire a period of conditioning and acclimatiAation. Ine"perienced medics may have difficulty recogniAing the differences bet$een the side effects of the drug and a condition that could possibly be life threatening. mission. %0* >nits should not resort to the use of pharmaceutical pretreatment $ith carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide %2iamo"*. hese drugs have side effects that mimic the signs and symptoms of AC+. Additionally.• • • • Are predeployment areas and ranges availableR 2oes the unit have instructors #ualified in mountain $arfareR !hat type e#uipment $ill be re#uired %to fit the season. fuels for melting sno$ and ice for $ater. deployment to higher elevations must consider the follo$ing: %. and. if in a $inter environment. a unit should ascend at a rate of . or follo$ after the unit3s arrivalR 2oes e#uipment re#uire modificationR 2o $eapons and e#uipment re#uire special maintenanceR • • b. ensuring sufficient amounts $hile individual metabolisms and bodies become accustomed to functioning at higher elevations. !ater. hese higher hydration levels create a larger logistical demand on the unit by re#uiring more $ater.* Above 5.

egardless of previous training and the amount of flat cross(country movement practice. $hile carrying D. climbing. the soldier3s . and special e#uipment loads. he soldier cannot be forced to disregard this fear. developing a sense of insecurity and fear. A different group of muscles are used. hey must be taught the many climbing techni#ues and principles of mountain movement. hese drugs should accompany attached medical personnel because they can treat the soldier suffering the symptoms of AC+ and. the metabolism becomes more efficient. hrough a sustained high level of muscular e"ertion. he body improves its capacity for e"ercise. he better the physical condition of the soldier. At the same time.ven if inactivity follo$s deployment. $hich must be developed and hardened. +oldiers $ho have lived on flat terrain may have difficulty $hen learning to negotiate steep slopes or cliffs. A physical fitness training program that gradually increases in difficulty should include marches. his increases the soldier3s endurance. hey must be slo$ly introduced to the ne$ terrain and encouraged to develop the confidence re#uired to negotiate obstacles $ith assurance and ease. d. and blood and o"ygen flo$ #uickly and effectively. %'* 2o not move troops directly to high altitudes even if allo$ances can be made for inactivity for the first three to five days before mission commitment. the men ac#uire confidence and ability to safely negotiate the terrain. e. A ne$ techni#ue of rhythmic movement must be learned. the better the chance of avoiding e"haustion. -roper physical conditioning ensures the soldier is an asset and not a liability. f. although rest may be re#uired evacuation may not be needed. and calisthenics. hey overcome their fear of heights by becoming familiar $ith the problem. his conditions the back and legs. $hich results in increased ability and endurance. +uch conditioning is attained through fre#uent marches and climbs. Coving troops directly to high altitude can increase the probability of altitude sickness. the incidence of altitude sickness is more likely than $ith a gradual ascent. . raining on high(altitude effects can prevent psychological preconceptions.%1* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetaAolamide are effective in the treatment of mild and severe AC+. the untrained soldier finds mountain movement hard and tiring. .

back. raining should gradually challenge the soldier over an e"tended period and reinforce learning skills. . :e&ica! Consi&erations Improper acclimatiAation poses many problems for medical personnel. contusions and fractures. hese include sprains. is key to learning and maintaining climbing proficiency and technical skills. here are no #uick and easy methods to becoming acclimatiAed and conditioned. there are some uni#ue aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. Countain sickness and other illnesses may also occur. strains. personnel can still become injured %sprains. abdomen. fractures. metabolism. >pon deploying to high elevations. .capacity for e"ertion is increased. It is e#ually important to instill the $ill to climb. and lungs must become accustomed to the elevation and thinner air. conditioning. to the point of instinctive reaction. lungs. and mountaineering skills are realiAed. Cedical considerations are like those for other environments@ ho$ever. caution must be e"ercised by units that are in superior physical condition. Cost injuries in the mountain environment are soft tissue injuries. and circulatory support. he heart rate. After acclimatiAation. As $ith any other injuries. legs. &acilities and supplies may be inade#uate to treat all victims. =!!ness an& =n>ury >nits operating in mountainous regions are e"posed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated $ith other areas. the most life threatening are treated first $ith the emphasis on air$ay control.vacuation of the sick and $ounded is compounded by the terrain and $eather. and trench foot*. Conditioning should begin $ith basic climbing. g. hypothermia. abrasions. breathing management. . frostbite.epetitive practice. and hands@ a s$imming program to increase lung efficiency@ and road marches over mountainous terrain $ith all combat e#uipment. -hysical conditioning should include long( distance running for aerobic conditioning@ calisthenics and $eight training to strengthen the heart. A conditioning program must be set up on site and integrated in gradual stages $here acclimatiAation. strains. arms. +kills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced $ith regular sustainment training. Confidence goes hand in hand $ith physical conditioning and skill development.

$ash thoroughly. Dn sunny days the soldier takes more care due to the bright conditions. cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers $ith medical aid as soon as possible. and e"posure to intense ultraviolet rays for e"tended periods. hese types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. If blisters do break. 2ue to the long $avelengths of ultraviolet light. 2o not pop blisters. and seek medical attention. he . he victim is protected from the $eather and shock during transportation. A solution of vinegar %acetic* and $ater can be lightly applied $ith sterile gauAe to alleviate burning.Treatment an& $2acuation In harsh mountain $eather.. raining must be accomplished $ith all litter bearers on evacuation techni#ues and first aid. Bitter bearers are re#uired to move casualties to the rear $here they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. he peak hours of ultraviolet %>V* radiation are bet$een the hours of . +unburn is the burning of e"posed skin surfaces by ultraviolet radiation.7::. Dn cloudy days the soldier tends not to $ear sunglasses or sunscreen.:: and . In severe cases chills. Sun urn. %. 2ue to rough terrain. Immediate first aid is given on site. %0* +ymptoms of sunburn are painful. improper use of para(amino benAoic acid %-A<A*(based sunscreens. burning. Bightly $ounded personnel may need assistance to move over rough terrain. So!ar =n>uries +olar injuries can happen in $arm $eather or in cold $eather.* Contributing factors include fair skin. . fever. he skin may be $arm to the touch. %1* o treat sunburn.endeAvous points are coordinated $ith medical units as far for$ard as possible. bandage. and headaches may occur. a. apply cool saline dressings to alleviate pain and s$elling. red or blistered skin $ith a slight s$elling. medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties.

7* should be applied liberally to e"posed skin during the peak hours of >V e"posure. skin should be covered $ith clothing or -A<A( based sunscreens %at least sun protection factor S+-&T . . the >. ice. %&or e"ample. +no$blindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by e"posure to ultraviolet radiation. b. %'* o prevent sunburn. red. $atery eyes@ a gritty feeling@ blurred vision@ and a headache. %Currently. an +-& of . >ltraviolet rays can cause vision problems even on cloudy days. Army does not have these types of 6glacier6 sunglasses in their inventory and they must be ac#uired from nonmilitary sources. Victims are rarely in need of evacuation unless the case is unusually severe.7 times longer than $ithout sunscreen. Avoid rubbing the eyes. If still painful.* 2uring sustained activity.+.:: percent >VA and >V< protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. %. keep the victim3s eyes patched and administer oral pain medication. patch both eyes $ith cold compresses for 0' hours. improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark.* A contributing factor is the reflection of sunlight from all directions off the sno$. Sno+ !in&ness. opical anesthetics such as etracaine Dphthalmic can be used to relieve pain.tannic acid in used tea bags can also be applied to alleviate burning. use #uality sunglasses even on cloudy days in sno$(covered terrain. %1* o treat sno$blindness.7 means that skin can be e"posed to >V rays . +no$blindness $ill usually resolve in about 0' hours for mild to moderate cases. %'* o prevent sno$ blindness. -roper sunglasses should provide . he +-& means that you can stay e"posed to the suns >V rays that many times longer than $ithout it. the sunscreen should be regularly reapplied to maintain the +-&. hey are less filtered at high altitudes than at lo$ altitudes. Administer pain medication if needed. and $ater. %0* +ymptoms of sno$blindness are painful.* In an emergency.

All commanders and subordinate leadersKinstructors must be familiar $ith and carry 9 A 7(5(. +oldiers must be prepared to survive. !armth and comfort become the top priorities. but freeAing temperatures are not. 2eath has resulted in temperatures as high as .0. rest. and use of cold($eather data@ periodic inspections of clothing. and immersion foot.*. Intense cold affects the mind as $ell as the body. Cold injuries may be divided into t$o types: freeAing and nonfreeAing. he nonfreeAing type includes hypothermia. dehydration. /o$ever. move. !hen $eather conditions become e"treme the problems of survival become more significant. A loss of body heat combined $ith shock produces devastating results.Co!&-(eather =n>uries Cold($eather injuries can occur during any season of the year. +imple tasks take longer to perform. dissemination. he most important measure in the prevention of cold($eather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. and fight in $inter conditions. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. he effects of e"treme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep.: degrees Celsius %7: degrees &ahrenheit*. personnel. most of these accidents can be prevented by proper planning to include: timely re#uisition and receipt of supplies and proper clothing@ thorough training of personnel $ith respect to the haAards of cold $eather@ effective methods for the receipt. !ind speed can accelerate body heat loss under both $et and cold conditions. emperature alone is not a reliable guide as to $hether a cold injury can occur. Bo$ temperatures are needed for cold injuries to occur. he freeAing type is kno$n as frostbite. and nutrition. . and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. b. a. $hich includes a $ind chill e#uivalent temperature chart %&igure 0(. and e#uipment@ and personnel receiving a balance of $ater.

-ersonnel from $armer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. !hen the forecast gives a figure that falls $ithin the increased .-). %. (in& chi!! chart. he commander should kno$ the $ind chill factor. %1* <eographic 6rigin. Cany other factors in various combinations determine if cold injuries $ill occur. the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin $hen the temperature of the surrounding air is 14 degrees &ahrenheit than $hen it is 7: degrees &ahrenheit. %'* 7m ient Temperature.Figure . %0* .ace. he is at higher risk for subse#uent cold injuries. &or e"ample. If a soldier has had a cold injury before. c. <lacks are more susceptible to cold($eather injuries than Caucasians.* 9re2ious Co!& =n>uries. he temperature of the air %or $ater* surrounding the body is critical to heat regulation. %7* (in& Chi!! Factor.

6—Dverheating. or not having an opportunity to $arm up increases the possibility of cold injuries.6. caution must be taken to minimiAe cold injury. Avoid overheating. %5* C!othing. he cold($eather uniform is complete $hen $orn $ith gloves and inserts. Clothing for cold $eather should be $orn $ith the acronym C. 8—Boose and in layers %to trap air and to conserve body heat*. therefore. • • • . issue can freeAe if e"posed for a prolonged period and if fre#uent $arming is not practiced. &rostbite !ind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection.danger Aone or beyond. he e#uivalent $ind chill temperature is especially important $hen the ambient temperature is : degrees Celsius %10 degrees &ahrenheit* or less.D. Cinimal cover and $et conditions increase the potential for cold injury. • C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged $ear reduces its air(trapping abilities and clogs air spaces $ith dirt and body oils. D—2ry.8. !et clothing loses insulation value. but not belo$ the ambient temperature. in mind. the faster tissue freeAing can occur. ?eep dry. he lo$er the $ind chill. he ambient temperature alone determines freeAing or nonfreeAing injuries. he uniform should be $orn completely and correctly to avoid injury to e"posed body surfaces. %)* Type o# :ission. accumulation of perspiration. %4* Terrain. Appropriate measures should be taken $hen a change in $eather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and. !ind chill is the rate of cooling. Combat action re#uiring prolonged immobility and long hours of e"posure to lo$ temperatures. !ind does not lo$er the ambient temperature.

$hich in turn can accelerate shock. Commanders should ensure that the follo$ing measures are taken.. !ater conducts heat more rapidly than air %07 percent*.* 7ge. %.a&ica! Changes in the (eather.)* $Bcess 7cti2ity. %. %.4* . !ithin the usual age range of combat personnel. %. %. . Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flo$ to e"tremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury. he number of calories consumed normally increases as the temperature becomes colder.7* 3utrition.0* Fatigue. %. and the consumption of $ater is important to retain proper hydration. the risk of cold injury is greatly increased.%8* :oisture. age is not a significant factor. his loss of body heat combined $ith the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing %due to perspiration dampening the clothing* can subject a soldier to cold injuries. Cental $eariness may cause apathy leading to neglect of duties vital to survival."cess activity %overheating* results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. d. !eather conditions in mountainous terrain are kno$n to change considerably throughout the day. Individuals must retain their body fluids. %. In cold $eather the human body needs special care. 9ood nutrition is essential for providing the body $ith fuel to produce heat in cold $eather. !hen the skin or clothing becomes damp or $et. especially in higher elevations. . he most overlooked factor causing cold injuries is dehydration.1* Concomitant =n>ury. !eather can #uickly change to e"tremely cold and $et conditions.:* Dehy&ration.'* Discip!ine? Training? an& $Bperience. !ell(trained and disciplined soldiers suffer less than others from the cold. %.

reat for shock %al$ays assume that shock is present*. Approach the victim safely %avoid rock or sno$ slide*. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact $ith another %being rained on or sitting in sno$*. deliberate. %1* he buddy system is used to $atch for early signs of cold($eather injuries."ecute the plan and monitor the victim3s condition.* . his accounts for the largest amount of heat lost from the body. convection. . +oldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. %. Beaders should— • • • • • • • Assess the situation %tactical and environmental*. -erform emergency first aid. . e. %0* +oldiers are educated on proper use of clothing systems to avoid the effects of overheating and perspiration %layer dressing and ventilate*. Dn cold days.a&iation. %0* Con&uction. or evaporation. f. Cedical procedures are needed $hen sickness and injuries occur. %'* All soldiers $aterproof their e#uipment. +oldiers should not $ear e"cessive cold( $eather clothing $hile moving. and careful.%. conduction. he direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. Check for other injuriesKcold injuries. he head can radiate up to 5: percent of the total body heat output. 2evelop a course of action %decide on a means of evacuation*. %7* he rate of movement should be slo$. <ody heat may be lost through radiation.* +oldiers3 uniforms are kept as dry as possible and are protected from the elements. personnel must keep all e"tremities covered to retain heat.

reat the injury and control hemorrhaging. administer $ater. +ome of the most common cold($eather injuries are described in the follo$ing paragraphs. Convection is the loss of heat due to moving air or $ater in contact $ith the skin.* Shock. !et clothing can cause heat loss by conduction and evaporation. and e"cessive thirst. Although shock is not a cold($eather injury. he evaporation of perspiration causes heat loss. and possibly death. %b* 'reatment. 2ehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slo$ed. slo$er heart beat. %'* $2aporation. rapid and faint pulse. If the victim is not given ade#uate first aid immediately. shortness of breath. fear. %. it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. and protects must control the layer of $arm air ne"t to the skin. and loss of blood. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension. his is usually caused by . insulates. ?eep the victim $arm but do not overheat him. g. . %0* Dehy&ration. +hock should be assumed in all injuries and treated accordingly. his condition may digress into incoherence.ven minor injuries can produce shock due to cold. cold skin. or feet. %a* Symptoms. o treat shock. pain. s$eating.%1* Con2ection. !ind chill is convection cooling. Any illness or injury can produce shock. Clothing that ventilates.levate the back and head. he victim should receive proper medical attention as soon as possible. . 2ressing in layers allo$s soldiers to remove or add clothing as needed. unconsciousness. Cake the victim as comfortable as possible and try to relieve the pain. restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. +hock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular %heart* system not providing enough blood. $hich increases the instance and severity of a cold($eather injury. If the victim is conscious and has no abdominal injuries.

the victim is probably hypothermic@ if it is $arm. e"ceed desert re#uirements because of the increased difficulty in moving $ith e"tra clothing and through the sno$. !ater is often inconvenient to obtain and purify. If the stomach is cold. as much as t$o liters of li#uid may be lost each day through respiration. Coffee and tea are diuretics and cause e"cessive urination and should be avoided. +ymptoms of dehydration include darkening urine. diAAiness. tiredness. upset stomach. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food. dry mouth. /o$ever. this test is not conclusive since cold($eather . fainting. higher temperature.overe"ertion and improper $ater intake. Combined $ith a rapid rate of breathing. he ade#uacy of li#uid intake can best be judged by the urine color and volume. Cold $eather re#uirements for $ater are no different than in the desert. o distinguish bet$een them. the air is dry. %b* Symptoms. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to dehydration in cold $eather are: • • • • he thirst mechanism does not function properly in cold $eather. A soldier needs about three to si" #uarts of $ater each day to prevent dehydration $hen living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. At high altitudes. 2ark amber colored urine instead of light yello$ or the absence of a need to urinate upon a$akening from a night3s sleep are indicators of dehydration. decreased amounts of urine being produced. in fact. lack of appetite. headache. hirst is not a good indicator of hydration. Cold causes fre#uent urination. he is probably dehydrated. open the victim3s clothes and feel the stomach. rapid heartbeat. he symptoms of dehydration are similar to those of hypothermia. he air in cold climates and at high altitudes lacks moisture. mental sluggishness. 2ehydration precedes all cold( $eather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. hey may. and unconsciousness.

/igh $inds. -revent dehydration by consuming three to si" #uarts of fluids each day %forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory* and avoid caffeine and alcohol. /ypothermia may be caused by e"posure or by sudden $etting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed $ith fuel or other li#uid. Accidental immersion in $ater. In advanced cases. &actors that contribute to hypothermia are: • • • • • • • 2ehydration. -oor nutrition. Allo$ the victim to rest. administer fluids by mouth if the victim is conscious. 2o not let him eat sno$@ eating sno$ uses body heat. /ypothermia can occur even on moderate days $ith temperatures of ': to 7: degrees &ahrenheit $ith little precipitation if heat loss e"ceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allo$ed to deteriorate. %c* 'reatment. An individual is considered to be 6clinically hypothermic6 $hen the core temperature is less than or e#ual to 87 degrees &ahrenheit. 2ecreased physical activity. /ypothermia is the lo$ering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat. $hich may chemically contribute to dehydration. 2iarrhea. he cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body3s ability to conserve fluid %cold(induced diuresis and increased rate of urination*. If he fails to improve $ithin one hour or is unconscious. Change in $eather. /ypothermia is classified as mild %core temperature above 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius* or severe %core temperature belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius*. .dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling. %1* -ypothermia. ?eep the victim $arm and treat for shock. %a* Contributing +actors. evacuate him to a medical facility immediately.

Inade#uate types or amounts of clothing.

%b* Symptoms. he first symptom of hypothermia is $hen the body core %rectal* temperature falls to about 8) degrees &ahrenheit. Dther symptoms include:

+hivering, $hich may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself. +hivering begins after a drop in body temperature of one to t$o degrees. his is follo$ed by clumsiness %stumbling or falling*, slo$ reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. <ody temperature drop from 87 degrees &ahrenheit to 8: degrees &ahrenheit, $hich can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of $armth. he victim becomes cold and pale@ cannot perform simple tasks@ e"periences amnesia and hallucinations@ develops blueness of skin and decreased heart and respiratory rate $ith a $eak pulse@ pupils of the eyes dilate@ speech becomes slurred@ and visual disturbance occurs. <ody temperature drop from 8: degrees &ahrenheit to 57 degrees &ahrenheit, $hich causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact $ith the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and e"haustion. he soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops belo$ 8: degrees &ahrenheit. <ody temperature drop from 57 degrees &ahrenheit and belo$, $hich causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. he pulse may be faint or impalpable, and breathing is too shallo$ to observe.

%c* ,revention. -revent hypothermia by using the buddy system to $atch each other for symptoms@ consume ade#uate amounts of li#uids daily@ rest@ and eat properly.

%d* Avoidance. /ypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, $hich permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting $et or $indblo$n. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying $arm and dry, he should seek shelter. +$eets and physical activity help to produce body heat. %e* 'reatment. reatment methods vary based on the severity of the hypothermia.

Cild cases: If a soldier sho$s symptoms of hypothermia, prevent additional heat loss by getting the victim into a shelter@ removing $et clothing and replacing it $ith dry, insulated clothing@ insulating the victim from the ground@ and sharing a sleeping bag %cover head* to transfer body heat. Cake a diagnosis %rectal temperature*. ;ehydrate the victim $ith $arm li#uids, s$eets, and food. If the tactical situation allo$s, build a fire. Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. If possible, keep the victim physically active to produce body heat. +evere cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead $ithout any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. ;apid re$arming of an unconscious victim may create problems and should not be attempted. It is best to evacuate as soon as possible. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the e"tremities to rush to the heart. 2o not allo$ the victim to perform A=I physical activity. Immediately transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. &ield reheating is not effective and may be haAardous. -rovide artificial respiration if breathing stops. If no pulse is detectable, be a$are that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim3s hypothermic state. In

such a case, cardiac compression %such as C-;* may be fatal. he e"ception is acute hypothermia $ith near dro$ning. <reathing $arm, moist air is the fastest $ay to $arm the inside of the body. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer3s shirt so the victim $ill still breathe $arm, moist air. his process can be done $hile on the move. In addition to breathing moist, $arm air the victim must be gradually re$armed using e"ternal heat sources. -added hot $ater bottles or heated stones should be placed in the armpits. If conscious, the victim can be given $arm, s$eet drinks. he /ibler -ack is an improvised method of re$arming hypothermic victims in the field. his is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are $armed and not the e"tremities. As the body $arms up the $arm blood $ill eventually $arm all parts of the body. &irst lay out a blanket or sleeping bag and place a poncho or space blanket inside of it. he poncho or space blanket should go from the base of the skull to the base of the butt. his keeps the sleeping bagKblanket dry and acts like a vapor barrier. Bay the hypothermic patient inside the sleeping bagKblanket. >sing a stove, $arm $ater until it is hot to the touch %but not hot enough to burn the patient* and completely dampen any absorbable materials %such as (shirt, to$el, <2> top, and so on*. -lace the $arm, $et items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. After the $arm, $et item has been placed on the patient, $rap the patient tightly inside the ponchoKspace blanket and the blanketKsleeping bag. Continually check the temperature of the $et material and keep it $arm.

• •

All bodily systems in hypothermia are brittle so treat the victim gently. As these attempts are being made, try to evacuate the victim. +evere complications may arise as the body temperature rises, $hich may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing $ell.

%'* =mmersion or Trench Foot. his is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged e"posure to cold and $et at above freeAing temperatures. his can happen $earing boots or not. A soldier may not feel uncomfortable until the injury has already begun. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to immersion or trench foot are:
• • • •

+tepping into $ater over the boot tops. =ot changing socks often enough. Improper hygiene. -rolonged e"posure %three to five days*.

%b* Symptoms. +ymptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. he toes are pale, and feel cold and stiff. he skin is $et and soggy $ith the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. As symptoms progress and damage appears, the skin becomes red and then bluish or black. +$elling may occur. <ecause the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly a$are to prevent it. %c* 'reatment. o prevent this condition, keep the feet dry and clean. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot po$der. 2rying the feet for 0' hours usually heals mild cases. Coderate cases usually heal $ithin three to five days. he feet should be handled gently—=D rubbed or massaged. hey should be cleaned $ith soap and $ater, dried, elevated, and e"posed to room temperature. he victim must stay

off his feet and seek medical attention. +evere cases, $hen feet are not allo$ed to dry, are evacuated as a litter casualty. %7* %!isters. !hen first noticed and before the formation of a blister, cover a hotspot $ith moleskin %over the area and beyond it*. >se tincture benAoin to help the moleskin adhere to and toughen the skin. Dnce a blister has formed, cover it $ith a dressing large enough to fit over the blister, and then tape it. =ever drain blisters unless they are surrounded by redness, or draining pus indicates infection. If this occurs, drain the blister from the side $ith a clean sterile needle. After cleaning $ith soap and $ater, gently press out the fluid leaving the skin intact. Cake a doughnut of moleskin to go around the blister and apply to the skin. &or toe blisters, $rap the entire toe $ith adhesive tape over the moleskin. % oenails should be trimmed straight across the top, leaving a 8:(degree angle on the sides. his provides an arch so that the corners do not irritate the skin.* %)* Frost ite. &rostbite is the freeAing or crystalliAation of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct e"posure to e"treme cold or high $inds. ,"posure time can be minutes or instantaneous. he e"tremities are usually the first to be affected. 2amp hands and feet may freeAe #uickly since moisture conducts heat a$ay from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. /eat loss is compounded $ith intense cold and inactivity. !ith proper clothing and e#uipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. he e"tent of frostbite depends on temperature and duration of e"posure. &rostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold($eather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 10 degrees &ahrenheit. %a* Categories of +rostbite. +uperficial %mild* frostbite involves only the skin %&igure 0(0*. he layer immediately belo$ usually appears $hite to grayish $ith the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. 2eep %severe* frostbite e"tends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone %&igure 0(1*. 2iscoloration continues from gray to black, and the te"ture becomes hard as the tissue freeAes deeper. his condition re#uires immediate evacuation to a medical facility.

Figure .-.. Super#icia! #rost ite.

Figure .-1. Deep #rost ite. %b* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to frostbite are:
• • • • •

2ehydration. <elo$(freeAing temperatures. +kin contact $ith super cooled metals or li#uids. >se of caffeine, tobacco, or alcohol. =eglect.

%c* Symptoms. +ymptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false

sense of $armth. he skin first turns red, then pale. It may be bluish in color and then may appear frosty or $a"y $hite. he skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be froAen. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often re#uires three to seven days after re$arming for medical personnel to diagnose. <listers, s$elling, and pain may occur after tha$ing. %d* 'reatment. >sing the buddy system is one of the primary $ays to prevent frostbite. <uddies must $atch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs. &rostbite should be identified early $ith prompt first(aid care applied to prevent further damage.

reat early signs of frostbite by re$arming $ith skin(to(skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing ne"t to the body. -o this immediately. If tissues have froAen, evacuate the victim before they tha$. If the feet are involved, evacuate the victim as a litter patient. ha$ing of a frostbitten victim is a hospital procedure. If the victim has frostbite $ith froAen e"tremities, protect the froAen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. If frostbite is not recogniAed before it tha$s, do not let the area refreeAe since this causes more damage. he most often(affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet tha$ed, have the victim $alk out on his o$n. !alking out on froAen feet is better than having them tha$ and refreeAe. +elf( evacuation may be tactically necessary. !alking on froAen feet does less harm than $alking on tha$ed feet.

If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame@ the $arming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. 2o not rub the parts—the crystalliAed tissues may break internally and cause more damage. 2o not pop blisters@ cover them $ith a dry, sterile dressing. ?eep the victim $arm %apply loose, bulky bandages to separate toes and fingers.* Dnce a part is re$armed it $ill become painful. -ain may be managed $ith narcotic analgesics. Dnce the foot is re$armed it $ill s$ell and putting the boot back on $ill not be possible.

• •

%4* Constipation. Constipation is the infre#uent or difficult passage of stools. %a* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating $hen needed. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bo$el movement, painful bo$el movement, and loss of appetite. %c* 'reatment. Constipation is prevented by consuming ade#uate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to si" liters of li#uid each day, and defecating regularly. If allo$ed to progress beyond self(care stages, victims $ill need medical aid. %5* Car on :onoBi&e 9oisoning. his is the replacement of o"ygen in the blood $ith carbon mono"ide. %a* Contributing +actor. A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, $ithout proper ventilation. %b* Symptoms. +ymptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, e"cessive ya$ning, nausea,

diAAiness, dro$siness, confusion, and unconsciousness. 2eath may occur. he one visible symptom is bright red lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. %c* 'reatment. ;emove the victim from the source of contamination@ administer o"ygen, if available@ and evacuate to a medical facility. +evere complications may develop even in casualties $ho appear to have recovered. If the victim is unconscious, administer rescue breathing and C-; as needed. -eat =n>uries /eat injuries, although associated $ith hot $eather, can occur in cold($eather environments. Cost heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing %ventilation* and e#uipment, a balance of $ater and food intake, and rest. a. -eat Cramps. /eat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. %.* Contributing +actor. +trenuous e"ertion causes the body to heat up and to produce heavy perspiration. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat cramps include pain and cramping in the arms, legs, back, and stomach. he victim s$eats profusely and cannot #uench his thirst. %1* 'reatment. /ave the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Boosen the victim3s clothing and have him drink cool $ater. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if pain and cramps continue. b. -eat $Bhaustion. /eat e"haustion may occur $hen a soldier e"erts himself in any environment and he overheats. he blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flo$ to the brain and other organs is reduced.

%.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat e"haustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatiAed troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough $ater or rest. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat e"haustion may be similar to fainting but may also include $eakness@ diAAiness@ confusion@ headache@ cold, clammy skin@ and nausea. he victim may also have a rapid but $eak pulse. %1* 'reatment. Cove the victim to a cool, shady area and loosen his clothes and boots. /ave the victim drink $ater and, if possible, immerse him in $ater to aid in cooling. ,levate the victim3s legs to help restore proper circulation. Conitor his condition and seek medical attention if the symptoms persist. c. -eat Stroke. /eat stroke is a life(threatening situation caused by overe"posure to the sun. he body is so depleted of li#uids that its internal cooling mechanisms fail to function. %.* Contributing +actors. &actors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged e"posure to direct sunlight, overe"ertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. %0* Symptoms. +ymptoms of heat stroke include hot, dry skin@ diAAiness@ confusion and incoherency@ headache@ nausea@ seiAures@ breathing difficulty@ a slo$ pulse@ and loss of consciousness. %1* 'reatment. Cool the victim at once, and restore breathing and circulation. If the victim is conscious, administer $ater. If possible, submerge the victim in $ater to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation. 7cute :ountain Sickness Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and e"perienced climber. +oldiers are subject to this sickness in altitudes as lo$ as 7,::: feet. Incidence and severity increases $ith altitude, and $hen #uickly transported to high altitudes. 2isability and ineffectiveness can occur in 7: to 5: percent of the troops $ho are rapidly brought to altitudes above .:,::: feet. At lo$er altitudes, or $here ascent to

altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments $ith moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. a. -ersonnel arriving at moderate elevations %7,::: to 5,::: feet* usually feel $ell for the first fe$ hours@ a feeling of e"hilaration or $ell(being is not unusual. here may be an initial a$areness of breathlessness upon e"ertion and a need for fre#uent pauses to rest. Irregular breathing can occur, mainly during sleep@ these changes may cause apprehension. +evere symptoms may begin ' to .0 hours after arrival at higher altitudes $ith symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, diAAiness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, $eakness, and loss of appetite. b. A headache is the most noticeable symptom and may be severe. ,ven $hen a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. =ausea, even $ithout food intake, occurs and leads to less food intake. Vomiting may occur and contribute to dehydration. 2espite fatigue, personnel are unable to sleep. he symptoms usually develop and increase to a peak by the second day. hey gradually subside over the ne"t several days so that the total course of AC+ may e"tend from five to seven days. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lo$er elevation. c. reatment for AC+ includes the follo$ing:
• • • • • • •

Dral pain medications such as ibuprofen or aspirin. ;est. &re#uent consumption of li#uids and light foods in small amounts. Covement to lo$er altitudes %at least .,::: feet* to alleviate symptoms, $hich provides for a more gradual acclimatiAation. ;ealiAation of physical limitations and slo$ progression. -ractice of deep(breathing e"ercises. >se of acetaAolamide in the first 0' hours for mild to moderate cases.

d. AC+ is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high(altitude pulmonary edema %/A-,* and or high(altitude cerebral edema %/AC,* can be seen. A severe persistence of symptoms may

identify soldiers $ho acclimatiAe poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Chronic :ountain Sickness Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness %CC+* %or Conge3s disease* can been seen in people $ho live at sufficiently high altitudes %usually at or above .:,::: feet* over a period of several years. CC+ is a right(sided heart failure characteriAed by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle. En&erstan&ing -igh-7!titu&e =!!nesses As altitude increases, the overall atmospheric pressure decreases. 2ecreased pressure is the underlying source of altitude illnesses. !hether at sea level or 0:,::: feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of o"ygen. As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing o"ygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. his lo$er pressure means lo$er o"ygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dio"ide levels. Increased carbon dio"ide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or e"pansion of blood vessels. his increased vascular siAe stretches the vessel $alls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, $hich leads to cerebral edema or /AC,. >nless treated, /AC, $ill continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of o"ygen. &urther ascent $ill hasten the progression of /AC, and could possibly cause death. !hile the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially e"perience pulmonary vasoconstriction. his constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased $orkload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de(o"ygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re(o"ygenated. As the right ventricle $orks harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. 2ecreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of o"ygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. he body is no$ e"periencing increased carbon dio"ide levels due to the decreased o"ygen levels, $hich no$ causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Eust as in /AC,, this e"panding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or /A-,. As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability

to pass o"ygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, $hich can #uickly become fatal if left untreated. -igh-7!titu&e 9u!monary $&ema /A-, is a s$elling and filling of the lungs $ith fluid, caused by rapid ascent. It occurs at high altitudes and limits the o"ygen supply to the body. a. /A-, occurs under conditions of lo$ o"ygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations %over 5,::: feet*, and can occur in healthy soldiers. /A-, may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AC+ since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder. b. /A-, can cause death. Incidence and severity increase $ith altitude. ,"cept for acclimatiAation to altitude, no kno$n factors indicate resistance or immunity. &e$ cases have been reported after .: days at high altitudes. !hen remaining at the same altitude, the incidence of /A-, is less fre#uent than that of AC+. =o common indicator dictates ho$ a soldier $ill react from one e"posure to another. Contributing factors are:
• • • • •

A history of /A-,. A rapid or abrupt transition to high altitudes. +trenuous physical e"ertion. ,"posure to cold. An"iety.

c. +ymptoms of AC+ can mask early pulmonary difficulties. +ymptoms of /A-, include:
• • • •

-rogressive dry coughing $ith frothy $hite or pink sputum %this is usually a later sign* and then coughing up of blood. Cyanosis—a blue color to the face, hands, and feet. An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, diAAiness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. ;espiratory difficulty, $hich may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration.

given orally can also be effective. <ubbles form in the nose and mouth. +ince almost all high(altitude environments are cold. If untreated. It may also dilate coronary arteries and arterioles..est %litter evacuation* +upplemental o"ygen if available. are prone to second attacks. $hich inhibits calcium ion flu" across cardiac and smooth muscle cells. e. Crackling. and coughing %out of contrast to others $ho arrived at the same time to that altitude*.):*. and o"ygen. if left untreated. and death results. A descent of 1:: meters may help@ manual descent is not delayed to a$ait air evacuation. then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. >nconsciousness. Corphine for the systemic vasodilatation and reduction of preload. • • • . is planned for every 1. his should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. rest. he use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystalliAes at lo$ temperatures. $armth. =ifidipine %-rocardia*. +oldiers $ho have had previous attacks of /A-. and gradual ascent to altitude %no more than . decreasing contractility and o"ygen demand. Cases that are recogniAed early and treated promptly may e"pect to recover $ith no aftereffects.::: to 1. cellophane(like noises %rales* in the lungs caused by fluid buildup %a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them*. /A-.• -rogressive shortness of breath. is prevented by good nutrition. reatment of /A-.::: feet per day to an area of sleep*. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions. hydration. A rest day. $ith no gain in altitude or heavy physical e"ertion. • • d. &urosemide %Basi"*. $hich is a diuretic. may become irreversible and cause death.::: to 0. . includes: • • • • Immediate descent %0. /A-. immediate descent is mandatory $here he receives prompt treatment.::: feet minimum* if possible@ if not. rapid heartbeat %pulse . /e is #uickly evacuated to lo$er altitudes as a litter patient.0: to .::: feet of altitude gained. using mannitol could be fatal.

and o"ygen at lo$er elevations enhance recovery. -revention of /AC. a.est.. /eadaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination. inability to concentrate. hese may be combined $ith symptoms of /A-. convulsions. may occur in e"perienced. vomiting. and using a gradual ascent to altitude. is a severe headache. $armth. +upplemental o"ygen. decrease in urination. is the accumulation of fluid in the brain. paralysis. . and unconsciousness. c. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 5. d.::: feet and aggravation by overe"ertion.. maintaining hydration. hallucinations. /A-. he symptoms may rapidly progress to death. can cause death. /AC. +ymptoms of /AC. is the same as for /A-. coma.apid descent and medical attention. he main symptom of /AC. stupor. Beft untreated. include mild personality changes.• 2iphenhydramine %<enadryl*. $ell(acclimated mountaineers $ithout $arning or obvious predisposing conditions. -rompt descent to a lo$er altitude is vital. immediate descent is mandatory. -igh-7!titu&e Cere ra! $&ema /AC. >se of a hyberbaric chamber if descent is delayed. $hich results in s$elling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. b. A headache combined $ith any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of /AC. It is caused by a rapid ascent to altitude $ithout progressive acclimatiAation. confusion. $hich can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. reatment for /AC. includes: • • • • 2e"amethasone injection immediately follo$ed by oral de"amethasone.. headaches. and /AC. . and lack of coordination. hey can be fatal@ $hen the first symptoms occur. -reventive measures include good eating habits. he victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental@ no one should ever be ignored. .

. he $eak link in the safety chain is the user. and fight harder in an environment that is every bit as hostile as the enemy. (very leader is responsible for ensuring that the (CWCS is worn in accordance with the manufacturers/ recommendations. the concept of uniformity is outdated and only reduces the unit/s ability to fight and function at an optimum level. both cerebral and pulmonary. $hich in turn increases blood viscosity. . Commanders at all levels must also understand that s0ills learned at an Army mountaineering school are perishable and soldiers need constant practice to remain proficient. cause increased proteins in the plasma. occurs. therefore. H Equipment Description and Maintenance H Equipment Packing $quipment Description an& :aintenance !ith mountainous terrain encompassing a large portion of the $orldUs land mass.-y&ration in -79$ an& -7C$ /A-. . the proper use of mountaineering e#uipment $ill enhance a unitUs combat capability and provide a combat multiplier.rovided all tactical concerns are met. 'he e)treme cold weather clothing system $(CWCS% is specifically designed to allow for rapid moisture transfer and optimum heat retention while protecting the individual from the elements. which re&uires soldiers to dress up and dress down at different intervals. he e#uipment described in this chapter is produced by many different manufacturers@ ho$ever. /ydration simply decreases viscosity. :ountaineering $quipment Commanders at every level must understand the comple)ity of operations in a mountainous environment where every aspect of combat operations becomes more difficult. move faster. &rom this. 9reat care in performing preventative maintenance checks and services and proper training in the use of the e#uipment is paramount to ensuring safe operations. 'he properly trained mountain soldier of today can live better. Increased viscosity increases vascular pressure. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel $alls is made $orse because of this increased vascular pressure.eaders must understand that each individual has a different metabolism and. each item is produced and tested to e"tremely high standards to ensure safety $hen being used correctly. and /AC. or the fluid portion of the blood. edema. cools down and heats up differently.

he smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole is the key to the climbing shoe. hese shoes are made $ith a soft leather upper. %. he t$o types of foot$ear they $ill need are climbing shoes and plastic mountaineering boots. In temperate climates a combination of foot$ear is most appropriate to accomplish all tasks.*.*. a lace( up configuration. hese boots provide a more versatile platform for any condition that $ould be encountered in the mountains. Countain operations are encumbered by e"treme cold. /o$ever. Bevel 0 and level 1 mountaineers $ill need mission(specific foot$ear that is not currently available in the military supply system. a. he intermediate cold $eather boot provides an acceptable platform for operations $hen the $eather is less than ideal. %0* he plastic mountaineering boot is a double boot system %&igure 1(. plastic mountaineering boots should be incorporated into training as soon as possible. he inner boot may or may not come $ith a breathable membrane. It is imperative to follo$ these instructions e"plicitly. and the e"treme cold $eather boot %$ith vapor barrier* provides an ade#uate platform for many basic mountain missions. he outer . and a smooth 6sticky rubber6 sole %&igure 1(. providing greater friction on the surface of the rock. allo$ing the climber access to more difficult terrain. $hile keeping the foot dryer and $armer. C A 7:(8:: provides ade#uate foot$ear for most operations in mountainous terrain. hese t$o types of boots issued together $ill provide the unit $ith the foot$ear necessary to accomplish the majority of basic mountain missions. Foot+ear Currently. he inner boot provides support. he hot $eather boot provides an e"cellent all(round platform for movement and climbing techni#ues and should be the boot of choice $hen the $eather permits. c. b.he manufacturers of each and every piece of e#uipment provide recommendations on ho$ to use and care for its product. as $ell as insulation against the cold.* Climbing shoes are made specifically for climbing vertical or near vertical rock faces.

socks should al$ays be $orn in layers. and sno$shoes are easily attached and detached. Figure 1-). he is.* he first layer should be a hydrophobic material that moves moisture from the foot surface to the outer sock. at $orst.egardless of climatic conditions. !hen $orn improperly. develops hypothermia or frostbite. uncomfortable and. and the outer most garments. +ocks are one of the most under(appreciated part of the entire clothing system. the insulation layers. a. As a system. $hich protect the soldier from the elements. at best. socks provide cushioning for the foot. the soldier is better able to accomplish his tasks. %. if $orn correctly. . C!im ing shoes an& p!astic mountaineering oots. 3ote4 Caintenance of all types of foot$ear must closely follo$ the manufacturersU recommendations. ski bindings.boot is a molded plastic %usually $ith a lace(up configuration* $ith a lug sole. +ocks are e"tremely valuable in many respects. Socks. C!othing Clothing is perhaps the most underestimated and misunderstood e#uipment in the military inventory. he $elt of the boot is molded in such a $ay that crampons. !hen clothing is $orn properly. and provide insulation from cold temperatures. he clothing system refers to every piece of clothing placed against the skin. remove e"cess moisture. Improper $ear and e"cess moisture are the biggest causes of hot spots and blisters. .

the vapor barrier sock is not recommended. . In colder environments. but should be complimented $ith materials that provide cushioning and abrasion resistance. Cany civilian companies manufacture this type of under$ear. %b* In e"tremely cold conditions a vapor barrier sock can be $orn either over both of the original pairs of socks or bet$een the hydrophobic layer and the insulating layer. his layer $ould be $orn over the first t$o layers if conditions $ere e"tremely $et. Insulating layers provide additional $armth $hen the $eather turns bad. a $aterproof type sock can be added to reduce the amount of $ater that $ould saturate the foot. >nder$ear should also be made of materials that move moisture from the body. c. /o$ever.C!C+ %&igure 1(0* also incorporates the field jacket and field pants liner as additional insulating layers. =nsu!ating 8ayers. $hich moves moisture from the body to the outer layers keeping the user drier and more comfortable in all climatic conditions. b. En&er+ear. Insulating layers are those layers that are $orn over the under$ear and under the outer layers of clothing. A light$eight set coupled $ith a heavy$eight set $ill provide a multitude of layering combinations. &or the most part. %a* In severe $et conditions. If the user is $earing V< boots.%0* he outer sock should also be made of hydrophobic materials. todayUs insulating layers $ill provide for easy moisture movement as $ell as trap air to increase the insulating factor. these t$o components do not move moisture as effectively as the pile or fleece. several pairs of long under$ear of different thickness should be made available. he . he primary material in this product is polyester. he insulating layers that are presently available are referred to as pile or fleece. %1* A third layer can be added depending upon the climatic conditions.

9aiters are used to protect the lo$er leg from sno$ and ice. as $ell as mud.C!C+ provides a jacket and pants made of a durable $aterproof fabric. 9aiters are not presently fielded in the standard . Beaders at all levels must understand the importance of $earing the . $hich helps the garment retain the $arm air trapped by the insulating layers.Figure 1-. 3ote4 Cotton layers must not be included in any layer during operations in a cold environment. his membrane allo$s the garment to release moisture to the environment $hile the nylon shell provides a degree of $ater resistance during rain and sno$. e. 6uter 8ayers. he use of $aterproof fabrics or other breathable materials laminated to the nylon makes the gaiter an integral component of the cold $eather clothing system. t$igs. $Btreme co!& +eather c!othing system. d. he nylon also acts as a barrier to $ind. he . <aiters.C!C+ correctly.. <oth are constructed $ith a nylon shell $ith a laminated breathable membrane attached. and stones.

Three types o# gaiters. !hile mittens are al$ays $armer than gloves. -an& (ear. he open front allo$s the boot to slip easily into it and is closed $ith a combination of Aipper.C!C+ and.ven during the best climatic conditions. he length should reach to just belo$ the knee and $ill be kept snug $ith a dra$string and cord lock. Figure 1-1. f. temperatures in the mountains $ill dip belo$ the freeAing point. $hich is a nylon shell that may or may not have a breathable material laminated to it. in most cases. . his gaiter completely covers the boot do$n to the $elt. $ill need to be locally purchased. %0* he second type of gaiter is referred to as a full or randed gaiter..* he most common style of gaiter is the open(toed variety. %. and snaps. 2uring operations in mountainous terrain the use of hand $ear is e"tremely important. It is $orn completely over the boot and must be $orn $ith crampons because it has no traction sole. his gaiter is used $ith plastic mountaineering boots and should be glued in place and not removed. the finger de"terity needed to do most tasks makes gloves the primary cold $eather hand $ear %&igure 1('*. It can be laminated $ith a breathable material and can also be insulated if necessary. hook(pile tape. %1* he third type of gaiter is specific to high(altitude mountaineering or e"tremely cold temperatures and is referred to as an overboot. It $ill have an adjustable neoprene strap that goes under the boot to keep it snug to the boot. . 9aiters are available in three styles %&igure 1(1*.

he best hat available to the individual soldier through the military supply system is the black $atch cap.* he principals that apply to clothing also apply to gloves and mittens. he neck gaiter is a tube of man(made material that fits around the neck and can reach . As $ith clothes and hand $ear. %. -ea&+ear. Beaving the glove or mitten dangling from the $rist ensures the $earer kno$s $here it is at all times. as $ell as replacement liners for both. are acceptable but can be bulky and difficult to fit under a helmet.etention cords that loop over the $rist $ork e"tremely $ell $hen the $earer needs to remove the outer layer to accomplish a task that re#uires fine finger de"terity. A large majority of heat loss %07 percent* occurs through the head and neck area. he outer layer must be $eather resistant and breathable. =atural fibers. <oth gloves and mittens should be re#uired for all soldiers during mountain operations. his $ill provide enough fle"ibility to accomplish all tasks and keep the usersU hands $arm and dry. he most effective $ay to counter heat loss is to $ear a hat. -an& +ear. gloves and mittens $ork best using the same principle. hey should provide moisture transfer from the skin to the outer layers— the insulating layer must insulate the hand from the cold and move moisture to the outer layer. predominately $ool. g. . &or colder climates a neck gaiter can be added. %0* Eust as the clothing system is $orn in layers.Figure 1-4. man( made fibers are preferred.

-e!mets. keeping the $earer drier and $armer. h. he ?evlar ballistic helmet can be used for most basic mountaineering tasks. &or e"treme cold. i. it should be designed specifically for mountaineering and adjustable so the user can add a hat under it $hen needed. Figure 1-5. neck.ye$ear is divided into t$o catagories: glacier glasses and goggles %&igure 1(4*. his covers the head. . +everal civilian manufacturers produce an effective helmet. Cany operations in the mountains occur above the tree line or on ice and sno$ surfaces $here the harmful >V rays of the sun can bombard the . -e!mets. he military supply system does not currently provide ade#uate eye$ear for mountaineering. a balaclava can be added. 9lacier glasses are sunglasses that cover the entire eye socket. he level 0 and 1 mountaineer $ill need a lighter $eight helmet for specific climbing scenerios. 3eck gaiter an& a!ac!a2a.up over the ears and nose %&igure 1(7*. !orn together the combination is $arm and provides for moisture movement. Figure 1-6. and face leaving only a slot for the eyes %&igure 1(7*. $ye+ear. !hichever helmet is selected. It must be fitted $ith parachute retention straps and the foam impact pad %&igure 1()*.

to include hard$are %see paragraph 1('*.uropean economy.uropean norm %. . cord. j. as the broader(based testing facility for the combined . and harnesses. All mountaineering specific e#uipment. should only be used if it has the >IAA certificate of safety. Community .urope.* recogniAes >IAA testing standards and. meets or e"ceeds the >IAA standards for all climbing and mountaineering e#uipment produced in . heir $ork continues as ne$ e#uipment develops and is brought into common use. It is based in -aris. American manufacturers have their e#uipment tested by >IAA to ensure safe operating tolerances. he safety commission has established standards for mountaineering and climbing e#uipment that have become $ell recogniAed throughout the $orld. &ollo$ing these instructions is necessary to ensure the e#uipment $orks as intended. C!im ing So#t+are Climbing soft$are refers to rope. >IAA is the organiAation that oversees the testing of mountaineering e#uipment.uropean norm %C.eyes from every angle increasing the likelihood of sno$blindness.=*. :aintenance o# C!othing. $ebbing. &rance. <oth glacier glasses and goggles are re#uired e#uipment in the mountains. Figure 1-7.=* and C. have been combined to make combined . !hile the >nited +tates has no specific standards. Clothing and e#uipment manufacturers provide specific instructions for proper care. he lack of either one can lead to severe eye injury or blindness. and comprises several commissions. <!acier g!asses an& gogg!es. 9oggles for mountain operations should be antifogging.urope %C. . >V rays penetrate clouds so the goggles should be >V protected. 2ouble or triple lenses $ork best.

he construction techni#ue is referred to as ?ernmantle. the cordUs diameter should be 7 to 4 millimeters $hen used on an . .opes an& Cor&.7( or . Its ability to stretch up to . it should be >IAA certified. he .. and elongation. All ropes and cord used in mountaineering and climbing today are constructed $ith the same basic configuration. %1* Cord or small diameter rope is indispensable to the mountaineer. abrasion resistance.(millimeter by 7:(meter dynamic rope and .. Boops of tubular $ebbing or cord. factors affecting rope selection include intended use. and is best used in rope installations. . impact force.* .egardless of the rope chosen.opes come in t$o types: static and dynamic. &or most military applications. essentially. perhaps as little as one to t$o percent. similar to parachute or 77: cord %&igure 1(5*.(millimeter by '7(meter static rope $ill be sufficient. A dynamic rope is most useful for climbing and general mountaineering. $hich is.:. 2ynamic and static ropes come in various diameters and lengths. a core of nylon fibers protected by a $oven sheath. b. . his refers to their ability to stretch under tension.opes and cords are the most important pieces of mountaineering e#uipment and proper selection deserves careful thought. Its many uses make it a valuable piece of e#uipment. %0* !hen choosing dynamic rope. a standard .a. so selecting the right type and siAe is of the utmost importance. are the simplest pieces of e#uipment and some of the most useful. If used for -rusik knots. All cord is static and constructed in the same manner as larger rope. %. hese items are your lifeline in the mountains.(mm rope. (e ing an& S!ings. called slings or runners. Kernmant!e construction. Figure 1-".. A static rope has very little stretch.K1 of its overall length makes it the right choice any time the user might take a fall.

the practice is no longer encouraged because of the increased possibility of injury from a fall. and less susceptible to ultraviolet deterioration. Figure 1-'.. carabiners. a combination of different lengths of runners is ade#uate.unners are predominately made from either 8K. +e$n runners come in four standard lengths: 0 inches. . ' inches.unners should be retired regularly follo$ing the same considerations used to retire a rope.)(inch or . Tie& or se+n runners. c. and can be untied and retied to other pieces of $ebbing to create e"tra long runners. . the rope. and have less bulk than the tied version. hey also eliminate a major concern $ith the homemade knotted runner—the possibility of the knot untying. . .) inch. and they are a critical link bet$een the climber. -arnesses. and 0' inches.unners can also be made from a high(performance fiber kno$n as spectra. hey also come in three standard $idths: 8K. and .) inch. Iears ago climbers secured themselves to the rope by $rapping the rope around their bodies and tying a bo$line(on(a(coil.uses for these simple pieces are endless. inch.(inch tubular $ebbing and are either tied or se$n by a manufacturer %&igure 1(8*. more durable. %0* +e$n runners have their o$n advantages—they tend to be stronger. . he bo$line(on(a(coil is best left for lo$(angle climbing or an emergency situation $here harness material . !hile this techni#ue is still a viable $ay of attaching to a rope.K.0 inches. can be untied and threaded around natural anchors. are usually lighter. $hich is stronger. %. &or most military applications.* ied runners have certain advantages over se$n runners—they are ine"pensive to make. and anchors.

%. his type of harness. he leg loops should just fit over the clothing. At least 0 inches of the strap should remain after double(passing the buckle. &inish the $aist $rap $ith a $ater knot tied as tightly as possible.:(inch long strap bet$een the double(overhand knots. the harness should ride high on the hips and have snug leg loops to better distribute the force of a fall to the entire pelvis.is unavailable. his is the only type of harness that is approved by the >IAA. $o double(overhand knots form the leg loops. referred to as a seat harness. &or safety purposes al$ays follo$ the manufacturerUs directions for tying(in. !ith the remaining $ebbing. &itted properly.:*. %1* . they do present several disadvantages—they are more e"pensive. his type of harness has a higher tie(in point and greatly reduces the chance of flipping back$ard during a fall.* Any harness selected should have one very important feature—a double(passed buckle. provides a comfortable seat for rappelling %&igure 1(. tie a s#uare knot $ithout safeties over the $ater knot ensuring a minimum of ' inches remains from each strand of $ebbing. his is a saety standard that re#uires the $aist belt to be passed over and back through the main buckle a second time. Climbers today can select from a $ide range of manufactured harnesses. !hile these harnesses are safer. . Adjustable leg loops allo$ the soldier to make a latrine call $ithout removing the harness or untying the rope. %'* A field(e"pedient version of the seat harness can be constructed by using 00 feet of either . %0* Another desirable feature on a harness is adjustable leg loops.(inch or 0(inch %preferred* tubular $ebbing %&igure 1(. $hich allo$s a snug fit regardless of the number of layers of clothing $orn.:*.:*. are more restrictive. leaving ' to 7 feet of $ebbing coming from one of the leg loops. !rap the remaining $ebbing around the $aist ensuring the first $rap is routed through the )( to . %7* he full body harness incorporates a chest harness $ith a seat harness %&igure 1(. and increase the difficulty of adding or removing clothing.#uipment loops are desirable for carrying pieces of climbing e#uipment.

+teel is still $idely used. the 2(shaped. %)* A separate chest harness can be purchased from a manufacturer. If the carabiner does have a locking mechanism. !hen using a carabiner. or a field(e"pedient version can be made from either t$o runners or a long piece of $ebbing. his simple piece of gear is the critical connection bet$een the climber. Dne of the most versatile pieces of e#uipment available to the mountaineer is the carabiner. he oval. yet light enough for the climber to easily carry a #uantity of them.ither chest harness is then attached to the seat harness $ith a carabiner and a length of $ebbing or cord. Seat harness? #ie!&-eBpe&ient harness? an& #u!! o&y harness. Figure 1-)*. but is not preferred for general mountaineering. odayUs high tech metal alloys allo$ carabiners to meet both of these re#uirements. his rope. and the protection attaching him to the mountain. a. C!im ing -ar&+are Climbing hard$are refers to all the parts and pieces that allo$ the trained mountain soldier to accomplish many tasks in the mountains. great care should be . and the pear(shaped carabiner are just some of the types currently available.. Cara iners. he importance of this gear to the mountaineer is no less than that of the rifle to the infantryman. Cost models can be made $ith or $ithout a locking mechanism for the gate opening %&igure 1(. . <asic carabiner construction affords the user several different shapes. it is usually referred to as a locking carabiner.*. given other options.Cost mountaineers prefer to incorporate a separate chest harness $ith their seat harness $hen $arranted. Carabiners must be strong enough to hold hard falls.

<ecause of the design of the 2(shaped carabiner. Figure 1-).taken to avoid loading the carabiner on its minor a"is and to avoid three($ay loading %&igure 1(.* he major difference bet$een the oval and the 2(shaped carabiner is strength. :a>or an& minor aBes an& three-+ay !oa&ing. 3ote4 9reat care should be used to ensure all carabiner gates are closed and locked during use. the load is . 3on!ocking an& !ocking cara iners.0*.. Figure 1-)). %.

hey are made of malleable steel. and angles. design. his testing is e"tensive and tests the carabiner in three $ays—along its major a"is. . %0* he pear(shaped carabiner. 9itons. he strength of the piton is determined by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. is e"cellent for clipping a descender or belay device to the harness. and angle.angled onto the spine of the carabiner thus keeping it off the gate. %. b. along its minor a"is. hardened steel. $hich hold $hen $edged into tight(fitting cracks. he do$n side is that racking any gear or protection on the 2(shaped carabiner is difficult because the angle of the carabiner forces all the gear together making it impossible to separate #uickly. %1* . A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. -itons provide a secure anchor for a rope attached by a carabiner. vertical cracks.egardless of the type chosen. $hich hold blade compression $hen $edged into a crack. he many different kinds of pitons include: vertical. or other alloys.1*. Figure 1-)1. Aarious pitons. he t$o most common types of pitons are: blades. the blade and eye are aligned.itons.* 1ertical . $afer. hey are described by their thickness. horiAontal. hey $ork $ell $ith the munter hitch belaying knot. all carabiners should be >IAA tested. hese pitons are used in flush. and $ith the gate open. specifically the locking version. Dn vertical pitons. and length %&igure 1(.

<ongs are commonly made of steel or aluminum alloy and usually contain holes to reduce $eight and accommodate carabiners. Ca"imum strength is attained only $hen the legs of the piton are in contact $ith the opposite sides of the crack. A safety lanyard of nylon cord. A piton hammer has a flat metal head@ a handle made of $ood. hey are recommended for use in vertical cracks instead of vertical pitons because the tor#ue on the eye tends to $edge the piton into place.'*. hese are angle pitons that are more than 1. hey have a high holding po$er and re#uire less hammering than other pitons. hey have little holding po$er and their $eakest points are in the rings provided for the carabiner.itons. %'* 2nife 3lade . +kyhooks re#uire constant tension and are used in a do$n$ard pull direction. hey are designed to bite into thin. hese pitons are used in flush. hey are small and fit into thin. hey have a tapered blade that is optimum for both strength and holding po$er.ealiAed ultimate reality pitons %. hese are used in direct(aid climbing. hese pitons are used in shallo$.5 centimeters $ide.itons. c. or fiberglass@ and a blunt pick on the opposite side of the hammer %&igure 1(. flush cracks.%0* Horizontal . metal. Dn horiAontal pitons.itons. . the eye of the piton is at right angles to the blade. or flakes. shallo$ cracks. ledges.(inch s#uare.>.itons. his provides more holding po$er than the vertical piton under the same circumstances.itons.itons. horiAontal cracks and in offset or open(book type vertical or horiAontal cracks. %4* 3ong . he curved end $ill not straighten under body $eight. he base is designed to prevent rotation and aid stability. hese are used in $ide cracks that are flush or offset.-s* are hatchet(shaped pitons about . shallo$ cracks. %5* S0yhoo0 $Cliffhangers%. %1* Wafer . %)* Angle . hese are small hooks that cling to tiny rock protrusions. %7* 4ealized Ultimate 4eality . 9iton -ammers. or leather is used to . $ebbing.

his type of chock is versatile and comes $ith either a cable loop or is tied $ith cord or $ebbing. 9iton hammer. he cord used $ith chocks is designed to be stiffer and stronger than regular cord and is typically made of ?evlar. Chocks. to be used as anchors. Cost hammers are appro"imately 07. Care should be taken to place tubing in the chock before threading the cord. he piton hammer can also be used to assist in removing pitons. creating a camming action that lodges the chock in the crack or pocket. Dne of the chocks that falls into the category of both a $edge and cam is the he"agonal(shaped or 6he"6 chock. Cost chocks come $ith a $ired loop that is stronger than cord and allo$s for easier placement. 6Chocks6 is a generic term used to describe the various types of artificial protection other than bolts or pitons. into the rock. Chocks are essentially a tapered metal $edge constructed in various siAes to fit different siAed openings in the rock %&igure 1(. A $edge holds by $edging into a constricting crack in the rock.attach it to the climber he lanyard should be long enough to allo$ for full range of motion. he advantage of using a chock rather than a piton is that a climber can carry many different siAes and use them repeatedly.0 to 07 ounces. All chocks come in different siAes to fit varying $idths of cracks. he type selected should suit individual preference and the intended use.7 centimeters long and $eigh . A cam holds by slightly rotating in a crack.7*. <igger chocks can be threaded $ith cord or $ebbing if the user ties the chock himself. d. he primary use for a piton hammer is to drive pitons. and in cleaning cracks and rock surfaces to prepare for inserting the piton. +ome chocks are manufactured to perform either in the $edging mode or the camming mode. Figure 1-)4. he design of a chock $ill determine $hether it fits into one of t$o categories—$edges or cams. .

)*.Figure 1-)5. <ecause of this design it is e"tremely versatile and. Chocks. reliable placement in cracks $here standard chocks are not practical %parallel or flaring cracks or cracks under roofs*. he three(point camming deviceUs uni#ue design allo$s it to be used both as a camming piece and a $edging piece %&igure 1(. $hen used in the camming mode. Figure 1-)6. he three(point camming device comes in several different siAes $ith the smaller siAes $orking in pockets that no other piece of gear $ould fit in. $ill fit a $ide range of cracks. e. Three-point camming &e2ice. +pring(loaded camming devices %+BC2s* %&igure 1(. Three-9oint Camming De2ice. +BC2s have three or four cams rotating around a single or double a"is $ith a rigid or . f.4* provide convenient. Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ices.

hey are also handy to clean cracks $ith. !hen using a chock pick to e"tract a chock be sure no force is applied directly to the cable juncture.semi(rigid point of attachment. Spring-!oa&e& camming &e2ices. they can be purchased or homemade.5*. hese are placed #uickly and easily.ach fits a $ide range of crack $idths due to the rotating cam heads. Chock 9icks. . g. saving time and effort. Dne end of the chock pick should have a hook to use on jammed +BC2s. Chock picks are primarily used to e"tract chocks from rock $hen the they become severely $edged %&igure 1(. he fle"ible cable reduces the risk of stem breakage over an edge in horiAontal placements. Cade from thin metal. . Figure 1-)7. he shafts may be rigid metal or semi(rigid cable loops. +BC2s are available in many siAes to accommodate different siAe cracks.

$hich is driven into the rock. and e"tremely noisy. Contraction bolts are s#ueeAed together $hen driven into a rock. dirt. h. Dnce emplaced. <ecause of this re#uirement. and drilling anchor. and $eights. chips. <urrs. bolt driver. Items that are cracked or $arped indicate e"cessive $ear and should be discarded. . <olts should be used only $hen chocks and pitons cannot be emplaced. <olts re#uire drilling a hole into a rock. he t$o types are contraction bolts and e"pansion bolts. <olts are scre$(like shafts made from metal that are drilled into rock to provide protection %&igure 1(.Figure 1-)". $hich is time(consuming. bolts are the most secure protection for a multidirectional pull. he bolt is then inserted and driven into the hole. A bolt and carrier are then secured to the emplaced drilling anchor. All metal surfaces should be smooth and free of rust. hese re#uire a hammer."pansion bolts press around a surrounding sleeve to form a snug fit into a rock. and rough spots should be filed smooth and $ire(brushed or rubbed clean $ith steel $ool.* A hanger %for carabiner attachment* and nut are placed on the bolt. Chock picks. %o!ts. corrosion. A bolt is hammered only $hen it is the nail or self(driving type. and moisture. brands.8*. /and drills %also called star drills* are available in different siAes. . %. A hand drill should have a lanyard to prevent loss. a hand drill must be carried in addition to a piton hammer. %0* +elf(driving bolts are #uicker and easier to emplace. e"hausting.

i.egardless of the belay device choosen. . %o!ts an& hangers. %0* he tuber is used e"actly like the slot but its shape is more like a cone or tube.* he slot is a piece of e#uipment that attaches to a locking carabiner in the harness@ a bight of rope slides through the slot and into the carabiner for the belay. he most common slot type belay device is the +ticht plate. %1* he mechanical camming device is a manufactured piece of e#uipment that attaches to the harness $ith a locking carabiner. <elay devices range from the least e#uipment intensive %the body belay* to high(tech metal alloy pieces of e#uipment. %e!ay De2ices. the basic principal remains the same—friction around or through the belay device controls the ropesU movement. . he rope is routed through this device so that $hen force is applied the rope is cammed into a highly frictioned position. <elay devices are divided into three categories: the slot. the tuber. and the mechanical camming device %&igure 1(0:*. %.Figure 1-)'.

A figure(eight is another useful piece of e#uipment and can be used in conjunction $ith the carabiner for descending %&igure 1(0.*. S!ot? tu er? mechanica! camming &e2ice. . &or difficult vertical terrain. All modern ascenders $ork on the principle of using a cam(like device to allo$ movement in one direction.Figure 1-. &or lo$er angle movement. Descen&ers. t$o ascenders $ork best. 7scen&ers. Figure-eights.). Ascenders are primarily made of metal alloys and come in a variety of siAes %&igure 1(00*. Cost manufacturers make ascenders as a right and left( handed pair. j. one ascender is sufficient. Dne piece of e#uipment used for generations as a descender is the carabiner. k.*. Ascenders may be used in other applications such as a personal safety or hauling line cam. Figure 1-. 3ote4 All belay devices can also be used as descending devices.

errain that $ould other$ise be inaccessible(sno$fields. l. 7scen&ers. glaciers. different(siAed sheaves %$heel*. 9u!!eys. Sno+ an& =ce C!im ing -ar&+are +no$ and ice climbing hard$are is the e#uipment that is particular to operations in some mountainous terrain. 9u!!ey. -lastic pulleys should al$ays be avoided.1. A pulley should be small.. he sideplate should rotate on the pulley a"le to allo$ the pulley to be attached at any point along the rope. light$eight. -ulleys are used to change direction in rope systems and to create mechanical advantage in hauling systems.Figure 1-. &or best results. Figure 1-. and strong. froAen $aterfalls(can . the sheave diameter must be at least four times larger than the ropeUs diameter to maintain high rope strength. and metal alloy sideplates %&igure 1(01*. +pecific training on this type of e#uipment is essential for safe use. -ulleys are made $ith several bearings.. hey should accommodate the largest diameter of rope being used.

or $ood@ the first t$o are stronger. It can be made of fiberglass. direct(aid climbing. anchors. he versatility of the a" lends itself to balance. %a* he shaft %handle* of the a" comes in varying lengths %the primary length of the standard mountaineering a" is 4: centimeters*. %0* As climbing becomes more technical. and adding a second tool is a must $hen the terrain becomes vertical. hollo$ aluminum. can have different configurations. he ice a" is one of the most important tools for the mountaineer operating on sno$ or ice. . he pick should be curved slightly and have teeth at least one(fourth of its length. used for chopping. a shorter a" is much more appropriate. belays. he head should have a hole directly above the shaft to allo$ for a leash to be attached. and spike %&igure 1(0'*. probing. %b* he head of the a". he head can be of one(piece construction or have replaceable picks and adAes. is perpendicular to the shaft. $hich combines the pick and the adAe. but it is any$here from ': to 77 centimeters long and can have a straight or bent shaft depending on the preference of the user. %. a.no$ be considered avenues of approach using the sno$ and ice climbing gear listed in this paragraph. and ascending and descending sno$ and ice covered routes. %c* he spike at the bottom of the a" is made of the same material as the head and comes in a variety of shapes. therefore safer for mountaineering. head %pick and adAe*. he climber must become proficient in its use and handling. It can be flat or curved along its length and straight or rounded from side to side. he shorter a" has all the attributes of the longer a". he adAe. =ce 7B. self(arrest.* +everal specific parts comprise an ice a": the shaft. step cutting.

+traps should fit snugly around the foot and any long.4. $o types of crampons are available: fle"ible and rigid.b. he ice hammer is as short or shorter than the technical a" %&igure 1(0'*.egardless of the type of crampon chosen. loose ends should be trimmed. he crampon should fit snugly on the boot $ith a minimum of . =ce -ammer. c. and any tools needed for adjustment $ill be provided by the manufacturer. Figure 1-. Crampons. =ce aB an& ice hammers. he only difference bet$een the ice a" and the ice hammer is the ice hammer has a hammerhead instead of an adAe. It is used for pounding protection into the ice or pitons into the rock. Cost of the shorter ice tools have a hole in the shaft to $hich a leash is secured. . inch of front point protruding. . hey have multiple spikes on the bottom and spikes protruding from the front %&igure 1(07*. $hich provides a more secure purchase in the ice. <oth fle"ible and rigid crampons come in pairs. fit is the most important factor associated $ith crampon $ear. Crampons are used $hen the footing becomes treacherous.

Cost fle"ible crampons $ill attach to the boot by means of a strap system.5.* he hinged or fle"ible crampon is best used $hen no technical ice climbing $ill be done. %0* he rigid crampon. fle"ible boots. as its name implies. Crampons. he fle"ible crampon gets its name from the fle"ible hinge on the crampon itself. but can be attached to plastic mountaineering boots. is rigid and does not fle". All fle"ible crampons are adjustable for length $hile some allo$ for $idth adjustment. but can be used on less vertical terrain. he rigid crampon can only be $orn $ith plastic . It is designed to be used $ith soft.Figure 1-. %. his type of crampon is designed for technical ice climbing. he fle"ible crampon can be $orn $ith a variety of boot types.

. .mountaineering boots. he eye is permanently affi"ed to the top of the ice scre$. choose a scre$ $ith a large thread count and large hollo$ opening.6.* !hen selecting ice scre$s.igid crampons $ill have a toe and heel bail attachment $ith a strap that $raps around the ankle.. he tip consists of milled or hand(ground teeth. =ce Scre+s. • • • ype I is . d. he ice scre$ has right(hand threads to penetrate the ice $hen turned clock$ise. %. he close threads $ill allo$ for ease in turning and better strength.4 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. Dther variations are hollo$ alloy scre$s that have a tapered shank $ith e"ternal threads. centimeters to ': centimeters %&igure 1(0)*. he large hollo$ opening $ill allo$ sno$ and ice to slide through $hen turning. Ice scre$s are made of chrome(molybdenum steel and vary in lengths from . hey are scre$ed into ice formations. ype II is 00 centimeters in length $ith a hollo$ inner tube. $hich create sharp points to grab the ice $hen being emplaced. $hich are driven into ice and removed by rotation. =ce scre+s. Ice scre$s provide artificial protection for climbers and e#uipment for operations in icy terrain. Figure 1-.

Ice pitons are used to establish anchor points for climbers and e#uipment $hen conducting operations on ice.7. pull out easily on $arm days and re#uire a considerable amount of effort to e"tract in cold temperatures. the scre$ should be turned in. =ce piton.' centimeters. ho$ever. Common types are: • ype I is 00 by . and are available in various lengths and diameters %&igure 1(04*. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is ):: kilograms. hey are available $ith bent faces. he fluted anchor portion of the sno$ anchor is made of aluminum. 3ote4 Ice scre$s should al$ays be kept clean and dry. he eye is permanently fi"ed to the top of the ice piton. =ce 9itons. he $ired portion is made of either galvaniAed steel or stainless steel. (ire& Sno+ 7nchors. A file may be used to sharpen the ice scre$ points. f. he tip may be beveled to help grab the ice to facilitate insertion. hey can. flanged sides. Ice pitons are e"tremely strong $hen placed properly in hard ice. . and fi"ed cables. Figure 1-. he $ired sno$ anchor %or fluke* provides security for climbers and e#uipment in operations involving steep ascents by burying the sno$ anchor into deep sno$ %&igure 1(05*.%0* Ice scre$s should be inspected for cracks. hey are made of steel or steel alloys %chrome(molybdenum*. If any cracks or bends are noticed. and other deformities that may impair strength or function. +teel $ool should be rubbed on rusted surfaces and a thin coat of oil applied $hen storing steel ice scre$s. hey are tubular $ith a hollo$ core and are hammered into ice $ith an ice hammer. bends. e. &luke anchors are available in various siAes—their holding ability generally increases $ith siAe. he threads and teeth should be protected and kept sharp for ease of application.

broken $ire strands. his e#uipment is used for safety %avalanche e#uipment. the picket should be turned in for replacement. mushrooming ends. he $ired sno$ anchor should be inspected for cracks. in shelter construction. he picket should be inspected for bends. If bent or cracked. g. Figure 1-. $ands*. bivouacs. he sno$ picket is made of a strong aluminum alloy 1 millimeters thick by ' centimeters $ide.. If any cracks. the sno$ anchor should be turned in. for removing froAen obstacles. having the e#uipment available and kno$ing ho$ to use it correctly $ill enhance the unitUs capability in mountainous terrain.". It can be used in step cutting.• ype II is 07 by 0: centimeters.::: kilograms. and for cutting . he sno$ picket is used in constructing anchors in sno$ and ice %&igure 1(05*. broken $ire strands. Cinimum breaking strength of the s$aged $ire loop is . Sno+ Sa+. hey can be angled or (section stakes. and '7 to 8: centimeters long. he sno$ sa$ is used to cut into ice and sno$. and other deformities. movement. or slippage is noticed. Sno+ 9icket. Sno+ anchors? #!ukes? an& pickets. cracks. !hile not all of it $ill need to be carried on all missions. a. he ends should be filed smooth. and slippage of the $ire through the s$age. chips. Sustaina i!ity $quipment his paragraph describes all additional e#uipment not directly involved $ith climbing. and carrying gear.

burrs. he blade should be inspected for rust. A file and steel $ool can remove rust and put an edge on the blade of the shovel. Carry too many $ands is better than not having enough if they become lost. and stability. and discoloration. !ands are . bends. to . folding. and missing or dull teeth. he handle should be inspected for cracks. $arping. cracks. bends. he shafts should be inspected for cracks. step cutting. number of haAards identified. rust. and number of teams in the climbing party. he special tooth design of the sno$ sa$ easily cuts into froAen sno$ and ice. it should not be used. he blade is a rigid aluminum alloy of high strength about 1 millimeters thick and 15 centimeters long $ith a pointed end to facilitate entry on the for$ard stroke. b. he sno$ shovel is made of a special.sno$ stability test pits. c. he sno$ shovel is used to cut and remove ice and sno$.07 meters long and made of light$eight bamboo or plastic shafts pointed on one end $ith a plastic or nylon flag %bright enough in color to see at a distance* attached to the other end. and burrs. caches. he shovel should have a flat or rounded bottom and be of strong construction. and stability. If the shovel is beyond repair. d. Avalanche rescue e#uipment %&igure 1(08* includes the follo$ing: . the $ands should be replaced. he handle should be inspected for cracks. and steel $ool can be rubbed on rusted areas. !ands are used to identify routes. it should be turned in. he flag should be inspected for tears. +pacing of $ands depends on the number of turns. he shovel should be inspected for cracks. and turns on sno$ and glaciers. If any defects are discovered. he handle is either $ooden or plastic and is riveted to the blade for a length of about 7: centimeters. and removing obstacles. A file can repair most defects. If the sa$ is beyond repair. the hinge and nuts should be secure. shelter construction. bends. It can be used for avalanche rescue. he handle should be telescopic.. bends. sno$(bridges. crevasses. 72a!anche rescue equipment. Sno+ Sho2e!. Dn folding models. or removable to be compact $hen not in use. fading. $eather conditions %and visibility*. security to the shaft. frays. (an&s. light$eight aluminum alloy. and deformities.

e. . hese are small. 9acks.* Internal framed packs have a rigid frame $ithin the pack that help it maintain its shape and hug the back. %. his assists the climber in keeping their balance as they climb or ski. compact radios used to identify avalanche burial sites. Although ski poles may be used as an emergency probe $hen searching for a victim in an avalanche. %. Cany types and brands of packs are used for mountaineering. but can be cumbersome $hen balance is needed for climbing and skiing. 72a!anche rescue equipment.'. +ome manufacturers of ski poles design poles that are telescopic and mate $ith other poles to create an avalanche probe. commercially manufactured probes are better for a thorough search. he t$o most common types are internal and e"ternal framed packs. %0* . he shafts must be strong enough to probe through avalanche debris."ternal framed packs suspend the load a$ay from the back $ith a ladder(like frame. hey transmit electromagnetic signals that are picked up by another transceiver on the receive mode. he $eight in an internal framed pack is carried lo$ on the body assisting $ith balance. $hich can be joined to probe up to 1): centimeters. he frame helps transfer the $eight to the hips and shoulders easier.* Avalanche .robe. he body(hugging nature of this type pack also makes it uncomfortable in $arm $eather. hey are 8( millimeter thick shafts made of an aluminum alloy.Figure 1-. %0* Avalanche 'ransceivers.

A tent used for $armer temperatures $ill greatly differ from tents used in a colder. kerosene. A good rule of thumb is: he simpler the pack. cooking or bothR +toves or heaters for large elements can be large and cumbersome. A double($all tent has a second layer of material %referred to as a fly* that covers the tent.%1* -acks come in many siAes and should be siAed appropriately for the individual according to manufacturerUs specifications. Canufacturers of tents offer many designs of different siAes. +toves for smaller elements might just be used for cooking and making $ater.* Countaineering tents are made out of a breathable or $eatherproof material. and its reliability. +toves are a necessity in mountaineering for cooking and making $ater from sno$ and ice. +toves that burn $hite gas or kerosene have a hand pump to generate the pressuriAation and butane stoves have pressuriAed cartridges. %. !hite gas. factors that should be considered are $eight. altitude and temperature $here it $ill be used. hey should be easy to clean and repair during an operation. and butane are the common fuels used. he fly protects against . %. his can be accomplished by burning a small amount of fuel in the burner cup assembly. he reliability of the stove has a huge impact on the success of the mission and the morale of personnel. -acks often come $ith many unneeded features. and are simple and light$eight. %0* +toves should be tested and maintained prior to a mountaineering mission. $hich $ill vaporiAe the fuel in the fuel line. All stoves need to vaporiAe the li#uid fuel before it is burned. fuel availability. g. the mission must be defined to determine the number of people the tent $ill accommodate. A single($all tent allo$s for moisture inside the tent to escape through the tentUs material. more harsh environment.* here are many choices in stove design and in fuel types. $eights. Tents. the better it $ill be. !hen choosing a stove. f. !hen selecting a tent. !hen selecting a stove one must define its purpose—$ill the stove be used for heating. All stoves re#uire a means of pressuriAation to force the fuel to the burner. he climate the tents $ill be used in is also of concern. and materials. Sto2es.

+ome ski poles are . i. and they can become a makeshift stretcher for casualties. +ki techni#ues can be complicated and re#uire thorough training for ade#uate proficiency. and carrying heavy packs. emperature and e"pected $eather for the mission should be determined before choosing the tent. connect.rain and sno$ and the space bet$een the fly and tent helps moisture to escape from inside. and become long and rigid. sno$shoes can be easier to use than skis. hey have become an important tool in mountaineering for aid in balance $hile hiking. Skis. h. they create the shape of the tent. hey have a binding that pivots at the toe and allo$s for the heel to be free for uphill travel or locked for do$nhill. but are better suited for mi"ed terrain. +no$shoes offer a large displacement area on top of soft sno$ preventing tiresome post(holing. +ynthetic skins $ith fibers on the bottom can be attached to the bottom of the ski and allo$ the ski to travel for$ard and prevent slipping back$ard. light$eight designs that are more efficient than older models. !hen carrying heavy packs. especially if personnel are not e"perienced $ith the art of skiing. Sno+shoes. +no$shoes are slo$er than skis. %1* ents are rated by a 6relative strength factor. %0* he frame of a tent is usually made of an aluminum or carbon fiber pole. +kis can decrease the time needed to reach an objective depending on the ability of the user. +ki poles $ere traditionally designed to assist in balance during skiing. he poles are connected $ith an elastic cord that allo$s them to e"tend. !hen the tent poles are secured into the tent body. +ome sno$shoes come e#uipped $ith a crampon like binding that helps in ascending steep sno$ and ice. +kis can make crossing crevasses easier because of the load distribution. +no$shoes are the traditional aid to sno$ travel that attach to most foot$ear and have been updated into small. he skins aid in traveling uphill and slo$ do$n the rate of descents. Ski po!es. hey can take some of the $eight off of the lo$er body $hen carrying a heavy pack. <efore using a ne$ tent.6 the speed of $ind a tent can $ithstand before the frame deforms. sno$shoeing. the seams should be treated $ith seam sealer to prevent moisture from entering through the stitching. Countaineering skis are $ide and short. !a" can be applied to the ski to aid in ascents instead of skins. j.

a cover is essential for keeping the components in the sled dry. Co!!apsi !e ski po!es. from the s#uad(siAe Ahkio. especially $hen hauling fuel. but can be cumbersome $hen both hands are needed. All components should be reliable in e"treme $eather . k. sleds are an invaluable asset during mountainous operations $hen sno$ and ice is the primary surface on $hich to travel.egardless of the siAe. on some models.* !hen choosing a headlamp. he basket at the bottom prevents the pole from plunging deep into the sno$ and. It is common to need a light source and the use of both hands during limited light conditions in mountaineering operations. 9reat care should be taken $hen packing the sled. a component of the . +ome ski poles come $ith a self(arrest grip. can be detached so the pole becomes an avalanche or crevasse probe. to the one(person sko$. Figure 1-1*. . Cost headlamps attach to helmets by means of elastic bands. A flashlight can provide light. S!e&s. %. ensure it is $aterproof and the battery apparatus is small. . !hichever sled is chosen. l. Cost sleds are constructed using fiberglass bottoms $ith or $ithout e"terior runners.collapsible for ease of packing $hen not needed %&igure 1(1:*. but should not be the only means of protection on technical terrain. /eavier items should be carried to$ards the rear of the sled and lighter items to$ards the front. -ea&!amps. he sled should also come $ith a cover of some sort—$hether nylon or canvas.unners $ill aid the sleds ability to maintain a true track in the sno$. A headlamp is a small item that is not appreciated until it is needed.:(man arctic tent system. it must be attachable to the person or people that $ill be pulling it. +leds vary greatly in siAe.

Dbviously. care should be taken that the s$itch doesnUt accidentally activate and use precious battery life. !hen the light is being packed. stoves. first aid kits. or hauled in a sled %in $inter*. if available@ <2> and cap@ BC. or fleece top@ helmet@ poncho@ and sleeping bag. ropes. -ersonal gear includes emergency survival kit containing signaling material. -ocket items should include a knife. Cotton clothing should be replaced $ith synthetic fabric clothing.#uipment brought on a mission is carried in the pack. sunglasses. and lithium batteries have t$ice the voltage so modifications are re#uired. . foul $eather shells. magaAine pouches. desert. Stan&ar& <ear.conditions. fuel. and e"tra ammunition and demolition materials. and first aid kit@ individual $eapon@ a large rucksack containing $aterproof coat and trousers. $orn on the body.$ill influence the choice of gear carried but the follo$ing lists provide a sample of $hat should be considered during mission planning. climbing e#uipment. map. b. or jungle mountain environments. food. Caution4 Cotton clothing. Alkaline battery life diminishes #uickly in cold temperatures. fire starting material. and $ater procurement material. $ith canteens. 9ersona! <ear. if needed. pressure bandage. hey $ould be used for major bivouac gear. notebook $ith pen or pencil. nickel(cadmium. Cost lights $ill accept alkaline. the e"ception being hot. is virtually useless in most mountain climates. or lithium batteries. sunblock and lip protection. food procurement material. nickel(cadmium batteries last longer in cold but re#uire a recharging unit. $quipment 9acking . polypropylene top. a. Choice o# $quipment Cission re#uirements and unit +D. $histle. s$eater. $ater. due to its poor insulating and moisture($icking characteristics. compass and or altimeter. the rucksack and sled %or Ahkio* can hold much more than a climber can carry. %0* he battery source should compliment the resupply available. +tandard gear that can be individually $orn or carried includes cushion sole socks@ combat boots or mountain boots.

d. his gear includes: • • • • • • • • • • +ling rope or climbing harness. !hen the soldier plans to be a$ay from the bivouac site for the day on a patrol or mountaineering mission. !hen a s#uad(siAed element leaves the bivouac site. these items may make the difference bet$een success and failure of the mission. +ling rope or climbing harness. one per climbing team. In the event of an injury. or unplanned bivouac. &irst aid kit.ations for the time period a$ay from the base camp. Day 9ack. =onlocking carabiners. Ice a". . Canteen. rain suit. Bocking carabiner%s*. Climbing rack. one per climbing team.c. one per climbing team. one per climbing team."tra insulating layer: polypropylene.appelling gloves. :ountaineering $quipment an& Specia!i@e& <ear.appelKbelay device. >tility cord%s*. Crampons. his pack should contain the follo$ing items: • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Carabiners. Squa& or Team Sa#ety 9ack. his can either be loaded into one rucksack or cross(loaded among the s#uad members. &lashlight or headlamp. +urvival kit. he carries a light day pack. Cold $eather hat or scarf. . or poncho. or s$eater. e. . pile top. 9loves. Climbing rope. s#uad safety gear should be carried in addition to individual day packs. Climbing rack. . -rotective layer: $aterproof jacket and pants. casualty evacuation. Climbing rope.

he clothing used during the active part of a climb. . $hich minimiAe the light entering from the side.7 or higher. f. under$ear. blouse. %1* Sunglasses and Sunscreen. pants. and or 6. The Ten $ssentia!s. %a* In alpine or sno$(covered sub(alpine terrain. . and foul $eather gear %$aterproof. should permit ventilation to help prevent lens fogging. the individual military mountaineer should al$ays carry the 6ten essentials6 $hen moving through the mountains.:: percent of ultraviolet light. +#uad stove. At least one e"tra pair of sunglasses should be carried by each independent climbing team. includes socks. hey should filter 87 to . &or lip protection. $ashing. and licking is best. hat. and considered to be the basic climbing outfit. a total >V blocking lip balm that resists s$eating. %. sunglasses are a vital piece of e#uipment for preventing sno$ blindness. gloves or mittens. +ide shields. %0* Compass. or navigational error. s$eater or fleece jacket.* 5ap. injury. %'* ()tra +ood. &uel bottle. %b* +unscreens should have an +-& factor of .S.• • • • +leeping bag. Altimeter. %7* ()tra Clothing.egardless of $hat e#uipment is carried. boots. Dne dayUs $orth e"tra of food should be carried in case of delay caused by bad $eather. his lip protection should be carried in the chest pocket or around the neck to allo$ fre#uent reapplication. breathable outer$ear or $aterproof rain suit*. +leeping mat.

but commercially available headlamps are best. +pare batteries and spare bulbs should also be carried. elastic compression $rap. the mountain environment— steep. -ressure dressings. Insulated foam pads prevent heat loss $hile sitting or lying on sno$. • • • • • . 2ecentraliAed operations. . and fatigue—re#uires each climber to carry his o$n first(aid kit. In $inter or severe mountain conditions. cutting the $ind. herefore. A reflective emergency space blanket can be used for hypothermia first aid and emergency shelter."tra hats or balaclavas. butterfly bandages. sharp tools. . . slick terrain and loose rock combined $ith heavy packs. /eadlamps provide the climber a hands( free capability. %b* o back up foul $eather gear. moleskin. ?eep in mind the season $hen selecting this gear. . late" gloves and splint material %if above tree line* should all be part of the kit. %4* +irst aid 2it.%a* . &inally."tra under$ear to s$itch out $ith s$eat(soaked under$ear."tra pair of insulated mittens or gloves. . $orking around the camp.ed lens covers can be fabricated for tactical conditions. a bivouac sack can help by protecting insulating layers from the $eather."tra clothing includes additional layers needed to make it through the long. Ciniature flashlights can be used. $hich is important $hile climbing. scissors. a broken bone. and employing $eapons systems. and trapping essential body heat inside the sack. gauAe pads. inactive hours of an unplanned bivouac. Common mountaineering injuries that can be e"pected are punctures and abrasions $ith severe bleeding. bring a poncho or e"tra(large plastic trash bag."tra pair of heavy socks. cleanser. serious sprain. adhesive tape. the kit should contain at least enough material to stabiliAe these conditions. %)* Headlamp and or +lashlight. small adhesive bandages. and blisters. e"tra insulation for the upper body and the legs.

Bighters are handy for starting fires. hese can also be used for #uick $arming of $ater or soup in a canteen cup. g. In alpine Aones above tree line $ith no available fire$ood. %8* 5atches and . It helps for movement on steep scree and on brush and heather covered slopes. %1* 4epair 2it. &ire starting material is key to igniting $et $ood for emergency campfires. -atches. as $ell as for stream crossings. or pack. he ice a" is essential for travel on sno$fields and glaciers as $ell as sno$(covered terrain in spring and early summer. but they should be backed up by matches stored in a $aterproof container $ith a strip of sandpaper.:* 2nife. Cord and or $ire. %. +afety pins. %. A repair kit should include: • • • • • • • • • +tove tools and spare parts. 6ther $ssentia! <ear.%5* +ire Starter. . hese include $ide(mouth $ater bottles for $ater collection@ camel(back type $ater holders for hands(free hydration@ and a small length of plastic tubing for $ater procurement at sno$(melt seeps and rain$ater puddles on bare rock. Candles. /eavy(duty thread. and canned heat all $ork. A multipurpose pocket tool should be secured $ith cord to the belt.* Water and Water Containers. heat tabs. 2uct tape. Dther essential gear may be carried depending on mission and environmental considerations. +mall pliers %if not carrying a multipurpose tool*.ighter. a stove $orks as an emergency heat source. A$l and or needles. harness. Dther repair items as needed. %0* 7ce A).

. a. %7* Signa!ing De2ices. b. %)* Sno+ Sho2e!. among others. $ater. $hich are then organiAed into color(coded stuffsacks. and be securely . this placement should be standardiAed across the team so that necessary items can be #uickly reached $ithout unnecessary unpacking of the pack in emergencies.#uipment that may be needed during movement should be arranged for #uick access using either e"ternal pockets or placing immediately underneath the top flap of the pack.epe!!ent. the load is held high and close to the back. he pack and its contents should be soundly $aterproofed. his lo$ers the climberUs center of gravity and helps him to better keep his balance. Tips on 9acking !hen loading the internal frame pack the follo$ing points should be considered. d. emergency bivouac shelter. In rougher terrain it pays to modify the pack plan. As much as possible. if not carried in hand. Vip(lock plastic bags can be used for small items. Clothing and sleeping bag are separately sealed and then placed in the larger $et $eather bag that lines the rucksack. e. nearer the shoulder blades.%'* =nsect . speed and endurance are enhanced if the load is carried more by the hips %using the $aist belt* and less by the shoulders and back. food. more compressible items %sleeping bag. should be sto$ed on the outside of the pack $ith the spike up and the adAe facing for$ard or to the outside. rope. his is preferred for movement over trails or less difficult terrain. he ice a". thus placing the most $eight on the hips. climbing hard$are. c. /eavy articles of gear are placed lo$er in the pack and close to the back. <y packing the lighter. clothing* in the bottom of the rucksack and the heavier gear %stove. A fe$ e"tra(large plastic garbage bags should be carried for a variety of uses—spare $aterproofing. e"tra ammunition* on top. and $ater procurement. placing more $eight on the shoulders and back. In most cases.

until the rope is completely coiled. a. 'his chapter discusses common rope terminology. 7f the rope is not managed or maintained properly. .ope >se the butterfly or mountain coil to coil and carry the rope. serious in!ury may occur. $hich is laid in the hand closest to the end of the rope. If not. H Preparation Care and Maintenance !nspection Terminolog" H Coiling Carr"ing and Thro#ing H $nots . as stated above. Coi!ing an& Carrying the . his is repeated. bring the hands together forming a loop.un the other hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched.K' t$ist as each loop is formed to overcome any tendency for the rope to t$ist or form figure(eights. and knots later during deployment. grasp the rope appro"imately . he rope may be given a . rappelling. :ountain Coi!. the mountaineer must 0now how to properly utilize and maintain this piece of e&uipment. . management techni&ues.ach is easy to accomplish and results in a minimum amount of kinks. Crampons should be secured to the outside rear of the pack $ith the points covered. f. meter from the end $ith one hand. forming uniform loops that run in a clock$ise direction. and 0nots. 9rasping the rope firmly. When climbing. . o start a mountain coil. Countaineering packs have ice a" loops and buckle fastening systems for this.fastened. and then tied in place.ope :anagement an& Knots 'he rope is a vital piece of e&uipment to the mountaineer. . t$ists. or building various installations.ope Coi!ing? Carrying? Thro+ing he ease and speed of rope deployment and recovery greatly depends upon techni#ue and practice. the ice a" is placed behind one of the side pockets. care and maintenance procedures.

%0* he mountain coil may be carried either in the pack %by forming a figure eight*. or by placing it over the shoulder and under the opposite arm. doubling it and placing it under the flap. >ncoil the last loop and. %&igure '( 1 sho$s ho$ to coil a mountain coil.%. %utter#!y Coi!. slung across the chest. securing the coil.* Figure 4-1. form a bight appro"imately 1: centimeters long $ith the starting end of the rope and lay it along the top of the coil. -ull the running end of the bight tight.* In finishing the mountain coil. :ountain coi!. he butterfly coil is the #uickest and easiest techni#ue for coiling %&igure '('*. $rapping to$ard the closed end of the bight and making the first $rap bind across itself so as to lock it into place. using this length of the rope. b. and then route the end of the rope through the closed end of the bight. begin making $raps around the coil and the bight. . Cake si" to eight $raps to ade#uately secure the coil.

* Coiling. ake a doubled bight from the loose ends of rope and pass it through the ape" of the coils. -lace the doubled rope over the head. . dressing it do$n to the ape" of the bight securing coils. . Continue coiling until appro"imately t$o arm(lengths of rope remain. !ith the rest of the doubled rope in front of you. draping it around the neck and on top of the shoulders.emove the coils from the neck and shoulders carefully. -lace an overhand knot in the loose ends. In this configuration . . and hold the center in one hand. make doubled bights placing them over the head in the same manner as the first bight.nsure that the loose ends do not e"ceed the length of the coils. %utter#!y coi!. grasp both ropes and slide the right hand out until there is appro"imately one arms length of rope.nsure that it hangs no lo$er than the $aist. -ull the loose ends through the doubled bight and dress it do$n. %. %0* Tie-off and Carrying. !ith the bight in the left hand. ensuring that the first $rap locks back on itself.Figure 4-4. o start the double butterfly. !rap the t$o ends around the coils a minimum of three doubled $raps. &ind the center of the rope forming a bight. right to left* $hile maintaining e#ual(length bights. Coil alternating from side to side %left to right. grasp both ends of the rope and begin back feeding.

c. or for storage. =o$ the piece of rope may be hung from a carabiner on the harness.the coiled rope is secure enough for hand carrying or carrying in a rucksack.* Figure 4-5. -ieces 07 feet and shorter %also kno$n as cordage. . Cake three or more $raps. . %&igure '(7 sho$s a butterfly coil tie(off.opes of smaller diameters may be coiled using the butterfly or mountain coil depending on the length of the rope. !rap that bight around the coil. <ring the t$o ends of the rope together. ensuring that the first $rap locks on itself. sling rope. utility cord* may be coiled so that they can be hung from the harness. Coi!ing Sma!!er Diameter . ensuring no kinks are in the rope. -lace the ends of the rope in the left hand $ith the t$o ends facing the body.ope. Coil the doubled rope in a clock$ise direction forming )( to 5(inch coils %coils may be larger depending on the length of rope* until an appro"imate . %utter#!y coi! tie-o##.0(inch bight is left. 2ress it do$n tightly. &eed the bight up through the bights formed at the top of the coil.

A slight t$ist of the $rist.e. re(grasp the rope ne"t to the right hand and continue laying the rope on the ground. % his is also useful $hen the rope is to be moved a short distance and coiling is not desired. %. Encoi!ing? %ack-#ee&ing? an& Stacking. -ick up the rest of the larger coils in the right hand. the thro$er should sound off $ith a $arning of 6. Thro+ing the . and so on. <ack(feed the rope to minimiAe kinks and snarls. =e"t. Cake a fe$ preliminary s$ings to ensure a smooth thro$. he rope may be thro$n underhanded or overhanded depending on obstacles around the edge of the site.6 to alert anyone belo$ the site. so that the palm of the hand faces up as the rope is thro$n.* ake one end of the rope in the left hand and run the right hand along the rope until both arms are outstretched. %0* he rope should be laid or stacked in a neat pile on the ground to prevent it from becoming tangled and knotted $hen thro$ing the rope. !hen a slight tug on the left hand is felt. make si" to eight smaller coils in the left hand. As soon as the rope leaves the hand. it must be properly managed to prevent it from tangling during deployment. feeding it to a lead climber.* >ntie the tie(off and lay the coil on the ground. he arm should be generally straight $hen thro$ing. -ersonal preference and situational and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration $hen determining $hich techni#ue is best. hro$ up and out. hro$ the large coils in the right hand first.D-. . a. !ith the left hand. his techni#ue can also be started using the right hand. his $ill prevent the ends of the rope from becoming entangled $ith the rest of the coils as they deploy. <ack feed and neatly stack the rope into coils beginning $ith the anchored end of the rope $orking to$ard the running end. !hen the rope is needed for use. he rope should first be anchored to prevent complete loss of the rope over the edge $hen it is thro$n. allo$s the coils to separate easily $ithout tangling. lay the end of the rope in the left hand on the ground. it must be uncoiled and stacked on the ground properly to avoid kinks and snarls. +everal techni#ues can be used $hen thro$ing a rope. A smooth follo$ through is essential. Dnce stacked.ope <efore thro$ing the rope. toss the si" to eight smaller coils out.

0. hese classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. and Class IV—special knots.1. + . up and out to$ard the horiAon. he stronger the $ind.. ake the end of the rope and make si" to eight helmet(siAe coils in the right hand %more may be needed depending on the length of the rope*. bends. he skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. -ull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. a.. and hitches is almost endless. adjustments must be made. vigorously thro$ the rope overhanded. Tying the Knot.0.. In a strong cross $ind. Square Knot he s#uare knot is used to tie the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual diameter %&igure '()*. he variety of knots. Another techni#ue may also be used $hen thro$ing rope. bights. . Aiming just above the horiAon.. + . -lace the $orking end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat + .. and stack the rope properly as described above.. c. Class III—middle rope knots. he rope must be stacked properly to ensure smooth deployment. /olding one $orking end in each hand. !ith e"perience and practice. Class II—anchor knots.b. Knots All knots used by a mountaineer are divided into four classes: Class I—joining knots. knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the mountaineer in many situations. Assume a 6#uarterback6 simulated stance. the rope should be thro$n angled into the $ind so that it $ill land on the desired target. + . It is a joining knot. place the $orking end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. the harder the rope must be thro$n to compensate. back feed. !hen $indy $eather conditions prevail. Anchor.

. Fisherman's Knot he fisherman3s knot is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(4*. Checkpoints... + . . %1* he running ends are parallel to and on the same side of the standing ends $ith '(inch minimum pig tails after the overhand safeties are tied. 2ress the knot do$n and secure it $ith an overhand knot on each side of the s#uare knot. Tying the Knot. %0* he running end and standing part are on the same side of the bight formed by the other rope. ie an overhand knot in one end of the rope. Square knot. b.'.* here are t$o interlocking bights. Figure 4-6. %..+ . a. It is a joining knot.

Dou !e Fisherman's Knot he double fisherman3s knot %also called double .* he t$o separate overhand knots are tied tightly around the long. ightly dress do$n each overhand knot and tightly dra$ the knots together. %1* . standing part of the opposing rope. %0* he t$o overhand knots are dra$n snug.1. b. It is a joining knot. Tying the Knot. Figure 4-7. ie an overhand knot around the standing part of the first rope $ith the $orking end of the second rope. Fisherman’s knot.nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails.. %. a. + .0..+ . Checkpoints. -ass the $orking end of the other rope through the first overhand knot.nglish or grapevine* is used to tie t$o ropes of the same or appro"imately the same diameter %&igure '(5*. .

* $o double overhand knots securing each other as the standing parts of the rope are pulled apart. %1* . . %0* &our rope parts on one side of the knot form t$o 6"6 patterns. + .nds of rope e"it knot opposite each other $ith '(inch pigtails. Figure 4-"...'.. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of the other rope %the $orking end in + . Checkpoints.1. %.. tie t$o $raps around the standing part of another rope.. + . b... !ith the $orking end of one rope. $hich contains the standing part %+ . Dou !e #isherman’s knot.* back through the t$o $raps and dra$ it tight...-+ . Insert the $orking end back through the t$o $raps and dra$ tight.*. -ull on the opposing ends to bring the t$o knots together.+ . Insert the $orking end %+ .0. and 0*. + .. four rope parts on the other side of the knot are parallel. !ith the $orking end of the other rope.

0. .. . + . + . 9rasp the top of a 0(foot bight.1. + . Tying the Knot..emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers... -lace the running end through the loop just formed creating an in( line figure eight. 2ress the knot do$n.. .oute the running end of the other ripe back through the figure eight starting from the original rope3s running end.Figure-$ight %en& he figure(eight bend is used to join the ends of t$o ropes of e#ual or une#ual diameter $ithin 7(mm difference %&igure '(8*.. + .'. Figure-eight en&. a.. !ith the other hand. + . Figure 4-'. race the original knot to the standing end. grasp the running end %short end* and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end.7.

. %.. It is used in runners and harnesses and is a joining knot. &eed the other end back through the knot. 2ra$ tight and pull all of the slack out of the knot. a. Checkpoints.. or tape knot. follo$ing the path of the first rope in reverse. + . + . %0* he running ends are on opposite sides of the knot.0.. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.:*.b. ie an overhand knot in one of the ends. It is also called a ring bend. .* here is a figure eight $ith t$o ropes running side by side.. + . overhand retrace.1. (ater Knot he $ater knot is used to attach t$o $ebbing ends %&igure '(. Tying the Knot. he remaining tails must e"tend at least ' inches beyond the knot in both directions.

* here are t$o overhand knots. a. %. Tying the Knot. %0* here is no slack in the knot. from right to left %as the climber faces the anchor*. <ring the $orking end of the rope around the anchor.. + .Figure 4-)*. (ater knot. one retracing the other. . %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail. Checkpoints.. It may also be used to tie a single fi"ed loop in the end of a rope %&igure '(.. and the $orking ends come out of the knot in opposite directions. %o+!ine he bo$line is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. b. It is an anchor knot..*.

%. &orm an overhand knot $ith the tail from the bight.. . Checkpoints.0..+ . . -lace the $orking end of the rope %on the climber3s left* through the bight. Figure 4-)). &orm an overhand loop in the standing part of the rope %on the climber3s right* to$ard the anchor..1. %o+!ine knot. %1* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after tying the overhand safety.. and bring it back onto itself.'. + . + .oun& Turn an& T+o -a!# -itches . + . %0* he short portion of the bight is on the inside and on the loop around the anchor %or inside the fi"ed loop*. b. =o$ dress the knot do$n.7.* he bight is locked into place by a loop.each through the loop and pull up a bight.

etrace /.. Figure 4-). distributing the load over the anchor.. . + .. and it must have constant tension %&igure '(. %0* $o half hitches should be held in place by a diagonal locking bar $ith no less than a '(inch pigtail remaining. .eroute& Figure-$ight0 ..0*. It is an anchor knot. %. <ring the $orking end of the rope left to right and over the standing part. + .un the loop around the object to provide 1):(degree contact.oute the rope around the anchor from right to left and $rap do$n %must have t$o $raps in the rear of the anchor.epeat + . 2ress the knot do$n.'.oun& turn an& t+o ha!# hitches.. Tying the Knot. a. forming a half hitch %first half hitch*. . + . Checkpoints.his knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor. .* A complete round turn should e"ist around the anchor $ith no crosses.. b.0 %last half hitch has a ' inch pigtail*.1.. + ..0. and one in the front*. Figure-$ight .

by tying the knot in a retrace. + .he figure(eight retrace knot produces the same result as a figure(eight loop.7. >se a length of rope long enough to go around the anchor. /o$ever. Tying the Knot.emove all unnecessary t$ists and crossovers@ dress the knot do$n. !ith the $orking end..0. leaving enough rope to go around the anchor. ?eep the original figure eight as the outside rope and retrace the knot around the $rap and back to the long(standing part. o tie a figure(eight knot form a loop in the rope. $rap the $orking end around the standing part. . leaving enough rope to $ork $ith. It is also called a rerouted figure(eight and is an anchor knot. ie a figure(eight knot in the standing part of the rope. and route the $orking end through the loop. + . insert the rope back through the loop of the knot in reverse.. + . . ake the $orking end around the anchor point.). + .1*.'. + ....1. + ... he finished knot is dressed loosely.. a. it can be used to fasten the rope to trees or to places $here the loop cannot be used %&igure '(.

It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot. C!o2e -itch he clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as $ell as at the end %&igure '(.Figure 4-)1. he knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. Tying the Knot. %.* Middle of the Rope.'*.. Figure-eight retrace. depending on ho$ it is tied. palms do$n $ith hands together. +lide the left hand to the left from 0: to 07 centimeters. /old rope in both hands.. b. . %0* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail.* A figure eight $ith a doubled rope running side by side. Checkpoints %. a.. + . forming a fi"ed loop around a fi"ed object or harness.

9rasp the $orking end of the rope. <ring the $orking end up and out$ard. reach do$n to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor.0. %0* End of the Rope. + .. !ith the right hand. /old the loop in the left hand. assume that the anchor is horiAontal. and bring it in$ard.. + . + .. /old the standing end in the left hand..'... . + .. -lace 4) centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor..1. !ith the right hand.'. +lide the right hand from 0: to 07 centimeters to the right. -lace the $orking end of the rope over the standing end %to form a loop*. + .1. -lace both loops over the anchor and pull both ends of the rope in opposite directions. + . 3ote4 &or instructional purposes. &orm a loop a$ay from and back to$ard the right. &orm a loop in$ard and back to the left hand.+ . 2ress do$n the knot.. -lace the left loop on top of the right loop. grasp the $orking end. he knot is tied. reach under the horiAontal anchor.0. -lace the $orking end over the anchor from 0: to 07 centimeters to the left of the loop.

palm.. and place it over the heel $rap.Figure 4-)4.. fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope %&igure '(.. A loop of 1: centimeters is taken up in the second round turn to create the fi"ed loop of the knot. . + . =ame the $raps from the palm to the fingertips: heel.. +ecure the palm $rap $ith the right thumb and forefinger. ake up the slack from the anchor. + . and $rap t$o turns around the left hand %palm up* from left to right. %1* he ends e"it l5: degrees from each other. Tying the Knot. +ecure the fingertip $rap and place it over the palm $rap..1..4.7*. (ireman's Knot he $ireman3s knot forms a single.). Checkpoints.. + .7. + . %. It is a middle rope knot. and fingertip. + .. + . %0* he locking bar is facing 8: degrees from the direction of pull. C!o2e hitch. +ecure the heel $rap and place it over the fingertip $rap.* he knot has t$o round turns around the anchor $ith a diagonal locking bar. a. face the anchor that the tie(off system $ill be tied to.0. + .'.. %'* he knot has more than a '(inch pigtail remaining. !hen tying this knot. b. +ecure the palm $rap and pull up to form a fi"ed loop.

a.+ . fi"ed loop in the middle of the rope that lays back along the standing part of the rope %&igure '(.5. . -ull the $orking ends apart to finish the knot. Tying the Knot. + . It is a middle rope knot. %..8..)*.* he completed knot should have four separate bights locking do$n on themselves $ith the fi"ed loop e"iting from the top of the knot and laying to$ard the near side anchor point. b. %0* <oth ends should e"it opposite each other $ithout any bends. Directiona! Figure-$ight he directional figure(eight knot forms a single. (ireman’s knot. Checkpoints. Figure 4-)5. 2ress the knot do$n by pulling on the fi"ed loop and the t$o $orking ends.

tie a figure(eight knot around the standing part that leads to the far side anchor.. &ace the far side anchor so that $hen the knot is tied. Directiona! #igure-eight. Cake one $rap around the palm.* he loop should be large enough to accept a carabiner but no larger than a helmet(siAe loop. the tail and the bight must be together. Checkpoints. %. b.+ .'.1. !ith the $rap thus formed... !hen dressing the knot do$n. . + . Bay the rope from the far side anchor over the left palm. + . + . Figure 4-)6.. it lays in$ard..0..

+ .1.. spreading them apart to ensure the loops do not slip. 9rasp the t$o ropes that run do$n and out$ard and pull up.%0* he tail and bight must be together.).. &orm a bight in the rope about t$ice as long as the finished loops $ill be. forming t$o loops. + . + .. + . A final dress is re#uired: grasp the ends of the t$o fi"ed loops and pull. &rom the end %ape"* of the bight.4*.. %o+!ine-6n-7-%ight /T+o-8oop %o+!ine0 he bo$line(on(a(bight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '( . It is a middle rope knot.. follo$ the bight back to $here it forms the cross in the overhand knot.7. Tying the Knot.. -ull the t$o ropes out of the overhand knot and dress the knot do$n. . + . a. + . ie an overhand knot on a bight. %1* he figure eight is tied tightly.0. /old the overhand knot in the left hand so that the bight is running do$n and out$ard.'.4... + . %'* he bight in the knot faces back to$ard the near side. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand@ fold it back over the overhand knot so that the overhand knot goes through the bight..

. form an . T+o-8oop Figure-$ight he t$o(loop figure(eight is used to form t$o fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(.* It is a middle rope knot. >sing a doubled rope.* here are t$o fi"ed loops that $ill not slip.5(inch bight in the left hand $ith the running end facing to the left.. %o+!ine-on-a.Figure 4-)7. + . %1* A double loop is held in place by a bight. b. Tying the Knot.ight.. Checkpoints. a..5. %0* here are no t$ists in the knot. %.

. !ith the $orking end. Figure-$ight 8oop /Figure-$ight-6n-7-%ight0 he figure(eight loop.7. + . Checkpoints. Tying the Knot. also called the figure(eight(on(a(bight.'. %1* he common locking bar is on the bottom of the double figure(eight knot. form another bight and place that bight through the loop just formed in the left hand. %. Figure 4-)".. is used to form a fi"ed loop in a rope %&igure '(. 9rasp the bight $ith the right hand and make a 1):(degree turn around the standing end in a counterclock$ise direction. + . . It is a middle of the rope knot. b. + .* here is a double figure(eight knot $ith t$o loops that share a common locking bar.0..+ .1.. and place the original bight %moving to$ard the left hand* over the knot. /old the bight $ith the left hand. 2ress the knot do$n. %0* he t$o loops must be adjustable by means of a common locking bar. T+o-!oop #igure-eight.8*. a.

9rusik Knot he -rusik knot is used to put a moveable rope on a fi"ed rope such as a -rusik ascent or a tightening system. %0* he ropes in the loop are parallel and do not cross over each other.* he loop is the desired siAe. %1* he knot is tightly dressed. b. form a loop in rope %standing part*. !ith the bight as the $orking end. !rap the $orking end around the standing part 1): degrees and feed the $orking end through the loop. 2ress the knot tightly. a.. + . Checkpoints.1. It is a specialty knot... Figure-eight !oop. Figure 4-)'. Tying the Knot. &orm a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.+ . + .. %.. .0. his knot can be tied as a middle or end of the rope -rusik.

2ouble the short rope. .0 inches belo$ the long rope and the remaining part of the rope %$orking ends* is the closest to the climber@ spread the $orking end apart.. + .. + . %0* End-of-the-Rope Prusik %&igure '(0. >sing an arm3s length of rope.. ying an overhand knot $ith both ropes $ill prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension. =o$ there are four $raps and a locking bar $orking across them on the long rope.* Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.. &orm a complete round turn in the rope. -ull up both of the $orking ends and lay them over the long rope. Cross over the standing part of the short rope $ith the $orking end of the short rope.. .*.. $ith the $orking ends even.0. forming a bight.1. Bay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is .*.1..each do$n through the .%. and place it over the long rope. he middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot can be tied $ith a short rope to a long rope as follo$s %&igure '(0:. Figure 4-.. + . + . .*: + ..0(inch bight. + .0. :i&&!e-o#-the-rope 9rusik.epeat this process making sure that the $orking ends pass in the middle of the first t$o $raps.. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n to ensure they are tight and not t$isted.

%. .).4.+ . here are four $raps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. + . &inish the knot $ith a bo$line to ensure that the -rusik knot $ill not slip out during periods of varying tension. the knot should contain an overhand or bo$line to prevent slipping.'. Checkpoints.. %'* Dther than a finger -rusik. $n&-o#-the-rope 9rusik knot. + . + .7..).nsure they are tight. It is a specialty knot.. %1* he knot is tight and dressed do$n $ith no ropes t$isted or crossed. Figure 4-. b. . %achman Knot he <achman knot provides a means of using a makeshift mechaniAed ascender %&igure '(00*. $orking back to$ard the middle of the knot. 2ress the $raps and locking bar do$n. and not t$isted. parallel.. %0* he locking bar faces the climber.* &our $raps $ith a locking bar. Bay the $orking end under the long rope. &orm a complete round turn in the rope.

. Tying the Knot. %. %o+!ine-6n-7-Coi! . make t$o or more $raps around the climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner. b.* he bight of the climbing rope is at the top of the carabiner. Checkpoints. + .0.. -lace the carabiner and utility rope ne"t to a long climbing rope.. + .. Figure 4-.1. %achman knot.. !ith the t$o ropes parallel from the carabiner. %0* he t$o ropes run parallel $ithout t$isting or crossing.. + . 3ote4 he rope can be tied into an etrier %stirrup* and used as a -rusik(friction principle ascender. %1* $o or more $raps are made around the long climbing rope and through the inside portion of the carabiner.. &ind the middle of a utility rope and insert it into a carabiner.a.

Tying the Knot. hen. leaving a minimum '(inch pigtail. single coil. >sing the standing part. b. It is a specialty knot. tie an overhand around all coils.. /olding the bight loosely.. +afety the bo$line $ith an overhand around the top. !ith the standing portion of the rope in your left hand.he bo$line(on(a(coil is an e"pedient tie(in used by climbers $hen a climbing harness is not available %&igure '(01*. he running end is to the back of the body. + . place 1 feet of rope over your right shoulder..0. + ..1. dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing end. + . !ith the running end. he standing portion is on the bottom.7. . + . 9rasp the running end of the rope $ith the right hand.. $ith a bight held in place by a loop. + . + . %'* Cust be centered on the mid(line of the body.4. Checkpoints..nsuring the loop does not come uncrossed. a. bring it up and under the coils bet$een the rope and your body.. -ass it through the bight from right to left and back on itself.).. $rap the standing part of the rope around your body and do$n in a clock$ise direction four to eight times. %1* A minimum '(inch pigtail after the second overhand safety is tied. .'.* A minimum of four $raps. + .. %0* he loop must be underneath all $raps. bring a bight up through the loop. +tarting at the bottom of your rib cage. not crossed. make a clock$ise loop to$ard the body. %.

!ith the right thumb facing to$ard the body. reach do$n through the loops and pull up a doubled bight from the standing part of the rope. Three-8oop %o+!ine he three(loop bo$line is used to form three fi"ed loops in the middle of a rope %&igure '(0'*. %o+!ine-on-a-coi!.1. + . /old the running end loosely and dress the knot do$n by pulling on the standing parts. + . It is used in a self(e#ualiAing anchor system..Figure 4-.. It is a specialty knot... .'. form a doubled loop in the standing part by turning the $rist clock$ise. -lace the running end %bight* of the rope %on the left* through the doubled bight from left to right and bring it back on itself.1.0. Bay the loops to the right. &orm an appro"imate 0'(inch bight. + . + . !ith the right hand. Tying the Knot.. a..

+ .. . Checkpoints..0(inch bight in the end of the rope.. &orm a . It is a specialty knot. %.7. Tying the Knot. %0* he bights form locking bars around the standing parts. Three-!oop o+!ine. + . %1* he running end %bight* must be on the inside of the fi"ed loops. Figure 4-. a. +afety it off $ith a doubled overhand knot.4. Figure-$ight S!ip Knot he figure eight slip knot forms an adjustable bight in a rope %&igure '(07*. %'* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the double overhand safety knot is tied.* here are t$o bights held in place by t$o loops.. b.

+ . -ull another bight %from the long standing end* back through the original bight.* he knot is in the shape of a figure eight. b. Figure-eight s!ip knot. If the knot is to be used in a transport tightening system.+ .)..0 inches up the rope. !ith the center of the bight in the right hand. Transport Knot /62erhan& S!ip Knot. t$ist t$o complete turns clock$ise.5. %1* he sliding portion of the rope is the long $orking end of the rope. /old the t$o parallel ropes from the bight in the left hand about .. + . take the $orking end of the rope and form a half hitch around the loop of the figure eight knot. .. %. Figure 4-. -ull do$n on the short $orking end of the rope and dress the knot do$n. + ..7.. + . %0* <oth ropes of the bight pass through the same loop of the figure eight. Checkpoints.0. standing end of the rope.:u!e Knot0 .1. /old the center of the bight in the right hand.each through the bight and grasp the long.'.

%1* he bight is a minimum of . a.* here is a single overhand slip knot...0 inches long. +ecure the knot by tying a half hitch around the standing portion $ith the bight. Transport knot...6. -ass over the standing portion and do$n through the loop and dress it do$n to$ard the anchor point. + . Figure 4-. + . &orm a bight $ith the running end of the rope.0. %. Check 9oints. + .. -ass the running end of the rope around the anchor point passing it back under the standing portion %leading to the far side anchor* forming a loop. It is simply an overhand slip knot.he transport knot is used to secure the transport tightening system %&igure '(0)*. K!eimhiest Knot . Tying the Knot. b. %0* he knot is secured using a half hitch on a bight.1.

high(tension knot capable of holding e"tremely heavy loads $hile being pulled tight %&igure '(04*. easily adjustable. !ith the remaining tails of the utility rope.0 inches. Eoin the t$o ends of the tail $ith a joining knot.7. a.. >sing a utility rope or $ebbing offset the ends by . !ith the ends offset. + .. + ..'. It is a special( purpose knot.. + . + . Bay the bight over a horiAontal rope. It has a lo$ melting point and tends to slip . 3ote4 +pectra should not be used for the ?leimhiest knot.. !rap the tails of the utility rope around the horiAontal rope back to$ard the direction of pull. Tying the Knot. .. !rap at least four complete turns. pass them through the bight %see + . find the center of the rope and form a bight.*.0..he ?leimhiest knot provides a moveable. + .1... 2ress the knot do$n tightly so that all $raps are touching.

%.* he bight is opposite the direction of pull.. b. Tying the Knot. + . a.0 inches.: to . K!eimhiest knot. . Frost Knot he frost knot is used $hen $orking $ith $ebbing %&igure '(05*.. ie an overhand knot $ith the ne$ly formed triple(strand $ebbing@ dress tightly.0.. It is a special(purpose knot.. + .Figure 4-. Bap one end %a bight* of $ebbing over the other about . Checkpoints.7. %1* he ends of the utility rope are properly secured $ith a joining knot. %0* All $raps are tight and touching. It is used to create the top loop of an etrier.

+ .. It is a special(purpose knot. Checkpoint..'.. + .* he tails of the $ebbing run in opposite directions.: &orm a bight. <irth hitch.1: Cinch the knot tightly. %. %1* here is a bight and tail e"iting the top of the overhand knot. a. <irth -itch he girth hitch is used to attach a runner to an anchor or piece of e#uipment %&igure '( 08*. :unter -itch . Tying the Knot.Figure 4-.0: <ring the runner back through the bight. Figure 4-. %.* $o $raps e"ist $ith a locking bar running across the $raps.. + . b. Checkpoints. %0* he knot is dressed tightly.". %0* hree strands of $ebbing are formed into a tight overhand knot. b. Frost knot.

. + . a. /old the rope in both hands. /old the loop $ith the left hand.he munter hitch.. Bock the locking mechanism.0... %0* he carabiner is locked.0 inches apart. is used to form a mechanical belay %&igure '(1:*. Tying the Knot. + .1. -lace the bight that has just been formed around the rope into the pear shaped carabiner. form a loop a$ay from the body to$ard the left hand. palms do$n about . b.. !ith the right hand..* A bight passes through the carabiner.'. !ith the right hand. + . place the rope that comes from the bottom of the loop over the top of the loop. %. + .. Check 9oints. $ith the closed end around the standing or running part of the rope. $hen used in conjunction $ith a pear(shaped locking carabiner.

+ ... :unter hitch.each around behind and grab a single strand of rope..0.'. Tying the Knot. .appe! Seat he rappel seat is an improvised seat rappel harness made of rope %&igure '(1.1. &ind the middle of the sling rope and make a bight. thus creating a loop around the $aist. + . + ... ensuring they do not cross. -ass the t$o ends bet$een the legs.*.Figure 4-1*. a. . <ring it around the $aist to the front and tie t$o overhands on the other strand of rope. It usually re#uires a sling rope . .' feet or longer.. 2ecide $hich hand $ill be used as the brake hand and place the bight on the opposite hip. + .

. uck any e"cess rope in the pocket belo$ the s#uare knot. Check 9oints. Figure 4-1).7. -ull up on the ropes. tightening the seat..+ .).4. . + . + . <ring the longer of the t$o ends across the front to the nonbrake hand hip and secure the t$o ends $ith a s#uare knot safetied $ith overhand knots. -ass the t$o ends up under the loop around the $aist. %. bisecting the pocket flaps on the trousers..* here are t$o overhand knots in the front.appe! seat. b. pass the t$o ends through the leg loops creating a half hitch on both hips. . &rom rear to front.

. %1* A half hitch is formed on each hip. %'* +eat is secured $ith a s#uare knot $ith overhand safeties on the non( brake hand side. %7* here is a minimum '(inch pigtail after the overhand safeties are tied. alpine clutch* is a special purpose knot primarily used for hauling systems or rescue %&igure '(10*. he knot $orks in only one direction and cannot be reversed $hile under load. .0. a.. + . <uar&e Knot he guarde knot %ratchet knot. ake a loop of rope from the non(load side and place it do$n into the opposite cararabiner so that the rope comes out bet$een the t$o carabiners. preferably ovals*.. -lace a bight of rope into the t$o anchored carabiners %$orks best $ith t$o like carabiners. Tying the Knot. + ..%0* he ropes are not crossed bet$een the legs.

7f the anchor is not strong enough to support the intended load. it will fail. or the e&uipment . .. b.roper selection and placement of anchors is a critical s0ill that re&uires a great deal of practice. Check 9oints. +ailure is usually the result of poor terrain features selected for the anchor point. %0* he knot $ill not fail $hen placed under load. +ailure of any system is most li0ely to occur at the anchor point. 7nchors 'his chapter discusses different types of anchors and their application in rope systems and climbing. <uar&e knot. rope can only be pulled in one direction. %.* !hen properly dressed.Figure 4-1.

* Trees rees are probably the most $idely used of all natural anchors depending on the terrain and geographical region %&igure 7(. hey are usually strong and often simple to construct $ith minimal use of e#uipment. +ometimes the climbing rope is tied directly to the anchor.8 A bombproof anchor is stronger than any possible load that could be placed on it. %+ee paragraph 7(4 for slinging techni#ues. When selecting or constructing anchors. trees must be carefully checked for suitability. natural anchors should be carefully studied and evaluated for stability and strength before use. /o$ever. H %atural Anchors H Anchoring With the &ope H Arti'icial Anchors 3atura! 7nchors =atural anchors should be considered for use first. rees.*. but under most circumstances a sling is attached to the anchor and then the climbing rope is attached to the sling $ith a carabiner%s*. /o$ever. An anchor that has more strength than the climbing rope is considered bombproof. . always try to ma0e sure the anchor is 8bombproof.used in rigging the anchor was placed improperly or in insufficient amounts. boulders. and other terrain irregularities are already in place and simply re#uire a method of attaching the rope.

All chockstones must be solid and strong enough to support the load. alus and scree fields are an indicator that the rock in the area is not solid. treesusually have a shallo$ root system. Chockstones A chockstone is a rock that is $edged in a crack because the crack narro$s do$n$ard %&igure 7(1*. a. %ou!&ers use& as anchors. Anchoring as lo$ as possible to prevent e"cess leverage on the tree may be necessary. sap producing trees to keep sap off ropes and slings. In rocky terrain. Figure 5-. %ou!&ers <oulders and rock nubbins make ideal anchors %&igure 7(0*. +edimentary and other loose rock formations are not stable.Figure 5-). security. Trees use& as anchors. b. and crumbling and should al$ays be tested before use. hey must have ma"imum surface contact and be $ell tapered $ith the surrounding rock to remain in position.. . All areas around the rock formation that could cut the rope or sling should be padded. >se padding on soft. Chockstones should be checked for strength. he rock can be firmly tapped $ith a piton hammer to ensure it is solid. his can be checked by pushing or tugging on the tree to see ho$ $ell it i rooted.

Chockstones are often directional—they are secure $hen pulled in one direction but may pop out if pulled in another direction. and clipping on a carabiner. hese include blocks. tying a rope to it. horns.ock 9ro>ections . and spikes. b. Chockstones. .Figure 5-1. hey should be checked for cracks or $eathering that may impair their firmness. c.ock projections %sometimes called nubbins* often provide suitable protection %&igure 7( '*. flakes. a. +lings should not be $edged bet$een the chockstone and the rock $all since a fall could cut the $ebbing runner. their firmness is important. . A creative climber can often make his o$n chockstone by $edging a rock into position. If rock projections are used. the projection should be avoided. If any of these signs e"ist.

Tunne!s an& 7rches unnels and arches are holes formed in solid rock and provide one of the more secure anchor points because they can be pulled in any direction. .ock pro>ections.Figure 5-4. %rushes an& Shru s If no other suitable anchor is available. All vegetation should be healthy and $ell rooted to the ground. As $ith trees. . the roots of bushes can be used by routing a rope around the bases of several bushes %&igure 7(7*. he load(bearing hole must be strong and free of sharp edges %pad if necessary*. the anchoring rope is placed as lo$ as possible to reduce leverage on the anchor. A sling is threaded through the opening hole and secured $ith a joining knot or girth hitch.

. he carabiner gate should face a$ay from the ground and open a$ay from the anchor for easy insertion of the rope. Figure 5-6. a. !hen a locking carabiner cannot be used. >ntying the sling and routing it around the anchor and then retying is still considered a drape. Drape. 2rape the sling over the anchor %&igure 7(4*. S!inging Techniques hree methods are used to attach a sling to a natural anchor—drape. t$o carabiners are used $ith gates opposed. Correctly opposed gates should open on opposite sides and form an 6L6 $hen opened %&igure 7()*. $rap. Correct!y oppose& cara iners.Figure 5-5. and girth. %ushes an& shru s. the knot is set off to the side $here it $ill not interfere $ith normal carabiner movement. !hichever method is used.

!rap the sling around the anchor and connect the t$o ends together $ith a carabiner%s* or knot %&igure 7(5*. . Drape. Figure 5-". b.Figure 5-7. (rap. (rap.

. <irth. he knot shouldnUt be placed up against the anchor because this can stress and distort the knot under tension.:*. A tensionless anchor can be used in high(load installations $here tension on the attachment point and knot is undesirable. Figure 5-'.c. his re#uires less e#uipment. <irth. Although a girth hitch reduces the strength of the sling. .ound turns can be used to help keep the rope in position on the anchor. he rope can be tied to the anchor using an appropriate anchor knot such as a bo$line or a rerouted figure eight.ope he climbing or installation rope can be tied directly to the anchor using several different techni#ues. but also sacrifices some rope length to tie the anchor. the knot should be placed appro"imately the same distance a$ay from the anchor as the diameter of the anchor %&igure 7(. it allo$s the sling to remain in position and not slide on the anchor. 7nchoring (ith .ope 7nchor !hen tying the climbing or installation rope around an anchor. . ie the sling around the anchor $ith a girth hitch %&igure 7(8*.

he $raps of the rope around the anchor absorb the tension of the installation and keep the tension off the knot and carabiner. A smooth anchor may re#uire several $raps. Tension!ess 7nchor he tensionless anchor is used to anchor the rope on high(load installations such as bridging and traversing %&igure 7(. more if necessary. A fi"ed loop is placed into the end of the rope and attached loosely back onto the rope $ith a carabiner. .ope tie& to anchor +ith anchor knot. 7rti#icia! 7nchors . to absorb the tension. $hereas a rough barked tree might only re#uire a fe$. he rope is $rapped from top to bottom.*. Figure 5-)).Figure 5-)*. Tension!ess anchor.. he anchor is usually tied $ith a minimum of four $raps.

can also be used if necessary. chocks. In e"tremely hard. Cost climbers prefer to use chocks. 9itons -itons have been in use for over . unsightly fi"tures in the natural environment. as $ell as a bundle of smaller tree limbs or poles. a. ensure timbers and tree limbs are not dead or rotting and that boulders are solid. he sling is attached to the anchor. he art of choosing and placing good anchors re#uires a great deal of practice and e"perience. $hich is set into the ground as deeply as possible. and ruck sacks. such as a railroad tie. pitons are not used as often as other types of artificial anchors due primarily to their impact on the environment. b. local la$s and courtesies should be taken into consideration for each area of operation. Although still available. %A hefty timber. Dften they are left in place and become unnatural. rocky terrain %$here digging a trench $ould be impractical. As $ith natural anchors.#uipment. . $ould be ideal.ye protection should al$ays be $orn $hen driving a piton into rock. if not impossible* a variation of the deadman anchor can be constructed by building above the ground. 3ote4 Artificial anchors. .* Barge boulders can be used. Anchor strength varies greatly@ the type used depends on the terrain. hough normally not as strong as $hen buried. ice a"es. +BC2s and other artificial anchors rather than pitons because they do not scar the rock and are easier to remove. <oulders are then stacked on top of it until the anchor is strong enough for the load. and +BC2s. sno$shoes. &or training planning. are not $idely accepted for use in all areas because of the scars they leave on the rock and the environment. this method can $ork $ell for light(load installations as in anchoring a hand line for a stream crossing. Dea&man A 6deadman6 anchor is any solid object buried in the ground and used as an anchor. he"centrics. An object that has a large surface area and some length to it $orks best. such as skis. and the load to be placed on it. such as pitons and bolts. Artificial anchors are available in many different types such as pitons.>sing artificial anchors becomes necessary $hen natural anchors are unavailable.:: years. e#uipment. .

his helps ensure the depth of the crack is ade#uate for the siAe piton selected. attach the piton to a sling $ith a carabiner %an old carabiner should be used. c. the distinct sound created $hen hammering pitons is a tactical disadvantage.* >sually a properly siAed piton for a rock crack $ill fit one half to t$o thirds into the crack before being driven $ith the piton hammer. -itons leave noticeable scars on the rock. clear the loose rock. !hen this type of rock must be used. 2ue to the e"pansion force of emplacing a piton. %0* !hile it is being driven. the rock could spread apart or break causing an unsafe condition. +ome disadvantages in using pitons are: • • • • • 2uring military operations.0 sho$s e"amples of piton placement.* est the rock for soundness by tapping $ith the hammer. practiced. as $ith any artificial anchor. -itons are less comple" than other types of artificial anchors. and debris from the crack before driving the piton completely in. pitons can support multiple directions of pull. he proper positioning or placement of pitons is critical. +ome advantages in using pitons are: • • • 2epending on type and placement. 7&2antages. -itons $ork $ell in thin cracks $here other types of artificial anchors do not. As pitons are driven into the rock the pitch or sound that is made $ill change $ith each hammer blo$. should be studied. %. and tested $hile both feet are firmly on the ground and there is no danger of a fall. a. Disa&2antages. -itons are more difficult to remove than other types of artificial anchors. 9iton 9!acement. -itons are easily dropped if not tied off $hen being used. %&igure 7(. if available* so that if the piton is knocked . b. becoming higher pitched as the piton is driven in.3ote4 he proper use and placement of pitons. 2riving pitons in soft or rotten rock is not recommended. dirt.

. he piton should not spread the rock.. he holding po$er depends on the climber placing the piton in a sound crack. it should be tied off using a hero( loop %an endless piece of $ebbing* %&igure 7(. it $ill not be lost. $Bamp!es o# piton p!acements. %1* Cilitary mountaineers should practice emplacing pitons using either hand. he greater the resistance overcome $hile driving the piton. because the piton is too long. Clip a carabiner into the loop. +ometimes a piton cannot be driven completely into a crack. thereby loosening the emplacement.1*. herefore. Attach this loop to the piton using a girth hitch at the point $here the piton enters the rock so that the girth hitch is snug against the rock.out of the crack. and on the type of rock. 3ote4 -itons that have rings as attachment points might not display much change in sound as they are driven in as long as the ring moves freely. Figure 5-). the firmer the anchor $ill be.

ap the piton to determine if the pitch has changed. upon driving it. . o test pitons pull up about . -ero-!oop.K0 meter from the carabiner.epeat these actions as many times as necessary. . Insert this rope into a carabiner attached to the piton. do$n$ard. to each side. drive it into another place. then grasp the rope at least . ry to be in a secure position before testing. Eerk vigorously up$ard. . Testing. -ulling out on the attached carabiner eventually removes the piton %&igure 7(. there is any #uestion of its soundness. and then out$ard $hile observing the piton for movement.Figure 5-)1. e.emo2ing 9itons. as in most free and direct(aid climbing situations. meter of slack in the climbing rope or use a sling. concentrate the test in the direction that force $ill be applied to the anchor. If the sound regains its original pitch. If the pitch has changed greatly. his procedure is intended for use in testing an omni(directional anchor %one that $ithstands a pull in any direction*. !hen a directional anchor %pull in one direction* is used. the emplacement is probably safe.'*. d. drive the piton in as far as possible. and $hen using chocks. Attach a carabiner and sling to the piton before removal to eliminate the chance of dropping and losing it. If the piton sho$s any sign of moving or if. ap the piton firmly along the a"is of the crack in $hich it is located. Alternate tapping from both sides $hile applying steady pressure.

having fallen and $edged in a crack. he advantages of using chocks are: • • • • • • actically #uiet installation and recovery. he skilled climber must understand the application of mechanical advantage. vectors. removed. provides an e"cellent anchor point. but they must be checked for strength. Also. <efore use. a. 9iton remo2a!. +ometimes these chockstones are in unstable positions. Disa&2antages. Chocks Chock craft has been in use for many decades. Bight to carry. f. but can be made into e"cellent anchors $ith little adjustment. test them as described above and drive them again until certain of their soundness. but comple" in practice. are reusable. pitons already in place should not be trusted since $eather loosens them in time.asy to insert and remove. unless severely damaged. and other forces that affect the belay chain in a fall. Chock craft is an art that re#uires time and techni#ue to master—simple in theory. >sually easy to retrieve and. b. +ometimes can be placed $here pitons cannot %e"panding rock flakes $here pitons $ould further $eaken the rock*. they may have been driven poorly the first time. Imagination and resourcefulness are key principles to chock craft. . and straightened may be reused.eusing 9itons. +oft iron pitons that have been used. he disadvantages of using chocks are: . .Figure 5-)4. In training areas. A natural chockstone. 7&2antages. Cinimal rock scarring as opposed to pitons.

.7*. or $ebbing may be needed to e"tend the length of the runner. then select a chock to fit it. Avoid poor protection. choose one that has as much surface area as possible in contact $ith the rock. Chock p!acements. +ome cracks may have loose rock. $hich may accept pitons. Book for a constriction point in the crack. grass. %. Chocks are usually good for a single direction of pull. cord. if possible. and set the chock by jerking do$n on the chock loop %&igure 7(. A chock resting on one small crystal or point of rock is likely to be unsafe. %0* !hen selecting a chock. and dirt. Dften provide only one direction of pull. Figure 5-)5.nsure that the chock has a $ire or runner long enough@ e"tra ropes.* Avoid cracks that have crumbly %soft* or deteriorating rock. c. %1* . $hich should be removed before placing the chock. he principles of placing chocks are to find a crack $ith a constriction at some point. A carabiner often provides enough $eight . A chock that sticks partly out of the crack is avoided. 9!acement.• • • Cay not fit in thin cracks.nd $eighting of the placement helps to keep the protection in position. -ractice and e"perience necessary to become proficient in proper placement. place a chock of appropriate siAe above and behind the constriction. Ca"imum surface contact $ith a tight fit is critical.

Chocks designed to be used in this situation rely on camming principles to remain emplaced. It can usually be placed #uickly and retrieved easily %&igure 7(. since it can be emplaced $ith one hand. d. +ome chock placements fail in one or more directions@ therefore.mplace the $edge(shaped chock above and behind the constriction@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. It is $ell suited in a$k$ard positions and difficult placements. . A chock that falls out $hen the climber moves past it is unsafe and offers no protection. o test it.)*. Testing. then rotate it to the attitude it $ill assume under load@ seat it $ith a sharp do$n$ard tug. !eighting the emplacement $ith e"tra hard$are is often necessary to keep the chocks from dropping out. firmly pull the chock in every anticipated direction of pull. %a* . Spring-8oa&e& Camming De2ice he +BC2 offers #uick and easy placement of artificial protection. test it to ensure it remains in place. After seating a chock. use pairs of chocks in opposition. %b* -lace a camming chock $ith its narro$ side into the crack.%'* -arallel(sided cracks $ithout constrictions are a problem.

S8CD p!acements. o emplace an +BC2 hold the device in either hand like a syringe. he +BC2 holds $ell in parallel(sided hand( and fist(siAed cracks. place the device into a crack. $ithout the danger of the shaft snapping off in a fall. since it may be impossible to reach the e"tractor bar for removal. it may rotate and pull out. pull the retractor bar back. Careful study of the crack should be made before selecting the device for emplacement. An +BC2 should be e"tended $ith a runner and placed so that the direction of pull is parallel to the shaft@ other$ise. %o!ts . +maller variations are available for finger(siAed cracks. It should not be placed any deeper than is needed for secure placement.Figure 5-)6. It should be placed so that it is aligned in the direction of force applied to it. he versions that have a semi(rigid $ire cable shaft allo$ for greater fle"ibility and usage. and release the retractor bar. b. a.

the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill $ith a masonry bit for drilling holes. <olts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. +ome versions are available in $hich the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock %self(drilling*. =ail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail $ith a hammer to e"pand the sleeve against the $all of the drilled hole. A hanger %carrier* and nut are placed on the bolt. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or 6improve6 it. $hich bores the hole. and runners. and should be tested $ith a hammer. +urgical tubing is useful in blo$ing dust out of the holes. +afety glasses should al$ays be $orn $hen emplacing bolts. /o$ever. .4*. since this permanently $eakens it. he rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling. . or cracking. !hen using bolts. <olts should be used $ith carriers.lectric or even gas(po$ered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. c. . and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. their siAe and $eight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route. carabiners.mplacing a bolt $ith a hammer and a hand drill is a time( consuming and difficult process that re#uires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt.<olts are often used in fi"ed(rope installations and in aid climbing $here cracks are not available. flaking. b. +plit bolts and e"panding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers %&igure 7(. a. his normally takes more than 0: minutes for one hole.

A pre(e#ualiAed anchor distributes the load e#ually to each individual point %&igure 7(. It is aimed in the direction of the load. the anchor $ill e"tend and shock(load the remaining points or even cause complete anchor failure. Se!#-equa!i@ing 7nchor. a. $qua!i@ing 7nchors .Figure 5-)7. An anchor is pre(e#ualiAed by tying an overhand or figure( eight knot in the $ebbing or sling. .5*. 9re-equa!i@e& 7nchor. Se!#-equa!i@ing anchors. %o!t +ith eBpan&ing s!ee2e. A pre( e#ualiAed anchor prevents e"tension and shock(loading of the anchor if an individual point fails. but also adds redundancy or backup because of the multiple points.8*. A self(e#ualiAing anchor should only be used $hen necessary because if any one of the individual points fail. his not only provides greater anchor strength.#ualiAing anchors are made up of more than one anchor point joined together so that the intended load is shared e#ually. A self(e#ualiAing anchor $ill maintain an e#ual load on each individual point as the direction of pull changes %&igure 7(. Figure 5-)". his is sometimes used in rappelling $hen the route must change left or right in the middle of the rappel. b.

Figure 5-)'. 7t can leave the climbing party totally e)posed to weather. therefore. 4oc0 climbing can be time consuming. and the enemy for the length of the climb. Climbing relatively short sections of steep roc0 $one or two pitches% may prove &uic0er and safer than using alternate routes. might be wea0ly defended or not defended at all. the angles of the $ebbing or slings directly affect the load placed on an anchor. An angle greater than 8: degrees can result in anchor failure %&igure 7(0:*. 3ote4 !hen using $ebbing or slings. 9re-equa!i@e& anchor. A steep roc0 route would normally be considered an unli0ely avenue of approach and. C!im ing A steep roc0 face is a terrain feature that can be avoided most of the time through prior planning and good route selection. terrain hazards. especially for a larger unit with a heavy combat load. All personnel in a unit preparing for deployment to mountainous terrain should be . Sometimes steep roc0 cannot be avoided.

C!im ing Fun&amenta!s A variety of refined techni#ues are used to climb different types of rock formations. .oute Se!ection he e"perienced climber has learned to climb $ith the 6eyes. ledges.*. he mentally climbs the route. or 6lines. 4oc0 climbing has evolved into a specialized 8sport8 with a wide range of varying techni&ues and styles.ven before getting on the rock. $##ects o# ang!es on an anchor. +orward observers. rehearsing the step(by(step se#uence of movements that $ill be re#uired to do the climb. he foundation for all of these styles is the art of climbing. taking note of any larger ledges or benches for resting places. ensuring himself that the route has an ade#uate number of holds and the difficulty of the climb $ill be $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. . reconnaissance personnel. nubbins. Climbing techni#ue stresses climbing $ith the $eight centered over the feet. It can be thought of as a combination of the balanced movement re#uired to $alk a tightrope and the techni#ue used to ascend a ladder. 'hese personnel will have the !ob of pic0ing and 8fi)ing8 the route for the rest of the unit. and other irregularities in the rock that $ill be used for footholds and handholds. using the hands primarily for balance. =o mountaineering e#uipment is re#uired@ ho$ever.trained in the basics of climbing. Select personnel demonstrating the highest degree of s0ill and e)perience should be trained in roped climbing techni&ues. H H H H H Clim(ing )undamentals *se o' Holds &oped Clim(ing +ela" Techniques Clim(ing Commands H &oped Clim(ing Methods Figure 5-.6 to the top looking for cracks. !hen picking the line. the climber studies all possible routes.6 . the climbing techni#ue is also used in roped climbing. and security teams are a few e)amples of small units who may re&uire roc0 climbing s0ills to gain their vantage points in mountainous terrain. 'his chapter focuses on the basics most applicable to military operations.

/o$ever. !atches and bracelets can interfere $ith hand placements and may become damaged if $orn $hile climbing. $hich could cause injuries during a slip or fall. <eyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. Spotting +potting is a techni#ue used to add a level of safety to climbing $ithout a rope. but $ill provide a minimal amount of protection if a climber comes in contact $ith the rock during climbing. allo$ing e individual to increase the length and difficulty of the climb under the protection of the climbing rope. -ersonnel not climbing can act as 6otters6 for those climbing. falls from climbers above. If the soles are $et or damp. climbing skill and e"perience can only be developed by increasing the length and difficulty of routes as training progresses. In later lessons. to the ground on lo$er(angled rock $ith plenty of holds for the hands and feet. a 6top(rope6 belay can be used for safety.ings can become caught on rock facial features and or lodged into cracks. he has climbed DD /I9/ for his o$n safety. C7ET=63 . Cost climbing helmets are not designed to provide protection from impact to the head if the $earer falls. A second man stands belo$ and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps %spots* the climber to land safely if he should fall.Terrain Se!ection #or Training . 9reparation In preparation for climbing. the boot soles should be dry and clean. dry rock. In the training environment. /elmets should be $orn to protect the head from injury if an object.oute selection for military climbing involves picking the easiest and #uickest possible line for all personnel to follo$. A small stick can be used to clean out dirt and small rocks that might be caught bet$een the lugs of the boot sole. beginning lessons in climbing should be performed CBD+. such as a rock or climbing gear. he duties of the spotter are to help prevent the . dry them off by stomping and rubbing the soles on clean. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter%s*. +potting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. All je$elry should be removed from the fingers.

help the climber land feet first. If the spotter pushes the falling climber into the rock. sho$s a correct climbing stance. <ent legs and tense muscles tire #uickly. Ankle joints could be t$isted by the fall if the climberUs foot remained high on the rock. %&igure )(. left hand. his techni#ue reduces e"cess force on the limbs. $eight shift. he basic principle to achieve smooth climbing is to move only one of the five body parts at a time. resulting in a loss of friction bet$een the boot sole and rock surface. C!im ing Technique Climbing involves linking together a series of movements based on foot and hand placement. and body %trunk*. a smooth climbing techni#ue results. or moving on to a more . a. a$ay from the rock. Beaning in to$ards the rock $ill cause the feet to push out$ard. Fi2e %o&y 9arts. lo$ering the heel. he legs are straight and the heels are kept lo$ to reduce fatigue. right foot. &ollo$ing this simple techni#ue forces both legs to do all the lifting simultaneously. and &igure )(0 sho$s an incorrect stance. Stance or %o&y 9osition. kno$n as 6. comfortable stance is essential. and reduce the impact of a fall. <ody position is probably the single most important element to good techni#ue. his vibration. C7ET=63 he spotter should not catch the climber against the rock because additional injuries could result. !hen this series of movements is combined correctly. If strained for too long.* he body should be in a near vertical or erect stance $ith the $eight centered over the feet. b. he spotter might be re#uired to fully support the $eight of the climber causing injury to the spotter. tense muscles may vibrate uncontrollably. and so on. helping to minimiAe fatigue. A rela"ed. he trunk is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot or in conjunction $ith a hand.falling climber from impacting the head and or spine.lvis(ing6 or 6se$ing(machine leg6 can be cured by straightening the leg. a hand is not moved in conjunction $ith a foot. deep abrasions of the skin or knee may occur. left foot. and movement. he five body parts used for climbing are the right hand. he basic principle is based on the five body parts described here.

he hands are used to maintain balance. three points of contact are maintained $ith the rock. ?eeping the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level $ill reduce arm fatigue. %. Figure 6-). the hips and shoulders should be .. =ncorrect stance-stretche& out. Figure 6-. -roper positioning of the hips and shoulders is critical. !hen using t$o footholds and one handhold.a!ance& o2er oth #eet. Correct c!im ing stance.restful position.* !henever possible.

D=. allo$ing the 6free6 foot to maneuver. he basic steps are $eight. creating more stress. the body is resting on one foot $ith t$o handholds for balance. It should be avoided in the rest position as it places more $eight on the arms and hands. his is normally done on #uick. %A typical climbing se#uence is sho$n in &igure )(1. intermediate holds. or body*. Dn lo$(angle slopes. In most cases. hese are the basic steps to follo$ for a smooth climbing techni#ue. -erforming these steps in this e"act order $ill not al$ays be necessary because the nature of the route $ill dictate the availability of hand and foot placements. and movement %movement being either the foot. $hen footholds are small. the arms should be kept straight to reduce fatigue. fle"ed muscles tire #uickly. and is called a high step* he trunk does not move during foot movement. $ith no effect on body position or balance %higher placement $ill result in a potentially higher lift for the legs to make. the hips are moved back to increase friction bet$een the foot and the rock. . c. hand. the hips are moved out a$ay from the rock to keep the body in balance $ith the $eight over the feet. Bift the un$eighted foot and place it in a ne$ location. shift. !hen $eight must be placed on handholds. as the climbing progresses. the hips are pushed closer to the rock.: + . he shoulders can be moved closer to the rock to reach handholds. he hips and shoulders must be centered over the support foot to maintain balance. he steps defined belo$ provide a complete se#uence of events to move the entire body on the rock.* + .!D: +hift the $eight from both feet to one foot. his $ill allo$ lifting of one foot $ith no effect on the stance. Again. %0* he angle or steepness of the rock also determines ho$ far a$ay from the rock the hips and shoulders should be. C!im ing Sequence. he body is still in balance over the feet and the eyes can see $here the hands need to go. $ithin one to t$o feet of the starting position. +ometimes.centered over both feet. he shoulders are moved a$ay from the rock by arching the back. Dn steep rock.

./. &ollo$ing these steps $ill prevent lifting $ith the hands and arms. /and movements can be delayed until numerous foot movements have been made.. but may allo$ a better choice for the ne"t hand movements because the reach $ill have increased.: + .+IL: =o$ the entire body is in a ne$ position and ready to start the process again.+ .epeat steps . Cove one hand to a ne$ position bet$een $aist and head height. %.: +hift the $eight onto both feet. $hich are used to maintain stance and balance.&D>. Cove the remaining hand as in +tep 7.. through 1 for remaining foot. + .&IV. $hich not only creates shorter lifts $ith the legs. If both legs are bent. the trunk should be completely balanced in position and the removed hand should have no effect on stability.* Bift the body into a ne$ stance $ith both legs.: + . 2uring this movement. leg e"tension can be performed as soon as one foot has been moved.

Figure 6-1. Typica! c!im ing sequence. .

. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0.Figure 6-1.

because the legs are much stronger. even painful.Figure 6-1. %0* !hen the angle of the rock increases. Typica! c!im ing sequence /continue&0. these movements become more critical. his type of lifting is inefficient. %. these bony portions of the limbs offer little friction and 6feel6 on the rock. he same techni#ue applies even at those angles. %1* he climber should avoid moving on the knees and elbo$s. -roper climbing techni#ue is lifting the body $ith the legs. re#uiring one leg to perform the $ork of t$o or using the arms to lift the body. usually resulting in lifting the body $ith one leg or one leg and both arms. not the arms. Dther than being uncomfortable. to rest on. Sa#ety 9recautions .* Cany climbers $ill move more than one body part at a time. Cany climbing routes have angles greater than ninety degrees %overhanging* and the arms are used to support partial body $eight. /olding or pulling the body into the rock $ith the arms and hands may be necessary as the angle increases %this is still not lifting $ith the arms*.

!hen climbing close to the ground and $ithout a rope.DC?6 to alert climbers belo$. tossing it do$n. personnel should seek immediate cover behind any rock bulges or overhangs available. +hould a rock become loose accidentally. c. although heavier cotton or leather $ork gloves are often used for belaying. d. !hen personnel must climb at the same time. C7ET=63 9rasping at the rock in a fall can result in serious injuries to the upper body. Avoid climbing directly above or belo$ other climbers %$ith the e"ception of spotters*. do not do it.he follo$ing safety precautions should be observed $hen rock climbing. If the rock $ill endanger your second. he should do his utmost to maintain control and not panic. he may be able to arrest his o$n fall by staying in contact $ith the rock. e. If conducting a roped climb. he use of gloves in the training environment is especially discouraged. >pon hearing the $arning. $hile their use in the mountains is often mandatory $hen it is cold. =ever dislodge loose rocks carelessly. grasping for any possible hold available. it may be possible to remove it from the route and trundle it. immediately shout the $arning 6. Avoid climbing $ith gloves on because of the decreased 6feel6 for the rock. /e should shout the $arning 6&ABBI=96 to alert personnel belo$. a spotter can be used for safety. If on a lo$(angle climb. he duties of the spotter are to ensure the falling climber does not impact the head or spine. b. and to reduce the impact of a fall. his is e"tremely dangerous to climbers belo$ and should not be attempted unless you are absolutely sure no men are belo$. follo$ing the same line. or flatten themselves against the rock to minimiAe e"posure. +hould a climber fall. you may encounter precariously perched rocks. If you are not sure that the flight path is clear. let the rope provide protection. . a. a fi"ed rope should be installed. A thin polypropylene or $ool glove is best for rock climbing. !hile ascending a seldom or never traveled route.

the climberUs ability is reduced and routes are selected accordingly. b. he margin of safety is a protective buffer the climber places bet$een himself and potential climbing haAards. or $hen climbing in other adverse $eather conditions. the climber kno$s to use the protection of the climbing rope and belays. a. +ometimes. A lead climber increases his margin of safety by placing protection along the route to limit the length of a potential fall. depending on it. <e e"tremely careful $hen climbing on $et or moss(covered rock@ friction on holds is greatly reduced. he selects a route $ell $ithin the ability of the $eakest member. <e especially careful $hen climbing on $eathered. !hen in doubt. he should grab and tug on the hold to test it for soundness <. !hen leading a group of climbers. !hen the rock is $et. he leader must apply the margin of safety taking into account the strengths and $eaknesses of the entire team or unit. Ese o# -o!&s he climber should check each hold before use. C!im ing (ith The Feet .. !hen the climbing becomes difficult or e"posed. :argin o# Sa#ety <esides observing the standard safety precautions.f. his may simply be a #uick. a hold that appears $eak can actually be solid as long as minimal force is applied to it. but it may serve as an ade#uate handhold. the climber can avoid catastrophe by climbing $ith a $ide margin of safety. Avoid grasping small vegetation for handholds@ the root systems can be shallo$ and $ill usually not support much $eight. visual inspection if he kno$s the rock to be solid.&D. the climber increases his margin of safety by selecting routes that are $ell $ithin the limit of his ability. <oth subjective %personnel(related* and objective %environmental* haAards must be considered $hen applying the margin of safety. sedimentary(type rock. !hen climbing. or the force is applied in a direction that strengthens it. g. A loose nubbin might not be strong enough to support the climberUs $eight.

emember to keep the heels lo$ to reduce strain on the lo$er leg muscles. most individuals $ill rely heavily on the arms. he foot remains on the rock as a result of friction. as in mountain $alking. is usually the result of poor foot$ork. b. placing only part of the foot on the hold may allo$ the climber to achieve a balanced stance. he principle of using full sole contact. he climber may not be able to achieve a balanced position if the foot is stuck too far underneath a bulge in the rock. ry to keep the hands lo$ and train your eyes to look do$n for footholds. the entire foot cannot be used. also applies in climbing. %. the leg muscles can rela" the most $hen the entire foot is placed on the rock. . he key is to use as much of the boot sole as possible. %&igure )(' sho$s e"amples of ma"imum and minimum sole contact. he follo$ing describes a fe$ $ays the foot can be positioned on the rock to ma"imiAe friction. forgetting to use the feet properly. easy or difficult. like bucket holds that e"tend deep into the rock.ven the smallest irregularity in the rock can support the climber once the foot is positioned properly and $eight is committed to it. lo$(angled rock %slab* and rock containing large 6bucket6 holds and ledges are typical formations $here the entire boot sole should be used. . even the most strenuous techni#ues re#uire good foot$ork and a #uick return to a balanced position over one or both feet.6Climb $ith the feet and use the hands for balance6 is e"tremely important to remember. he beginning climber $ill have a natural tendency to look up for handholds. a. Also. Ca"imum friction is obtained from a correct stance over a properly positioned foot. In this case.* Maximum Sole Contact. In the early learning stages of climbing. Ca"imum friction is obtained by placing as much of the boot sole on the rock as possible. . &ailure to climb any route.* %a* +mooth. %b* Dn some large holds. It is true that solid handholds and a firm grip are needed in some combination techni#ues@ ho$ever.

emember to keep the heel lo$ to reduce fatigue. he edging techni#ue is used $here horiAontal crack systems and other irregularities in the rock form small. $ell(defined ledges. may be used. or toe. Curling and stiffening the toes in the boot increases support on the hold.* %a* Dn smaller holds.Figure 6-4. %&igure )(7 sho$s e"amples of the edging techni#ue. the inside edge of the boot or the edge area around the toes is used. . $Bamp!es o# maBimum an& minimum so!e contact. . %0* Edging. he edge of the boot sole is placed on the ledge for the foothold. using the strength of the big toe and the ball of the foot. turn the foot side$ays and use the entire inside edge of the boot. >sually. >se of the toe is most tiring because the heel is off the rock and the toes support the climberUs $eight. !henever possible. edging $ith the front of the boot. Again. A stronger position is usually obtained on small ledges by turning the foot at about a '7( degree angle. more sole contact e#uals more friction and the legs can rest more $hen the heel is on the rock.

!hen footholds are too small to use a good edging techni#ue. %b* +ometimes fle"ing the ankles and knees slightly $ill place the climberUs $eight more directly over the ball of the foot and increase friction@ ho$ever. do$n(sloping ledges and lo$(angled slab rock often re#uire good smearing techni#ue. ?eeping the heel lo$ $ill not only reduce muscle strain. %1* Smearing.ffective smearing re#uires ma"imum friction bet$een the foot and the rock. edging ability on smaller holds $ill be some$hat limited. intermediate holds. . the better the edging capability.ffective edging on small ledges re#uires stiff(soled foot$ear.* %a* . the ball of the foot can be 6smeared6 over the hold. . he stiffer the sole. Figure 6-5. . he leg should be kept straight $henever possible. %&igure )() sho$s e"amples of the smearing techni#ue. he smearing techni#ue re#uires the boot to adhere to the rock by deformation of the sole and by friction.ounded. this is more tiring and should only be used for #uick.ock climbing shoes are specifically designed to ma"imiAe friction for smearing@ some athletic shoes also $ork $ell.%b* . ypical mountain boots $orn by the >+ military have a relatively fle"ible lugged sole and. $ith its softer sole. Cover as much of the hold as possible $ith the ball of the foot. he Army mountain boot. but $ill increase the amount of surface contact bet$een the foot and the rock. $Bamp!es o# e&ging technique. therefore. usually $orks better for smearing than for edging.

or the entire foot can be used. such as edges. depending on the siAe of the crack. like a camming device. It can be inserted above a constriction and set into the narro$ portion. Aside from these t$o basic ideas.* %a* he foot can be jammed in a crack in different $ays. and so on. Cany cracks $ill have facial features.Figure 6-6. arms. Eamming holds can be used in a crack $hile other handKfoot holds are used on the face of the rock. he foot is set into a crack in such a $ay that it 6jams6 into place. especially if a stiffer sole boot is used. +ome positions are more tiring. resisting a do$n$ard pull. he jamming techni#ue is a specialiAed skill used to climb vertical or near vertical cracks $hen no other holds are available on the rock face. he jamming techni#ue $orks on the same principal as chock placement. inside and $ithin reach. even the entire leg or body are all used in the jamming techni#ue. and even more painful on the foot. until it locks in place tight enough to support the climberUs $eight. the possibilities are endless. pockets. ry to use as much of the foot as possible for ma"imum surface contact. restful position. ball of the foot. Al$ays look or feel for easier to use features. %'* Jamming. . he techni#ue is not limited to just $edging the feet@ fingers. or it can be placed in the crack and turned. %b* +ome foot jams may be difficult to remove once $eight has been committed to them. than others. $Bamp!es o# the smearing technique. hands. -ractice jamming the foot in various $ays to see $hat offers the most secure. Eam holds are described in this te"t to broaden the range of climbing skills. he toes. %&igure )(4 sho$s e"amples of jamming.

Dn lo$er(angled rock. . he continually repositions his hands and arms to keep the body in balance. he $ill be able to push directly do$n on a large hold $ith the palm of the hand.he foot is less likely to get stuck $hen it is t$isted or 6cammed6 into position. !hen removing the boot from a crack. the climber has less tendency to 6hang6 on his arms $hen the handholds are at shoulder level and belo$. $Bamp!es o# >amming. $ith the $eight centered over the feet. As the individual climbs. reverse the $ay it $as placed to prevent further constriction. he may simply need to place the hands up against the rock and e"tend the arm to maintain balance@ just like using an ice a" as a third point of contact in mountain $alking. Core often though. Esing the -an&s he hands can be placed on the rock in many $ays."actly ho$ and $here to position the hands and arms depends on $hat holds are available. +ometimes. +econdly. and $hat configuration $ill best support the current stance as $ell as the movement to the ne"t stance. Circulation in the arms and hands is best $hen the arms are kept lo$. our body $eight is on our legs. Dur hands grip. he $ill need to 6grip6 the rock in some fashion and then push or pull against the hold to maintain balance. a. b. As stated earlier. +electing handholds bet$een $aist and shoulder level helps in different $ays. <oth of these contribute to a rela"ed stance and reduce fatigue in the hands and arms. the beginner $ill undoubtedly place too much $eight on the hands and arms. Figure 6-7. If $e think of ourselves climbing a ladder. and our arms pull on each rung only enough to maintain .

-ushing in opposite directions and 6push(pull6 combinations are e"cellent techni#ues. Dn smaller holds. as the siAe and availability of holds decreases. Ideally. -ush holds often $ork best $hen used in combination $ith other holds. he hold may improve or $eaken during the movement. %&igure )(5 sho$s e"amples of push holds. he follo$ing describes some of the basic handholds and ho$ the hand can be positioned to ma"imiAe grip on smaller holds. or 6pinching. the side of the palm. and $orks $ell@ ho$ever. the fingers. he key is to move #uickly from the smaller. Cost often a climber $ill use a push hold by applying 6do$n$ard pressure6 on a ledge or nubbin. +ometimes the strength of the hold can be increased by s#ueeAing. . +ome holds may not feel secure $hen the hand is initially placed on them. the climber should not limit his use of push holds to the application of do$n pressure. he key is to try and select a hold that $ill improve as the climber moves past it.6 the rock bet$een the thumb and fingers %see paragraph on pinch holds*.* %a* An effective push hold does not necessarily re#uire the use of the entire hand. the grip must be stronger and more $eight might be placed on the arms and handholds for brief moments. %. -ushing side$ays. %b* Cost push holds do not re#uire much grip@ ho$ever. Df course. even up$ard on less obvious holds can prove #uite secure.our balance and footing on the ladder. and on occasion. his is fine. -ush holds rely on the friction created $hen the hand is pushed against the rock.* Push olds. this is the amount of grip and pull that should be used in climbing. or the thumb may be all that is needed to support the stance. and the steepness of the rock approaches the vertical. intermediate holds to the larger holds $here the $eight can be placed back on the feet allo$ing the hands and arms to rela". friction might be increased by taking advantage of any rough surfaces or irregularities in the rock.

making use of intermediate holds instead of reaching for those above the head. creating an unbalanced stance. hese are the holds the climber has a tendency to hang from. Avoid the 6death grip6 syndrome by climbing $ith the feet. also called 6cling holds. <ecause of this increased feeling of security.6 $hich are grasped and pulled upon. or up$ard. %0* Pull olds. -ull holds. Again.* %a* Bike push holds. therefore. $Bamp!es o# push ho!&s. Cost pull holds do not re#uire great strength. just good techni#ue. pull holds are often over$orked. side$ays. . 9rip plays more of a role in a pull hold.Figure 6-".emember to try and keep the hands bet$een $aist and shoulder level. %&igure )(8 sho$s e"amples of pull holds. . it normally feels more secure to the climber than a push hold. pressure on a pull hold can be applied straight do$n. and. are probably the most $idely used holds in climbing. these are the holds the climber tends to stretch and reach for.

the grip is stronger $hen the fingers are closed together@ ho$ever. Figure 6-'. forcing the palm of the hand to push against the rock. $Bamp!es o# pu!! ho!&s. %c* &riction and strength of a pull hold can be increased by the $ay the hand grips the rock. $ith the hands pulling in opposite directions. in opposition to the pull by the fingers. he thumb can often push against one side of the crack. grip can often be improved by bending the fingers up$ard. Dn small holds. sometimes more friction is obtained by spreading the fingers apart and placing them bet$een irregularities on the rock surface.%b* -ulling side$ays on vertical cracks can be very secure. he number of possible combinations is limited only by the imagination and e"perience of the climber. =ormally. <oth hands can also be placed in the same crack. creating a stronger hold. his helps to hold the finger tips in . here is less tendency to hang from 6side(clings6 and the hands naturally remain lo$er.

?eeping the forearm up against the rock also allo$s the arm and hand muscles to rela" more. prolonged jamming techni#ue re#uiring hand taping should be avoided. Cotton tape can be used to protect the fingertips. his hand configuration. kno$n as a 6ring grip. he pinch hold can also be used as a gripping techni#ue for push holds and pull holds. &riction is applied by increasing the grip on the rock. +ometimes a small nubbin or protrusion in the rock can be 6s#ueeAed6 bet$een the thumb and fingers. and the back of the hand@ ho$ever. his techni#ue is called a pinch hold. ape also adds friction . %&igure )(. %'* Jam olds. %d* Another techni#ue that helps to strengthen a cling hold for a do$n$ard pull is to press the thumb against the side of the inde" finger. the fingers and hands can be $edged or cammed into a crack so they resist a do$n$ard or out$ard pull. or place it on top of the inde" finger and press do$n. $Bamp!es o# pinch ho!&s. -inch holds are often overlooked by the novice climber because they feel insecure at first and cannot be relied upon to support much body $eight. the pinch hold $ill $ork $ell in providing balance. Bike foot jams.place and reduces muscle strain in the hand. If the climber has his $eight over his feet properly. knuckles. %1* Pinch olds.* Figure 6-)*.: sho$s e"amples of pinch holds. Eamming $ith the fingers and hands can be painful and may cause minor cuts and abrasions to tender skin.6 $orks $ell on smaller holds.

. leg. the principle is the same as for fingers. %&igure )(. he hand is then clenched as much as possible. and fle"ed to fit the crack. In vertical cracks it is best to insert the fingers $ith the thumb pointing do$n to make use of the natural camming action of the fingers that occurs $hen the arm is t$isted to$ards a normal position. you may place your entire arm inside the crack $ith the arm folded and the palm pointing out$ard. &riction can be created by applying cross pressure bet$een the fingers and the back of the hand. /o$ever.to the hand in jammed position. or body into an off $idth. and the most secure hand jam in vertical cracks. . and body jams. he thumb is usually kept outside the crack in finger jams and pressed against the rock to increase friction or create cross pressure. or 6off $idths.6 re#uiring the use of arm.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect larger cracks and openings. Another techni#ue for vertical cracks is to place the hand in the crack $ith the thumb pointed either up or do$n. >se as many fingers as the crack $ill allo$.. he fingers can sometimes be stacked in some configuration to increase friction. +ometimes an open hand can be inserted and $edged into a narro$er portion of the crack. sho$s e"amples of jam holds. o jam or cam an arm. only the fingers $ill fit. sometimes a narro$er section may be deeper in the crack allo$ing the use of 6normal6 siAe protection.* %a* he hand can be placed in a crack a number of $ays. hands. or feet(you are making the jammed appendage 6fatter6 by folding or t$isting it inside the crack. %c* Eamming techni#ue for large cracks. his combination of clenching and camming usually produces the most friction. &or off $idths. %b* In smaller cracks. is another techni#ue. from the calf to the thigh. he leg can be used. leg. Dther times a clenched fist $ill provide the necessary grip. it $ill t$ist the hand and tend to cam it into place. !hen the arm is straightened.

and body in relation to the holds available@ ho$ever. he should al$ays strive to climb $ith his $eight on his feet from a balanced stance. feet. Com ination Techniques he positions and holds previously discussed are the basics and the ones most common to climbing. he $ill learn more $ays to position the hands.Figure 6-)). numerous combination techni#ues are possible. &rom these fundamentals. As the climber gains e"perience. $Bamp!es o# >am ho!&s. .

a. $hich might put the climber in an a$k$ard position. Cost $ill place more $eight on the hands and arms than is desirable. he change step. o make the move. or hop step. mantling begins $ith pull holds. Cany of these type problems re#uire the hands and feet to $ork in opposition to one another. the only alternative is to figure out some combination techni#ue that $ill $ork. he climber pulls himself up until his head is above the hands. /e often does this $ith a #uick 6hop. $ithout lunging or groping for holds. Combination possibilities are endless. the climber may come upon a section of the rock that defies the basic principles of climbing. or other body parts tire. his is not a problem and is done #uite fre#uently by e"perienced climbers. +ometimes. +till. It is commonly used $hen traversing to avoid crossing the feet.otating . he key to using these type of combination techni#ues is to plan and e"ecute them deliberately. usually 6hooking6 both hands over the ledge.0 sho$s the mantling se#uence.* %a* !hen the ledge is above head height. $here the pull holds become push holds. most of these maneuvers re#uire good techni#ue more than great strength. It does re#uire a ledge %mantle* or projection in the rock that the climber can press straight do$n upon. t$o solid handholds should be used.* Change Step. the climber may have to 6break the rules6 momentarily. ?eeping the forearms against the rock during the maneuver takes some of the strain off the hands. b. Cantling is a techni#ue that can be used $hen the distance bet$een the holds increases and there are no immediate places to move the hands or feet. +hort of turning back.6 replacing the lead foot $ith the trail foot on the same hold. and some $ill put the climber in an 6out of balance6 position. arms. though a certain degree of hand and arm strength certainly helps. /e elevates himself until the arms are straight and he can lock the elbo$s to rela" the muscles. %. he climber simply places his $eight on his handholds $hile he repositions the feet. %&igure )(. even on an easy route. yet #uickly. . before the hands. $hile at the same time strengthening the grip on the holds. o prevent an off balance situation. can be used $hen the climber needs to change position of the feet. %0* Mantling. he follo$ing is a brief description of some of the more common techni#ues.

$eight can be taken off the arms and the climber can grasp the holds that $ere previously out of reach. Dnce balanced over the foot. %b* -ure mantling uses arm strength to raise the body@ ho$ever. Dnce the arms are locked. the climber can often smear the balls of the feet against the rock and 6$alk6 the feet up during the maneuver to take some of the $eight off the arms. a foot can be raised and placed on the ledge. momentarily. he can stand up on the ledge and plan his ne"t move. on one arm if they keep it straight and locked. +ometimes edges $ill be available for short steps in the process.the hands in$ard during the transition to push holds helps to place the palms more securely on the ledge. most individuals should be able to support their $eight. !ith the foot on the ledge. Cantling can be fairly strenuous@ ho$ever. he climber may have to remove one hand to make room for the foot. .

:ant!ing sequence. It is commonly used in places $here the rock projects out$ard. Increasing this up$ard pull creates a counterforce.. $hich applies more $eight and friction to the footholds. applying an up$ard pull. or body tension.Figure 6-). An 6undercling6 is a classic e"ample of handholds and footholds $orking in opposition %&igure )(. he arms and legs . he hands are placed 6palms(up6 underneath the bulge.1*. %1* !ndercling. forming a bulge or small overhang. also. >nderclings can be used in the tops of buckets.

body tension creates friction bet$een the feet and the hands. more or less. he techni#ue is often used in a vertical or diagonal crack separating t$o rock faces that come together at. If the hands and arms tire out before completing the se#uence.should be kept as straight as possible to reduce fatigue. he climber can often lean back slightly in the undercling position. he feet must be kept relatively high to maintain $eight. the climber $ill . . a right angle %commonly referred to as a dihedral*. Beaning a$ay from the crack on t$o pull holds. he lieback techni#ue can be e"tremely tiring. he crack edge closest to the body is used for handholds $hile the feet are pressed against the other edge. Figure 6-)1. putting the body into an B( shaped position. En&erc!ing. $hichever seems to produce the most friction. creating ma"imum friction bet$een the sole and the rock surface. he 6lieback6 is another good e"ample of the hands $orking in opposition to the feet. enabling him to see above the overhang better and search for the ne"t hold. he climber bends at the $aist. especially $hen the dihedral is near vertical. %'* "ie#ack.ither full sole contact or the smearing techni#ue can be used. %a* he climber ascends a dihedral by alternately shuffling the hands and feet up$ard.

the maneuver is kno$n as stemming. he lieback can be used alternately $ith the jamming techni#ue.7*. !hen the feet $ork in opposition from a relatively $ide stance. or vice versa. he stemming techni#ue can sometimes be used on faces. he arms should be kept straight throughout the entire maneuver so the climberUs $eight is pulling against bones and ligaments. Figure 6-)4. 8ie ack on a #ace. he lieback can sometimes be used as a face maneuver %&igure )(. . a lieback can be avoided $ith closer e"amination of the available face features. %7* Stemming. for variation or to get past a section of a crack $ith difficult or none"istent jam possibilities. Dften. or for a rest position. he legs should be straightened $henever possible. Book for edges or pockets for the feet in the crack or on the face for a better position to place protection from. rather than muscle. %b* -lacing protection in a lieback is especially tiring.'*.likely fall. as $ell as in a dihedral in the absence of solid handholds for the lieback %&igure )(.

he climber ascends the chimney by alternately moving the hands and feet up the crack %&igure )(. full sole contact of the shoes $ill provide the most friction.)*. although smearing may $ork best in some instances. %a* he classic e"ample of stemming is $hen used in combination $ith t$o opposing push holds in $ide. foot apart and just big enough to s#ueeAe the body into. &riction is created by pushing out$ard $ith the hands and feet on each side of the crack. Chimneys are cracks in $hich the $alls are at least . kno$n as chimneys. his techni#ue $ill often feel more secure since there is more body to rock contact. Applying pressure $ith the back and bottom is usually necessary in $ider chimneys. or body as an integral contact point. legs.Figure 6-)5. . parallel cracks. Stemming on a #ace. Chimneys that do not allo$ a full stemming position can be negotiated using the arms. >sually.

.Figure 6-)6. Chimney sequence.

. he feet must be kept relatively high up under the body so the force is directed side$ays against the $alls of the crack. if any holds.outes re#uiring this type of climbing should be avoided as the e#uipment normally used for protection might not be large enough to protect chimneys.4*. lo$(angled rock formation that re#uires a slightly modified climbing techni#ue %&igure )( . A slab is a relatively smooth. +ince slab rock normally contains fe$. face features. he climber must ensure that the crack does not $iden beyond the climbable $idth before committing to the maneuver.Figure 6-)6. /o$ever. Chimney sequence /continue&0. %b* he climber can sometimes rest by placing both feet on the same side of the crack.emember to look for face features inside chimneys for more security in the climb. forcing the body against the opposing $all. %c* . he arms should be straightened $ith the elbo$s locked $henever possible to reduce muscle strain. %)* Sla# Techni$ue. or a much narro$er crack irotection. the techni#ue re#uires ma"imum friction and perfect balance over the feet. .

%a* Dn lo$er(angled slab. Dften. Figure 6-)7. he climber should also take advantage of any rough surfaces. S!a technique. Dn steeper slab. a climber might find himself confronted $ith difficulties part $ay up a route that e"ceed his climbing ability.ven if climbing ropes and related e#uipment are on hand. or the . do$n climbing easier terrain is often #uicker than taking the time to rig a rappel point. %b* he climber must pay attention to any changes in slope angle and adjust his body accordingly. ma"imum friction cannot be attained on steeper slab from an erect stance. $hile keeping the hips over his feet. to increase friction.ven the slightest change in the position of the hips over the feet can mean the difference bet$een a good grip or a #uick slip. . the climber $ill need to apply good smearing techni#ue. the climber may at some point be re#uired to do$n climb a route. or other irregularities in the rock he can place his hands or feet on. %4* %o&n Clim#ing. 2escending steep rock is normally performed using a roped method@ ho$ever. /e may then have to bend at the $aist to place the hands on the rock. the climber can often stand erect and climb using full sole contact and other mountain $alking techni#ues. he climber $ill have to fle" the ankles and knees so his $eight is placed more directly over the balls of the feet. . Also.

abilities of others to follo$. but being better able to use the hands and feet on the holds available. as $ell as to help lo$er the climber to the ne"t foothold. the climber can face out$ard. A bad landing could lead to injured ankles or a fall beyond the . Core $eight is placed on the arms and handholds at times to accomplish this. If the handholds are too high. %b* 2o$n climbing is usually more difficult than ascending a given route. he can often turn side$ays. 2o$n climbing is accomplished at a difficulty level $ell belo$ the ability of the climber. the climber $ill have to face the rock and do$n climb using good climbing techni#ues. still having a good vie$ of the descent route. Dn the steepest terrain. %a* Dn easier terrain. As the steepness and difficulty increase. !hen in doubt. C7ET=63S . he climber must often lean $ell a$ay from the rock to look for holds and plan his movements. do$n climbing is a skill $ell $orth practicing. he may have trouble reaching the ne"t foothold. he climber must be careful not to overe"tend himself. a$ay from the rock.. !hen in doubt. use a roped descent. 2o$n climbing can inadvertently lead into an unforeseen dangerous position on a descent. +ome holds $ill be less visible $hen do$n climbing. /ands should be moved to holds as lo$ as $aist level to give the climber more range of movement $ith each step. enabling him to see the route better and descend #uickly. and slips are more likely to occur. use a roped descent. !hatever the case may be. forcing a release of his handholds before reaching the ne"t foothold. C7ET=63 2o not drop from good handholds to a standing position. 0.

but may be shifted partly onto the hands to increase overall friction. he climber should avoid the tendency to move faster. Allo$ing the buttocks to 6drag behind6 on the rock $ill decrease the actual $eight on the footholds. to maintain perfect balance and $eight distribution over the feet. using the same smearing techni#ue as for ascending. . facing out$ard or side$ays. %c* 2escending slab formations can be especially tricky. $hich can lead to uncontrollable speed. he generally lo$er angle of slab rock may give the climber a false sense of security. and leading to the likelihood of a slip. he climber is able to maintain full sole contact $ith the rock and see the entire descent route. %d* Dn steeper slab. and descend using good flat foot techni#ue. reducing friction. !eight is still concentrated over the feet. Dn lo$er( angle slab the climber may be able to stand more or less erect. and a tendency to move too #uickly. &acing the rock. and do$n(climbing $ith good smearing techni#ue. is usually best on steeper slab.5*.planned landing area. the climber $ill normally face the rock and do$n climb. as in ascending. 2o$n climbing must be slo$ and deliberate. An alternate method for descending slab is to face a$ay from the rock in a 6crab6 position %&igure )(.

and may even lead to strangulation in a severe fall. climbers have developed many different knots and procedures for tying( in to the climbing rope. Cany aspects of roped climbing take time to understand and learn. . is highly unlikely in most instances. All climbers should kno$ ho$ to properly tie the rope around the $aist in case a climbing harness is unavailable. 3ote4 A rope is completely useless for climbing unless the climber kno$s ho$ to use it safely.ope Dver the years. ropes must be used to proceed.opes are normally not used in training until the basic principles of climbing are covered.ope& C!im ing !hen the angle. Tying-=n to the C!im ing . may induce further injuries. .oped climbing is only safe if accomplished correctly. length. +ome of the older methods of tying directly into the rope re#uire minimal e#uipment and are relatively easy to inspect@ ho$ever.eading this manual does not constitute skill $ith ropes(much training and practice is necessary.. $here the climber might fall 0: feet or more and be left dangling on the end of the rope. ying directly into the rope is perfectly safe for many roped party climbs used in training on lo$er(angled rock. A severe fall. . especially for most personnel involved in military climbing. . and difficulty of the proposed climbing route surpasses the ability of the climbersU safety margin %possibly on class ' and usually on class 7 terrain*. they offer little support to the climber.

a. Seat -arness. %. =o assembly is re#uired. $hen used correctly. %'* Cany manufactured seat harnesses $ill have a prese$n loop of $ebbing on the rear. also. %1* If more than t$o men $ill be on the rope. $hich reduces preparation time for roped movement. such as a prese$n harness. It is a #uick attachment point to haul an additional rope. prese$n harnesses provide other aspects that should be considered. he prese$n belay loop adds another link to the chain of possible failure points and only gives one point of security $hereas running the rope through the $aist belt and leg loop connector provides t$o points of contact. All prese$n harnesses provide a range of adjustability. connect the middle position%s* to the rope $ith a carabiner routed the same as stated in the previous paragraph. -rese$n harness are bulky. %0* Although most prese$n seat harnesses have a permanently attached belay loop connecting the $aist belt and the leg loops. 9ear loops se$n into the $aist belt on the sides and in the back are a common feature and are usually strong enough to hold #uite a fe$ carabiners and or protection. he gear loops $ill vary in number from one modelKmanufacturer to another. hese harnesses have a fi"ed buckle that. it is not for a belay anchor. Cany prese$n seat harnesses are available $ith many different #ualities separating them. he more padding the higher the price and the more comfort. reduce the fle"ibility of gear.9rese+n -arnesses Although improvised harnesses are made from readily available materials and take little space in the pack or pocket. the climbing rope should be run around the $aist belt and leg loop connector. . specialiAed e#uipment. /o$ever. $ill not fail before the nylon materials connected to it. Although this loop is much stronger than the gear loops.* he most notable difference $ill be the amount and placement of padding. including cost.

b. especially $hile $earing a heavy pack. than an improvised chest harness. c. his is the safest harness to use as it relocates the tie(in point higher. reducing the chance of an inverted position $hen hanging on the rope. or ease of adjustment. Dne(inch $ebbing . S+ami %e!t. A full(body harness only affects the body position $hen hanging on the rope and $ill not prevent head injury in a fall. %. such as padding. but other$ise provides no additional protection from injury during a fall %if the seat harness is fitted correctly*. usually in the form of a carabiner loop to attach a carabiner and rope to. many methods are still available for attaching oneself to a rope. and this type of harness promotes an upright position only $hen hanging on the rope from the attachment point. %If rappelling or ascending long or multiple pitches. Fu!!-%o&y -arness. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. gear loops. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly. belt(only harness created by $rapping rope or $ebbing around the $aistline and securing the ends. a. Chest -arness. C7ET=63 his type of harness does not prevent the climber from falling head first. he chest harness $ill provide an additional connecting point for the rope. at the chest.* %0* he prese$n chest harnesses available commercially $ill invariably offer more comfort or performance features. let the pack hang on a drop cord belo$ the feet and attached to the harness tie(in point. =mpro2ise& -arnesses !ithout the use of a manufactured harness. his type of additional connection $ill provide a comfortable hanging position on the rope. /arnesses can be improvised using rope or $ebbing and knots. <ody position during a fall is affected only by the forces that generated the fall. he s$ami belt is a simple.* A chest harness $ill help the climber remain upright on the rope during rappelling or ascending a fi"ed rope.

A hard fall $ill cause the coils to ride up against the ribs. !hen the terrain becomes steeper. he knot must be tied snugly around the narro$ part of the $aist. usually $ith appro"imately ten feet of material. at least t$o $raps are recommended for comfort.8*.V. Avoid crossing the $raps by keeping them spread over the $aist area. he ends are secured $ith an appropriate knot. a fall $ill generate more force on the climber and this $ill be felt through the coils of this type of attachment. Tying-in +ith a o+!ine-on-a-coi!. he e"tra $raps distribute the force of a fall over a larger area of the torso than a single bo$line $ould.* he bo$line(on(a(coil can be used to tie(in to the end of the rope %&igure )(. any tie(in around the $aist only could . %o+!ine-on-a-Coi!. he end man should have a minimum of four $raps around the $aist before completing the knot.$ill provide more comfort. %0* he bo$line(on(a(coil is a safe and effective method for attaching to the rope $hen the terrain is lo$(angled. %... Although an effective s$ami belt can be assembled $ith a minimum of one $rap. raditionally. In a severe fall. just above the bony portions of the hips %pelvis*. the standard method for attaching oneself to the climbing rope $as $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil around the $aist. b. and help prevent the rope from riding up over the rib cage and under the armpits. 6+ucking in the gut6 a bit $hen making the $raps $ill ensure a snug fit. Figure 6-)'. !I /D> /. &ABB. -D++I<IBI I D& A +.

%. %1* he climbing harness distributes the force of a fall over the entire pelvic region. c. seatKchest combination harness can be tied from one(inch tubular nylon. =mpro2ise& Seat -arness. and hold it in place on the hip. ?eep the $ebbing flat and free of t$ists $hen $rapping. Connect the ends $ith the appropriate knot bet$een the front and one side so you $ill be able to see $hat you are doing. . A safe. . Cake one complete $rap around the $aist $ith the short end.place a 6shock load6 on the climberUs lo$er back.* Bocate the center of the rope. binding do$n on the short end to hold it in place. tie t$o fi"ed loops appro"imately ) inches apart %overhand loops*. Dff to one side. if the climber ends up suspended in mid(air and unable to regain footing on the rock. adjust the $aist $raps to a snug fit. and comfortable.ven in a relatively short fall. 9rasping both ends.very climber should kno$ ho$ to tie some sort of improvised climbing harness from sling material. %1* Cake t$o to three $raps around the $aist $ith the long end in the opposite direction %$rapping to the outside*. $rapping to the outside. he loops are tied into the sling 6off center6 so the remaining ends are different lengths. A seat harness can be tied from a length of $ebbing appro"imately 07 feet long %&igure )(0:*. %0* +lip the leg loops over the feet and up to the crotch. he short end should be appro"imately ' feet long %' to 7 feet for larger individuals*. . Adjust the siAe of the loops so they fit snugly around the thigh. like a parachute harness. the rope around the $aist can easily cut off circulation and breathing in a relatively short time. $ith the knots to the front.

%0* -ut a single t$ist into the sling. making a sling 1 to ' feet long. $ider is better and $ill be more comfortable $hen you load this harness. and drape the sling over the shoulders. or cross. %.* ie the ends of the $ebbing together $ith the appropriate knot.: feet usually $orks. =mpro2ise& seat an& chest harness. he t$ist. just as you $ould put on a jacket. he chest harness can be tied from rope or $ebbing. but remember that $ith $ebbing. Appro"imately ) to . in the sling should be in the middle of the back.Figure 6-. forming t$o loops.*.emember as you tie this harness that the remaining ends $ill need to be secured so choose the best length. %1* -lace an arm through each loop formed by the t$ist. . d. =mpro2ise& Chest -arness. .

* he full(body harness is the safest harness because it relocates the tie( in point higher. he climber ties the end of the climbing rope to the seat harness $ith an appropriate knot. Adjust the siAe of the sling if necessary. he attachment of the climbing rope to the harness is a C. reducing the chance of an inverted hanging position on the rope. he chest harness should fit just loose enough to allo$ necessary clothing and not to restrict breathing or circulation. =mpro2ise& Fu!!-%o&y -arness. 7ttaching the . f. A full(body harness affects the body position only $hen hanging on the rope. his is especially helpful $hen moving on ropes $ith heavy packs. create a type of full(body harness. but not by just tying the rope into both—the t$o harnesses must be 6fi"ed6 as one harness. e. If using a chest harness. in effect. it is not a true full(body harness until the chest harness and the seat harness are connected as one piece.%'* Eoin the t$o loops at the chest $ith a carabiner. and comes off the harness in a fall. he $ater knot should be set off to either side for easy inspection %if a pack is to be $orn. %. &i" them together $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope so that the climbing rope can be connected directly to the chest harness and your $eight is supported by the seat harness through the connecting material. the standing part of the rope is then . the knot $ill be uncomfortable if it gets bet$een the body and the pack*. A true full(body harness can be improvised by connecting the chest harness to the seat harness. or incorrectly. &ull(body harnesses incorporate a chest and seat harness into one assembly.ope to the =mpro2ise& -arness.I ICAB BI=?. %0* Although running the rope through the carabiner of the chest harness does. he strength of the rope means nothing if it is attached poorly. C7ET=63 A full(body harness does not prevent falling head first@ body position in a fall is caused by the forces that caused the fall. at the chest.

clipped into the chest harness carabiner. Descen&ing s!a in the cra position. and possibly the e#uipment available.6 %1* >nder certain conditions many climbers prefer to attach the rope to the seat harness $ith a locking carabiner. his is a common practice for moderate sno$ and ice climbing. %0* he choice of $hether to tie(in $ith a bo$line(on(a(coil or into a climbing harness depends entirely on the climberUs judgment.* A middleman must create a fi"ed loop to tie in to. and the chest harness helps keep the body upright. and especially for glacier travel $here $et and froAen knots become difficult to untie. tie the rope directly to the harness for ma"imum safety. he standing part of the rope going to the lead climber is clipped into the chest harness carabiner. rather than tying the rope to it. is secured around the tie(in loops $ith an overhand knot. C7ET=63 he knot must be tied around all the $aist $raps and the )( inch length of $ebbing bet$een the leg loops. A rethreaded figure( eight loop tied on a doubled rope or the three loop bo$line can be used. %. If using the three loop bo$line. or third loop formed in the knot. ensure the end. 3ote4 he climbing rope is not clipped into the chest harness $hen belaying. %e!ay Techniques . C7ET=63 <ecause the carabiner gate may be broken or opened by protruding rocks during a fall. Figure 6-)". A good rule of thumb is: 6!ear a climbing harness $hen the potential for severe falls e"ists and for all travel over sno$(covered glaciers because of the crevasse fall haAard. he seat harness absorbs the main force of the fall.

the fall can be halted or 6arrested6 by another rope team member %belayer*. <elay techni#ues are also used to control the descent of personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed rope installations. sitting position $henever possible. &ollo$ the 6minimum6 rule for belay anchors(0 for a do$n$ard pull. Choose a belay techni#ue appropriate for the climbing. rope team members can often move at the same time. he $ill jerk the other rope team members off the slope. simultaneous movement only helps to ensure that if one climber falls. or a 6brake.emember the follo$ing key points: • • • • +elect the best possible terrain features for the position and use terrain to your advantage. such as $hen traveling over sno$(covered glaciers.nsure anchor attachments are aligned. if one person falls.6 If confronted $ith a peculiar problem during the setup of a belay. . +etting up a belay may at first appear confusing to the beginner. <elaying is a skill that re#uires practice to develop proficiency.ying(in to the climbing rope and moving as a member of a rope team increases the climberUs margin of safety on difficult. +tack the rope properly. >se a guide carabiner for rope control in all body belays. Dn steep terrain. and for additional safety on rappels and stream crossings. the rope team must incorporate 6belays6 into the movement. ho$ever. try to use common sense and apply the basic principles stressed throughout this te"t. <elaying is a method of managing the rope in such a $ay that. &or the climbing rope to be of any value on steep rock climbs.6 can be applied to halt a fall. and snug. but $ith practice. he belayer manipulates the rope so that friction. independent. Aim and anchor the belay for all possible load directions. >se a $ell braced. . • • • • . the procedure should become 6second nature. relying on the security of a tight rope and 6team arrest6 techni#ues to halt a fall by any one member. $hile being belayed from above or belo$ by another. . Dne person climbs at a time. e"posed terrain. for an up$ard pull. In some instances.

there is no belay. aking up rope.. !hen giving slack. otal control means the brake hand is =. b.6 he belay remains in place until the climber gives the command 6D&& <. he belayer must be able to perform all three functions $hile maintaining 6total control6 of the rope at all times.nsure you are satisfied $ith your position before giving the command 6<. and rope running to the climber are all on the guidehand side. and apply the brake to halt a fall. he belayer must be able to perform three basic functions: manipulate the rope to give the climber slack during movement.6 C7ET=63 he belay remains in place the from the time the belayer commands 83(.A9 "#8 until the climber commands 8"++ 3(.nsure anchor attachments. the rope simply slides through the grasp of the brake hand. a.6 $hich incorporate some type of friction device. • • . take up rope to remove e"cess slack. C7ET=63 =ever remove the brake hand from the rope $hile belaying.ope A number of different belay techni#ues are used in modern climbing. the rope management procedure is basically the same. at times being fed to the climber $ith the other 6feeling6 or guide hand. or run through a friction device.V. !hether the rope is $rapped around the body. ho$ever. re#uires a certain techni#ue to ensure the . ranging from the basic 6body belays6 to the various 6mechanical belays.BAI. If the brake hand is removed.A9.BAI D=.8 9roce&ure #or :anaging the . removed from the rope. • he brake hand remains on the rope $hen belaying. guide carabiner %if applicable*.• .

Figure 6-.. he brake can be applied at any moment during the procedure. he guide hand can also help to pull in the rope %&igure )(0..brake hand remains on the rope at all times. e"tending the arm so the guide hand is father a$ay from the body than the brake hand %&igure )(0. he hand on the section of rope bet$een the belayer and the climber $ould be the guide hand.epeat step 7 of &igure )(0. step . %)* .. step )*. place it behind the back and around the hips.. . slide the guide hand out. step '*. $ith the guide hand %&igure )(0.).* 9rasping the rope $ith both hands. %1* /olding the rope in the brake hand. to the front of the brake hand. he other hand is the brake hand. he follo$ing procedure describes ho$ to take up e"cess rope and apply the brake in a basic body belay.. %'* 9rasp both parts of the rope.. step 0*.*. %0* ake in rope $ith the brake hand until the arm is fully e"tended. It is applied by $rapping the rope around the front of the hips $hile increasing grip $ith the brake hand %&igure )(0. :anaging the rope. %7* +lide the brake hand back to$ards the body %&igure )(0. step 1*. %.

and froAen. he leg on the 6guide . letting him kno$ $hen to give slack or take up rope. It is the simplest belay. or both feet cannot be braced $ell. although probably not $ithout inflicting great pain on the belayer. or fall force. It is best to sit in a slight depression. . and straightening the legs for ma"imum support. and the ones most applicable to military mountaineering.ope management in a body belay is #uick and easy. he sitting body belay is the preferred position and is usually the most secure %&igure )(00*. A method that $orks $ell in one situation may not be the best choice in another. !hen perfectly aligned. %. It uses friction bet$een the rope and the clothed body as the rope is pressured across the clothing. a. he choice bet$een body belays and mechanical belays depends largely on e#uipment available. /eavy duty cotton or leather $ork gloves can also be $orn to protect the hands. in its various forms. and both legs $ill e#ually absorb the force of a fall. C7ET=63 he belayer must ensure he is $earing ade#uate clothing to protect his body from rope burns $hen using a body belay. $hat the climber feels most comfortable $ith. he basic body belay is the most $idely used techni#ue on moderate terrain. using terrain to his advantage. and attempts to brace both feet against the rock to support his position. the belay may have to absorb. stiff. and is effective in sno$ and ice climbing $hen ropes often become $et. the belayer may not be able to sit facing the direction he $ould like. and should be the first techni#ue learned by all climbers. and the amount of load. the rope running to the climber $ill pass bet$een the belayerUs feet. re#uiring no special e#uipment. It has been kno$n to arrest some severe falls. A body belay gives the belayer the greatest 6feel6 for the climber.Choosing a %e!ay Technique he climber may choose from a variety of belay techni#ues. placing the buttocks lo$er than the feet. %o&y %e!ay. he body belay. $ill hold lo$ to moderate impact falls $ell. +ometimes. especially for beginners.* Sitting 'ody 'elay. he belayer sits facing the direction $here the force of a fall $ill likely come from. he follo$ing describes a fe$ of the more $idely used techni#ues.

%0* Standing 'ody 'elay. Figure 6-.. . he belayer can also 6straddle6 a large tree or rock nubbin for support.. bracing the foot on the rock $hen possible. !hat appears at first to be a fairly unstable position can actually be #uite secure $hen belay anchors are placed at or above shoulder height to support the stance $hen the force $ill be do$n$ard. he standing body belay is used on smaller ledges $here there is no room for the belayer to sit %&igure )(01*. as long as the object is solid enough to sustain the possible load.hand6 side should then point to$ards the load. Sitting o&y e!ay.

%a* &or a body belay to $ork effectively. just belo$ the bony high points of the hips. dumping the belayer out of position. and remains there under load $hen applying the brake.1. %b* o prevent any of these possibilities from happening. Stan&ing o&y e!ay. the force of a fall could injure the belayerUs midsection and lo$er rib cage. If the rope runs too high. If the rope runs too lo$. . the belayer must ensure that the rope runs around the hips properly. his 6guide carabiner6 helps keep the rope in place around the hips and prevents loss of control in up$ard or do$n$ard loads %&igure )(0'*. rendering the belay useless. the belay rope is clipped into a carabiner attached to the guide hand side of the seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil*. It is also possible for a strong up$ard or do$n$ard pull to strip the rope a$ay from the belayer.Figure 6-. he rope should run around the narro$ portion of the pelvic girdle. the load may pull the rope belo$ the buttocks.

he Cunter is actually a t$o($ay friction hitch. he locking pear(shaped carabiner. he holding po$er of a belay device is vastly superior to any body belay under high loads.* Munter itch.Figure 6-. and of the proper design. the carabiner should be attached to the front of the belayerUs seat harness. useless hitch. he Cunter hitch is an e"cellent mechanical belay techni#ue and re#uires only a rope and a carabiner %&igure )(07*. ItUs fairly easy to place the bight on the carabiner back$ards. as routes used during military operations should be the easiest to negotiate. he hitch is tied by forming a loop and a bight in the rope. to allo$ this function. %. he carabiner must be large enough.4. -ut some . &or the most part. /o$ever. b. attaching both to the carabiner. the basic body belay should be totally ade#uate on a typical military route. :echanica! %e!ay. <ui&e cara iner #or rope contro! in a o&y e!ay. he Cunter hitch $ill flip back and forth through the carabiner as the belayer s$itches from giving slack to taking up rope. rope management in a mechanical belay is more difficult to master and re#uires more practice. A mechanical belay must be used $henever there is potential for the lead climber to take a severe fall. As a climbing belay. $hich forms an obvious. or pearabiner. is designed for the Cunter hitch. %a* he Cunter hitch $orks e"ceptionally $ell as a lo$ering belay off the anchor.

he hand on the rope running to the climber. he advantage of any mechanical belay is friction re#uired to halt a fall is applied on the rope through the device. as depicted in the follo$ing illustrations. to$ards the load. he figure(eight device is a versatile piece of e#uipment and. %b* he Cunter hitch $ill automatically 6lock(up6 under load as the brake hand grips the rope. or load. rather than around the belayerUs body.+ =D change the function of the hands. though developed as a rappel device. the figure( eight $orks $ell for both belayed climbing and for lo$ering personnel and e#uipment on fi"ed(rope installations. he main principle behind the figure(eight device in belay mode is the friction developing on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:(degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. :unter hitch.5. he brake is increased by pulling the slack rope a$ay from the body.tension on the Cunter to ensure it is formed correctly. he belayer must be a$are that flipping the hitch 2D. As a belay device. . he device itself provides rope control for up$ard and do$n$ard pulls and e"cellent friction for halting severe falls. is al$ays the guide hand. %0* (igure-Eight %e)ice. Figure 6-. has become $idely accepted as an effective mechanical belay device %&igure )(0)*.

.ope management is performed as in a body belay. he mechanical camming device has an internal camming action that begins locking the rope in place as friction is increased. %b* As a lo$ering belay. A fe$ other devices perform similarly to this. %1* Mechanical Camming %e)ice. 3ote4 +ome figure(eight descenders should not be used as belay devices due to their construction and design. he guide hand is placed on the rope running to the climber.6. the device is normally attached directly to the anchor $ith the rope routed as in rappelling. Figure-eight &e2ice. .%a* As a climbing belay. but have no moving parts. +ome limitations to these type devices are minimum and ma"imum rope diameters. locking the rope bet$een the device and the carabiner. Figure 6-. >nlike the other devices. small diameter safety rope is used to connect the 6large eye6 of the figure eight to the locking carabiner for control of the device. a bight placed into the climbing rope is run through the 6small eye6 of the device and attached to a locking carabiner at the front of the belayerUs seat harness. he brake is applied by pulling the slack rope in the brake hand to$ards the body. Al$ays refer to manufacturerUs specifications and directions before use. A short. the mechanical camming device can stop a falling climber $ithout any input from the belayer.

the most commonly used. the belayer must set up the belay in relation to $here the fall force $ill come from and pay strict attention to proper rope management for the belay to be effective. . and other tube devices are made in many different shapes. All belay positions are established $ith the anchor connection to the front of the harness. slotted plate. If the belay is correctly established. the belayer is apt to pay closer attention to the belaying process. Cost of these $ork $ith the same rope movement direction and the same braking principle. b. =n&irect %e!ay. but belay positions must be made as 6bombproof6 as possible. here are many other commercially available mechanical belay devices. $hich reduces the direct force on the anchor and prevents a severe shock load to the anchor.ach type has advantages and disadvantages. uses a belay device attached to the belayerUs harness. his type of belay provides dynamic shock or $eight absorption by the belayer if the climber falls or $eights the rope. 2irect belays provide no shock(absorbing properties from the belayerUs attachment to the system as does the indirect belay@ therefore.%'* *ther Mechanical 'elay %e)ices. he choice $ill depend on the intended use of the belay. the belayer $ill feel little or no force if . hese all $ork on the same principle as the figure(eight device—friction increases on the rope as it reaches and e"ceeds the 8:( degree angle bet$een the rope entering the device and leaving the device. $sta !ishing a %e!ay A belay can be established using either a direct or indirect connection. he direct belay removes any possible forces from the belayer and places this force completely on the anchor. Setting Ep a %e!ay In rock climbing. >sed often for rescue installations or to bring a second climber up to a ne$ belay position in conjunction $ith the Cunter hitch. creating a comfortable position and ease of applying the brake. Also. An indirect belay. climbers must sometimes make do $ith marginal protection placements along a route. the belayer is not locked into a position. Direct %e!ay. if the second falls or $eights the rope. he air traffic controller %A C*. the belay can be placed above the belayerUs stance. Additionally. a.

Se!ect 9osition an& Stance. %. 7nchor the %e!ay. !ith the belay position selected. Dnce the climbing line is picked. sitting stance are preferred. Barge ledges that allo$ a $ell braced. he position must at least allo$ for solid artificial placements.the climber falls or has to rest on the rope. he belayer must aim his belay for all possible load directions. A solid natural anchor $ould be ideal. putting the belayer out of the direct path of a potential fall or any rocks kicked loose by the climber.* . he follo$ing key points also apply to anchoring belays. Book for belay positions close to bombproof natural anchors. and in line $ith the first protection placement. !hen a lead climber begins placing protection. ItUs best if the position is off to the side of the actual line. but more often the belayer $ill have to place pitons or chocks. the force on the belay could be straight do$n again. as he could be in the position for a fairly long time. the fall force on the belayer $ill be in some up$ard direction. the belayer must be attached to a solid anchor capable of $ithstanding the highest possible fall force. &or a climbing belay to be considered bombproof. 7im the %e!ay.6 he belayer determines $here the rope leading to the climber $ill run and the direction the force of a fall $ill likely come from. a. the belay must no$ be 6aimed. adjusting his position or stance $hen necessary. he belay can be aimed through an anchor placement to immediately establish an up$ard pull@ ho$ever. he position should allo$ the belayer to maintain a comfortable. the belayer must al$ays be prepared for the more severe do$n$ard fall force in the event intermediate protection placements fail. he rule of thumb is to place t$o anchors for a do$n$ard pull and one anchor for an up$ard pull as a CI=IC>C. c.egardless of the actual belay techni#ue used. A single artificial placement should never be considered ade#uate for anchoring a belay %e"cept at ground level*. . the belayer selects his position. five basic steps are re#uired to set up a sound belay.ach anchor must be placed in line $ith the direction of pull it is intended to support. If this placement fails under load. b. rela"ed stance. . Cultiple anchor points capable of supporting both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls should be placed.

=ote ho$ the rope is connected from one of the anchors back to the belayer. If the belayer has to change his stance at some point. %7* he belayer can use either a portion of the climbing rope or slings of the appropriate length to connect himself to the anchors. say after a severe fall. saving the slings for the climb. but often helps 6line(up6 the second attachment. <oth belayerUs stance and belay anchors should absorb the force of a fall. %'* It is best for the anchors to be placed relatively close to the belayer $ith short attachments.ach anchor attachment must be rigged 6independently6 so a failure of one $ill not shock load remaining placements or cause the belayer to be pulled out of position. &ollo$ the guidelines set forth and remember the key points for belay anchors@ 6in line6. ItUs best to use the climbing rope $henever possible. reach back. +ling attachments are connected to the belayerUs seat harness %or bo$line(on(a(coil* on the guide(hand side. . Clove hitches have the advantage of being easily adjusted. &igure )(04 sho$s an e"ample of a common arrangement. %1* he attachment bet$een the anchor and the belayer must be snug to support the stance. he can reach back $ith the guide hand and adjust the length of the attachment through the clove hitch as needed. he rope is attached using either figure eight loops or clove hitches. and 6snug6. o accomplish this. and connect the sling to one of the anchors. If the climber has to be tied(off in an emergency. %)* he anchor attachments should also help prevent the force of a fall from 6rotating6 the belayer out of position.%0* . he load can be placed on the -rusik and the belayer can come out of the system to render help. attaching the rope to the t$o 6do$n$ard6 anchors and a sling to the 6up$ard6 anchor. the belayer can attach a -rusik sling to the climbing rope. 6independent6. his is not mandatory. %4* Arrangement of rope and sling attachments may vary according to the number and location of placements. the climbing rope must pass around the 6guide(hand side6 of the body to the anchors.

the belayer may have to tie(off the climber and come out of the belay to free the rope@ a time(consuming and unnecessary task. Stack the . d. $here it $ill not get caught in cracks or nubbins as it is fed out to the climber. he final point to remember is the rope must be stacked 6from the belayerUs end6 so the rope running to the climber comes off the 6top6 of the stacked pile.7. Dnce the belayer is anchored into position. he final step of the procedure is to attach the belay. removes any slack bet$een himself and the climber.ope. he rope should be stacked on the ground. or on the ledge. he must stack the rope to ensure it is free of t$ists and tangles that might hinder rope management in the belay. 7ttach the %e!ay. the belayer takes the rope coming off the top of the pile. the rope can be stacked on top of the anchor attachments if there is no other place to lay it. he belayer must also ensure that the rope $ill not get tangled around his legs or other body parts as it 6feeds6 out.* Dn small ledges. If it gets caught in the rock belo$ the position. e. and applies the actual . !ith the rope properly stacked. %0* he rope should never be allo$ed to hang do$n over the ledge. %.Figure 6-. but make sure to stack it carefully so it $onUt tangle $ith the anchored portion of the rope or other slings. 7nchoring a e!ay.

the belayer may choose to brake $ith the hand he feels most comfortable $ith. he gives the signal. %e!ay setup. If the climber takes a fall. he brake hand is out a$ay from the slope $here it $onUt be jammed bet$een the body and the rock.BAI D=W6. %. If using a body belay. %0* !hen the belayer is satisfied $ith his position. the e"ception being a hanging belay on a vertical face. guide carabiner. and rope running to the climber through the guide hand must still be aligned on the same . If the rope runs straight do$n to the climber and the anchors are directly behind the position. Anchor attachments. >nless the belay is aimed for an up$ard pull.belay techni#ue. he guide hand can be placed on the rock to help support the stance $hen applying the brake. ensure the rope is clipped into the guide carabiner. Figure 6-.* he belayer should make one #uick. $hich is normally closest to the rock %&igure )(05*. !hen belaying the 6second6.". 6<. If the belay is set up correctly. if any. the anchor attachments. guide carabiner if applicable. should not have any negative effect on the belayerUs involvement in the system. the same procedure is used to set up the belay. the force. final inspection of his belay. the fall force is of course do$n$ard and the belayer is usually facing a$ay from the rock. and the rope running to the climber $ill all be on the 6guide hand6 side.

he belayer is positioned either on the ground $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber.ope %e!ay A 6top(rope6 is a belay setup used in training to protect a climber $hile climbing on longer.side to prevent the belayer from being rotated out of position. he belayer takes in rope as the climber proceeds up the rock. bombproof anchor is re#uired at the top of the pitch.ach command is concise and sounds a bit different from another to reduce the risk of a misunderstanding bet$een climber and belayer.BAI6 commands are reversed so they sound different and $ill not be confused.* %$87D$. C7ET=63 2o not use a body belay for top(rope climbing. A series of standard voice commands $ere developed over the years to signal the essential rope management functions in a belayed climb. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. . A solid. :$73=3<. Top-. e"posed routes. it becomes harder to distinguish one $ord from another and the shortest sentence may be heard as nothing more than jumbled syllables. lists standard rope commands and their meanings in se#uence as they $ould normally be used on a typical climb. %=ote ho$ the critical 6<.7CT=63 T7K$3 . the instructor can $atch the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements. C8=:%$. he rope $ill burn the belayer if the climber has to be lo$ered. hey must be pronounced clearly and loudly so they can be heard and understood in the $orst conditions. unless the belayer is using an improvised harness and the anchor attachment is at the rear. C!im ing Comman&s Communication is often difficult during a climb. As the distance bet$een climber and belayer increases. Aer a! Comman&s able )(. or at the top at the anchor.

Cy $eight $ill be on the rope. 6CBIC<6 %as a courtesy* 6.6<. 6&ABBI=96 <elayer applies brake to arrest the fall. <elayer removes brakeKtension. and hold me. 6CBIC<I=96 %as a courtesy* I am ready to climb.D-. Iou have appro"imately 07 feet of rope left. +ignal $ill be echoed by all climbers in the area. If multipitch climbing. 6+BAC?6 .6 . and again. 6 . ake in e"cess rope bet$een us $ithout pulling me off the route. the rope $ill be managed as necessary.BAI D=6 he belay is on@ you may climb $hen ready@ the rope $ill be managed as needed. . apply brake.=( I( &IV.6T$CT D6E. I am falling.=+ID=6 ake all the slack. <elayer removes slack and applies brake. Climber selects a belay position. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position.DC?6 6.elease all brakingKtension on the rope so I can have slack $ithout pulling the rope.6: F788=3< 6%C$CTS. 9.S$8F F.6 6 !. 6 A?.DC?6 -roceed. <elayer takes in rope. ensure climbers belo$ hear.

7 feet of rope left. Iou have no more rope. &or a rope tug command.ope Tug Comman&s +ometimes the loudest scream cannot be heard $hen the climber and belayer are far apart. -repares to climb.BAI6 belay. remains anchored. he ne$ belayer keeps slack out of the rope. Ta !e 6-). 6&IV. Iou have 7 feet of rope left. b. o avoid any possible confusion $ith interpretation of multiple rope tug commands. the leader issues three distinct tugs on the rope A& . use only one. his is especially true in $indy conditions.6&I&( . <elayer removes the belay and. anchoring and putting the second on belay.BAI D=6 and signals the second to climb $hen ready. or $hen the climber is around a corner. . prepares to climb.ope comman&s. !ith the issue of this command. . his is the signal for 6<. Climber selects a belay position $ithin the ne"t fe$ feet.ope& C!im ing :etho&s . It may be necessary to use a series of 6tugs6 on the rope in place of the standard voice commands. a. Climber sets up the belay. +tart looking for the ne"t belay position. the most important command is 6<. +et up the belay position. remaining anchored. !hile a lead climb is in progress. I have finished climbing and I am anchored. above an overhang. Iou may remove the belay.6 +et up the belay. the second kno$s the climber is anchored and the second prepares to climb. .BAI D=.6 his command is given only by the climber $hen the climber is anchored and is prepared for the second to begin climbing. or at the back of a ledge.. .emoves the 6D&& <..=6 Iou have appro"imately .

his duty falls upon the most e"perienced climbers in the unit.6 and so on. As he climbs the route. he belayer takes in rope as the climber moves up the rock. giving the climber the same protection as a belay from above. hese 6intermediate6 anchors protect the climber against a fall(thus the term 6protecting the climb. the leader emplaces 6intermediate6 anchors. a. If you can easily access the top of a climb. you can easily avoid the climb itself. these specific anchors $ill be referred to as 6protection@6 anchors . &or standardiAation $ithin this publication.6 6pieces of pro. Top-. top(roped climbing is valuable because it allo$s climbers to attempt climbs above their skill level and or to hone present skills $ithout the risk of a fall. op(roped climbing may be used to increase the stamina of a climber training to climb longer routes as $ell as for a climber practicing protection placements. the instructor is able to keep an eye on the belayer $hile he coaches the climber through the movements.6 6pro. a leader or climber. If this is accomplished $ith the belayer at the bottom. b. the primary mission of a roped climbing team is to 6fi"6 a route $ith some type of rope installation to assist movement of less trained personnel in the unit.ope& C!im ing op(roped climbing is used for training purposes only. and $ebbing or hard$are used to establish anchors or protect the climb.ven if the climbing is for another purpose.6 6pieces. he belayer is positioned either at the base of a climb $ith the rope running through the top anchor and back to the climber or at the top at the anchor. &or training. usually $orking in t$o( or three(man groups or teams called assault climbing teams. 8ea& C!im ing A lead climb consists of a belayer. roped climbing should be performed $henever the terrain becomes difficult and e"posed. rope%s*. and the climbing rope is connected to these anchors $ith a carabiner. his method of climbing is not used for movement due to the necessity of pre(placing anchors at the top of a climb.6 6pro placements. .6 3ote4 Intermediate anchors are commonly referred to as 6protection.In military mountaineering.

valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads. taking on the role of lead climber. $o climbers are at least t$ice as fast as three climbers. or other rope installations. a shortage of ropes %such as si" climbers and only t$o ropes*. and are efficient for installing a 6fi"ed rope. such as rappel points. c. !hichever techni#ue is chosen.6 probably the most $idely used rope installation in the mountains. he procedures for conducting a lead climb $ith a group of t$o are relatively simple. stopping occasionally to set up belays on particularly difficult sections. or to protect and assist an individual $ho has little or no e"perience in climbing and belaying. or 6leap frogging. A group or team of three climbers is sometimes used in rock climbing because of an odd number of personnel.established for other purposes.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. he lead climber carries most of the climbing e#uipment in order to place protection along the route and set up the . each climber in the team is either anchored or being belayed. b. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the other rack or desires a break. Bead climbing $ith t$o climbers is the preferred combination for movement on technically difficult terrain. a standard roped climbing procedure is used for ma"imum speed and safety. a. he leader must ensure the route is $ell $ithin his ability and the ability of the second. belays. !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. he most e"perienced individual is the 6lead6 climber or leader. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. $ill be referred to as 6anchors. ice. and is responsible for selecting the route.6 C7ET=63 2uring all lead climbing. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multipitch routes. +$inging leads. he belayer simply adjusts his position. and sno$(covered glaciers $here the rope team can often move at the same time. A group of three climbers are typically used on moderate sno$.

%1* <efore the climb starts. %0* he other member of the climbing team. If the climber $ants a tighter rope. the belayer signals. the second must pay close attention to the climberUs every move. only as a courtesy. %. .BAI D=6. ensuring that the rope runs free and does not inhibit the climberUs movements. until the climber tells him other$ise. thus minimiAing friction. he double checks the belay. he must 6feel6 the climber through the rope. If he cannot see the climber. he belayer should keep just enough slack in the rope so the climber does not have to pull it through the belay. %'* !hile belaying. or 6rope drag6. 6<. $hether by sight or feel.* he leader is responsible for emplacing protection fre#uently enough and in such a manner that. is responsible for belaying the leader. only as a courtesy.. it can be called for. again. such as a piton hammer. he leader must also ensure that the second has the necessary e#uipment. !hen the leader is ready. the belayer %sometimes referred to as the 6second6*. affirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. 6CBIC<I=96. reaffirming that the belay is 6on6 and the rope $ill be managed as necessary. and retrieving the protection placed by the leader bet$een belay positions %also called 6cleaning the pitch6*. removing the belay anchor.ne"t belay. nut tool. to let the belayer kno$ he is ready to move. etc. the e"cess rope should be taken in #uickly. he leader must also ensure that the rope is routed in a $ay that $ill allo$ it to run freely through the protection placements. !hen the belay is ready. >nless told other$ise by the climber. he leader then begins climbing. in the event that either the leader or the second should fall. he belayer can reply $ith 6CBIC<6. the belayer can slo$ly give slack on the rope as the climber proceeds on the route. If the belayer notices too much slack developing in the rope. It is the belayerUs responsibility to manage the rope. the fall $ill be neither long enough nor hard enough to result in injury. he leader can then signal. the second $ill normally set up the first belay $hile the leader is arranging his rack. to remove any protection that the leader may place.

the leader gives the command 6+BAC?6 and the belayer gives slack. or the clip. and any other items to be carried individually such as rucksacks or individual $eapons.6 is given by the leader and the belayer takes in the remaining slack. he selected e#uipment must be carried by the leader. he belayer remains attached to at least one anchor until the command 6<. %)* he leader continues on the route until either a designated belay location is reached or he is at the end of or near the end of the rope. %. he leader is able to pull a bight of rope above the tie(in point and clip it into the carabiner in the protection above. additional anchors for the ne"t belay. %if more slack is needed the command $ill be repeated*.6 the necessary e#uipment onto his harness or onto slings around the head and shoulder. At this position. of e#uipment might be re#uired to safely negotiate the route. Assorted he"entrics. .BAI6. !hen the leader has completed the connection. or 6rack. &our to si" medium to large $ired stoppers on a carabiner.D-. the command 6 A?.BAI D=6 is given. in a piece of protection above the tie(in point on the leaders harness.%7* As the leader protects the climb. In this situation. he belayer prepares to climb by removing all but at least one of his anchors and secures the remaining e#uipment. &ive to ten standard length runners.* he leader $ill assemble. he leader must carry enough e#uipment to safely protect the route. d. . +BC2s of re#uired siAe. connects to the anchor and signals 6D&& <. each on a separate carabiner. each on a separate carabiner. A typical leader 6rack6 consists of: • • • • • +i" to eight small $ired stoppers on a carabiner. !hen the leader selects a particular route. and $hat types. slack $ill sometimes be needed to place the rope through the carabiner %clipping*. he must also determine ho$ much. the leader sets an anchor. $ith t$o carabiners on each.

3ote4 If using an over the shoulder gear sling. =ut tool. $ith t$o carabiners on each.• • • $o to three double length runners. Cordellette."tra carabiners.appel device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. to some degree. .(inch $ebbing.: feet of ."tra carabiners.(inch $ebbing. . place the items in order from smallest to the front and largest to the rear. 0: feet of . • . <elay device %a combination belayKrappel device is multifunctional*. the necessary e#uipment. • • • • • • +hort -rusik sling. • Barge locking carabiner %pear shape carabiners are multifunctional*. 3ote4 he route chosen $ill dictate. • • . Cembers of a climbing team may need to consolidate gear to climb a particular route. =ut tool %if stoppers are carried*. . %0* he belayer and the leader both should carry many duplicate items $hile climbing. Bong -rusik sling.

for both the leader and second if either should fall. he potential fall of the second $ill result in a pendulum s$ing if protection is not ade#uate to prevent this. saving hard$are for difficult sections. he lead climber may be e"posed to potentially long. he leader should try to keep the climbing line as direct as possible to the ne"t belay to allo$ the rope to run smoothly through the protection $ith minimal friction. Dnce an anchor is placed. and upon completion of any traverse. placement of protection. Beading a difficult pitch is the most haAardous task in roped climbing. he danger comes from any objects in the s$inging path of the second. -rotection should be placed $henever the leader feels he needs it. If the climbing is difficult. hard falls and must e"ercise keen judgment in route selection. Dn some routes an e"tended diagonal or horiAontal movement. and routing of the climbing rope through the protection. C7ET=63 he climber must remember he $ill fall t$ice the distance from his last piece of protection before the rope can even begin to stop him. Dne $ay $ill allo$ the rope to run smoothly as the climber . he must consider the secondUs safety as $ell as his o$n. If the climbing becomes easier. kno$n as a traverse. protection can be placed farther apart.e. protection is placed from one stable position to the ne"t. his $ill minimiAe the potential s$ing. during. As a carabiner hangs from the protection. C7ET=63 Beader should place protection prior to.&D. 9enerally. and <. or pendulum. the rope can be routed through the carabiner in t$o possible $ays.* Placing Protection. moving past a difficult section. he anchor should be placed as high as possible to reduce the potential fall distance bet$een placements. is re#uired. %0* Correct Clipping Techni$ue. the climber 6clips6 the rope into the carabiner %&igure )(08*. %. protection should be placed more fre#uently.. As the leader begins this type of move.

a series of incorrectly clipped carabiners may contribute to rope drag. the climber should check to see that it is routed correctly by pulling on the rope in the direction it $ill travel $hen the climber moves past that position. the leader must ensure the carabiner on the protection does not hang $ith the carabiner gate facing the rock@ $hen placing protection in a crack ensure the carabiner gate is not facing into the crack. !hen placing protection. a rotation of the clipped carabiner to ensure that the gate is not resting against the rock may be all that is necessary. If the clip is made correctly. %c* Another potential haAard peculiar to leading should be eliminated before the climber continues. In addition. • • • • 9rasp the rope $ith either hand $ith the thumb pointing do$n the rope to$ards the belayer -ull enough rope to reach the carabiner $ith a bight =ote the direction the carabiner is hanging from the protection -lace the bight into the carabiner so that. clipping the carabiner $ill re#uire a little more thought. %a* If the route changes direction. /o$ever. Dnce leaving that piece of protection.nsure the carabiner gate is not resting against a protrusion or crack edge in the rock surface@ the rock may cause the gate to open. the rope does not cause the carabiner to t$ist. $hen released.moves past the placement@ the other $ay $ill often create a dangerous situation in $hich the rope could become 6unclipped6 from the carabiner if the leader $ere to fall on this piece of protection. %b* Dnce the rope is clipped into the carabiner. in a . he carabiner is attached to the anchor or runner $ith the gate facing a$ay from the rock and opening do$n for easy insertion of the rope. C7ET=63 . the rope may force the carabiner to t$ist if not correctly clipped.

C!ipping on to protection. =o matter ho$ direct the route. here are t$o $ays to accomplish this: determine $hich direction the gate $ill face before the protection or runner is placed or once clipped. o prevent this possibility. %1* Reducing Rope %rag+ !sing Runners. <ent gate carabiners are not recommended for many climbing situations.'. +traight gate ovals or 62s6 are less likely to have this problem and are stronger and are highly recommended. he friction created by rope drag $ill increase to . rotate the carabiner up$ards . If the carabiner is left $ith the gate facing the direction of the route there is a chance that the rope $ill open the gate and unclip itself entirely from the placement. the gate is facing a$ay from the direction of the route.5: degrees. <ent gate carabiners are easier to clip the rope into and are used mostly on routes $ith bolts preplaced for protection. the climber should ensure that after the clip has been made. Figure 6-. the climber $ill often encounter problems $ith 6rope drag6 through the protection positions.leader fall. his problem is more apt to occur if bent gate carabiners are used. it is possible for the rope to run back over the carabiner as the climber falls belo$ the placement.

ope drag can cause confusion $hen belaying the second or follo$er up to a ne$ belay position.ope drag can be mistaken for the climber. o prevent this. inducing a fall. Cinimal rope drag is an inconvenience@ severe rope drag may actually pull the climber off balance. almost straight line as it passes through the carabiners %&igure )(1:*. the placements should be positioned so the rope creates a smooth. . C7ET=63 .some degree every time the rope passes through a carabiner. Figure 6-1*. Ese o# s!ings on protection. It $ill increase dramatically if the rope begins to 6AigAag6 as it travels through the carabiners. or anchor. causing the belayer to not take in the necessary slack in the rope and possibly resulting in a serious fall. .

"tending placements $ith runners $ill allo$ the climber to vary the route slightly $hile the rope continues to run in a relatively straight line. even $hen used 6actively6. All $ired chocks used for . As the climber moves above the placements. it can cause undue movement of protection as the rope tightens bet$een any 6out of line6 placements. .ope drag through chock placements can be dangerous. Figure 6-1). Ese o# s!ings to eBten& p!acement positions. to the protection to e"tend the rope connection in the necessary direction. Cost all chocks placed for leader protection should be e"tended $ith a runner. or runner. you should 6e"tend6 the protection %&igure )(1. . he runner is attached to the protectionUs carabiner $hile the rope is clipped into a carabiner at the other end of the runner. %c* !ired chocks are especially prone to $iggling loose as the rope pulls on the stiff cable attachment.*. 2o this by attaching an appropriate length sling.%a* If it is not possible to place all the protection so the carabiners form a straight line as the rope moves through. an out$ard or up$ard pull from rope drag may cause correctly set chocks to pop out. %b* =ot only is rope drag a hindrance. even if the line is direct to eliminate the possibility of movement.

or 6$alk6 them deeper into the crack than initially placed. resulting in difficult removal or inability to remove them at all. +ome of the larger chocks.. therefore. have longer slings pre( attached that $ill normally serve as an ade#uate runner for the placement. ensuring they are long enough to function properly. Chocks $ith smaller sling attachments must often be e"tended $ith a runner. ry to use the shortest runners possible. %d* !hen a correctly placed piton is used for protection.leader protection should be e"tended to reduce the chance of the rope pulling them out %&igure )(10*. %e* . rope drag through pitons $ill usually only affect the leaderUs movements but $ill continue to protect as e"pected. A correctly placed piton is generally a multi(directional anchor. such as roped /e"entrics and ri(Cams. &urthermore. 3ote4 Any placement e"tended $ith a runner $ill increase the distance of a potential fall by the actual length of the sling. . Cany of todayUs chocks are manufactured $ith pre(se$n $ebbing installed instead of cable. most cases of +BC2 movement result in the +BC2 moving to a position that does not provide protection in the correct direction or no protection at all due to the lobes being at different angles from those at the original position. Ese o# s!ing on a +ire& stopper.ope drag $ill #uite often move +BC2s out of position. it $ill normally not be affected by rope drag. Figure 6-1.

* h. he can. a leader has a variety of responsibilities. the man cleaning the pitch should rack it properly to facilitate the e"change and or arrangement of e#uipment at the end of the pitch. he second can no$ remove the leaderUs belay and prepare to climb.BAI6 to the belayer.BAI D=.6 he second. he removed materials and hard$are can be organiAed and secured on the secondUs rack in preparation to climb. !hen the second is ready.* !hen the leader has established the ne$ belay position and is ready to belay the follo$er.6 and the leader can. &ollo$ing. or 6cleaning the pitch6.6 the belayer must remove and keep all slack from the rope. % his is especially important as in many situations the belayer cannot see the follo$er. the hard$are can remain on the rope until the second . he immediately establishes an anchor and connects to it. !hen removing protection. the 6ne$6 belayer signals 6<. he second must remain attached to at least one of the original anchors $hile the leader is preparing the ne"t belay position. his does not imply there is no danger in follo$ing. he second has to issue commands to the leader. !hen this is completed he can signal 6D&& <. removes any remaining anchor hard$areKmaterials and completes any final preparations. reply $ith 6CBIC<.6 %0* >pon signaling 6<. unless other$ise directed.BAI D=. If necessary. no$ the climber. as $ell as follo$ the leaderUs commands. he belayer maintains tension on the rope. %.f. +harp rocks. rock fall. +BC2s or chocks may be left attached to the rope to prevent loss if they are accidentally dropped during removal. A long pitch induces $eight and sometimes 6drag6 on the rope and the belayer above $ill have difficulty distinguishing these from a rope $ith no slack. g. !hen removing the protection. and inade#uately protected traverses can result in damage to e#uipment or injury to the second. Dnce the lead climber reaches a good belay position. again as a courtesy. $hile the final preparations are taking place. as a courtesy. <elaying the follo$er is similar to belaying a top(roped climb in that the follo$er is not able to fall any farther than rope stretch $ill allo$. signal 6CBIC<I=9. since removal of these remaining anchors can introduce slack into the rope. or seconding.

he belayer simply adjusts his position. the method of aid climbing . giving you the ability to ascend more difficult routes than you can free climb. >nless he re#uires e#uipment from the belayer or desires a break.6 his is normally the most efficient method for climbing multi(pitch routes. Clean aid consists of using +BC2s and chocks. he should signal 6 A?.* he second may need to place full body $eight on the rope to facilitate use of both hands for protection removal by giving the command 6 . $quipment. Dnce the second completes the pitch. he should immediately connect to the anchor. 7i& C!im ing !hen a route is too difficult to free climb and is unavoidable. $hile remaining attached to an anchor. a. If removing a piton. If too much slack develops. re(aiming the belay once the ne$ leader begins placing protection. Dnce secured. or 6leap frogging. he e#uipment is e"changed or organiAed in preparation for the ne"t pitch or climb. the rope should be unclipped from the piton to avoid the possibility of damaging the rope $ith a hammer strike.reaches a more secure stance.BAI. he second finishes cleaning the first pitch and continues climbing. .6 he second must also ensure that he does not climb faster than the rope is being taken in by the belayer. valuable time can be saved by 6s$inging leads.D-.6 should be planned before starting the climb so the leader kno$s to anchor the upper belay for both up$ard and do$n$ard pulls during the setup. and is the simplest form of aid climbing.6 he leader removes the belay. +$inging leads. if the correct e#uipment is available you might aid climb the route.=+ID=. Aid climbing can be accomplished $ith various types of protection. his allo$s you to hang solely on the protection you place. he can climb past the belay and immediately begin leading.egardless of the type of protection used. . taking on the role of lead climber. he can signal 6D&& <.6 and $ait until the e"cess is removed before continuing the climb. %0* !hen the difficulty of the climbing is $ithin the 6leading ability6 of both climbers. %. Aid climbing consists of placing protection and putting full body $eight on the piece.

A constant pounding $ith a hammer on the hand drill or the motoriAed pounding of the po$ered drill may alert the enemy to the position. -lacing bolts creates more noise $hether drilled by hand or by motoriAed drill. A lot of time and $ork is e"pended in a short distance no matter ho$ the hole is drilled.is the same. -iton usage $ill usually leave a scar in the rock just by virtue of the hardness of the piton and the force re#uired to set it $ith a hammer. bolts can be used for aid climbing. -itons are used the same as for free climbing. Consider other forms of protection $hen noise could be haAardous to tactics. % he $eight of a po$ered hammer drill becomes an issue in itself.* =oise $ill also be a factor in both applications. %b* Dther items that can be used instead of the boltKhanger combination are the removable and reusable 6spring(loaded . <olting for aid climbing consists of consecutive bolts about 0 feet apart. the strength of a $ell(placed piton is more secure than most clean aid protection. %0* 'olts. /o$ever. +ince pitons are multidirectional.* Pitons. %a* -lacing bolts for aid climbing takes much more time than using pitons or clean aid. In addition to the e#uipment for free climbing. +$inging a hammer to place pitons $ill lead to climber fatigue sooner than clean aid. <olts used in climbing are a multi(part e"panding system pounded into predrilled holes and then tightened to the desired tor#ue $ith a $rench or other tool. <olts are used in many $ays in climbing today. $ith or $ithout the hanger. %. 2rilling a deep enough hole takes appro"imately thirty minutes $ith a hand drill and up to t$o minutes $ith a po$ered hammer drill. he typical climbing boltKhanger combination normally is left in the hole $here it $as placed. hey are a more permanent form of protection and more time is needed to place them. Cost piton placements $ill re#uire the use of both hands. <olts are used $hen no other protection $ill $ork. he most common use is $ith a hanger attached and placed for anchors in face climbing. other specialiAed e#uipment $ill be needed.

place a loop of cable over the head and onto the shaft of the rivet or bolt and attach a carabiner to the other end of the loop %a stopper $ith the chock slid back $ill suffice*. A fifi hook is a small. %1* S"C%s. At least t$o etriers %aiders* should be connected by carabiner to the free ends of the daisy chains. %'* Chocks. or steps. and some piton siAes that can be pounded into the holes.ivet hangers are available that slide onto the rivet or bolt after it is placed and are easily removed for reuse. %-rusiks can be used but are more difficult than ascenders. Chocks are used the same as for free climbing. he internal loops are large enough to easily place one booted foot into.asy removal means a slight loss of security $hile in use.. although in aid climbing.0 inches. . %7* %aisy Chains.triers %aiders* are tied or prese$n $ebbing loops $ith four to si" tied or prese$n internal loops. %5* -scenders.removable bolts6 such as rivets %he" head threaded bolts siAed to fit tightly into the hole and pounded in $ith a hammer*. %)* Etriers .* . $o daisy chains should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness. he small loops are just large enough for t$o or three carabiners. Ascenders are mechanical devices that $ill move easily in one direction on the rope. but $ill lock in place if pushed or pulled the other direction. smooth(surfaced hook strong enough for body $eight. he fifi hook should be girth(hitched to the tie(in point in the harness and is used in the small loops of the daisy chain. appro"imately every . +BC2s are used the same as for free climbing. $eight is applied to the chock as soon as it is placed. although the fifi hook is simpler and ade#uate. . 2aisy chains are tied or prese$n loops of $ebbing $ith small tied or prese$n loops appro"imately every t$o inches. although in aid climbing. full body $eight is applied to the +BC2 as soon as it is placed.or -iders. A carabiner can be used in place of the fifi hook. %4* (ifi ook. split(shaft rivets. !hen using rivets or bolts $ithout a hanger. .

he big difference is the movement up the rock. Technique.* he leader places the first piece of protection as high as can safely be reached and attaches the appropriate slingKcarabiner %0* Attach one daisy chainKaider group to the ne$ly placed protection %1* Clip the rope into the protection. again.b. this effectively shortens the daisy chain@ maintain tension on the daisy chain as the hook can fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. one at a time. !ith the daisy chains. secure your balance by grasping the top of the aider $ith your hands. &rom this height. %4* . into the steps in the aider.elease one hand from the aider and place the ne"t piece of protection. and fifi hook attached to the rope tie(in point of the harness as stated above. the fifi hook can easily fall out of the daisy chain loop if it is un$eighted. you are no longer supported from above by the daisy chain. the climb continues as follo$s: %. %)* -lace the fifi hook %or substituted carabiner* into the loop of the daisy chain closest to the daisy chainKaider carabiner. aiders. and secured temporarily to a gear loop or gear sling. %the same as for normal lead climbing* %'* Insure the protection is sound by $eighting it gradually@ place both feet. %7* !hen both feet are in the aider. as high as you can comfortably reach@ if using pitons or bolts you . If this happens. As the daisy chain tie(in point on the harness moves above the top of the aider. you could fall the full length of the daisy chain resulting in a static fall on the last piece of protection placed. move up the steps until your $aist is no higher than the top of the aider. but this creates a potential for a fall to occur even though you are on the aider and 6hooked6 close to the protection $ith the daisy chain. you are no$ standing above your support. 3ote4 Coving the $aist higher than the top of the aider is possible. he belay $ill be the same as in normal lead climbing and the rope $ill be routed through the protection the same $ay also.

the belayer $ill need to ascend the route. a serious fall could result. adjust the effective length of the daisy chains $ith a carabiner the same as $ith the fifi hook@ the typical height $ill be enough to hold the attached ascender in the hand at nose level. this $ould normally increase the difficulty of removing protection. o make this easier.epeat entire process until climb is finished c. ascenders are much faster and safer than -rusiks. you $ill have difficulty reaching and maintaining a grip on the handle. repeat this procedure. the arms need not support much body $eight. tie in short on the rope every . !hen your $eight is on the rope above the piece. one at a time. Attach each ascender to a daisy chainKaider group $ith carabiners. Secon&ing.:* .nsure the loops formed by the short tie(ins do not catch on anything belo$ . If the ascender is too high. there $ill be a continuous load on the rope during the cleaning of the route. and rest your upper body on the daisy chain that you have 6shortened6 $ith the fifi hook %5* Clip the rope into the protection %8* Attach the other daisy chainKaider group to the ne"t piece of protection %. After ascending another 0: feet. !hen adjusted to the correct height. move the ascenders.may need both hands free( 6lean6 back$ards slo$ly.:(0: feet by tying a figure eight loop and clipping it into the harness $ith a separate locking carabiner as soon as the ascent is started. as you approach the protection on the ascenders. !hen the pitch is completed. 3otes4 .. o prevent this possibility. . o adjust the ma"imum reachKheight of the ascenders on the rope. Clear each knot as you unclip it. use ascenders instead of -rusiks.* >nlike lead climbing. o ascend the route. C7ET=63 If both ascenders should fail $hile ascending the pitch. you can easily unclip and remove the protection. above the piece. 2o not unclip the previous figure eight until the ne$ knot is attached to another locking carabiner. %.

his type of aid climbing $ill normally leave no trace of the climb $hen completed. As the second moves to the beginning of the traverse. %keep the ascenders attached to the daisy chainKaider group for convenience $hen the traverse ends*. the climber is hanging on the protection placed in front of the current position. !hen climbing the aiders on clean aid protection. he hook . !hile leading an aid traverse. If the second $ere to clean the section by hanging on the rope $hile cleaning. /ooks are just $hat the name implies. hooks. /o$ever. he second $ill negotiate the traverse by leapfrogging the daisy chainKaider groups on the ne"t protection just as the leader did. the protection $ill be pulled in more than one direction. d. possibly resulting in the protection failing. e. a curved piece of hard steel $ith a hole in one end for $ebbing attachment. ensure the protection does not 6move6 from itUs original position. his is in effect a self(belay. formed by tying in at the end of the rope. Cleaning is accomplished by removing the protection as it is passed $hen all $eight is removed from it. do not tie into the end of the rope. he second can be belayed from above as the second 6climbs6 the protection. %. Clean aid climbing consists of using protection placed $ithout a hammer or drill involvement: chocks. Secon&ing Through a Tra2erse.* /ooks are any device that rests on the rock surface $ithout a camming or gripping action. and other protection placed easily by hand. If the nature of the rock $ill cause the 6hanging loop6 of rope. o make this safer and easier. he second maintains a shorter safety tie(in on the rope than for vertical movement to reduce the possibility of a lengthy pendulum if the protection should pull before intended. the second should hang on the protection just as the leader did. C!ean 7i& C!im ing. 0.as you ascend. %0* +econding an aid pitch can be done in a similar fashion as seconding free(climbed pitches. one ascenderKdaisy chainKaider group is removed from the rope and clipped to the protection $ith a carabiner. +BC2s. the rope is unclipped from the protection before the aiderKdaisy chain is attached. to get caught as you move up$ard.

7:(foot rope $ould re#uire si" belays for three climbers. a. At times a three(man climb may be unavoidable and personnel should be familiar $ith the procedure. Three-:an C!im ing Team Dften times a movement on steep terrain $ill re#uire a team of more than t$o climbers. If the climb is only one pitch. It takes at least t$ice as long to climb an average length pitch because of the third climber and the e"tra belaying re#uired. a forty foot fall could result. A four(man team %or more* more than doubles the difficulty found in three men climbing together. although bolts can be used. he distance bet$een belay positions $ill be halved if only one rope is used because one climber must tie in at the middle of the rope. are only secure $hile $eighted by the climber. $o ropes are recommended for a team of three climbers. C7ET=63 !hen climbing $ith a team of three. $hich involves more difficulties. protected traverses . %0* +ome featureless sections of rock can be negotiated $ith hook use. 3ote4 ime and complications $ill increase $hen a three(man team uses only one rope.blade shape $ill vary from one model to another. some have curved or notched 6blades6 to better fit a certain crystal shape on a face placement. &or e"ample: a . A four(man team should be broken do$n into t$o groups of t$o unless prevented by a severe lack of gear. /ook usage is faster and #uieter but the margin of safety is not there unless hooks are alternated $ith more active forms of protection. a three(man team is at a disadvantage on a steep.::(foot climb $ith a . the methods $ill vary. belayed climb.::(foot climb $ith a . If the last t$enty foot section of a route is negotiated $ith hooks. 9iven one rope.7:(foot rope $ould normally re#uire t$o belays for t$o climbers@ a . b. Although a team of three may choose from many different methods. only t$o are described belo$. hese types of devices due to their passive application.

he second. !hen number 1 receives 6<.* he first method can be used $hen the belay positions are not large enough for three men. =umber 1 $ill be the last to climb. he se#uence for this method %in one pitch increments* is as follo$s %repeated until the climb is complete*: %a* =umber . /e should not have to change anchor attachments because the position $as already aimed for a do$n$ard as $ell as an up$ard pull $hen he belayed the leader. !hen the leader completes this pitch. !hen the pitch is completed he secures himself to one of number 0Us belay anchors. and the other t$o climbers $ill each tie in to the other ends. climber. or number . he sets up the ne"t belay and belays number 0 up. each climber should be skilled in the belay techni#ues re#uired. ascends belayed by number 0. !hen number 0 receives 6D&& <. !hen number . the second $ill tie in at one end of both ropes.Us . or number 0 climber.6 he removes his anchor and climbs to number 0Us position.BAI6 from the leader.BAI D=. %b* =umber 0 ascends belayed by number . If using one rope. he changes ropes and puts number 1 on belay. is the stronger of the remaining t$o and $ill be the belayer for both number . =umber 0 returns the hard$are to the leader and belays him up the ne"t pitch. !hen using t$o ropes. he e#uipment used to protect the traverse must be left in place to protect both the second and third climbers. t$o climbers tie in at each end and the other at the mid point. %. and number 1.. Although the number 1 climber does no belaying in this method. he most e"perienced individual is the leader. !hen the leader completes the pitch. he again sets up a ne$ belay. =umber 0 belays the leader up the first pitch $hile number 1 is simply anchored to the rock for security %unless starting off at ground level* and manages the rope bet$een himself and number 0. and cleans the route %e"cept for traverses*. %c* =umber 1 ascends belayed by number 0.$ill re#uire additional time.

he $ill trail a second rope or $ill be tied in $ith a figure eight in the middle of a doubled rope. he ropes must travel through the belay device%s* $ithout affecting each other. /e climbs $hen told to do so by number 0. his re#uires either a special belay device that accepts t$o ropes. Dne remaining climber $ill start the ascent to$ard the leader and the other $ill start $hen a gap of at least .: feet is created bet$een the t$o climbers. he rope should be located so it does not contact any sharp edges. he rope to the ascending number 1 could be secured to a separate anchor. the rope $ill be loaded $ith number 1Us $eight. he leader reaches the ne"t belay position and establishes the anchor and then places both remaining climbers on belay. he standard rope commands are used@ ho$ever. $ith no effect on the other t$o members of the team. number 1 performs no belay function. and number 0 and number 1 climb simultaneously. his $ould save time for a team of three. he remains anchored to the rock for security. he brings up number 0 $hile number 1 remains anchored for security. but this $ould re#uire additional time and gear. %0* he second method uses either t$o ropes or a doubled rope. %d* =ormally. to the ne"t belay or climbing to number . such as the tuber type. If number 1 is to ascend a fi"ed rope to the ne"t belay position. since number 0 $ould not have to belay number 1 and could be either belaying number . the number 1 climber could ascend a fi"ed rope to number 0Us belay position using proper ascending techni#ue. and positioned directly off the anchors established for the belay.. only one climber $ould be climbing at a time@ ho$ever. or $ith t$o Cunter hitches. he belayer $ill have to remain alert for differences . !hen number 1 is not climbing. %d* In this method.belay is ready. the number 0 climber may include the trailing climberUs name or number in the commands to avoid confusion as to $ho should be climbing. %a* As the leader climbs the pitch. =umber 0 again cleans the pitch and the procedure is continued until the climb is completed.

leaders can be assured that even a unit with limited mountain s0ills and e)perience will be able to successfully move and operate in terrain that would otherwise have been impassable.ope A fi"ed rope is a rope anchored in place to assist soldiers in movement over difficult terrain. he use of harnesses. and safer. prevent a unit from accomplishing its mission. Coving on a fi"ed rope re#uires minimal e#uipment. he belayer $ill have additional re#uirements to meet as opposed to having just one second. %b* /aving at least t$o e"perienced climbers in this team $ill also save time.ope =nsta!!ations "bstacles on the battlefield today are inevitable.in rope movement and the climbers $ill have to climb at the same speed. but staying on route $ill usually prevent a possible s$ing if stance is not maintained. faster. even worse. but adds to total mission $eight.&ope +ridge H Suspension Traverse H /ertical Hauling 0ine H Simple &aising S"stems FiBe& . he possible force on the anchor $ill be t$ice that of one second. Dne of the 6second6 climbers also cleans the pitch. As terrain becomes steeper or more difficult. H )i. =nsta!!ation .ed &ope H &appelling H -ne. with highly s0illed personnel trained on rope installations. Its simplest form is a rope tied off on the top of steep terrain. and other technical gear makes fi"ed rope movement easier. he second that is not cleaning the pitch can climb off route. . However. 'hey can limit the battlefield and. fi"ed rope systems may re#uire intermediate anchors along the route. ascenders.

Eti!i@ation All personnel using the fi"ed rope grasp the rope $ith the palm do$n$ard and use it for assistance as they ascend the slope %&igure 4(. he leader must have the necessary e#uipment to rig the anchor at the top of the pitch. autoblock*. Esing a #iBe& rope. . he $ill stack and manage the rope. t$o e"perienced climbers rope up for a roped climb. Figure 7-). >pon reaching the end of the pitch. he friction knot used in this manner is referred to as a self(belay %&igure 4(0*. An individual can easily prevent a long fall by attaching himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot %for e"ample.o install a fi"ed rope. -rusik.*. he second unties from his end of the rope and begins to climb. /e ensures the rope runs smoothly up the slope and does not get tangled as the climber ascends. the second $ill clean the pitch on his $ay up. he second $ill establish a belay if protection is being placed. Dnce the anchor is rigged. If the leader placed protection. If the climber slips and loses control of the rope. he knot is slid along the rope as the individual ascends. the leader $ill establish the top anchor. Although leader protection is usually not needed on a typical slope. the friction knot $ill grab the rope and arrest the fall. Dther$ise. /e $ill anchor the installation rope and remain tied into the rope. the leader $ill take up any remaining slack bet$een himself and the second. additional hard$are can be brought along and placed at the leaderUs discretion.

he climber no$ can easily free the rope if it gets caught on anything as it is taken up from the belayer. the last climber $ill tie into the rope and be belayed from above. he independent sections allo$ for more personnel to move on the fi"ed rope. Esing a se!#. his type of fi"ed rope is commonly used along e"posed ridges and narro$ mountain passes. . Intermediate anchor points should also be used on any long routes that e"ceed the length of a single rope.e!ay. If not. it can be left in place and recovered after the last rappel. .ope (ith =nterme&iate 7nchors !henever the route varies from the fall line of the slope. FiBe& .etrie2a! If the fi"ed rope is to be used on the descent.Figure 7-.. the fi"ed rope must be anchored at intermediate anchor points %&igure 4(1*. he use of intermediate anchor points creates independent sections and allo$s for changes in direction from one section to the ne"t.

a. he route they select must have the follo$ing characteristics: • • • • Cost suitable location. he second sets up a standard belay.Figure 7-1. =nsta!!ation. FiBe& rope +ith interme&iate anchors. avoids obstacles. ease of negotiation. actical considerations are met. . Area is safe from falling rock or ice. $o e"perienced climbers prepare for a roped climb. he leader $ill carry a typical rack $ith enough hard$are to place an ade#uate number of intermediate anchor points. Availability of anchors %natural and artificial*.

he self(belay $ill protect the second as he climbs and fi"es the rope to the intermediate anchor points. .ope crossovers should be avoided. double figure(eight*. /e then takes the slack out of the section belo$ the anchor point.• • A rope routed bet$een knee and chest height %$aist high preferred*.* he leader places an anchor at all points $here a change of direction occurs. %. !hen he reaches an anchor point. /e then attaches the rope using an anchor knot %for e"ample. /e attaches himself to the rope $ith a sling using a friction knot to create a self(belay. he $ill place the anchors and route the climbing rope as in a typical roped climb. /e then takes up any e"cess slack. %0* !hen the leader reaches the end of the pitch. 3ote4 +ling attachments should be kept as short and snug as possible to ensure that a load on the fi"ed rope belo$ the anchor is placed only on that anchor. middle(of(the(rope clove hitch. his $ill prevent one section from affecting another section. .nough slack must be left in the rope so the second can tie the knots necessary to fi" the rope. As the leader climbs the route. 3ote4 . and attaches the rope to the anchor. he second then moves to ne"t anchor point and repeats the process. /e should use a sling to anchor himself if there is any chance of slipping and falling. he temporarily anchors the rope. he leader makes use of any available natural anchors. /e also makes every attempt to route the rope so personnel $ill not have to cross back and forth over the rope bet$een sections. /e ensures that the fi"ed rope $ill be appro"imately knee to chest level as climbers negotiate the installation. he unclips the climbing rope so he can advance the self(belay beyond the anchor point. %1* he second unties from the rope and anchors it at the bottom.

%'* If a long runner is to be used at any anchor point, the second should adjust the section belo$ it so the runner is oriented in the direction $here the load or pull on the anchor $ill come from. his $ill help isolate the section. %7* he sections are normally adjusted fairly snug bet$een anchor points. A slack section may be necessary to move around obstacles in the route or large bulges in the terrain. If clove hitches are used, adjusting the clove hitches at each end of the section can leave any amount of slack. %)* A middle(of(the(rope -rusik safetied $ith a figure eight may be used $hen utility ropes are available. hese are used to adjust the rope height %either higher or lo$er*. %4* In addition to the fi"ed rope, the second could anchor etriers to be used as footholds. %5* !hen the second reaches the end of the pitch, the rope is removed from the top anchor and the remaining slack is removed from the last section. he rope is reattached to the anchor. If additional fi"ed rope is re#uired the procedure is repeated using another rope. he second $ill tie the ropes together before anchoring the ne"t section, creating one continuous fi"ed rope. b. Eti!i@ation. -ersonnel should be attached to the fi"ed rope during movement for safety reasons. %.* If a self(belay is desired, a harness should be $orn. A friction knot $ill be tied to the installation rope using a short sling. he sling $ill then be attached to the harness. Another short sling $ill be used as a safety line. Dne end of the sling $ill be attached to the harness and the other $ill have a carabiner inserted. his safety line is also attached to the fi"ed rope during movement. Dnce the climber reaches an anchor point, he removes his safety line and attaches it to the anchor or attaches it to the ne"t section of rope. /e $ill then untie the friction knot and tie another friction knot beyond the anchor point. he use of a mechanical ascender in the place of the friction knot could greatly speed up movement.

%0* here $ill be many situations $here a self(belay may not be re#uired. In these situations an individual may attach himself to the fi"ed rope using only a safety line. he individual $ill tie into the middle of a sling rope appro"imately .0 feet long. &i"ed loops are tied into the running ends and a carabiner is attached into each of the fi"ed loops. he individual no$ has t$o points of attachments to the fi"ed rope. >pon reaching an anchor point, one safety line is removed and advanced beyond the anchor point onto the ne"t section. hen the ne"t safety is removed and placed on the ne"t section. his $ay the individual is al$ays secured to the fi"ed rope at all times. %1* -ersonnel $ill move one at a time per section during the entire movement. Dnce an individual changes over to the ne"t section he signals the ne"t man to climb. !hen descending on the fi"ed rope, personnel can do$n climb using the installation for assistance. Another option $ould be to descend using a hasty rappel. c. ,etrie2a!. !hen the installation is retrieved, the ne"t to last man on the system $ill untie the knots at the intermediate anchor points and reclips the rope as he ascends. /e $ill be attached to rope using a self(belay. Dnce he reaches the top of the pitch, the rope should be running the same as $hen the leader initially placed it. he last man $ill untie the rope from the bottom anchor and tie into the rope. /e $ill the clean the pitch as he climbs $hile being belayed from above. ,appe!!ing !hen an individual or group must descend a vertical surface #uickly, a rappel may be performed. ;appelling is a #uick method of descent but it is e"tremely dangerous. hese dangers include anchor failure, e#uipment failure, and individual error. Anchors in a mountainous environment should be selected carefully. 9reat care must be taken to load the anchor slo$ly and to ensure that no e"cessive stress is placed on the anchor. o ensure this, bounding rappels should be prohibited, and only $alk do$n rappels used. Constant vigilance to every detail $ill guarantee a safe descent every time. Se!ection o# a ,appe! 9oint

he selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition %loose or jagged rocks*. here must be good anchors %primary and secondary*. he anchor point should be above the rappellerUs departure point. +uitable loading and off(loading platforms should be available. =nsta!!ation o# the ,appe! 9oint A rappel lane should have e#ual tension bet$een all anchor points by establishing primary and secondary anchor points. he rappel rope should not e"tend if one anchor point fails. he follo$ing methods of establishing an anchor can be performed $ith a single or double rope. A double rope application should be used $hen possible for safety purposes. a. If a rappel lane is less than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* 2ouble the rope and tie a three(loop bo$line around the primary anchor to include the primary anchor inside t$o loops and enough rope in the third loop to run to the secondary anchor %another three(loop bo$line secured $ith an overhand knot*. %0* <o$line secured $ith an overhand knot %or any appropriate anchor knot*. %1* 2ouble the rope and establish a self(e#ualiAing anchor system $ith a three(loop bo$line or any other appropriate anchor knot b. If a rappel lane is greater than half the rope length, the climber may apply one of the follo$ing techni#ues: %.* >se t$o ropes. !ith both ropes, tie a round turn anchor bo$line around a primary anchor point. ake the remaining rope %the tail from the primary anchor bo$line* and tie another round turn anchor bo$line to a secondary anchor point. he secondary anchor point should be in a direct line behind the primary anchor point. he anchor can be either natural or artificial.

%0* >se t$o ropes. ,stablish a multi(point anchor system using a bo$line on a bight or any other appropriate anchor knot. c. +ituations may arise $here, due to the length of the rappel, the rappel rope cannot be tied to the anchor %if the rope is used to tie the knots, it $ill be too short to accomplish the rappel*. he follo$ing techni#ues can be used: %.* !hen using a natural anchor, tie a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, or another rope around the anchor using proper techni#ues for slinging natural anchors. he rappel rope $ill have a fi"ed loop tied in one end, $hich is attached to the anchor created. %0* !hen using an artificial anchor, tie off a sling rope, piece of $ebbing, runner, or another rope to form a loop. >se this loop to create an e#ualiAing or pre(e#ualiAed anchor, to $hich the rappel rope $ill be attached. 6peration o# the ,appe! 9oint 2ue to the inherent dangers of rappelling, special care must be taken to ensure a safe and successful descent. a. Communication. Climbers at the top of a rappel point must be able to communicate $ith those at the bottom. 2uring a tactical rappel, radios, hand signals, and rope signals are considered. &or training situations use the commands sho$n in able 4(..

C6::73D BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= ;A--,B BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D= <,BAI

<=A$3 %D ;appeller

:$73=3< I am ready to begin rappelling. I am on belay and you may begin your rappel.

<elayer

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& ;A--,B

;appeller

I have completed the rappel, cleared the rappel lane, and am off the rope. I am off belay.

BA=, =>C<,; XXX, D&& <,BAI

<elayer

Ta !e 7-). ,appe! comman&s. 3otes4 .. 0. In a training environment, the lane number must be understood. In a tactical situation, a series of tugs on the rope may be substituted for the oral commands to maintain noise discipline. he number of tugs used to indicate each command is IA! the unit +D-.

b. Duties an& ,esponsi i!ities. %.* 2uties of the rappel point commander are as follo$s:
• •

,nsures that the anchors are sound and the knots are properly tied. ,nsures that loose rock and debris are cleared from the loading platform.

Allo$s only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run orderly.

,nsures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel: gloves on, sleeves do$n, helmet $ith chin strap fastened, gear prepared properly, and rappel seat and knots correct %if re#uired*. /e also ensures that the rappeller is hooked up to the rope correctly and is a$are of the proper braking position.

• • •

,nsures that the proper signals or commands are used. 2ispatches each man do$n the rope. Is the last man do$n the rope.

%0* 2uties of the first rappeller do$n are as follo$s:
• • •

+elects a smooth route, for the rope, that is clear of sharp rocks. Conducts a self(belay. Clears the route, placing loose rocks far enough back on ledges to be out of the $ay, $hich the rope may dislodge.

,nsures the rope reaches the bottom or is at a place from $hich additional rappels can be made.

,nsures that the rope $ill run freely around the rappel point $hen pulled from belo$.

Clears the rappel lane by straightening all t$ists and tangles from the ropes.

<elays subse#uent rappellers do$n the rope or monitors subse#uent belayers

akes charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom %off(loading platform*.

3ote4

A rappeller is al$ays belayed from the bottom, e"cept for the first man do$n. he first man belays himself do$n the rope using a self(belay attached to his rappel seat, $hich is hooked to the rappel rope $ith a friction knot. As the first man rappels do$n the rope, he 6$alks6 the friction knot do$n $ith him. %1* ,ach rappeller do$n clears the ropes, and shouts, 6Dff rappel,6 %if the tactical situation permits*. After the rope is cleared and the rappeller is off rappel, he acts as the belayer for ne"t rappeller. %'* +oldiers $ear gloves for all types of rappels to protect their hands from rope burns. %7* ;appellers descend in a smooth, controlled manner. %)* he body forms an B(shape $ith the feet shoulder($idth apart, legs straight, and buttocks parallel to the ground. !hen carrying e#uipment or

additional $eight, a modified B(shape is used $ith the legs slightly lo$er than the buttocks to compensate for the additional $eight. he rappellerUs back is straight. /e looks over the brake shoulder. he guide hand is e"tended on the rope $ith the elbo$ e"tended and locked. he rope slides freely through the guide hand. he guide hand is used to adjust e#uipment and assist balance during descent. he rappeller grasps the rope firmly $ith the brake hand and places it in the brake position. ;eleasing tension on the rope and moving the brake hand regulates the rate of descent. he rappeller never lets go of the ropes $ith his brake hand until the rappel is complete. c. Tying 6## During the ,appe!. It may be necessary to stop during descent. his can be accomplished by passing the rope around the body and placing three or more $raps around the guide(hand(side leg, or by tying off using the appropriate knot for the rappel device. ,eco2ery o# the ,appe! 9oint After almost all personnel have descended, only t$o personnel $ill remain at the top of the rappel point. hey $ill be responsible for establishing a retrievable rappel. a. $sta !ishing the ,etrie2a !e ,appe!. o set up a retrievable rappel point, a climber must apply one of the follo$ing methods: %.* 2ouble the rope $hen the rappel is less than half the total length of the rope. -lace the rope, $ith the bight formed by the midpoint, around the primary anchor. Eoin the tails of the rappel rope and thro$ the rope over the cliff. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner, just belo$ the anchor point, $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. !hen the rappeller reaches the bottom, he pulls on that portion of the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. %0* !hen the length of the rappel is greater than half the length of the rope used, join t$o ropes around the anchor point $ith an appropriate joining knot %e"cept the s#uare knot*. Adjust the joining knot so that it is a$ay

from the anchor. ie a clove hitch around a carabiner just belo$ the anchor point $ith the locking bar outside the carabiner a$ay from the gate opening end and facing uphill. +nap the opposite standing portion into the carabiner. >pon completion of the rappel, pull the rope to $hich the carabiner is secured to allo$ the rope to slide around the anchor point. 3otes4 .. 0. !hen setting up a retrievable rappel, use only a primary point@ care is taken in selecting the point. ,nsure the soldiers have a safety line $hen approaching the rappel point, $ith only the rappeller going near the edge.

b. ,etrie2ing the ,appe! ,ope. he ne"t to last rappeller $ill descend the lane, removing any t$ists, and routes the rope for easiest retrieval. Dnce he reaches the end of the rappel, he tests the rope for retrieval. If the rappel is retrievable, the last man $ill rappel do$n. Dnce he is off rappel, he pulls the lane do$n. Types o# ,appe!s 2uring military mountaineering operations, many types of rappels may be used. he follo$ing paragraphs describe some these rappels. a. -asty ,appe! %&igure 4('*. he hasty rappel is used only on moderate pitches. Its main advantage is that it is easier and faster than other methods. 9loves are $orn to prevent rope burns. %.* &acing slightly side$ays to the anchor, the rappeller places the ropes horiAontally across his back. he hand nearest to the anchor is his guide hand, and the other is the brake hand. %0* o stop, the rappeller brings his brake hand across in front of his body locking the rope. At the same time, he turns to face up to$ard the anchor point.

/e then pulls the rope from behind. and his back straight to reduce friction. he <2> collar is turned up to prevent rope burns on the neck. 9loves are $orn. and back over the opposite shoulder. the rappeller leans back and faces directly to$ard the rock area so his feet are horiAontal to the ground. /e keeps his legs spread $ell apart and relatively straight for lateral stability. $hich is on the same side of the hip that the rope crosses %for e"ample. . the right hip to the left shoulder to the right hand*. he foot corresponding to the brake hand precedes the guide hand at all times. &rom there. and other clothing may be used to pad the shoulders and buttocks. o brake. and runs it around either hip. -asty rappe!. the rope runs to the brake hand. he rappeller faces the anchor point and straddles the rope. /e must lean out at a sharp angle to the rock. he rappeller keeps the guide hand on the rope above him to guide himself((not to brake himself.appe! %&igure 4(7*.Figure 7-4. he rappeller leads $ith the brake hand do$n and faces slightly side$ays. diagonally across the chest. %o&y . b.

appe! %&igure 4()*. Seat--ip . he seat rappel differs from the body rappel in that the friction is absorbed by a carabiner that is inserted in a sling rope seat and fastened to the rappeller. 0.Figure 7-5. /asty rappels and body rappels are not belayed from belo$. /asty rappels and body rappels are not used on pitches that have overhangs@ feet must maintain surface contact. . c.. his method provides a faster and more frictional descent than other methods. %o&y rappe!. 3otes4 . 9loves can be $orn to prevent rope burns.

Any remaining slack is pulled to$ard the uphill anchor point. &ace the anchor point and descend using the upper hand as the guide and the lo$er hand as the brake. %0* o hook up for the seat(hip method. %. stand to the right of the rappel rope. If a single rope is used. Boose clothing or e#uipment around the $aist may be accidentally pulled . his method has minimal friction. /o$ever. his helps to keep the rappel rope a$ay from the harness.Figure 7-6. and is fast and safe. stand to one side of the rope. repeat this process to place t$o round turns around the shaft of the locking carabiner. Seat-hip rappe!.* An alternate techni#ue is to insert t$o carabiners opposite and opposed. care is taken that the rope is hooked correctly into the carabiner to avoid the gate being opened by the rope. -lace the rappel rope%s* into the locking carabiner@ slack is taken bet$een the locking carabiner and anchor point and $rapped around the shaft of the locking carabiner and placed into the gate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the locking carabiner %&igure 4(4*. If using a right(hand brake. hen run the rope through the single carabiner. hen insert a locking carabiner into the t$o carabiners $ith opening gate on brake hand side. stand to the left of the rappel rope facing the anchor@ if using a left(hand brake.

&or this reason. he brake is applied by moving the brake hand to the rear or do$n$ard. Figure 7-7. %Bess friction re#uires more braking force from the rappeller. 9roper hookup using cara iner +rap. place the original bight into the carabiner and not around the neck of the descender. he figure(eight descender puts less kinks in the rope. .* o use the figure(eight descender. -lace the small eye into a locking carabiner. o reduce the amount of friction on the figure(eight. pass a bight through the large eye and then over the small eye onto the neck.* %0* he guide hand goes on the rope that is running from the anchor. and it can be used $ith one or t$o ropes %&igure 4(5*. %. Figure-$ight Descen&er. the rappeller must tuck in his shirt and keep his e#uipment out of the $ay during his descent.into the locking carabiner and lock %stop* the rappel. d. he brake hand goes on the slack rope.

. Figure-eight &escen&er. 6ther De2ices. Cany different types of devices are similar in design and operation to the basic plate. f. Se!#-%e!ay Techniques. preventing accidental damage %&igure 4(8*. A friction knot can be used as a belay for a rappeller %&igure 4(8*. Cost of these devices can accommodate t$o ropes not greater than 4K. &ollo$ manufacturerUs directions for using these devices for rappelling. $Bten&ing the . e. he knot acts as a belay if the rappeller loses control of the rope. d.) of an inch in siAe. hese include slots or plates and tubers.appe! De2ice.Figure 7-". he rappel device can be e"tended using either a piece of $ebbing or cordage to move the device a$ay from the body and the harness. he knot acts as the brake hand $hen the rappeller must $ork or negotiate an obstacle re#uiring the use of both hands. It also allo$s for easier self( belay.

A one(rope bridge may be built many $ays.e!ay. he rope is anchored $ith an anchor knot on the far side of the obstacle and is tied off at the near end $ith a tightening system. depends on the techni#ue. they all share common elements to safely construct and use the bridge: t$o suitable anchors@ good loading and unloading platforms@ a rope about . or $hether an anchor knot or retrievable bo$line is used. !hich side the tightening system is utiliAed.ope %ri&ge he one(rope bridge is constructed using a static rope. depending upon the tactical situation and area to be crossed %crossing a gorge above the tree line may re#uire constructing artificial anchors*.( meter %$aist* high for loading and unloading@ a tightening system@ and a rope tight enough for ease of crossing.Figure 7-'. . /o$ever. 6ne-. $Bten&e& hookup +ith se!#.

$iremanUs. . the s$immer must be belayed across. his system is kno$n as a transport(tightening system %&igure 4(. soldiers route the remainder of the rope around the near side anchor point and hook the rope into the carabiner. he man on the far side pulls the knot out four to si" feet from the near anchor. the far side man anchors the rope using a tensionless anchor. At that time. Dnce the knot has been pulled out. c. he opening gate must be up and a$ay from the loop. he site must also have suitable loading and off(loading platforms to facilitate safe personnel movement. If t$o carabiners are used. If crossing a ravine or gorge. are al$ays preferred. Dne man on the near side ties a fi"ed(loop knot %for e"ample. figure(eight slip knot* appro"imately 1 feet from the near side anchor and places the carabiner into the loop of the knot. =nsta!!ation Esing Transport Tightening System he transport tightening system provides a mechanical advantage $ithout re#uiring additional e#uipment. If crossing a stream. he rope must first be anchored on the far side of the obstacle. crossing may involve rappelling and a roped climb. he anchor should be $aist high. =atural anchors. such as large trees and solid rock formations. hese anchors must be e"tremely strong due to the amount of tension that $ill be placed upon them. a. Dnce across. the gates $ill be opposing.:. b.Site Se!ection A suitable crossing site must have 6bombproof6 anchors on both the near side and far side. the s$immerKclimber $ill temporarily anchor the installation rope.

e. 3ote4 =o more than three personnel should be used to tighten the rope. he rope the can be secured using one of three methods: transport knot %&igure 4(. d. .Figure 7-)*. A three(man pull team on the near side pulls the slack out of the installation rope. round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight %&igure 4(.. Transport tightening system. or a tensionless anchor knot %&igure 4(.1*.*. >sing more personnel can over(tighten the rope and bring the rope critically close to failure.0*. he knot should be close enough to the near side anchor to allo$ personnel to easily load the installation.

oun& turn aroun& anchor an& t+o ha!# hitches on a ight. Transport knot . Figure 7-). . .Figure 7-))..

Dnce across. the far side man anchors the rope.:. Tension!ess anchor knot. . b. ?leimheist* $ith a sling rope onto the bridging rope on the near side bank. 3ote4 2uring training. Dne soldier ties a friction knot %autoblock. thus having a backup in case of failure of the tighter rope. $eb $rap.Figure 7-)1. a second static rope may be installed under less tension and alongside the tight rope to increase safety.'* is another method for gaining a mechanical advantage. $o steel carabiners are inserted $ith opposing gates into the friction knot. a. c. =nsta!!ation Esing F-9u!!ey Tightening System he V(pulley tightening system %&igure 4(. An individual $ould clip into both ropes $hen crossing. he rope is brought across the obstacle the same $ay as discussed in paragraph 4(.

one man pushes the friction knot back to$ard the far side. g. transport knot. As the rope is pulled tight. e.d. Eti!i@ation he rope bridge can be used to move personnel and e#uipment over obstacles. from inside to outside. he three(man pull team on the near side then pulls on the rope. Figure 7-)4. and is run back to the near side anchor. creating a pulley effect that tightens the system. his knot $ill be used as a progress capture device. F-pu!!ey tightening system. . he rope is routed around the near side anchor and through the carabiners. or round turn around anchor and t$o half hitches on a bight. A second sling rope is tied to the bridge rope and then anchored to the near side anchor. here are several methods of accomplishing this. !hen the rope is tight. f. it is tied off $ith a tensionless anchor knot.

-referably. all soldiers $ill tie a safety line and attach it to the rope installation as they cross. he soldier lies on top of the rope $ith the upstream foot hooked on the rope and the knee bent close to the buttocks@ the do$nstream leg hangs straight to maintain balance. Comman&o cra+!.* Commando Cra&l %&igure 4(. If dry crossing is impossible. and pull the rucksack across. attach it to the bridge. he may $ear it over both shoulders. and then pushes do$n $ith the other hand to regain position. he soldier hangs belo$ the rope suspended by his hands $ith both heels crossed over the rope. %.7*.)*. and pushes $ith his feet to make progress. o recover if he falls over. /e progresses by pulling $ith his hands and arms. and yrolean traverse. If a dry crossing is possible soldiers $ill use one of three methods: commando cra$l. . :etho& o# Crossing. although the preferred method is to place another carabiner into the top of the rucksack frame. /e pulls $ith his hands and arms. +oldiers $ill al$ays cross on the do$nstream side of the installation. soldiers $ill use the rope bridge as a hand line. If the soldier must cross $ith his rucksack. 3ote4 Dnly one man at a time is allo$ed on the bridge $hile conducting a commando cra$l. monkey cra$l. %0* Monkey Cra&l %&igure 4(. the soldier hooks one leg and the opposite arm over the rope. Figure 7-)5.a.

a carabiner is inserted into the frame and attached to the rope bridge. he soldier ties a rappel seat %or dons a seat harness* $ith the carabiner facing up and a$ay from his body. he rappel seat method is the preferred method.4*. :onkey cra+!. . he soldier the places one or both legs through the shoulder carrying straps and pulls the rucksack across. If crossing $ith rucksacks. /e then faces the rope and clips into the rope bridge.appe! seat metho&. %1* Rappel Seat Method %&igure 4(. Figure 7-)7.Figure 7-)6. . /e rotates under the rope and pulls $ith his hands and arms to make progress.

Any special e#uipment. hen tie t$o evenly spaced fi"ed loops. An additional rope is brought across the rope bridge and anchored to the far side. and carabiners. -au!ing 8ine A hauling line may be used to move rucksacks or casualties across the rope bridge %&igure 4(. but many e"pedient methods e"ist. he other end is anchored on the near side. cordage %various siAes*. or supplies. such as cre$(served $eapons. ABIC. All the slack is pulled to the near side. must be rigged for movement across the rope bridge. -au!ing !ine.b. he rigging should use various items that $ould be readily available to a deployed unit. Additional tie do$ns may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the $eapon. packs can be joined together $ith a sling to facilitate moving more than one rucksack at one time. . a. ammunition. %. . &inally.may dictate the rigging of these items. A unit +D. o rig machine guns.5*. Construction. +ome of these items include tubular nylon $ebbing. and a figure(eight slip knot is tied at the loading platform. A carabiner is inserted into the loop and clipped onto the rope bridge. use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure(eight around the spine of the front sight post. Figure 7-)".* Machine /uns. anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun.igging Specia! $quipment. %0* -"0CE Packs.

emove the slack bet$een the carabiners.etrie2a! Dnce all e"cept t$o troops have crossed the rope bridge. he should have anchored his tightening system $ith the transport knot. he carabiner of the hauling line $ill remain on the rope bridge. he same techni#ue used for the rucksacks is used to pull the litter across. :o2ing . and then moves across the bridge using the yrolean traverse method. -ersonnel on the far side pull the rucksacks across using the hauling line $hile personnel on the near side manages the slack at all times.* he < C back(stacks all of the slack coming out of the transport knot. he rope should no$ only pass around the near side anchor. using the hauling line tie a middle(of(the( rope clove hitch around both of the horiAontal lift straps of the litter. takes the end brought across by the ne"t to last man and pulls the rope tight again and holds it. Dn each side of this carabiner. %7* he < C then attaches himself to the rope bridge and moves across. the bridge team commander %< C* chooses either the $et or dry method to dismantle the rope bridge. hen place the carabiners in each of the lift straps onto the rope bridge.ucksacks. %'* A three(man pull team. >se carabiners to attach the rucksack frames to the rope bridge. . he far side remains anchored. a. hen clip the carabiner of the hauling line into the carabiner of the rucksack closest to the far side.b. If the < C chooses the dry method. . c. then ties a fi"ed loop and places a carabiner into the fi"ed loop. %. :o2ing 8itters. . %1* he < C then removes all knots from the system. %0* he ne"t to last man to cross attaches the carabiner to his rappel seat or harness. assembled on the far side.

Figure 7-)'. If the < C chooses a $et crossing. the < C breaks do$n the far side anchor. %'* he < C then moves across the obstacle $hile being belayed from the far side. any method can be used to anchor the tightening system. /e then manages the rope as the slack is pulled to the far side. Suspension tra2erse. Site Se!ection . and attaches it to his rappel seat or harness. ravines. and up or do$n a vertal. %0* he < C then removes all knots from the system. b.* All personnel cross e"cept the < C or the strongest s$immer. removes the knots.%)* Dnce across. Suspension Tra2erse he suspension traverse is used to move personnel and e#uipment over rivers. inserts a carabiner. and then pulls the rope across. %. chasms. %1* he < C ties a fi"ed loop.

-lace t$o poles $ith the butt ends flush. leaving about . Construction. he average siAe A(frame pole should be at least 1 inches in diameter and 8 to . depending on the siAe of the poles used for the A(frame.he crossing site must have bombproof anchors at the near side and the far side. a. hree to five . an A(frame must be used. -lace the locking bar on the outside edge of the pole.* . +ite selection determines $hether more height is needed@ mission re#uirements determine site selection. and mark the ape" on both poles. If the anchors do not provide sufficient height to allo$ clearance.ven in $ooded mountainous terrain constructing an A(frame may be necessary due to the lack of height $here the installation is needed. b. %0* !ith a sling rope. and suitable loading and off(loading platforms. tie a clove hitch around the left pole %standing at the base of the poles and facing the top* 1 inches above the ape" marking.* %1* -lace the poles side by side and $rap the sling rope horiAontally around both poles si" to eight times. %. -osition this knot on . =nsta!!ation Installation of a suspension traverse can be time(consuming and e#uipment(intensive. c.nsure that proper height is attained and that the installation runs in a straight line bet$een the t$o anchors.0 feet long. $o sturdy poles are needed.'(foot sling ropes are needed. All personnel must be $ell trained and $ell rehearsed in the procedures. $rapping do$n from the clove hitch %&igure 4(0:<*. 7-#rames. he e"act siAe of the poles depends on the type of load and location of the installation.5 inches of the sling rope free on top of the clove hitch. %+ee &igure 4(0:A. Cake sure the rope end is pointing do$n as it is tied. It may be necessary to join another sling rope to the first by using a s#uare knot secured $ith overhand knots. An A(frame placed out of proper alignment can cause the system to collapse. ry to find natural pockets in $hich to place the base of the A(frame poles. he t$o main installations that use A(frames are the suspension traverse and vertical hauling line. . $quipment.

%+ee &igure 4(0:&.5(inch tail on the top of the clove hitch. %7* Dn the last vertical $rap. %+ee &igure 4(0:C. . Cake the $raps as tight as possible. pass the rope bet$een the poles belo$ the $raps. !hen starting the first vertical $rap.*. +ecure $ith overhand knots tied in the tails.* Figure 7-. pass the rope bet$een the poles above the horiAontal $raps. Cake at least t$o additional $raps belo$ the joining s#uare knot. 7-#rame hori@onta! an& 2ertica! +raps. Insert a carabiner into the last t$o vertical $raps %&igure 4(0:. he vertical $raps must be as flat as possible ne"t to each other. and make four to si" tight vertical $raps around the horiAontal $raps %&igure 4(0:2*. ensure it is in the same direction as the .the outside of one of the poles so as not to interfere $ith the vertical $raps.*. ie it off $ith a s#uare knot in the section of rope coming from the clove hitch.* %'* Dn the last horiAontal $rap %ensure there are at least t$o $raps belo$ the joining knot* to $hich the clove hitch is not tied.

nsure that the A(frame is in line $ith the anchors. $ith the legs firmly emplaced or anchored $ith pitons. If more than one sling rope is needed. Dne man rappels do$n the pitch and secures t$o installation %traverse* ropes to the far anchor $ith an anchor knot. %4* If the ground is a hard surface. =nsta!!ation Construction.emove all slack in the rope bet$een the legs.*. tie the t$o ropes together $ith a s#uare knot and secure $ith half hitches or overhand knots. . ie a sling rope bet$een the legs $ith a round turn $ith t$o half hitches around each leg. the direction of kick. Adjust the A( . he use of clove hitches and half hitches permits easy adjustment of the spreader rope. 7-#rame sprea&er. Figure 7-. d.). %. . . -lace a transport tightening system in each installation rope at the near %upper* anchor. If the ground is soft.un the installation ropes through or around the anchor in opposite directions and tie off. Anchor the traverse ropes as close together as possible so that the ropes do not cross. dig the legs in about ) inches.%)* >se a spreader rope to prevent the A(frame from collapsing from pressure applied at the ape" %&igure 4(0. tie end(of(the(rope clove hitches $ith the locking portions facing to the rear. ie the tails off at a '7(degree angle $ith a round turn and t$o half hitches to a secondary anchor point.* -lace the A(frame %if needed* so that both traverse ropes run over the ape" and the A(frame splits the angle formed bet$een the near %upper* and far %lo$er* anchors. he spreader rope should be no more than ) inches above ground level.

It must also be placed in a straight line bet$een the upper and lo$er anchor points. ie a clove hitch at the center of a sling rope. Eoin the ends of a . his forms t$o small loops and one large loop that is longer than the t$o small loops combined. . his creates do$n$ard pressure holding the A(frame in position. %1* Anchor the A(frame to the traverse rope.. 3ote4 he A(frame should be positioned so that the angles created by the A(frame bisecting the installation rope are appro"imately e#ual on both sides.. %'* >se a carrying rope to attach loads to the traverse ropes %&igure 4(01*. not forcing it in a lateral direction. -lace it over one of the poles above the ape" and move do$n to the ape" so that the locking bar of the clove hitch is to the inside of the A(frame.frame under the traverse ropes after tightening to firmly implant the A( frame.0*. +ecure each end of the sling rope to one of the tightened static lines $ith t$o -rusik knots(one for$ard and one to the rear of the A( frame on the same static line rope %&igure 4(00*. %0* ighten the installation ropes using either the transport tightening system %paragraph 4(.'(foot sling rope $ith a s#uare knot and t$o overhand knots. 7nchoring the 7-#rame to the tra2erse rope. Figure 7-.. 2isplace the knot one(third of the distance do$n the loop and tie an overhand knot both above and belo$ the s#uare knot.* or the A(pulley tightening system %paragraph 4( .

tie a si" $rap middle(of(the(rope -rusik knot to both static ropes near the far side off(loading point. his is $here a belay rope $ill be attached %4* !ith a sling rope.1. Carrying rope #or use on a tra2erse. 2ue to the constant . a second rope may be needed to pull the load across and should be attached to the carrying rope the same as the first. !hen the suspension traverse is near horiAontal. Attach a belay rope to the center loop of the carrying rope using a fi"ed loop or locking carabiner on the side opposite the joining knot %&igure 4( 01*. 2escent must be belayed slo$ly and be controlled. his acts as a stopper knot for the man descending.Figure 7-. +oldiers descending should hold onto the carrying rope and keep their feet high to avoid contact $ith the ground. preventing him from hitting the lo$er anchor. %)* Insert second carabiner into the one placed into the $raps of the A( frame. %5* Attach the load by running the long loop of the carrying rope through the load or through the soldierUs harness and attaching the bottom loop to the traverse rope carabiner. %7* Attach the carrying rope to the traverse ropes $ith carabiners %or a pulley* that have the gates reversed and opening in opposite directions.

Aertica! hau!ing !ine. use a mechanical belay. use a relay man. he site must have an appropriate top anchor that is secure enough to hold the system and load. It is often used $ith a fi"ed rope for personnel movement. rucksacks. herefore. Boading and unloading platforms should be easily accessible natural .tension maintained on the belayer. Aertica! -au!ing 8ine he vertical hauling line is an installation used to move men and e#uipment up vertical or near(vertical slopes %&igure 4(0'*.4. . he hauling line is used to move e#uipment. If the belayer cannot vie$ the entire descent route. such as mortars or other cre$( served $eapons. Site Se!ection he first and most important task is to determine $here to construct the vertical hauling line.etrie2a! he suspension traverse is not as readily retrievable as the one(rope bridge. or supplies Figure 7-. the installing unit should dismantle it after it is no longer needed.

2ouble one installation rope. =nsta!!ation Construct an A(frame. and lay the middle of the installation rope over the ape" of the A(frame@ a 1:( centimeter %. he site should also have sufficient clearance to allo$ for space bet$een the slope and pulley rope for easy hauling of troops or e#uipment.nsure that the portion of the rope that forms the bight comes out of the bottom of the clove hitch. if necessary.platforms that provide a safe $orking area. o maintain the . ensuring that the locking bars of the clove hitches are on the inside. tie clove hitches above the A(frame lashing on each side of the ape" $ith the installation rope. .0(inch* bight should hang belo$ the ape".* Figure 7-. and anchor it. he ideal platform at the top allo$s construction of the vertical hauling line $ithout the use of an A(frame.5. . 7ttaching the anchor rope to the 7-#rame. %+ee &igure 4(07. a.0(inch bight. find the middle.

+pace the overhand knots in the knotted hand line . ie the ends of another installation rope together $ith a joining knot to form the hauling line.0( inch bight hanging from the ape" of the A(frame. Attach personnel to the hauling line by use of a rappel seat or seat harness. Additional fi"ed loops may be tied in the hauling line for more control over the object $hen moving large loads. c. +tation t$o climbers at the unloading platform to retrieve loads.7 to 07 degrees unloaded. Attach e#uipment to the hauling line . g. or to. $ith about 0: feet of rope $ithout knots at one end for the anchor. If e#uipment and personnel are only being lo$ered.b. ie fi"ed loops %$iremanUs. he A(frame should not lean out$ard more than '7 degrees once loaded since the legs can lose their position. -ersonnel ascending the vertical hauling line use this as a simple fi"ed rope. Attach the rope to the system by t$o carabiners $ith gates up and opposed or one mountain rescue pulley $ith a locking steel carabiner in the . belay from the top using the hauling line. ie this off at an anchor point to the rear of the A(frame installation and adjust the angle of the A(frame so it leans out over the cliff edge. !hen personnel are moved using a vertical hauling line. hro$ the knotted hand line over the A(frame spreader rope and do$n the side of the cliff. o anchor the A(frame. directional figure(eight.0 inches above the joining knot by a carabiner in the fi"ed loop. . >se as many men as needed to pull the load to the top by pulling on the rope opposite the load. the primary anchor %round turn $ith a bo$line*@ and place it over the spreader on the legs of the A(frame. f. d. e. make a knotted hand line@ anchor it in line $ith. he angle should be . or single butterfly* on opposite sides of the endless rope at the loading and unloading platforms. 3ote4 Cortar tubes and similar objects are attached to the line by t$o knots so that the tube stays parallel and as close to the hauling line as possible.0 inches apart. $hich is tied to the A(frame. use a transport tightening system $ith the doubled rope.

and availability of anchors. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. If only e#uipment is being hauled up. Construction. the installing unit $ill return and dismantle the system. F-9u!!ey System he V(pulley system is a simple. !hen it is no longer needed.emove all obstacles and any loose objects that could be dislodged by personnel and e#uipment. . e#uipment. and the rope condition. . +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. Consi&erations.etrie2a! he vertical hauling line is used along a main supply route. Simp!e . load $eight. o reduce fatigue of those personnel moving the load. but it may be necessary to use a belay rope. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners. 3ote4 -ersonnel using the hauling line for movement must apply all related principles of climbing. $eather. hey $ill al$ays be safetied $hile $orking near the edge. !hen in use. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available. b. Theory.. Al$ays station t$o operators at the top of the vertical hauling line to aid men or to retrieve loads $hen they reach the top. the load rubbing against the rock $all.educe e"cessive friction on the system. c. a. . >se the follo$ing procedures to construct a V(pulley system.aising Systems Coving heavy objects $ith limited manpo$er may be necessary in mountainous terrain.h. o move materials or troops up on one side of the hauling line. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 1:. terrain. the A(frame should lean slightly over the edge of the cliff to prevent e"cessive $ear on the ropes that pass over sharp rocks. pull the other side from belo$. simple rigging techni#ues can be used to increase the mechanical advantage of the hauling system. . easily constructed hauling system %&igure 4(0)*. it is not necessary to use the knotted hand line rope.

-lace a carabiner on the runner at the anchor point. establish a moveable pulley system %C-+* to create a 6V6 in the hauling rope. Insert a locking carabiner into the t$o loops formed. Cove the $orking end back on a parallel a"is $ith the A-+. place a pulley into the carabiner. .* . %0* !ith a sling rope %preferably 4 millimeter*. and run the hauling rope through the pulley. tie a middle(of(rope -rusik knot secured $ith a figure(eight knot on the load side of the pulley.nsure the Cunter hitch is loaded properly before tying the mule knot. ake the tails e"iting the figure( eight and tie a Cunter hitch secured by a mule knot.%.stablish an anchor %anchor pulley system SA-+T*. %1* At an angle a$ay from the A-+. +ecure it $ith a figure(eight knot. his $ill be used as a progress capture device %-C2*. >sing the tails tie a double(double figure(eight knot. . A mechanical descender may be used in place of the -rusik knot. -rovide a pulling team on the $orking end $ith e"tra personnel to monitor the -rusik knots. then place the $orking end into the carabiner. Cechanical ascenders should not be used as an C-+. ie another -rusik knot on the load side of the hauling rope.

>se belays and backup safeties. +ite selection is governed by different factors: tactical situation. e#uipment. &or greater efficiency. If the t$o pulleys touch. easily(constructed hauling system %&igure 4(04*. Anchors must be sturdy and able to support the $eight of the load. d. terrain. a. $eather.Figure 7-. 6ther Factors.6. E-9u!!ey System he >(pulley system is another simple. the 6V6 is lost along $ith the mechanical advantage. and availability of anchors. <e a$are of reduced sensitivity to the load due to the mechanical advantage. -rotect the rope from edges and other abrasive parts of the rock. 3ote4 Avoid the possibility of overstressing the anchors. load $eight. Consi&erations. the main anchor should be $ell back from the edge and all ropes should pull parallel to the load. F-pu!!ey system. .

%7* Construct a second anchor. -lace the fi"ed loops into the locking carabiner of the second anchor. Figure 7-. c. +ecure the -rusik $ith a double(double figure eight. &riction is caused by the rope running through carabiners.* Anchor the hauling rope. %. . the load rubbing against the rock $all.b. and the rope condition.7. %1* Bo$er a bight to the casualty or the load.. Attach a locking carabiner to the anchor. his is the -C2. %0* -repare the load or casualty for hauling. he less friction involved the greater the mechanical advantage. Construction. -lace a locking carabiner the on to the harness or the rigged load. %)* ie a middle of the rope -rusik onto the haul rope e"iting the pulley. E-pu!!ey system. %'* -lace the bight into the carabiner@ or place the bight on to a pulley and then place pulley into the carabiner. >se the follo$ing procedures construct a >(pulley system. he mechanical advantage obtained in theory is 0:. Theory. >se carabiners as a substitute if pulleys are not available.

the need for rest halts decreases. and the $ill to climb are key to successful mountain operations. H In addition to proper techni#ue. /e places his foot flat on the ground to obtain as much %boot* sole(ground contact as possible.:ountain (a!king Techniques 5ountain travel encompasses the full spectrum of techni&ues used to negotiate steep. and any indentations in the slope are used to advantage. and light conditions affect the rate of climb. H he soldier3s $eight is centered directly over the feet at all times. small talus and other level spots to avoid t$isting the ankle and straining the Achilles tendon. produces early fatigue. his interval helps lessen the 6accordion6 effect of people at the end of the file $ho must constantly stop and start. conditioning. H <reaks are kept to a minimum. conditioned and acclimatiAed soldier has greater endurance and moves more efficiently. and results in loss of climbing time. 5ountain wal0ing on roc0 and snow. empo.* he soldier maintains tempo and compensates for changes of slope or terrain by adjusting the length of his stride. good nutrition and hydration. the chance of personnel overheating is lessened. H he terrain. even under ideal conditions. Coving too fast. /e straightens the knee after each step to allo$ for rest bet$een steps. through boulder fields or steep $ooded mountainsides. An angle of ascent or descent that is too steep is avoided. he trained. hen. . and a unit can cover a given . %asic 9rincip!es >p scree or talus. $eather. %-hysical differences mean that the tempos of t$o people moving at the same speed $ill not al$ays be the same. according to the pace of the unit in $hich he is moving. pace is adapted to conditions. pace. the slo$er the pace. or number of steps per minute. he mountaineer sets a tempo. proper training. he places his foot on the uphill side of grass tussocks. !hen a moderate pace is set. s0iing or snow shoeing. the basic principles of mountain $alking remain the same. and rhythm are enhanced $hen an interval of three to five paces is kept bet$een individuals. rugged terrain. he more adverse the conditions. over sno$ or grass(covered slopes. re#uires more rest halts. rappelling. technical roc0 and ice climbing. and stream crossing are the 0ey travel s0ills a military mountaineer must possess.est. acclimatiAation. and takes moderate steps at a steady pace. A soldier can only move as fast as his lungs and legs $ill allo$.

not muscle. hydrate. %1* his slo$. and snack on trail food. +tepping do$n can hammer the full body$eight onto the feet and legs. $hich are rapidly e"hausting and re#uire longer recovery. the soldier pauses briefly. halting rest step is more efficient than spurts of speed.* After each step for$ard. rela"ing the muscles of the for$ard leg $hile resting his entire body$eight on the rear leg. adjust packs and add or remove appropriate layers of clothing. %0* &ollo$ing the first halt. he number of breaths per step $ill change depending on the difficulty of the climb. a $ell(conditioned party may take a short rest every . rests should be taken on level ground avoiding steeper inclines. H 2o$nhill $alking uses less energy than uphill but is much harder on the body. to . If possible. %. -ace is kept slo$ and rhythmic. %1* Bater in the march longer halts may be necessary due to fatigue or mission re#uirements. If possible.* 2uring the first half(hour of movement an adjustment halt should be taken. he soldier e"hales strongly. enabling an easier. supports the $eight. rock. soldiers lean against a tree. sno$fields. %0* <reathing is synchroniAed $ith the rest step. At these halts soldiers should immediately put on additional clothing to avoid chilling—it is much easier to keep a $arm body $arm than to $arm up a cold one. deeper inhale. steady. or hillside to relieve the shoulders of pack $eight. !hen the air thins at altitude it is especially important to breathe deeply.. a good rest is needed to revive tired muscles.distance in a minimal time. H he rest step is used for steep slopes. %. hese halts are kept short enough to avoid muscles stiffening %one to t$o minutes*. +teeper slopes or higher elevations may re#uire several breaths per step. breathe deeply. +oldiers $ill loosen or tighten bootlaces as needed. %'* After a climb.7 hours. using the 6pressure breathing6 techni#ue. he rear leg is kept straight $ith the knee locked so that bone. and higher elevations. <listers and . It controls pace and limits fatigue by giving the lungs and legs a moment to recuperate bet$een steps.

and the ground above grass or brush clumps to level off the route. It is most commonly found under mature forest canopy. back injury. !alking $ith a slight for$ard lean and $ith the feet in a normal position make the descent easier. . for techni#ues and use of the ice a". A normal progression. and areas $here animals have beaten out multiple trails. the soldier should step off in the ne$ direction $ith the uphill foot. +teep slopes can be traversed rather than climbed straight up. and then to a traverse on the steeper areas. and loss of balance. or $alking stick $ill help take some of the load and give additional stability.efer to Chapter . and back pain may follo$. as the slope steepens. %0* 2escending is best done by $alking straight do$n the slope $ithout traversing. try to s$itchback periodically. If side hill travel is necessary. ice a". knee damage. H +ide hill travel on any surface should be avoided $henever possible. employ the rest step to rest the leg muscles. his prevents crossing the feet and possible loss of balance. &or small stretches the herringbone step may be used—ascending straight up a slope $ith toes pointed out. !eighted do$n $ith a rucksack.. !hile traversing. and ground cover such as $alking on hard ground. $ould be from $alking straight up. the full sole(to( ground principle is accomplished by rolling the ankle do$nhill on each step.blackened toenails. and on scree and talus slopes. the soldier is vulnerable to t$isted ankles. and use any lo$er angle flat areas such as rocks. o avoid these problems the soldier should start by tightening bootlaces to ensure a snug fit %also keep toenails trimmed*. %. %. animal trails. to a herringbone step. Techniques Countain $alking techni#ues can be divided according to the general formation. surface. through thick brush.* !hen ascending. A ski pole. rocky soil that does not give $ay under the $eight of a soldier3s step. o turn at the end of each traverse. <ody $eight is kept directly over the feet and the full boot sole is placed on the ground $ith each step. H -ar& <roun&. on sno$ slopes and grassy slopes. /ard ground is firmly compacted. he soldier keeps his back straight and bends at the knees to absorb the shock of each step. in lo$ brush or heather.* ?eep a moderate pace and $alk $ith knees fle"ed to absorb shock.

he soldier may need to slice the step $ith the side of his boot and use the diagonal techni#ue to ascend.0 Step Kicking. /arder sno$ re#uires more effort to kick steps. /. $hich take half of the boot. At this point the a" is moved for$ard in preparation for the ne"t step. he soldier faces out. Dn steeper terrain it may be necessary to s#uat on the $eighted leg $hen setting the plunge step. placing the leading %uphill* foot above and in front of the trailing %do$nhill* foot. he upper body should be kept erect or canted slightly for$ard. +ucceeding climbers $ill follo$ directly in the steps of the trailbreaker. +no$(covered terrain can be encountered throughout the year above . Dn softer sno$ the soldier s$ings his foot into the sno$. simply $alk straight do$n. /10 Descen&ing Sno+. and plants his foot solidly. he steps should be angled slightly into the slope for added security.H Sno+ S!opes.. . It is best used on moderate slopes $hen the sno$ is soft enough to leave clear footprints. he ice a". driving the heel into the sno$ $hile keeping his leg straight. aggressive manner. he soldier shifts his $eight to the leading %uphill* leg and brings the un$eighted trail %do$nhill* foot ahead of the uphill foot. &ully laden soldiers $ill need to kick steps. his techni#ue is a t$o(step se#uence. steps off. returning to the in(balance position. each one improving the step as he ascends. In conjunction $ith the ice a" it provides balance and safety for the soldier. held in the uphill hand.7:: meters in many mountainous areas. /e shifts $eight to the for$ard %do$nhill* leg and then moves the uphill foot up and places it out ahead of the trail foot. his is the in(balance position. $hich must be done in a positive. is placed in the sno$ above and to the front. /arder sno$ or steeper slopes call for the plunge step. he soldier performs a basic rest step. /)0 Diagona! Tra2erse Technique. and they $ill not be as secure. alus and brush may be covered by hardened sno$fields. /e shifts his $eight to the ne$ foot plant and continues do$n $ith the other foot. he diagonal traverse is the most efficient means to ascend sno$. he techni#ues for ascending and descending moderate sno$ slopes are similar to $alking on hard ground $ith some e"ceptions. +tep kicking is a basic techni#ue used $hen crampons are not $orn. streams made crossable $ith sno$bridges. If the sno$ is soft and the slope gentle. and $eighting the trail leg. allo$ing the leg3s $eight and momentum to carve the step.

the lo$er leg takes all of the $eight. he night3s cold hardens the sno$ surface. $here the ground is more level. 3ote4 !et grass can be e"tremely slippery@ the soldier must be a$are of ground cover conditions. $atch for dirty sno$—this absorbs more heat and thus hardens faster than clean sno$. In this techni#ue. %0* !hen descending a grassy slope. &or the military mountaineer./40 Tips on Sno+ Tra2e!. %b* In the =orthern /emisphere. H <rassy S!opes. <rush(filled gullies can provide routes and rally points concealed from observation@ on . and the upper leg is used only for balance. trees. slopes $ith southern and $estern e"posures set up earlier in the season and #uicker after storms. he do$nhill foot points about '7 degrees off the direction of travel %do$nhill*. he follo$ing are tips for travelling on sno$. and rocks as the subsurface sno$ has melted a$ay creating hidden traps. A climber can easily build up too much speed and fall if a direct descent is tried. !hen traversing. the traverse techni#ue should be used because of the uneven nature of the ground. his maintains ma"imum sole contact and prevents possible do$nhill ankle roll(out. but are more prone to avalanches in the spring. %a* Dften the best descent is on a different route than the ascent. hese slopes generally provide firm surfaces $hile northern and eastern e"posures remain unconsolidated. %c* ravel late at night or early in the morning is best if daytime temperatures are above freeAing and the sun heats the slopes. %. step on the upper side of each hummock or tussock. he hop(skip step can be useful on this type of slope. 9rassy slopes are usually composed of small tussocks of gro$th rather than one continuous field. H Thick %rush.* !hen ascending. brush is both a help and a hindrance. %d* Avoid $alking on sno$ ne"t to logs. the climber3s uphill foot points in the direction of travel. !hen looking for a firmer travel surface.

the other hand steep brushy terrain is haAardous to negotiate. use caution because drop(offs may be encountered.* Ascending scree slopes is difficult and tiring and should be avoided. Cliffs and steep ravines are hidden traps. he climber uses the a" for balance as he moves up to it. After determining that the step is stable. ascending or descending. +lopes composed of the smallest rocks are called scree slopes. o . All principles of ascending hard ground and sno$ apply. Avoid running do$n scree as this can cause a loss of control. climbers should al$ays step on the uphill side of rocks and stay alert for movement underfoot. standing on lo$er branches and using upper limbs for support. if possible. Climbers must stay in close columns $hile $alking through talus so that dislodged rocks do not reach dangerous speeds before reaching lo$er soldiers. !hen several climbers descend a scree slope together. H Ta!us S!opes. and heels dug in. alus slopes are composed of rocks larger than a man3s fist. but each step is carefully chosen so that the foot does not slide do$n $hen $eighted. they should be as close together as possible %one behind the other at single arm interval* to prevent injury from dislodged rocks. !hen $alking in talus. feet pointed do$nhill. $eight is transferred to the upper leg. and blo$ do$ns and thickets can obstruct travel as much as manmade obstacles. the a" can be used placing both hands on the top and driving the spike into the scree slope above the climber. H Scree S!opes. %0* he best method for descending scree slopes is to come straight do$n the slope using a short shuffling step $ith the knees bent. %. !hen brush must be negotiated take the most direct route across the obstacle@ look for do$ned timber to use as raised paths through the obstacle@ or create a tunnel through the obstacle by prying the brush apart. 2isturbing unstable talus can cause rockslides. Al$ays keep the a" on the uphill side. +cree varies in siAe from the smallest gravel to about the siAe of a man3s fist. back straight. his is done by kicking in $ith the toe of the upper foot %similar to step(kicking in sno$* so that a step is formed in the loose scree. the soldier then steps up and repeats the process $ith the lo$er foot. !hen the bottom of the slope %or run out Aone* cannot be seen. and then repeats the process. %1* +cree slopes can be traversed using the ice a" as a third point of contact. !hen the herringbone or diagonal method is used to ascend scree.

grass and scree as $ell as sno$. Backing cover. knees and toes. navigation. and do not look up. the location of a target objective. -ersonnel near the bottom of the cliff immediately lean into the cliff to reduce their e"posure. he same skills and e#uipment used in orientation are essential for good navigation. All other basics of mountain $alking apply. H !hen traveling through steep terrain. soldiers should be trained in the use of the ice a" for self(arrest. 3a2igation =avigation is the process of determining one3s present position. assisted by an altimeter and 9-+. Sa#ety Consi&erations he mountain $alking techni#ues presented here are designed to reduce the haAards of rock fall and loss of control leading to a fall. he a" can be used to arrest a fall on solid ground. the $arning. H =avigation includes the determination of the objective3s location and the direction from the soldier3s starting point to the objective. . he use of the map. or scree* he must immediately self(arrest. -ersonnel more than 1 meters a$ay from the bottom of the cliff may look up to determine $here the rock is heading and seek cover behind an obstacle. H Drientation is simply figuring out e"actly $here one is. H If a soldier slips or stumbles on sloping terrain %hard ground. If he falls back$ards and rolls over he must immediately try to turn over onto his stomach $ith his legs do$nhill and self(arrest $ith hands and toes.prevent rock fall injuries. is the foundation of good navigation. =avigation consists of three distinct stages: orientation. If not in use the ice a" is carried in or on the rucksack $ith its head do$n and secured. personnel should anticipate $hich $ay the rock is falling and move out of its path to the left or right. digging into the slope $ith hands. and selecting and follo$ing a route bet$een these t$o points. 6. elbo$s. H !henever a rock is kicked loose. and route finding. avoid traversing belo$ other climbers. grass.ockW6 is shouted immediately. sno$. compass and identifiable terrain features. It may also be used as a third point of contact on difficult terrain. Carelessness can cause the failure of the best(planned missions.

It also gives the navigator valuable $eather information specific to his immediate location..* he standard altimeter is a modified barometer. millimeters of mercury. marked in feet or meters of elevation above sea level. the displayed elevation $ill rise by a corresponding amount. good judgement and sound tactical instincts. he altimeter is a vital piece of navigational e#uipment that can save valuable time in determining position through elevation. If the altimeter displays an elevation gain of 1:: feet. or millibars. he lensatic compass is most commonly used in the military and can be employed in a variety of $ays for either day or night navigation. <y measuring air pressure. $hich are reflected in the altimeter. b.oute finding is picking the best line of travel that matches the e#uipment and capabilities of the team. 7!timeters. his means that a barometric pressure change of one inch of mercury e#uals roughly . +ince air pressure drops uniformly as elevation is gained. a. . a loss of barometric pressure of . it can be used to read altitude by means of the altimeter3s scale.H . usually attached to a cord. A barometer is an instrument that measures the $eight of a column of air above itself and displays the result on a scale marked in units of pressure. and bad $eather should be e"pected. 9ood route finding incorporates a comprehensive a$areness of terrain.::: feet of elevation. As the air pressure drops due to the approach of inclement $eather for instance. the altimeterKbarometer gives the navigator ne$ techni#ues for position finding. Compasses. route planning. %. %0* Changes in the $eather are usually accompanied by air pressure changes. checking progress and terrain identification. a solid base of mountaineering e"perience. usually inches of mercury. he magnetic compass is the simplest and most $idely used instrument for measuring directions and angles in the mountains. %1* Altimeters come in t$o types: $rist(mounted digital altimeters and analog altimeters.1 inches has occurred.

Although some altimeters are temperature(compensated.%'* <ecause the altimeter is sensitive to changes in air pressure it must be recalibrated $henever a point of kno$n elevation %summits. he user then calls up the desired checkpoint and the receiver $ill display direction and distance to the checkpoint. It can determine the latitude. It can also compute travel time to the ne"t checkpoint. causing them to give poor readings. %7* he altimeter may e"pand or contract because of changes in temperature.ven though altimeters can be precise they are affected by both pressure and temperature changes and should be monitored carefully. all($eather. his can result in faulty elevation readings. . longitude and elevation of the individual user. it can provide position %accurate up to . his is especially important $hen $eather fronts are moving rapidly through the area. Bocation information is also displayed in military grid coordinates.) meters* in $hiteouts or on featureless terrain. It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from a satellite constellation system. %0* <ecause the 9-+ does not need visible landmarks to operate. %. his is best accomplished by storing the altimeter %analog* in a pocket or on a cord around the neck. <!o a! 9ositioning System. he soldier should become familiar $ith the specific altimeter he employs and understand its capabilities and limitations. %)* ?eep the altimeter at a constant temperature. he 9-+ is a space(based. he receiver can accept many checkpoints entered in any coordinate system by the user and convert them to the desired coordinate system. rapid ascents or descents sometime overcome the adjustment. %4* . saddles.* he 9-+ provides precise steering information as $ell as position locations. and so forth* is reached. stream(trail intersections. It also does not compound navigational errors as compass use can. survey monuments. c. or on the $rist under the parka and hand gear %digital*. continuously available radio positioning navigation system. global.

start point and objective. %7* <ecause the 9-+ re#uires horiAon to horiAon vie$s for good satellite reception its use can be limited in the mountains. three techni#ues can be used: dead reckoning. or altimeter navigation. he 9-+ can be used to supplement these techni#ues. he best use of the 9-+ is to verify these as they are reached. enter their coordinates as $ay points. coverage may be limited to specific hours of the day in certain areas of the $orld. it is performs best in more open areas such as the desert. Dther$ise. spurs. Identify the spheroid and datum information on the pertinent map sheets and then check that the 9-+ receiver has the compatible datum loaded. and steep mountainsides are all problematic spots to use for shots. saddles. <attery life and overall performance can be improved by placing the 9-+ inside the parka or coat. &or navigation. he more unobstructed the vie$ of the sky. Although the 9-+ can be used in any terrain. terrain association. %'* +ince the 0. he choice of movement techni#ue often determines the route and navigational techni#ue. %4* ."tremely cold temperatures %(' degrees & and belo$* and high elevations $ill adversely affect the operation of the 9-+. he 9-+ navigational signals are similar to light rays. d. summits. or plateaus are better. deep valleys. open valleys. Canyons. due to the freeAing of the batteries and the BC2 screen. %)* !hen using 9-+ in regions $ith #uestionable surveying and mapping products. 3a2igation Techniques.%1* 2uring route planning. after choosing critical checkpoints. the 9-+ $ill sho$ different locations than those on the map. the better the system performs. $ith one chosen as the primary techni#ue. operational datum of the local maps must be reconciled $ith the datum used in navigational and targeting systems.(satellite constellation is not yet complete. he three are not mutually e"clusive and are normally used together. as a backup to terrain association and compass navigation. but due . If not then you must contact the +0 for updated datum or maps. .idgelines. so anything that blocks light $ill reduce or block the effectiveness of the signals.

it may be necessary to bo" or contour around them as they may be full of slash or brushy second(gro$th small trees.to the problems associated $ith the restricted line of sight in the mountains. catching features. elevation. or large avalanche slide areas are encountered.* Dea& . he altimeter may finaliAe the search for the objective by identification through elevation. glacier. sno$y or $hiteout conditions on a sno$field. he main e"ception is during periods of limited visibility on featureless terrain. . he compass is generally employed more to support terrain association and to orient the map. it should not be used as the main techni#ue. dead reckoning is usually of limited value on most movements. !hen a small objective lies near or on an easily identifiable feature. that feature becomes an e"panded objective. <ecause of the comple" nature of mountainous terrain. checkpoints. his simplifies the navigational problem by giving a large feature to navigate to first. Avoid brush for speed and ease of movement@ the military crest of spurs and ridgelines generally provides the best route $hile providing terrain masking effects. .eckoning. bo"ing(in areas. !hen clear cut. navigational corridors. burned(over. %. Dld(gro$th forest provides the easiest travel. siAe.+* strategy is especially valuable in mountain terrain association and should be practiced e"tensively. large plateau or valley floor all $ould call for dead reckoning as a primary navigational techni#ue. %0* Terrain 7ssociation. he shape. %a* After e"tensive study of the map and all available sources of information it helps to create a mental image of the route. slope %+D+. he standard terrain association techni#ues all apply. and attack points are all used. his $ill enable the navigator to make the terrain $ork in his favor. /andrails. orientation. /eavy fog. and not a precise point. than as a primary navigational aid.ough compass headings are used to establish a general direction to the ne"t checkpoint@ used $hen the checkpoint headed to$ard is a linear feature.

uniform surface. check the . H !hen the light is bright and the sun is shining from behind the observer. and in $eather prediction. H !hen seen in the clear air of high altitude. %1* 7!timeter 3a2igation. H !hen you are looking across an e"posed depression. such as sno$. in resection. $atercourse. H !hen the light is poor. in computing rates of ascent or descent. H !hen looking up from lo$ ground to high ground. H !hen looking do$n a straight. Altimeters provide assistance to the navigator in several $ays. such as da$n. or lo$ visibility $eather@ or $hen the sun is in your eyes. H !hen the object blends into the background.%b* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing closer than they actually are: H !hen most of the object is visible and offers a clear outline. or trail $hich is sho$n on the map. %c* he follo$ing situations $ill result in objects appearing farther a$ay than they actually are: H !hen only part of the object is seen or it is small in relation to its surroundings. H !hen the object is in sharp contrast to the background. open road or track. but not behind the object being vie$ed. H !hen looking over a smooth. H %a* !hen moving along any linear feature such as a ridge. H H !hen looking do$n from high ground to lo$ ground. dusk. H !hen you are looking across a partially cleared depression. hey aid in orientation. $ater. H !hen your vision is narro$ly confined. or desert.

!eaknesses in the mountain $alls. as mountain summits can rarely be clearly seen from valley floors. sno$fields and glaciers. cliff bands. 2istant vie$s can reveal large( scale patterns of ridges. studying it for climbing routes. along $ith $eather conditions. and crevasse Aones become visible.altimeter. . 7pproach 6 ser2ations. %. +no$y or vegetated ledge systems appear. &ault lines. cliffs. If he is located on a good linear feature he $ill have a decent idea of $here he is. gross bedding planes of rock. light conditions %time of day*.ates of travel. most mountaintops are so large that there is usually no specific point to shoot at. may present themselves. In addition. he point $here the resecting back aAimuths cross the contour line is the navigator3s location. are all key variables that can influence the success or failure of the mission. his can be difficult $hen in lo$ ground. H %d* Altimeters can be used as barometers to assist in $eather prediction.* Closer vie$ing displays these patterns and angles on a smaller scale. 9eneral angles of the large rock masses can be seen from afar. <y determining your present elevation and finding $here that particular contour crosses the back aAimuth you should locate your position. such as couloirs or gullies. e. H %b* he navigator fre#uently finds it necessary to determine his position through the use of resection. !atch the mountain during the approach march. clearly visible summit or similar feature and then plotting the back aAimuth on the map. the soldier should take multiple aAimuths to kno$n features. . In this case. and the physical condition of the team. H %c* >sing the altimeter to calculate rates of ascent can help in sound decision(making. he point $here the indicated elevation contour crosses that feature is your location. he altimeter can be used to verify elevation and establish a notional linear feature— a contour line. A modified resection can be performed by shooting an aAimuth to a kno$n.

3atura! =n&icators o# Direction in the 3orthern -emisphere. %7* Vegetation can $ork for you or against you. constrain your choice of terrain. Dn slopes $ith an angle of 1: to '7 degrees that are sparsely vegetated an avalanche . as they are generally derived from the overall structure of the particular mountain group. %0* !eather conditions $ill affect the chosen route. +outhern slopes are sunnier and drier than northern slopes. he follo$ing must be considered $hen selecting a route in the $inter. $ith sparser or different types of vegetation. combined $ith the specific geological background of the operational area. %1* Individual ski abilities $ill affect your rate of movement.%0* Cost of these features repeat themselves at increasingly finer levels. individual ski abilities. hickly forested areas usually have a deep sno$ pack. and the siAe of the unit. A basic kno$ledge of mountain geology. shovel tests. (inter . 2uring movement. vegetation. $ater features. %. are often steeper. &or $eaker skiers. and ski shear tests must be conducted prior to crossing an avalanche danger Aone. sno$ pits. and impact on your route choices.* Conduct a thorough map reconnaissance considering the $eather. because of more intense glaciation in past ages. <ottom line: avoid avalanche danger areas. cross above the starting Aone or belo$ the run(out Aone. pays off in more efficient travel. terrain relief. If you must cross one. =orthern slopes can be sno$ier and.oute Se!ection. your rate of movement $ill be significantly faster than during periods of inclement $eather. %'* Avalanche danger Aones must be identified by map revie$ and data gathered during route planning. g. 3ote4 Dpposite rules apply in the +outhern /emisphere. 2uring calm $eather. f. avalanche danger. forested areas are full of potentially dangerous obstacles.

Avoid north. >nder deep sno$ pack small creeks and ponds may be hard to locate. If $eak skiers are in the group. %5* he follo$ing are additional hints for navigation in sno$y conditions: H ?eep the compass $arm. !eather and tactical situation permitting. efficient use of terrain $ill greatly improve morale and reduce fatigue. use your back aAimuth and tracks to maintain course. If the $eather turns bad. and south facing slopes $hen the avalanche danger is high. /old the compass far enough from your $eapon. %)* !ater features provide valuable navigation aids. and so on to get accurate readings. %4* 2uring ski movements. stay a$ay from restrictive terrain $ith sheer drop(offs.danger is still present. east. Avoid cornices and be a$are of their probable and improbable fracture lines. do not needlessly give up elevation gained. Caintain a steady climb rate and avoid over e"ertion. forested areas provide $elcome relief from $ind and blo$ing sno$. travel on the $ind$ard side of ridgelines. H Cake fre#uent compass checks. H If no terrain features e"ist for steering marks. H =ever take aAimuths near metallic objects. unshifting $ind to aid you in maintaining course. . !hen touring use climbing skins to maintain control and lessen lost time per hour due to individuals falling. ice a". H -reset aAimuths on your compass. !hile traveling in mountainous terrain. Barge froAen lakes and rivers can provide e"cellent means of increasing your rate of march. H >se a steady. H Bimit steering marks to shorter distances since visibility can change #uickly.

are fre#uently encountered and make magnetic compass readings difficult and sometimes unreliable. $hiteouts. 9ro !ems.oute 9!anning -roper route planning can make the difference bet$een success and failure on long mountain movements.h. steep slopes hamper attempts at accurate pace counts. an overcast sky and sno$(covered terrain create a phenomenon called flat light. trails. he most reliable method is the use of a 7:(meter long piece of field $ire or rope. . fog. compasses. At times. %. $hich makes recognition of irregularities in the terrain e"tremely difficult. outlines of small lakes and similar landmarks. he follo$ing conditions and characteristics of cold $eather and mountainous regions make accurate navigation difficult.* In $inter. caused by large ore deposits. kno$ledge of the enemy . particular attention must be paid to identifying landmarks. . sno$fall. and other navigation instruments in lo$ temperatures $ith bare hands is difficult. and drifting sno$. bliAAards.emoving hand $ear may only be possible for short periods. Careful map reconnaissance. %7* ?eeping count of pace is e"tremely difficult in $inter and mountain environments. %0* /eavy sno$ may completely cover e"isting tracks. <ecause the appearance of the terrain is #uite different in $inter from that in summer. both on the ground and from aerial photographs. especially above tree line. %1* Cagnetic disturbances. %'* /andling maps. short hours of daylight. hick vegetation and rough. drastically limit visibility.

terrain analysis of the operational area. Civilian . obli#ue angle. In addition.::: map and should be used $henever possible.0. Along $ith sketch maps. such facilities as ski lifts. Check the datum descriptor %for foreign maps* to ensure compatibility $ith entered datum in 9-+ units.situation. Areas above tree line. %. /igh ice cliffs $hich are e#ual to or e"ceed the contour interval $ill be sho$n. a. <ecause e"amination of the micro(terrain is so important for mountain operations. <ro$n contour lines on $hite mean dry areas $ithout significant forest cover. An . he outline of the sno$ or ice is sho$n by dashed blue lines $hile their contour lines are solid blue. cable and tram$ays are often found. Aerial.:7:. :ap . Countain(specific terrain features may be directly addressed in the legend. verbal descriptions. +tandard military topographic maps are generally accurate graphic depictions of the operational area. often sho$ing the most recent changes to logging trails and mining access roads. there are some commonly seen applications for mountainous terrain. clear cuts.:. +ketch maps supplement other sources of information but should not be relied on for accuracy since they are seldom dra$n to scale. Bo$ ice cliffs and ice caves may be indicated if they provide local landmarks. A . photographs give details not al$ays sho$n on maps %crags and overhangs*.econnaissance. +tudy the surrounding terrain and the legend for other clues. and an accurate assessment of the unit3s capabilities are all key parts of the planning process.:07. &orest service and logging and mining company maps provide additional information.::: maps can be used if available. documented information gathered from units previously in the area. even larger scale maps are desirable. pay close attention to the marginal information. !hite $ith blue contours indicates glaciers or permanent sno$fields. opographic maps provide the primary source of information concerning the area of operations.* !hen conducting a map reconnaissance. Along $ith the standard topographic map color scheme. rock or avalanche slide paths and meado$s are all possible. or published sources such as alpine journals or climbing guides may help.::: map depicts greater detail than a .

but should still be e"pected. such as rivers and gorges. and plans made to avoid them. potential bivouac sites are noted on the map. Avalanche danger prohibits travel on certain slopes or valley floors.uins. sheds and terrain(protected hollo$s are all possible bivouac sites. they have a marked advantage. 2ue to the potential for haAardous $eather conditions. roads. Alternate routes should be chosen $ith $eather imposed obstacles in mind: spring flood or afternoon sno$melt turns small streams into turbulent. %1* /elicopter support. $nemy Situation. . =ot all mountainous terrain is created e#ual and not all movement plans have the same e"pectation of . &ords and river crossing sites should be identified.—Is the enemy force on his o$n groundR Are they accustomed to the terrain and the $eatherR Are they trained mountain troops $ith specialiAed e#uipmentR—Dnly after ans$ering these and other #uestions can an effective route plan be completed. re#uires identification of tentative landing Aones for insertions. 2anger areas in the mountains@ isolated farms and hamlets. he confined nature of mountain travel means that crucial passes become significant chokepoints and planners should designate over$atchesKsurveillance positions beforehand. . resupply and medevac. c. barns. If the enemy force is better prepared to maneuver in the mountains. b. and route selection must be scrutiniAed. $eather permitting. trails. are factored in. >se of terrain(masking becomes essential because of the e"tended visibility offered by enemy observation points on the dominant high ground. and large open areas above tree line. 7na!ysis o# the 6perationa! 7rea. %0* Dbstacles.important point to remember is that thick brush in small gullies and streambeds may not be depicted by green. impassable torrents. bridges. e"tractions.oute selection should only be done after revie$ing all available information about the friendly and enemy situation. $ill re#uire technical e#uipment to cross if bridges are not present.

%1* Dperations above tree line in temperate climates or in the brushy Aone of arid mountains means that material for suspension traverse A(frames must be packed. good friction@ use of pitons. -lanners must undertake a thorough analysis of the general terrain to be crossed.* /eavily glaciated granite mountains pose different problems than does river(carved terrain. En roken Trai! 0 to 1 kph %cross %roken Trai! 1 to ' kph %trail Dn foot %no sno$ cover* . Time-Distance Formu!as. !hen assessing unit movement capabilities the key indices are training and conditioning levels. $ho kno$ ho$ to move through rough terrain. e. d. %. camming units*. $ill perform better than troops $ithout this background. +oldiers $ho have received basic military mountaineer training.success. he follo$ing rates are listed as a guide % able 5(. he >(shaped valley bulldoAed out by a glacier forces maneuver elements do$n to the valley floor or up to the ridge tops. Enit 7ssessment. %0* . and $ho have been hardened $ith training hikes through the mountains. $hile the $ater(cut V(shape of river valleys allo$s movement throughout the compartment. Computing march rates in the mountains is e"tremely difficult. and ground cover.ates are given for movement over flat or gently rolling terrain for individuals carrying a rifle and loaded rucksack. therefore planners should ensure routes do not blindly traverse these Aones. mountain structure and forms. including the geology. smooth rock@ bolts.outes through granite rock %long cracks. chocks and camming units* $ill call for different e#uipment and techni#ue than that used for steep limestone %pockets. %'* /eavy spruceKfir tangles slo$ progress to a cra$l.*. . he thick brush and krummholtA mats of subalpine Aones and temperate forested mountains can create obstacles that must be bypassed. especially $hen there is sno$ cover.

first measure the map distance. %'* In the harsh environment of the mountains. he process of transporting e"tra e#uipment and sustainment supplies $ill result in vastly increased movement times.) to 1. sno$ cover $ill significantly affect rates of march.) kph +kijoring =KA 1 to 0' kph Ta !e "-). .* Carch distances in mountainous terrain are often measured in time rather than distance units.0 to ' kph +kiing . Combined soldier loads that e"ceed 7: pounds per man can be e"pected to slo$ movement significantly in mountainous terrain.::: feet of ascent or 0. he heavier loads $ill e"haust soldiers mentally and physically. In order to do this.) to 1..country* $alking* Dn foot %less than . it becomes obvious that soldiers $ill be carrying $eights $ell in e"cess of that 7:(pound limit. foot of . actical movements. >nits should conduct cross(country movements in the mountains $ith the e"pected rucksack and BC.. his distance plus .0 kph 0 to 1.0 kph 1. Time-&istance #ormu!as. %. indicates. should take this into account. $eights in order to obtain accurate. Add one hour for each .' to . to 7. 9iven the increased $eight of e"tra ammunition for cre$(served $eapons. and clothing for mountain travel.K1 is a good estimate of actual ground distance. units should have some e"perience at basic sno$ travel..0 kph 0 to 1. %1* Individual loads also affect march rates.::: feet of descent to the time re#uired for marching a map distance.5 to 7. basic mountaineering gear.) kph '. realistic rates of march. +ince sno$ can be e"pected in the mountains most months of the year.. %0* As able 5(.0 kph sno$* Dn foot %more than . helicopter support cannot be relied on. such as patrolling or deliberate assaults.0 kph of sno$* +no$shoeing . foot .

%1* . <ather =nte!!igence =n#ormation. Carry enough e#uipment to move along the route and to survive if an e"tended stay becomes necessary. avalanche probability. sno$ condition reports. %0* Time-Distance Formu!a. . Se!ect a .oute. avalanche probability. and any past or recent history of operations in the area may be of help. >se vegetation to mask your movement if possible %especially coniferous forests*. Check the date of the map for an indication of the reliability of the map in depicting vegetation. he leader should use all the latest topographic data he can find. he most important consideration in every leader3s mind $hen plotting a movement is 6$here is the enemyR6 he latest intelligence reports are essential. Carefully scrutiniAe the area in bet$een and begin to select the route.equire& $quipment.oute Se!ection Cany variables affect the selection of the proper route. b. clearings. Identify the starting point and determine the movement objective.* Tra##ica i!ity. a. his includes degree of slopes. -lot start and end points. c. he follo$ing guidelines apply to all situations. Se!ect a Current :ap. -lan a route that allo$s ma"imum use of the masking effect of the terrain.. %'* 8ocation o# $nemy. $idth of trails. Avoid danger areas or areas of recent enemy activity unless re#uired by the mission. Additionally. 2o not plan a route beyond the means of your e#uipment. Consider the follo$ing: %. and the likelihood of crevasses. aerial photos. sno$ depth. roads. $eather reports. vegetation. Avoid silhouetting on ridgelines. ime allotted and distance to be covered must be considered. and trails accurately.

:ountain Stream Crossing "perations conducted in mountainous terrain may often re&uire the crossing of swift flowing rivers or streams. or deep. Communications $ill be severely limited in the mountains. as $ell as their training level $hen selecting your intended route. 7t may re&uire the use of rafts or boats. 'here are limits on the safe use of these techni&ues. >se all available information and plan accordingly. . %)* Con&itions. depending upon the type of stream. %4* Checkpoints. there are a variety of techni&ues the small unit leader may choose from.Contro! 9oints. or the crossing will re&uire ma!or bridging by engineers. . 'his chapter covers the techni&ues for crossing mountain streams that have a depth generally not e)ceeding waist deep. +elect features that are uni#ue to the area. !hen plotting a route on the map.Capa i!ities o# Enit. 'hey should be treated as danger areas and avoided whenever possible. ake into consideration their present health. 2ead spaces or communications holes are common. an alternate route should be used. All rivers and streams are obstacles to movement.econnaissance . speed of the current. its width. he unit must be able to negotiate the route chosen. 'he force of the flowing water may be e)tremely great and is most often underestimated. When rivers or streams must be crossed. #ot all mountain rivers or streams will be fordable with these techni&ues. swift. 4econnaissance of &uestionable crossing sites is essential. 7f a water obstacle is too wide. and depth of the water.%7* Communications. Such crossings should not be ta0en lightly. utiliAe prominent terrain features on either side of the route as checkpoints.nsure that $hen you select your checkpoints they are visually significant %elevation* and that they are easily identifiable. Avoid the use of manmade features as checkpoints due to their unreliability and lack of permanence.

Book for a high place from $hich you can get a good vie$ of the obstacle and possible crossing sites. A distant vie$.*. reaching their m"imum height bet$een mid afternoon and late evening.* he time of day the crossing can be an important factor. the rivers rise. or head$aters. is sometimes better than a hundred close vie$s from a riverbank. photo. perhaps from a ridge.. +ite selection is e"tremely important once you determine that you must make a crossing %&igure 8(. and or aerial* may not al$ays reveal that a $ater obstacle e"ists. !henever it is possible that a unit $ill be re#uired to cross a $ater obstacle. and they may be concealed from aerial observation by a canopy of vegetation. In a s$amp. the better your chances are of finding a natural sno$ or ice bridge for crossing. unfordable sloughs may not sho$ on the map. A dry crossing on fallen timber or log jams is preferable to attempting a $et crossing. Although early morning is generally best bcause the $ater level is normally lo$er during this period. a.econnaissance of the route %map. the closer you are to the source. its commander must plan some type of crossing capability. for e"ample. if . recent $eather is a big factor@ there may have been havy rain in the last eight hours. sno$. +ite selection must be made before the arrival of the main body. the follo$ing considerations should be made: %. Figure '-). or ice melt during the day. Crossigs. If a dry crossing is unavailable. depending on the distance from the source. b. 2epending upon the time of year. 3orma! !ocations o# sha!!o+est +ater an& sa#est crossing sites. As glaciers.

ventually deep drop(offs or holes may develop. Crossings $ill be easiest on a smooth. =atural anchors are not a necessity. firm bottom. is the greater distance to the far bank may increase e"posure time and often the sand and gravel bars bet$een the channels $ill offer little cover or concealment. ho$ever. especially around the sides and off the do$nstream end of the log jam. $ill also allo$ clothing to dry more #uickly during the heat of the day. %7* Bog jams and other large obstructions present their o$n haAards. . Barge rocks and boulders provide poor footing and cause a great deal of turbulence in the $ater. %'* he crossing site should have lo$ enough banks on the near and far side to allo$ a man carrying e#uipment to enter and e"it the stream $ith relative ease. %0* A crossing point should normally be chosen at the $idest. and thus shallo$est. ho$ever. point of the river or stream. or under a large pile of boulders $ork $ell. %1* Cany mountain streams. It is often easier to select a route through these braided sections rather than trying to cross one main channel. 2eadman anchors buried in the ground. A $et crossing in the vicinity of a log jam . Dnce a log jam is formed. contain sections $ith numerous channels. artificial anchors may have to be constructed. if any. along $ith safe loading and unloading areas. +harp bends in the river should be avoided since the $ater is likely to be deep and have a strong current on the outside of the bend. ho$ever the time re#uired to find a site $ith solid natural anchors $ill probably be less than the time re#uired to construct artificial anchors. especially those $hich are fed by glacier run( off. In some areas. the crossing site should have suitable anchors on the near and far bank. A dra$back to crossing these braided channels. the $ater forced to flo$ around it $ill erode the stream bottom. Bogs floating do$nstream $ill generally get hung up in shallo$er sections creating the jam. A log jam that totally bridges a section of the stream may be the best $ay to cross.made during the early morning. If a handline or rope bridge is to be constructed. above the tree line for e"ample.

temperature of the air and $ater*. tactical situation. %)* !hen possible. !rap radios. if available. &inal preparation should be completed in a security perimeter on the near side just before crossing. All pockets are buttoned. his is especially critical if an individual must s$im to shore.should be performed a good distance belo$ or above it. H ?eep a sharp lookout for floating timber that could knock you off your feet. the crossing can be made in minimal clothing so that dry clothing is available after the crossing. If a person is s$ept off his feet and caught in the debris of the jam. binoculars. as in the higher alpine Aones. 2epending on the circumstances of the crossing %for e"ample. A handline $ill greatly increase safety here. his allo$s $ater to escape through the clothing. -reparation includes the follo$ing. +ome things to consider $hen crossing near log jams are: H Cross $ell to the do$nstream side $hen possible. +DI. !hen cover and concealment is minimal. b. !aterproof $ater(sensitive items. papers. he could easily dro$n. select a crossing site that has enough natural protection on the near and far banks so that security teams may be placed out and enough cover and concealment is available for the siAe of the element making the crossing. rousers are unbloused and shirts are pulled out of the trousers. a. Dther$ise the clothing $ould fill up and retain $ater. 9reparation o# Troops an& $quipment -repare men and e#uipment for a crossing as far in advance as feasible. H If you must cross on the upstream side. the crossings must be conducted as efficiently as possible to minimiAe e"posure to enemy observation. $hich $ould $eigh the body do$n. maps and any e"tra clothing in $aterproof bags %trash bags also $ork $ell*. hese bags also provide additional buoyancy in case of a fall. stay $ell upstream from the log jam. <oots should be $orn .

to protect feet from rocks@ ho$ever. the risk of head injury if a person slips is high. It is e"tremely difficult to remove a buckled harness in the $ater in an emergency. e. +ecure everything $ell $ithin your pack. and $hen the degree of e"perience permits. the boots can be drained and dry socks replaced. d. f. he individual should generally face upstream and slightly side$ays. It is easier to find one large pack than to find several smaller items. /elmets are normally removed and placed in the rucksack in slo$ moving streams $ith sandy or gravel bottoms. he may choose to face more side$ays as this . especially those $ith large rocks and other debris. he rucksack should be $orn $ell up on the shoulders and snug enough so it does not flop around and cause you to lose your balance. If you have to resort to s$imming it is easier done $ithout the helmet. he $aist strap C>+ be unbuckled so you can get rid of the pack #uickly if you are s$ept off your feet and have to resort to s$imming. /o$ever. c. he average soldier should be able to cross most streams $ith mild to moderate currents and $ater depths of not much more than knee deep using proper techni#ues. Individual $eapons should be attached to the pack or slung over the shoulder. In this case the helmet should be $orn $ith the chinstrap fastened. socks and inner soles should be removed. $hen crossing s$ift flo$ing streams. Boad(carrying e#uipment harness and load(bearing vest %B<V* is unbuckled and $orn loosely. At times. =n&i2i&ua! Crossings !henever possible. leaning slightly into the current to help maintain balance. streams should be forded individually for a speedier crossing. If a pack has a chest strap it must also be unbuckled. a. Dn the far side.

and if available. or other staff can be used to give the individual a third point of contact %&igure 8(0*. he feet should be shuffled along the bottom rather than lifted. c. sturdy tree limb. deliberate steps. holes and drop(offs $ith the lead foot and adjust his route accordingly. o increase balance. . he staff should be moved first. here is normally less chance of a slip $hen stepping off $ith the current as opposed to stepping off against the current. he individual must constantly feel for obstacles. he individual should normally cross at a slight do$nstream angle so as not to fight the current. e. then the feet shuffled for$ard to it.$ill reduce the surface area of the body against the current. the feet should be placed on the upstream side of it $here the turbulence is less severe and the $ater normally shallo$er. /e should take short. Bunging steps and crossing the feet result in a momentary loss of balance and greatly increase the chance of a slip. he staff should be used on the upstream side of the individual and slightly leaned upon for support. d. b. his allo$s t$o points of contact to be maintained $ith the streambed at all times. he individual still moves at a do$nstream angle $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. $ith the do$nstream foot normally in the lead. thus reducing the currentUs overall force on the individual. a long ice a". If an obstacle is encountered.

he largest individual should be on the upstream end of the line to break the current for the group. he line formed $ill then move across the stream using the same principles as for individual crossings. he team still moves at a slight do$nstream angle. or anytime the current is too s$ift for personnel to safely perform an individual crossing. but $ith the added support of each other. he line should cross parallel to the direction of the current. . stepping off $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead.Figure '-. t$o or more individuals cross arms $ith each other and lock their hands in front of themselves %&igure 8( 1*. he line formed faces the far bank. a team crossing may be used.. &or chain crossing. =n&i2i&ua! crossing +ith sta##. Team Crossing !hen the $ater level begins to reach thigh deep.

K0 to 0K1 the length of the rope in use. a crossing site $hich may be unsafe for individual or team crossings can be made safe $ith the installation of a handline or rope bridge. .ope =nsta!!ations !hen the $ater level begins to reach $aist deep or the current is too s$ift for even a team crossing. and the distance from the near and far anchors. it may re#uire only a couple of individuals to enter the $ater.escuers should be poised on the near bank at points $here the individual . height of the anchors above the $ater. he $ill pendulum back to the near bank. $sta !ishing the Far 7nchor. . he belay position should be placed as far above the crossing as possible.Figure '-1. !hether a handline or rope bridge is to be installed. he stream at this point may be impassable. he s$immer should be belayed across for his o$n safety. In the event that the current is too strong for the individual. 2eciding $hether to install a handline or a rope bridge $ill depend on the anchors available. If a one( rope bridge can be constructed. his duty should be performed by the most capable and strongest s$immer in the party. he ma"imum distance a one(rope bridge is capable of spanning is appro"imately . the chosen site must be closely e"amined. Crossing on a handline $ill still re#uire each individual to enter the $ater and get $et. Chain metho& #or stream crossing. someone must cross the stream $ith one end of the rope and anchor it on the far side. Cany times though. a.

=nsta!!ation o# a -an&!ine. If it is possible to use a rope high enough above the $ater to enable soldiers to perform a dry crossing. he must be able to release himself #uickly from the rope and s$im to shore as best he can. If the s$immer must release the rope at any time. A -&2 may also be used by the last man across.* he individual may attach the belay rope to his seat harness or a s$ami belt $ith a carabiner. he individual may also choose to tie a fi"ed loop into the end of the belay rope and hang on to it.$ill pendulum back. A -&2 $ill greatly increase his o$n personal safety. then it should be installed as a handline %&igure 8('*.. If the s$immer should be s$ept a$ay and become tangled. he $ill have to rely on his o$n $ater survival skills and s$imming ability to get to shore. . %. %0* Anytime a crossing site must be used $here the s$immer may encounter problems getting to the far bank. and the rope must be installed to assist in a $et crossing.V. $here he can immediately release it in an emergency. should he fail to reach the far bank. /e should =. tie directly into the rope $hen being belayed for a stream crossing. he should have on a life vest or other personal flotation device %-&2*. as he $ill release the rope from the anchor and be belayed across as the first man b. he initial crossing site should be free of obstacles that $ould snag the rope and prevent the pendulum back to the bank for an easy recovery. If this is impossible. then a rope bridge should be installed as such.

An appropriate knot is tied into the . shuffling the feet $ith the do$nstream foot in the lead. rather than straight across the stream.* he far anchor should be do$nstream from the near anchor so that the rope $ill run at an angle do$nstream from the near anchor. %0* he rope may be anchored immediately on the far bank. It should be sent across $ith the strong(s$immer. Dne end of the belay rope $ill be on the near bank and the other end on the far bank.Figure '-4. or it may be installed $ith a transport tightening system if a tighter rope is re#uired. %1* Crossing $ill al$ays be performed on the do$nstream side of the handline. /ere again. it is easier to move $ith the current as opposed to directly across or against it. %. and anchored on the near bank. appro"imately thirty to forty(five degrees. pulled tight. %'* A second climbing rope is used as a belay %&igure 8(7*. Stream crossing using a han&!ine.

middle of the belay rope to form t$o fi"ed loops $ith each loop being appro"imately ) inches long. Figure '-5. he belay on the opposite shore can be released allo$ing the individual to pendulum to the bank. . the handline should be crossed one person at a time. %e!ay rope #or crossing using a han&!ine. $hichever appears easiest. his keeps rope stretch and load on the anchors to a minimum. If a mishap should occur the individual can be retrieved from either shore. Dne loop is connected to the handline $ith carabiner%s* and the individual crossing connects one loop to himself. It is important that the belay rope =D be anchored or tied to the belayer so that it may be #uickly released if necessary. %7* >nder most circumstances. he loops are short enough so the individual is al$ays $ithin arms reach of the handline should he slip and let go. he individuals are belayed from both the near and far banks.

$idth of the stream. All $eak and nons$immers should be identified before a crossing so that stronger s$immers may give assistance in crossing. c. and individual e"perience. Sa#ety . =ot every river or stream can be crossed safely. e.ucksacks can be either carried on the back the same $ay as for individual crossings. It is al$ays possible to cross at a different time or place.:: meters upstream to $atch for any obstacles that may be carried do$nstream and interfere $ith the crossing. %4* If a large amount of e#uipment must be moved across the stream. he safest methods of crossing are al$ays $ith the use of a handline or one(rope bridge. he techni#ue used is directly dependent upon $ater depth. b. recoilless rifles.iver and stream crossings present one of the most haAardous situations faced by the military mountaineer. If the installation of a handline or rope bridge becomes too difficult at a given crossing site. then a site should be selected to install a rope bridge. then that site should be considered too haAardous and another site selected.%)* . use a different techni#ue. speed of the current. such as mortars. stream bottom configuration. and so on. A lookout should be posted 7: to . a. . he follo$ing safety procedures are minimum guidelines that should be follo$ed $hen conducting a river or stream crossing. d. especially heavier $eapons. or choose another route. or they can be attached to the handline and pulled along behind the individual. f.

S+imming here are times $hen you might be alone and have no choice but to s$im across. Caneuver to$ards shore in a position $ith the feet do$nstream. c. ry to avoid back$ater eddies and converging currents as they often contain dangerous s$irls. <reath bet$een the $ave troughs. lifeguards should be posted do$nstream $ith poles or ropes prepared to thro$.g. ?eep the head above $ater to observe for obstacles and attempt to maneuver a$ay from them. seek out the closest and safest spot. h. Avoid bubbly $ater under falls as it has little buoyancy. Immediately jettison any e#uipment or clothing that restricts movement. the follo$ing techni#ues could save your life. such as a sandbar. d. . a. !hen conducting individual crossings %those $ithout a handline or rope bridge*. >se the feet to protect the rest of the body and to fend off submerged rocks. or there may be a time that you find yourself suddenly plunged into a s$ift river or rapids. /ypothermia $ill set in #uickly in colder $aters. facing do$nstream. !hen the unit kno$s a rope installation $ill be re#uired for crossing. and the last man across $ho retrieves the system. 2o not try to fight the current. o get yourself out of the $ater as #uickly as possible. In either case. e. for assistance or rescue. and fanning the hands alongside the body to add buoyancy and to fend off submerged rocks. If the shore is too difficult to reach. b. at least t$o life vests or other -&2s should be on hand to provide additional safety for the strong s$immer $ho must establish the far anchor.

:o2ement 62er Sno+ 7n& =ce 5ovement over snow and ice covered slopes presents its own uni&ue problems. 5ovement on steeper slopes re&uires an ice a), crampons, and the necessary training for this e&uipment. ,ersonnel will also have to learn how to place solid anchors in snow and ice to protect themselves during these movements if roped. Snow covered glaciers present crevasse fall hazards even when the slope is relatively flat, re&uiring personnel to learn uni&ue glacier travel and crevasse rescue techni&ues. All the principles of roc0 climbing, anchor placement, belays, and rope usage discussed throughout the previous chapters apply to snow and ice climbing as well. 'his chapter will focus on the additional s0ills and techni&ues re&uired to move safely through snow covered mountains and over glaciated terrain. :o2ement 62er Sno+ he military mountaineer must be e#ually adept on both sno$ and ice due to route necessity and rapidly changing conditions. Dn steep slopes in deep sno$, the climber may climb straight up facing the slope. he ice a" shaft, driven directly into the sno$, provides a #uick and effective self(belay in case of a slip—the deeper the shaft penetrates the sno$, the better the anchor %&igure .:(.*. It is usually best, ho$ever, to climb sno$( covered slopes in a traversing fashion in order to conserve energy, unless there is significant avalanche danger.

Figure )*-). Se!#- e!ay on sno+. a. he progression from $alking on flat terrain to moving on steep terrain is the same as for moving over sno$(free terrain. If the sno$ is packed the sole of the boot $ill generally hold by kicking steps, even on steep slopes. !here it is difficult to make an effective step $ith the boot, a cut made $ith the adAe of the ice a" creates an effective step. In these situations crampons should be used for faster and easier movement. b. !hen descending on sno$, one can usually come straight do$nhill, even on steep terrain. Covement do$nhill should be slo$ and deliberate $ith the climber using an even pace. he heels should be kicked vigorously into the sno$. he body may be kept erect $ith the aid of an ice a", $hich may be jammed into the sno$ at each step for additional safety. /ere again, crampons or step cutting may be necessary. A techni#ue kno$n as glissading may also be used as an easy method of descent and is covered in detail later in this chapter. :o2ement 62er =ce Ice is found in many areas of mountains $hen sno$ is present, and during the summer months also $here perennial sno$pack e"ists. Cany times an ice area $ill be do$nslope of a sno$field and sometimes the ice pack itself $ill be lightly covered $ith sno$. ,ven if using an ice a" and or crampons, movement $ill still be difficult $ithout proper training. Ese 6# =ce 7B 7n& Crampons Covement over sno$ and ice is almost impossible $ithout an ice a" and or crampons. a.=ce 7B. !hen $alking on sno$ or ice, the ice a" can be used as a third point of contact. !hen the terrain steepens, there are a number of $ays to use the ice a" for sno$ or ice climbing. +ome positions are more effective than others, depending on the intended result. Iou may find other $ays to hold and use the a", as long the security remains in effect. %.* Cane 9osition. he ice a" can be used on gentle slopes as a $alking stick or cane %&igure .:(0*. he a" is held by the head $ith the spike do$n and the pick facing to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. !hen moving

up or do$n gentle slopes the ice a" is placed in front as the third point of contact, and the climber moves to$ard it. !hen traversing, the a" is held on the uphill side, in preparation for a self(arrest.

Figure )*-.. Esing the ice aB in the cane position. %0* Cross %o&y 9osition or 9ort 7rms 9osition. Dn steeper slopes the a" can be used in the port arms position, or cross body position %&igure .:(1*. It is carried across the chest, upslope hand on the shaft, spike to$ards the slope. he head of the a" is held a$ay from the slope $ith the pick to the rear in preparation for self(arrest. ,nsure the leash is connected to the upslope hand, $hich allo$s the a" to be used in the hammer position on the upslope side of the climber. he spike, in this case, is used as an aid for maintaining balance.

Figure )*-1. =ce aB in the cross o&y or port arms position. %1* 7nchor 9osition. As the slope continues to steepen, the a" may be used in the anchor position %&igure .:('*. he head is held in the upslope hand and the pick is driven into the slope. he spike is held in the do$nhill hand and pulled slightly a$ay from the slope to increase the 6bite6 of the pick into the ice. If the climber is $earing a harness, the pick can be deeply inserted in the ice or hard sno$ and the a" leash could be connected to the tie(in point on the harness for an anchor %ensure the a" is placed for the intended direction of pull*.

Figure )*-4. =ce aB in the anchor position. %'* 9ush--o!& 9osition. Another variation on steep slopes is the push( hold position %&igure .:(7*. he hand is placed on the shaft of the a" just belo$ the head $ith the pick for$ard. he pick is driven into the slope at shoulder height. he hand is then placed on the top of the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-5. =ce aB in the push-ho!& position.

%7* Dagger 9osition. he dagger position is used on steep slopes to place a handhold above shoulder height %&igure .:()*. he hand grasps the head of the a" $ith the pick for$ard and the shaft hanging do$n. he a" is driven into the surface in a stabbing action. he hand is then placed on the a" head for use as a handhold.

Figure )*-6. =ce aB in the &agger position. %)* -ammer 9osition. he hammer position $ill set the pick deepest in any sno$ or ice condition %&igure .:(4*. he a" is used like a hammer $ith the pick being driven into the slope. Dn vertical or near(vertical sections, t$o a"es used in the hammer position $ill often be re#uired.

Figure )*-7. =ce aB in the hammer position.

b. Crampons. !alking in crampons is not complicated but it does present difficulties. !hen $alking in crampons, the same principles are used as in mountain $alking, e"cept that $hen a leg is advanced it is s$ung in a slight arc around the fi"ed foot to avoid locking the crampons or catching them in clothing or flesh. he trousers should be bloused to prevent catching on crampons. All straps should be secured to prevent stepping on them and, potentially, causing a fall. he buckles should be located on the outside of each foot $hen the crampons are secured to prevent snagging. ;emember, $hen the crampon snags on the pants or boots, a tear or cut usually results, and sometimes involves the skin on your leg and or a serious fall. %.* $o methods of ascent are used on slopes: traversing and straight up. %a* A traverse on ice or sno$ looks much like any mountain $alking traverse, e"cept that the ankles are rolled so that the crampons are placed flat on the surface %&igure .:(5*. Dn sno$ the points penetrate easily@ on ice the foot must be pressed or stamped firmly to obtain ma"imum penetration. At the turning points of a traverse, direction is changed $ith the uphill foot as in mountain $alking.

Figure )*-". Correct an& incorrect crampon technique. %b* A straight up method is for relatively short pitches, since it is more tiring than a traverse. he climber faces directly up the slope and $alks straight uphill. As the slope steepens, the herringbone step is used to maintain the flatfoot techni#ue. &or short steep pitches, the climber may also face do$nslope, s#uatting so the legs almost form a 8:(degree angle at the knees, driving the spike of the ice a" into the slope at hip level, and then moving the feet up to the

a". <y repeating these steps, the a" and crampon combination can be used to climb short, steep pitches $ithout resorting to step cutting. his method can be tiring. he techni#ue is similar to the crab position used for climbing on slab rock and can also be used for short descents. %0* A techni#ue kno$n as 6front(pointing6 may be used for moving straight uphill %&igure .:(8*. It is especially useful on steep terrain, in combination $ith the ice a" in the push(hold, dagger, or hammer position. &ront(pointing is easiest $ith the use of more rigid mountain boots and rigid crampons. he techni#ue is similar to doing calf raises on the tips of the toes and is much more tiring than flat(footing. %a* he techni#ue starts $ith the feet appro"imately shoulder $idth apart. !hen a step is taken the climber places the front points of the crampons into the ice $ith the toe of the boot pointing straight into the slope. %b* !hen the front points have bitten into the ice the heel of the boot is lo$ered slightly so that the first set of vertical points can also bite. he body is kept erect, $ith the $eight centered over the feet as in climbing on rock.

Figure )*-'. Front-pointing +ith crampons. c. Aertica! =ce. !hen a climb on ice reaches the ):( to 4:(degree angle, t$o ice a"es may be helpful, and $ill become necessary as the angle approaches 8:

!henever possible. d. gradually turn side$ays@ on steeper slopes. keeping the feet flat to engage all vertical crampon points and keep the $eight over the feet as in descending rock slab %&igures .:(. deliberate steps to minimiAe the chance of tripping and falling do$n the slope. Dn steep terrain. F!at-#ooting in the cra position. Descen&ing +ith Crampons an& =ce 7B.degrees. it may be possible to hang completely from the a"es $hile moving the feet.: and .:(. he crab position or front(pointing may also be used for descending.egardless of the techni#ue used. descend straight do$n the fall line. assume a cross body or port arms position $ith the a". . he same basic climbing techni#ues described in Chapter ) should be applied.*. If leashes of the correct length and fit are attached to both a"es. and traverse. al$ays ensure the points of the crampons are inserted in the sno$ or ice and take short. bend at the $aist and knees as if sitting. .. As the slope steepens. Figure )*-)*.

&ront(pointing.Figure )*-)).* Crampons. 3orma! 9rogression. %0* =ce 7B. he techni#ues can be used in any combination. <acking up the slope %crab position*. e. /ammer position using front(pointing techni#ue. Anchor position $ith pick on uphill side. >se the ice a" in these situations: H H H H H H H Cane position on flat ground. . /erringbone step straight up the slope. he use of the ice a" and crampons follo$s a simple. -ort arms position $ith spike on uphill side. raverse $ith feet flat. logical progression. Ese o# ice aB in &escent. >se crampons in the follo$ing situations: H H H H H !alking as on flat ground. 2agger position using front(pointing techni#ue. dictated by the terrain and skill of the individual. Cane position on uphill side as slope steepens. -ush(hold position using front(pointing techni#ue. A typical progression could be as follo$s: %.

<egin by positioning the feet in a secure stance and placing the a" in the hammer position as high as possible. f. . >sing most of these positions.emove the a" and place it at a higher position and begin again. in some cases. +lo$ly and carefully move the feet to higher positions alternately.epeat this until the hand is on top of the head of the a".0*.e. >sing cut steps can save valuable time that $ould be spent in donning crampons for short stretches of ice and can.1*. and move the hand up the a" shaft. +teps may also have to be cut by the lead team to enable a unit $ithout proper e#uipment to . . a single a" can be 6climbed6 in steps to move upslope on lo$(angle to near vertical terrain %&igure .. save the $eight of the crampons altogether. Step Cutting. C!im ing sequence. C!im ing Sequence.:(. +tep cutting is an e"tremely valuable techni#ue that is a re#uired skill for any military mountaineer %&igure . Figure )*-).:(.

although a traverse $ill normally be adopted. . Cutting ahead one step then cutting an intermediate step keeps all of the steps relatively close to one another and maintains a suitable interval that all personnel can use. steps may be cut by s$inging the a" in a near(vertical plane. a traverse is also the preferred method. !hen changing direction. %0* =ce. =e"t. %. and angled more. If handholds are cut. they should be smaller than footholds. In descending.negotiate sno$( or ice(covered terrain. <egin by directing a line of blo$s at right angles to the slope to make a fracture line along the base of the intended step. using the inside corner of the adAe for cutting. then cut one bet$een those t$o. a step large enough for both feet and crampons must be made.* Sno+. he step should be fashioned so that it slopes slightly in$ard and is big enough to admit the entire foot. +teps used for resting or for turning must be larger. %'* -an&ho!&s. %1* Step Cutting in a Tra2erse. Dn slopes of firm sno$ and soft ice. /ard ice re#uires that the pick of the a" be used. the preferred cutting se#uence is to cut one step at an armUs length from the highest step already cut. !hen cutting steps in a traverse. In ascending. As units continue to move up areas $here steps have been cut they should continue to improve each step. his techni#ue $ill reduce the chance of an un$anted fracture in the ice breaking out the entire step. steps may be cut straight up the slope. chop above the fracture line to fashion the step. !hen using the pick it should be given an out$ard jerk as it is placed to prevent it from sticking in the ice. the adAe is best used to further shape and clean the step. Dnce the step is formed.

or arrest. . A climber should al$ays carry an ice a" $hen climbing on steep sno$ or ice@ if a fall occurs. Step cutting an& han&ho!& cutting.:(. and a lack of kno$ledge and e"perience in the techni#ues necessary to stop. $hich should prevent a fall of any significance %this is a self belay not a self(arrest*. a fall %&igure . C7ET=63 +elf(arrest re#uires the a" pick to gradually dig in to slo$ the descent. he must retain possession and control of his ice a" if he is to successfully arrest the fall. he large number of climbers injured or killed $hile climbing on sno$ and ice can be attributed to t$o major failings on the part of the climber: climbing unroped. the a" pick $ill be in the ice solidly before the body is moved. possibly resulting in either arm or shoulder injury. Se!#-7rrest. +elf(arrest is difficult on steep ice because the ice a" pick instantly 6bites6 into the ice.Figure )*-)1. or the a" is deflected immediately upon contact.'*. 2uring movement on steep ice. g.

Figure )*-)4. . Se!#-arrest technique.

H /ead upslope. Dnce the roll or spin has been controlled. H /ead do$nslope. $hether it is $ith his ice a" or simply by brute force. back to the slope. and feet pointed upslope.Figure )*-)4. and feet pointed upslope. stomach on the slope. . H /ead do$nslope. H /ead upslope. and feet pointed do$nslope. the climber $ill find himself in one of four positions. %0* o place the body in position to arrest from the four basic fall positions the follo$ing must be accomplished. stomach on the slope. and feet pointed do$nslope. back to the slope.* A climber $ho has fallen may roll or spin@ if this happens. Se!#-arrest technique /continue&0. %. the climber must first gain control of his body.

lifting up on it to prevent the spike from digging into the slope. 9lissading is similar to skiing. <!issa&ing 9lissading is the intentional. $ith the feet pointed do$nslope. %'* !hen a fall occurs. increasing the pressure until the fall is arrested. or slide of a mountaineer do$n a steep slope covered $ith sno$ %&igure . the climber drives the pick of the ice a" into the slope. $ith the head of the a" by one shoulder and the spike near the opposite hip. controlled. Dne hand grasps the head of the a". If crampons are not $orn.aising the spike end of the shaft increases the biting action of the pick. 3ote4 If crampons are $orn. %d* In the fourth position. %1* he final position $hen the arrest of the fall is completed should be $ith the head upslope. $hile the other hand is on the shaft near the spike. %c* In the third position. . the climber should immediately grasp the a" $ith both hands and hold it firmly as described above. the toe of the boots may be dug into the slope to help arrest the fall. his $ill cause the body to rotate into a head up. the feet must be raised to prevent the crampons from digging into the sno$ or ice too #uickly. rapid descent. $ith the pick pointed into the slope. the body is in proper relation to the slope for an arrest.:(. his could cause the climber to tumble and also. the body must first be rotated from face up to face do$n on the slope. %b* In the second position. could severely injure his ankles and legs. e"cept skis . Dnce sufficient control of the body is attained. stomach do$n position. the pick of the ice a" is placed upslope and used as a pivot to bring the body into proper position.%a* In the first position.7*. the head of the a" must be driven into the sno$ to the climberUs side. stomach on the slope. his is accomplished by rolling the body to$ard the head of the a". he a" is held diagonally across the chest. It is critical that control of the ice a" be maintained at all times.

brake. Also. and the other hand on the shaft. pick. Sitting <!issa&e. . $hich serves as the rudder. he sitting glissade is slo$er but easier to control than the s#uatting glissade. he hand on the shaft grips it firmly in a position that allo$s control as $ell as the application of do$n$ard pressure on the spike of the a". but instead of skis the soles of the feet or the buttocks are used. he ice a" is grasped $ith one hand on the head. since drop(offs may e"ist out of vie$. and guide for the glissade.are not used. as painful injury could result. b. and the heels and feet raised and pointed do$nslope. >sing this method the glissader sits on the sno$ $ith the legs flat. a sitting glissade should not be used if the sno$ cover is thin. Squatting <!issa&e. he same balance and control are necessary. he only piece of e#uipment re#uired is the standard ice a". $ith the e"ception that the hand on the shaft must be locked against the hip for control. he ice a" is firmly grasped in the same manner as the s#uatting glissade. he t$o basic methods of glissading are: a. and adAe outboard %a$ay from the body*. c. he s#uatting glissade is accomplished by placing the body in a semi(crouched position $ith both knees bent and the body $eight directly over the feet. Sa#ety. A glissade should never be attempted on a slope $here the bottom cannot be seen.

* Cut a horiAontal recess into the ice. +afe use of ice pitons re#uires placement in pairs. backpacks. decreasing the perceived security of the anchor. %. Ice pitons installed in pairs are a bombproof anchor@ ho$ever. ice scre$s. deadman(type anchors. =ce 9itons. <!issa&ing techniques.Figure )*-)5. flukes. Sno+ 7n& =ce 7nchors Ice and sno$ anchors consist of sno$ pickets. ice pitons have no threads for friction to hold them in the ice once placed and are removed easily. . &ollo$ the instructions belo$ for placing ice pitons in pairs. a. or any large items. he ice piton is not seen in modern ice climbing but may still be available to the military.: inches in length. and ice pitons. he ice piton is used to establish anchor points. 2eadman anchors can be constructed from sno$shoes. sleds. he standard ice piton is made of tubular steel and is . >sed singularly. ice pitons are a strong anchor but are easily removed. and also create a vertical surface %t$o clean surfaces at right angles to each other*. skis.

If it pulls out or appears $eak. move to another spot and replace it. he ice scre$ is the most common type of ice protection and has replaced the ice piton for the most part %&igure . %'* est the piton pair to ensure it is secure. Figure )*-)6.:(. $hen placed correctly. or the ice may crack or soften. he piton $ill heat from solar radiation. %1* Connect the t$o rings $ith a single carabiner. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the pitons $ith ice chips once they have been placed. %7* he effective time and or strength for an ice piton placement is limited.)*. =ce piton pair. -lace ice scre$s as follo$s: . the ice that has accumulated in the tube must be removed before it freeAes in position. !hen an ice piton is removed. !ebbing or rope can be used if the rings are turned to the inside of the intersection. such as top roping. are multidirectional. +ome scre$s have longer 6hangers6 or handles.%0* 2rive one piton into the horiAontal surface and another into the vertical surface so that the t$o pitons intersect at the necessary point %&igure . $hich allo$ them to be easily t$isted into position by hand. ensuring the carabiner is not cross(loaded. If repeated use is necessary for one installation.4*. the pitons should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. c. he pair of pitons.:( . making further use difficult. =ce Scre+s.

emember that you may only have use of one hand at this point depending on your stance and the angle of the terrain. !hen an ice scre$ is removed. +olar radiation can be nearly eliminated by covering the scre$ $ith ice chips once it has been emplaced. If you have a short a" %4: centimeters or less*. melting of the ice around a scre$ over a period of time must be considered. Figure )*-)7.%. >se either your hand or the pick of the ice a" to scre$ it in. If repeated use is necessary for one installation. must be removed before further use. he scre$ should be placed at an angle 8: to . 9!acement o# ice scre+ using the pick. %0* &orce the ice scre$ in until the threads catch. he scre$ $ill heat from solar radiation. such as top roping. %. the ice that has accumulated in the tube. the scre$s should be inspected fre#uently and relocated $hen necessary. he effective time and or strength of an ice scre$ placement is limited. %1* urn the scre$ until the eye or the hanger of the ice scre$ is flush $ith the ice and pointing do$n. you may be able to use the spike in the eye or hanger to ease the turning.* Clear a$ay all rotten ice from the surface and make a small hole $ith the a" pick to start the ice scre$ in.* %'* As $ith ice pitons. . or the ice may crack or soften.:: degrees from the lo$er surface.

the reliability of the anchor should al$ays be suspect. !hen constructed of sno$. Figure )*-)". %0* A horseshoe anchor constructed in sno$ is al$ays precarious.* his type of anchor is usually available and may be used for fi"ed ropes or rappels.: feet. depending on the strength of the ice. or other e#uipment for added strength.d. a ne$ anchor must be constructed in a different location. -ickets and ice a"es may be used as sno$ anchors as follo$s. In ice. he backside of the anchor must al$ays be undercut to prevent the rope from sliding off and over the anchor. -orseshoe or %o!!ar& 7nchor. e. It is formed from either ice or sno$ and constructed by either cutting $ith the ice a" or stamping $ith the boots. -orshoe o# o!!ar& anchor.:(. the $idth should not be less than . his is an artificial anchor shaped generally like a horseshoe %&igure . he backside of the bollard can be reinforced $ith ice a"es. %. he length of the bollard should be at least t$ice the $idth. pickets. . its strength depending upon the prevailing te"ture of the sno$. &or dry or $ind(packed sno$. It must be inspected fre#uently to ensure that the rope is not cutting through the sno$ or ice more than one(third the length of the anchor@ if it is. he trench around the horseshoe should be stamped as deeply as possible in the sno$ and should be cut not less than ) inches into the ice after all rotten ice is removed. this $idth may be narro$ed to 0 feet.5*. 9ickets an& =ce 7Bes.

A carabiner can be clipped through the hole in the head. %.nsure the attaching point is accessible before burying. the carabiner should be placed in the hole closest to the sno$ surface to reduce leverage. %1* !henever the strength of the sno$ anchor is suspect. sno$shoes. t$o or more anchors should be used. %0* An ice a" can be used in place of a picket. rappel points. Dther items suitable for dead man anchor construction are backpacks. A similar anchor.%.:(. %&igure .6 can be made $ith a large sack either stuffed $ith noncompressible items or filled $ith sno$ and buried.7 degrees off perpendicular from the lo$er surface. it should be mandatory for main anchors at all belay positions. such as a picket or a". he simplest connection to the a" is to use a sling or rope directly around the shaft just under the head. If the picket cannot be driven in all the $ay to the top hole. . !hile this is not al$ays practical for intermediate anchor points on lead climbs or fi"ed ropes. the anchor may be buried in the sno$ and used as a 6dead man6 anchor. it should be inserted $ith the $idest portion of the a" shaft facing the direction of pull. If using the leash ensure it is not $orn. or any other item large enough or shaped correctly to achieve the design. .8 sho$s an e"ample of three sno$ pickets configured to an e#ualiAed anchor. !hen using an ice a" as a sno$ anchor.* %0* As $ith multipoint anchors on rock. also. $qua!i@e& 7nchors.* he picket should be driven into the sno$ at 7 to . t$o or more sno$ or ice anchors can be joined together $ith a sling rope or $ebbing to construct one solid. or other fi"ed rope installations. should be at a right angle to its length. skis. he picket may also be tied off $ith a short loop of $ebbing or rope as in tying off pitons. ski poles. frayed. or cut from general use@ is strong enough@ and does not t$ist the a" $hen loaded. sometimes referred to as a 6dead guy. especially $hen a picket or a" cannot be driven in all the $ay. f.* !henever possible. he construction is identical to that of the dead man anchor used in earth. +no$ and ice anchors must be constantly checked due to melting and changing sno$ or ice conditions. he direction of pull on long items.

Tie-=n :etho&. all climbers move simultaneously. the tie(in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing@ ho$ever. :o2ement. a. +hould any member fall.ope& C!im ing 6n =ce 7n& Sno+ !hen climbing on ice or sno$ team members tie into a climbing rope the same as $hen they climb on rock. &or climbing on sno$ and ice. !hen crevasses are e"pected. b. %+ee paragraph . he immediately yells 6&ABBI=9.6 he other rope team members immediately drop into a self(arrest position. Covement on 9laciers. the tie(in is modified slightly. Figure )*-)'.:(4. $qua!i@e& anchor using pickets. he rope bet$een the climbers should be fully e"tended and kept reasonably tight. <y using this . a three(man rope team is recommended. =ormally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them $hen necessary. . $hen moving over sno$(covered glaciers.e#ualiAed anchor. he fallen climber also applies the self(arrest procedure. A bo$line on a bight tied into the climbing rope can also be used instead of sling ropes or $ebbing. for more information*. &or movement on gentle or moderate slopes $here there is little chance of a serious fall.

he brake is applied by $rapping the rope around the heel of the boot %&igure . and $hen crossing sno$(covered crevasses $here the sno$ bridges appear $eak. his belay can be useful in areas $here the full length of the ice a" can penetrate the sno$.*. he shaft of the a" is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the sno$. 9enerally.:(0:*. he holding strength of the boot(a" belay is directly related to the firmness of the sno$ and to the strength of the ice a" shaft. he principles of belaying on ice and sno$ are the same as on rock. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice a". %oot-aB e!ay.method. Figure )*-. called the 6team arrest. . Dn steeper slopes. %. %e!aying on Sno+ an& =ce.* %oot-7B %e!ay. he belayer places his uphill foot against the do$nhill side of the a" for support.6 the entire team as a $hole arrests the fall of one member. the high(force falls found in rock climbing are not present on sno$ and ice unless the pitch being climbed is e"tremely steep. the climbers use belayed climbing techni#ues as in rock climbing. c.

he body belay can be used on sno$ and ice. here are a fe$ different types of glaciers identifiable primarily by their location or activity. H Valley glacier—resides and flo$s in a valley. and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel. An understanding of glacier formation and characteristics is necessary to plan safe routes. FiBe& .etreation glacier—a deteriorating glacier@ annual melt of entire glacier e"ceeds the flo$ of the ice. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay. his belay techni#ue is also used on sno$ and ice. a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor should be constructed as a minimum. H Cir#ue glacier—forms and resides in a bo$l. or cliffs. H +urging glacier—annual flo$ of the ice e"ceeds the melt@ the movement is measurable over a period of time. !hen using the hitch off of the anchor. :o2ement 6n <!aciers Covement in mountainous terrain may re#uire travel on glaciers. d. he principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a $ell(braced position assumed. As the movement continues.opes. ridgelines. H /anging glacier—these are a result of valley or cir#ue glaciers flo$ing and or deteriorating. %1* :unter -itch. H . both in initial placement and in subse#uent inspection. he use of fi"ed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions.%0* %o&y %e!ay. he position can be improved by digging depressions into the sno$ or ice for a seat and footholds. also. he accumulated sno$ eventually turns to ice due to metamorphosis. portions separate and are sometimes left hanging on mountains. . he 6flo$6 or movement of glaciers is caused by gravity. H -iedmont glacier—formed by one or more valley glaciers@ spreads out into a large area. A glacier is formed by the perennial accumulation of sno$ and other precipitation in a valley or dra$. he procedures for emplacing fi"ed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock $ith the e"ception that anchors need more attention.

:(00 depicts common glacier features. and defines common terminology used in reference to glaciers.:(0. and &igure . <!acier cross section. .* Figure )*-. %&igure .a. Characteristics an& De#initions.). his paragraph describes the common characteristics of glaciers. sho$s a cross section of a glacier.

Celt e#uals or e"ceeds sno$fall.Figure )*-.. &irn is the building blocks of the ice that makes the glacier.. he sno$fall e"ceeds melt. <!acier #eatures. . %1* he ablation Aone is the area $here the sno$ melts off the ice in summer.* &irn is compacted granular sno$ that has been on the glacier at least one year. %. %0* he accumulation Aone is the area that remains sno$(covered throughout the year because of year(round sno$fall.

hese are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 1: degrees or more. %.0* Icefalls are a jumble of crisscross crevasses and large ice to$ers that are normally found $here a glacier flo$s over a slope $ith a gradient change of 07 degrees or more. %4* A crevasse is a split or crack in the glacier surface.%'* he firn line separates the accumulation and ablation Aones. . %7* A bergschrund is a large crevasse at the head of a glacier caused by separation of active %flo$ing* and inactive %stationary* ice. . %5* A transverse crevasse forms perpendicular to the flo$ of a glacier.emember that sno$ bridges $ill be $eakest lo$er on the glacier as you enter the accumulation Aone. as these could be sno$ bridges remaining over crevasses. hese are formed by heat reflected from valley $all. %)* A moat is a $all formed at the head %start* of the glacier. Cost of these are formed by the $ind.* A sno$ bridge is a some$hat supportive structure of sno$ that covers a crevasse. hese are normally found $here a glacier $idens.:* 2iagonal crevasses form at an angle to the flo$ of a glacier. %. As you approach this area. hese are formed $hen the glacier moves over an irregularity in the bed surface. hese $ill usually be seen at the base of a major incline and can make an ascent on that area difficult. he strength of a sno$ bridge depends on the sno$ itself. he firn line can change annually.1* +eracs are large pinnacles or columns of ice that are normally found in icefalls or on hanging glaciers. %8* Bongitudinal crevasses form parallel to the flo$ of a glacier. %.. hese are normally found along the edges $here a glacier makes a bend. %. <e cautious. you may see 6strips6 of sno$ in the ice.

+no$(covered crevasses make movement on a glacier e"tremely treacherous. o$ard the end of the summer. ice flo$ing over irregularities and cliffs . $hen visibility is poor. %01* A glacier $indo$ is an opening at the snout of the glacier $here $ater runs out of the glacier. In $inter.4* he medial moraine is in the middle of the glacier.8* he ground moraine is the rocky debris e"tending out from the terminus of a glacier. %. %. b. crevasses are $idest and covered by the least sno$.)* he lateral moraine is formed on sides of glacier.* An ice mill is a hole in the glacier formed by s$irling $ater on the surface. %. %. icefalls. and ice avalanches. %00* -ressure ridges are $avelike ridges that form on glacier normally after a glacier has flo$ed over icefalls.%. %0. hese can be large enough for a human to slip into. Crossing sno$ bridges constitutes the greatest potential danger in movement over glaciers in the summer.'* Ice avalanches are falling chunks of ice normally occurring near icefalls or hanging glaciers. %. Dn the steep pitch of a glacier. Dangers an& 6 stac!es.5* he terminal moraine is at the base of a glacier and is formed as moraines meet at the snout or terminus of a glacier. his is formed by the scraping of earth as the glacier gre$ or surged and e"posed as the glacier retreats. his is also formed as t$o glaciers come together or as a glacier moves around a central peak. %0:* A =unatak is a rock projection protruding through the glacier as the glacier flo$s around it. the difficulty of recogniAing them is increased. he principle dangers and obstacles to movement in glacial areas are crevasses.7* he moraine is an accumulation of rock or debris on a glacier caused by rockfall or avalanche of valley $alls.

his jumbled cliff of ice is kno$n as an icefall. %. Crampons and an ice a" are all that is re#uired to safely travel in the ablation Aone in the summer. Icefalls present a major obstacle to safe movement of troops on glaciers.* Coving on glaciers brings about the haAard of falling into a crevasse. Figure )*-. . he risk of traveling in the accumulation Aone can be managed to an acceptable level $hen ropes are used for connecting the team members %&igure . Although the crevasses are visible in the ablation Aone in the summer %&igure .:(01*. 7 !ation @one o# g!acier in summer. the accumulation Aone $ill still have hidden crevasses.1.:(0'*. criss(crossed $ith crevasses.in the underlying valley floor cause the ice to break up into ice blocks and to$ers.

If the team members need to assemble in one area. the remaining members go into team arrest. . if three people are on a team. %1* Connect to the rope $ith the appropriate method and attach the -rusik as re#uired. %0* !hen conditions $arrant.ope teams mo2ing in the accumu!ation @one o# a g!acier. three to four people $ill tie in to one rope at e#ual distances from each other. o locate the positions. assess the situation. use the -rusik to belay each other in. ie in to the bights and the ends.4. %'* If a team member falls into a crevasse. If four people are on a team. he simplest and most common . form a 6A6 $ith the rope and e"pand the 6A6 fully. he rope should be kept relatively tight either by -rusik belay or positioning of each person.Figure )*-. and use the necessary techni#ue to remove the person from the crevasse. double the rope and one ties into the middle and the other t$o at the ends. keeping the end and the bight on each 6side6 of the 6A6 even.

he best combination is a three(man rope team. $hile ideal for rock climbing. secure it not only to a climber to pull it. the rope team members $ill move at the same time $ith the rope fully e"tended and reasonably tight bet$een individuals.method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. . A roped team of t$o. %7* All items should be secured to either the climber or the ropeKharness to prevent inadvertent release and loss of necessary items or e#uipment. their security being the team arrest. 9enerally. %)* If marking the route on the glacier is necessary for backtracking or to prevent disorientation in storms or flat(light conditions. he first team member can place a ne$ marker $hen the last team member reaches the previous marker.ope& :o2ement. . the members may decide to belay each other across the crevasse using one of the established belay techni#ues. halting the fall. use markers that $ill be noticeable against the $hite conditions. At points of obvious $eakness in the sno$ bridges. If an individual should break through a sno$ bridge and fall into a crevasse. is at a disadvantage on a sno$(covered glacier. but connect it to the rope $ith $ebbing or rope also. he first rule for movement on glaciers is to rope up %&igure . c.:(07*. -acks should be secured to the ropeKharness $ith $ebbing or rope. If traveling $ith a sled in to$. the other members immediately perform self(arrest.

$hether improvised or premanufactured. he team members tie into the middle positions on the rope. he standard practice for connecting to the rope for glacier travel is $ith a locking carabiner on a figure(eight loop to the harness. %. it is strongly recommended that all personnel $ear a seatKchest combination harness. %0* . leaving a third of the rope bet$een each team member and a third on each end of the rope. his allo$s #uick detachment of the rope for rescue purposes. he appropriate standing part of the rope is then clipped to the chest harness carabiner.ven $ith proper training in crevasse rescue techni#ues. the probability e"ists that an individual may remain suspended in a crevasse for a fairly lengthy amount of time $hile trying to get himself out or $hile a$aiting help from his rope team members.* . 9reparations #or rope& mo2ement. <ecause of this.5.ope team members must be able to #uickly remove the climbing rope from the harness%es* during a crevasse rescue. %1* If a rope team consists of only t$o people.Figure )*-. he remaining 6thirds6 . as for a four(person team. the rope should be divided into thirds.

if $arm clothing is needed. by itself. Crevasse rescue procedures performed by a t$o( man rope team. e. If necessary. and for self(rescue in a crevasse fall.0(foot ropes. he $eight of the average pack $ill be enough to hinder the climber during crevasse rescue. An overhand knot can be tied into the sling just belo$ the -rusik to keep e#ual tension on all the -rusik $raps. d. may be e"tremely difficult. the $eight of an ascender hanging on the rope during movement $ill become annoying. Securing the %ackpack. $ith double fishermanUs knots. forming endless loops or slings. the chance of it failing is much greater. &orm the -rusik knot on the rope in front of the climber. &or safety reasons. or carried over the head and shoulder. to anchor the climbing rope for crevasse rescue. should one of the men fall through and re#uire another rope. he -rusik slings are made from the 4(millimeter by )(foot and 4(millimeter by . Attach this sling to the locking carabiner at the tie in point on the harness. movement over a sno$(covered glacier by a single t$o(man team should be avoided $herever possible. or possibly force him into an upside do$n position $hile suspended in the crevasse. /o$ever. !hen . this e"cess end rope can be used to connect to another rope team for safer travel. and it could be stepped on during movement and or climbing. 3ote4 An ascender can replace a -rusik sling in most situations.ucksack. the pack should be attached to the climbing rope $ith a sling rope or $ebbing and a carabiner. it is essential that he be able to rid himself of his backpack. attached to the rucksack. -rusik knots are attached to the climbing rope for all glacier travel.of the rope should be coiled and either carried in the rucksack. If an individual should fall into a crevasse. <efore movement. he ends of the ropes are tied together.. he -rusiks are used as a self(belay techni#ue to maintain a tight rope bet$een individuals. his gives each climber an additional length of rope that can be used for crevasse rescue. A fallen climber can immediately drop the pack $ithout losing it. 3ote4 he self(arrest techni#ue used by one individual $ill $ork to halt the fall of his partner on a t$o(man rope team@ ho$ever. he drop cord length should be minimal to allo$ the fallen individual to reach the pack after releasing it. Ese o# 9rusik Knots.

In this Aone. and their presence is an inconvenience rather than a danger to movement. provided the take off and landing spots are firm and offer good footing. and difficult mountain terrain bordering the glacier ice. and icefalls. $hereas the glacier ice is gray. !ider cracks $ill have to be circumvented unless a solid piece of ice joins into an ice bridge strong enough to support at least the $eight of one member of the team. +uch ice bridges are often formed in the lo$er portion of a crevasse. %.* Additional obstacles in getting onto a glacier may be s$ift glacier streams. g. $hich may be major obstacles to progress. steep terminal or lateral moraines. Dpen crevasses are obvious. connecting both sides of it. =arro$ cracks may be covered. %0* &urther considerations to movement on a glacier are steep sections. though their depths may be clogged $ith masses of sno$. %.outes. and do not take the place of. . he difference bet$een glacier ice and narro$ sno$(covered cracks is immediately apparent@ the covering sno$ is $hite. . the Aone that divides seasonal melting from permanent falls of sno$. f. large crevasses remain open. he same obstacles may also have to be overcome in getting on and off a valley glacier at any place along its course. =arro$ cracks can be jumped. heavily crevassed portions.hanging from the drop cord. $hich covers glacier ice. he use of current aerial photographs in conjunction $ith aerial reconnaissance is a valuable means of gathering advance information about a particular glacier. melts more rapidly than that $hich covers crevasses. on(the(ground reconnaissance conducted from available vantage points.* In the area of the firn line. An individual operating in the mountains must appreciate certain limitations in glacier movement imposed by nature. /o$ever. the sno$. they only supplement. the pack should be oriented just as $hen $earing it %ensure the cord pulls from the top of the pack*. Crossing Cre2asses.

and gradually turn into glacier ice. !hen moving parallel to a crevasse. !hen crossing a bridge that seems sufficiently strong enough to hold a member of the team. As long as a firm foundation is encountered. the prober should probe closer to his position to make sure that he is not standing on the bridge itself. he sno$ surface here $ill vary in consistency from dry po$der to consolidated sno$. <elo$ this surface cover are found other sno$ layers that become more crystalline in te"ture $ith depth. As the cornice gro$s from the $ind$ard side. If he is. %0* A crevasse should be crossed at right angles to its length. the team $ill generally move at the same time on a tight rope. but difficult to detect in flat light. +ince cohesion of dry sno$ depends only on an interlocking of the branches of delicate crystals.* Dnce a crevasse has been completely bridged. a counter drift is formed on the lee$ard side. %. /e should then follo$ and probe the margin until a more resistant portion of the bridge is reached. all members of the team should keep $ell back from the edge and follo$ parallel but offset courses. but should the shaft meet no opposition from an underlying layer of sno$. Sno+ %ri&ges. for even $ide crevasses may be completely concealed by sno$ bridges. <ridges are generally slightly concave because of the settling of the sno$.%0* >sually the upper part of a glacier is permanently sno$ covered. +no$ bridges are formed by $indblo$n sno$ that builds a cornice over the empty interior of the crevasse. his concavity is perceptible in sunshine. . h. he gro$th of the lee$ard portion $ill be slo$er than that to the $ind$ard so that the juncture of the cornices occurs over the middle of the crevasse only $hen the contributing $inds blo$ e#ually from each side. If the presence of hidden crevasses is suspected. its detection is difficult. !hen $armer $eather prevails the sno$ becomes settled and more compacted. and may form firmer bridges. the leader of a roped team must probe the sno$ in front of him $ith the shaft of his ice a". such bridges are particularly dangerous during the $inter. <ridges can also be formed $ithout $ind. especially during heavy falls of dry sno$. In such a situation. he should retreat gently from the bridge and determine the $idth and direction of the crevasse. It is in this sno$(covered upper part of a glacier that crevasses are most difficult to detect. the team may proceed. a crevasse is probably present.

=umber t$o belays number three across. /e then continues as far across as possible so number t$o $ill have room to get across $ithout number one having to move. +kis or sno$shoes help distribute the $eight nicely. %c* he leader should move for$ard. %d* he third assumes the middle personUs belay position. he middle can be belayed across by both the first and last. %1* In crossing crevasses. he third goes into a self(belay behind the second and remains on a tight rope. until he reaches firm sno$ on the far side of the crevasse. he boot(a" belay should be used only if the sno$ is deep enough for the a" to be inserted up to the head and firm enough to support the possible load. they should proceed as follo$s for a team of three glacier travelers: %a* he leader and second take up a position at least . =umber one moves out on a tight rope and anchors in to a self(belay. %b* he second belays the leader across using one of the established belay techni#ues. Dnce the second is across. Cost crevasse falls $ill be no more than body height into the opening if the rope is kept snug bet$een each person. distribute the $eight over as $ide an area as possible. Cany fragile bridges can be crossed by lying do$n and cra$ling to the other side. i. 2o not stamp the sno$.$ith each individual prepared to go into self(arrest. If the stability of the sno$ bridge is under #uestion.: feet back from the edge. A #uick ice a" anchor should be placed for the other belays. 7rresting an& Securing a Fa!!en C!im er. . he assumes the belay position. he simplest and most common method for getting someone out of a crevasse is for the person to climb out $hile being belayed. carefully probing the sno$ and evaluating the strength of the bridge. 2eadman or e#ualiAing anchors should be used $hen necessary.

it usually can be checked before the climber has fallen more than ) feet. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . the rope is al$ays kept taut. number 1 $ill proceed to number 0Us position. al$ays being prepared to go back into self( arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. he follo$ing scenario is an e"ample of the se#uence of events that take place after a fall by the leader in a three(person team. In this $ay the rope remains reasonably tight bet$een number 0 and number 1.. the fall $ill cause the rope to cut through the bridge. and then even an instantaneous check by the other members $ill not prevent a deeper fall. if the person $as almost across. he rope should remain tight at all times and the team arrest positions adjusted to do so.%. /o$ever. If the leader has fallen only partially through the sno$ bridge. the rescue procedure $ill be same as for the leader. =umber 1 slo$ly releases his portion of the load onto number 0. the length of the fall depends upon ho$ #uickly the fall is arrested and $here in the bridge the break takes place. A fall through a sno$ bridge results either in the person becoming jammed in the surface hole. he is supported by the sno$ forming the bridge and should not thrash about as this $ill only enlarge the hole and result in deeper suspension. =umber 1 must al$ays be . %b* Dnce number 0 is confident that he can hold the load. using the -rusik as a self belay. All movements should be slo$ and aimed at rolling out of the hole and distributing the $eight over the remainder of the bridge. the entire load must be placed on number 0 to allo$ number 1 to move for$ard and anchor the rope. +hould a team member other than the leader e"perience a partial fall. !hen the leader une"pectedly breaks through. or in being suspended in the crevasse by the rope.* %a* Dnce the fall has been halted by the team arrest.* o provide a #uick means of holding an une"pected breakthrough. the second and third immediately go into a self(arrest position to arrest the fall. as its bulk often prevents a deeper fall. only complicated slightly by the position on the rope. %0* !hen the person falls into a crevasse. to anchor the rope. It generally is safer to retain the rucksack. % his scenario is for a team of three. If the fall occurs close to the near edge of the crevasse.

he -rusik knot is adjusted to$ard the load. If number 1 should fall through a crevasse.: feet in front of number 0 %on the load side*. and a fall is most likely to occur some distance a$ay from the . =umber 1 $ould place the load on number . assumes the role of number 1.escue Techniques. An overhand knot should be tied into the long -rusik sling to shorten the distance to the anchor. as a minimum.. j. and attached to the anchor %to back up the -rusik knot*. $ould anchor the rope by himself. %g* =umber 1 remains tied in. onto the anchor. +no$ bridges are usually strongest at the edge of the crevasse. %1* hese preliminary procedures must be performed before retrieving the fallen climber. the procedure is the same e"cept that number . and decide $hich rescue techni#ue $ill be re#uired to retrieve him. /e must no$ #uickly check on the condition of number . close to number 0. but continues for$ard using a short -rusik as a self(belay. number .Us anchor. %f* A fi"ed loop can be tied into the slack part of the rope. if the middle person should fall through. %d* =umber 1 connects the rope to the anchor by tying a -rusik $ith his long -rusik sling onto the rope leading to number . %c* !hen number 1 reaches number 0Us position he $ill establish a bombproof anchor 1 to . and attached to the anchor $ith a carabiner. his could be either a deadman or a t$o(point e#ualiAed anchor. =umber 0 remains connected to the anchor and monitors the anchor.prepared to go back into self(arrest should number 0Us position begin to fail. then anchor his rope and move for$ard $ith a -rusik self(belay to determine the condition of number 0. depending on ho$ close number 0 is to the lip of the crevasse. Cre2asse . %e* =umber 0 can then release the load of number . =ormally.

ski. In some situations. ski pole. thus greatly increasing friction for those pulling from above. under the rope and at right angles to the stress. Another rope team can move for$ard and assist in pulling the victim out of a crevasse. If the fallen climber is not injured. he assisting team can attach to the arresting teamUs rope $ith a -rusik or ascender and both rope teamsU members can all pull simultaneously. thus relieving the strain on the sno$. As the assisting team pulls. place padding. If necessary. or backpackKrucksack. here may be times $hen the remaining members of a rope team can render little assistance to the . the -rusik belay $ill be managed by the arresting team member at the long -rusik.edge.Us rope through the anchor -rusik for a belay. In order to reduce friction. If a fall occurs a$ay from the edge. he assisting rope team should move to a point bet$een the fallen climber and the remaining rope team members. he may be able to climb out on a fi"ed rope. -ush the padding for$ard as far as possible to$ard the edge of the crevasse. he arresting team member closest to the fallen climber should attach the long -rusik to themselves and the rope leading to the fallen climber.nsure the padding is anchored from falling into the crevasse for safety of the fallen climber. the rope usually cuts deeply into the sno$. %0* FiBe& .ope Teams. such as an ice a". +trength of other rope teams should al$ays be used before establishing more time(consuming and elaborate rescue techni#ues. Additional rope teams have the necessary e#uipment to improve the main anchor or establish ne$ ones and the strength to pull a person out even if he is deep in the crevasse. . /e then climbs out using number 1Us rope as a simple fi"ed line $hile number 0 takes up the slack in number . a belay can be initiated by the fallen climberUs team $hile the assisting team pulls. a crevasse fall $ill occur at the edge of the sno$ bridge. 3ote4 +afety in numbers is obvious for efficient crevasse rescue techni#ues. =umber . %. on the edge of the ice. and the assisting team can attach their -rusik or ascender bet$een this long -rusik and the arresting team member. clips number 1Us rope to himself.ope.* Ese o# 7&&itiona! . %1* 9rusik 7scen&ing Technique.

it is sometimes desirable to keep the chest harness connected to the rope for additional . %b* he individual slides their short -rusik up the climbing rope as far as possible. %g* <esides being one of the simplest rope ascending techni#ues. If poor sno$ conditions make it impossible to construct a strong anchor.:(0) sho$s the proper rope configuration. he double fishermanUs knot is spread apart to create a loop large enough for one or both feet. %&igure . the individual can simply grasp the rope and pull himself over the edge and out of the hole. /o$ever. to ascend the rope.person in the crevasse. it may just be easier for the fallen climber to perform a self(rescue. %f* he procedure is repeated. %e* !ith his $eight removed from the short -rusik.6 of the long sling. Dther times. Dnce the crevasse lip is reached. the short -rusik acts as a self(belay and allo$s the climber to take as long a rest as he $ants $hen sitting in the harness. %c* he long -rusik is attached to the rope just belo$ the short -rusik. he individual then hangs from the short -rusik $hile he moves the long -rusik up underneath the short -rusik again. %d* he individual stands in the foot loop. it is slid up the rope as far as it $ill go. he rope should be detached from the chest harness carabiner to make the movements less cumbersome.* he techni#ue is performed as follo$s: %a* he fallen climber removes his pack and lets it hang belo$ from the drop cord. alternately moving the -rusiks up the rope. he fallen climber inserts his footKfeet into the loop formed allo$ing the knot to cinch itself do$n. or 6stirrup. the rope team members on top may have to remain in self(arrest.

he $ill not be able to offer any assistance in the rescue. he basic V rig is a 61(to(. a simple raising system can be rigged to haul the victim out of the crevasse. and they have decided to install the V rig.:(04*. each person referred to by position@ the leader is number . he long -rusik sling can be routed through the chest harness carabiner for additional support $hen standing up in the stirrup. he V(pulley hauling system is one of the simplest methods and the one most commonly used in crevasse rescue %&igure . %'* F-9u!!ey -au!ing System. number 0 $ill attach himself to the anchor $ithout using the rope and clear the connecting knot used.6.6 system. 9rusik ascen&ing technique. In actual field use. he follo$ing describes rigging of the system.* %a* After the rope team members have arrested and secured number . /e moves to$ard the crevasse lip %still on his o$n self( . In this case the -rusik knots must be 6on top6 of the chest harness carabiner so they can be easily slid up the rope $ithout interference from the carabiner. %c* =umber 1 $ill use number 0Us short -rusik to rig the haul -rusik. some of this mechanical advantage is lost to friction as the rope bends sharply around carabiners and over the crevasse lip. it $ould only take about 11 pounds of pull on the haul rope to raise a . % his scenario is for a team of three. providing mechanical advantage to reduce the $orkload on the individuals operating the haul line. If additional rope teams are not immediately available. Figure )*-. A pulley can be used here if available.. In theory. to the anchor. =umber 1 remains connected to the rope.support. he use of mechanical rescue pulleys can help reduce this friction in the system. %b* he slack rope e"iting the anchor -rusik is clipped into a separate carabiner attached to the anchor. If a fallen climber is injured or unconscious.::(pound load $ith this system.

Us rope %load rope* as close to the edge as possible. foot for every 1 feet of rope taken up during the haul. =umber 1Us rope becomes the haul rope. If the haul -rusik reaches the anchor before the victim reaches the top. he anchor should be monitored for the duration of the rescue. H !ith the 61(to(. 3otes4 H he V(pulley adds more load on the anchor due to the mechanical advantage.6 system. =umber 0 could help pull if necessary but first $ould connect to the haul rope $ith a -rusik just as number 1. the load %fallen climber* $ill be raised . the load is simply placed back on the anchor -rusik and number 1 moves the haul -rusik back to$ard the edge. %e* =umber 1 then moves to$ards the anchor and number 0. he system is no$ ready for another haul.belay* and ties number 0Us short -rusik onto number . . %d* Another carabiner %and pulley if available* is clipped into the loop of the haul -rusik and the rope bet$een number 1Us belay -rusik and the anchor is clipped %or attached through the pulley*. C7ET=63 he force applied to the fallen climber through use of the V(pulley system can be enough to destroy the harness(to( rope connection or injure the fallen climber if e"cess force is applied to the pulling rope.

7.If the probe suddenly has no resistance $hile pushing do$n.Figure )*-. -robing should be in 0(foot intervals in all directions $ithin the site. he prober is 6feeling6 for a solid platform to place the tent by pushing the probe as hard and deep as possible into the surface. Dther items could be used but the length and strength of the probe is most important. and so on.* -robe the tent site again after digging to the desired surface. a crevasse is present. the best decision is to relocate the proposed bivouac area far enough a$ay to avoid that crevasse. at least eight feet in length. at least one person $ill need to 6probe6 the area for hidden crevasses. %+ometimes only a fe$ feet one $ay or the other is all thatUs needed to reach a good platform. Cark boundaries $ith $ands or other items such as skis. =ormally. he best type of probe $ill be the manufactured collapsing probe pole. <!acier %i2ouac 9roce&ures !hen locating a bivouac site or a gathering area $here the team might need or $ant to unrope. poles. . Attempts to outline the crevasse can be futile if the crevasse is large. a. Dther rope team members $ill belay the probers. F-pu!!ey hau!ing system.

move the soft sno$ from the surface into the $all foundation areas %do$n to a consolidated layer of sno$*. by 0 feet. or operational ceiling of the aircraft may ma0e this impossible. c. ry to find a solid platform. Cultiple tent sites can be connected. here should be no unroped movement outside the probedKmarked areas. probe a route a$ay from the bivouac site and probe the latrine area also. the weather. Closer tents $ill make communicating bet$een tent groups and rope teams easier. the probe still doesnUt contact a hard surface. digging three or four feet to find a consolidated layer $ill result in enough sno$ moved to build up decent $alls around the tent site. -robe all areas bet$een the tents if you plan to move in those areas. Air evacuation is preferred: however. therefore. $hich keeps tents closer together. e. or blocks can be cut from consolidated sno$ layers. At a minimum. If a dugout latrine is necessary. and e)isting installations.escue 7n& $2acuation Steep terrain and adverse weather are common in mountainous environments. terrain. %1* +no$ $alls can also provide shelter from $ind for food preparation. probe again after digging. increased pressure $ill be noticed $ithout reaching a solid platform. If a latrine area is needed. and construct the $alls by interlocking the blocks $ith overlapping placements. sno$ $alls may be constructed to protect the tent site from $ind. %. If there is a chance for severe storms $ith high $inds. 7t is. d. he $alls should be slightly higher than the tent. Dccasionally $hile probing. In deep soft sno$. imperative that all personnel are trained in mountain evacuation techni&ues and are self . he amount of sno$fall may be such that even after digging into the sno$. 'he evacuation techni&ue chosen is determined by the type of in!ury. build $alls on the $ind$ard side of the tent site.b. by . Under these conditions. distance to be moved. :ountain . tactical situation. relatively minor in!uries may re&uire evacuation. %0* Cut blocks appro"imately . he $alls can be constructed from loose sno$ piled on the perimeter.* &or block construction.

e#uipment that is especially suited and designed for rescue should be used. %1* Immediately ensure the victim has an open air$ay. !hen evacuating a victim from mountainous areas keep in mind that the purpose of a rescue operation is to save a life.evel 777 supervising.evel 7 and . . physician/s assistant. &or training missions al$ays have a medical plan developed before an emergency arises %plan for the $orst and hope for the best*. 'o perform most of the high angle rescues. and maintain moderate body $armth. hey are. b. all subject to improvement and should be discarded or modified as better methods of handling victims are developed. there is no e"cuse for failing to make the ma"imum effort $ithin this limitation. and physical risk to the rescuers must be $eighed against this purpose. 4escue scenarios must be practiced and rehearsed until rescue party members are proficient in the many tas0s re&uired to e)ecute a rescue. ho$ever.sufficient. c. &or a planned rescue. . /o$ever. he follo$ing actions $ill be done immediately at the rescue scene. control serious bleeding. Casualties should be triaged before evacuation. and one person only. Consi&erations he techni#ues of evacuation are proven techni#ues. Dne person. >se reasonable care in reaching the victim. !ork and e"pense should be no deterrent $hen a life is at stake. medic%. a.2.evel 77 mountaineers are re&uired with a . is overall in charge at all times. . %0* -revent further injuries to the victim and to others. %. 'riage is performed by the most e)perienced medical personnel available $physician.erforming a rescue operation can be a significant emotional event.escues $ill be unplanned %improvised* or planned rescue operations.nsure that the C.* Assume command. . . resume victimUs breathing.VAC plan is a comprehensive plan and must be thought out and understood by all that may be involved in a potential rescue.

!hen a victim develops signs of shock or $orsens $hile being evacuated. hese stations must be staffed $ith the minimum medical personnel to provide proper emergency treatment. +peed is less important than correct action. %4* !hen the evacuation route is long and arduous. -rotect the patient from environmental haAards.escue 6perations .If the victim is unconscious. vehicle. environmental haAard. T-$ . . 9!anning . should be used for evacuation. !hile the use of aircraft or vehicles is preferred and can e"pedite a rescue operation. a series of litter relay points or stations should be established. :EST 36T %$C6:$ 7 C7SE78TD.$SCE$. . %'* 2o not move the victim until you have ascertained the e"tent of injuries. possibility of falling rocks*.very commander should have a medical evacuation plan before undertaking an operation. he should be treated and retained at one of these stations until his condition allo$s evacuation. unless it is necessary to prevent further injuries or the victim is located in a dangerous location %for e"ample. his plan should have contingencies included so as not to rely on a single asset. and terrain at hand. avalanche run(out Aone. +peed in getting to a hospital must be balanced against the probability of further injury if $orking $ith ine"perienced people. !hen rescuing a casualty %victim* threatened by hostile action. continually monitor pulse. if available. hanging glacier. %)* 2ecide $hether to evacuate $ith available facilities or to send for help. a. or a change in $eather. lack of e#uipment or $rong e#uipment. %7* 2o nothing more until you have thoroughly considered the situation. the rescuer should not take action $ithout first determining the e"tent of the haAard and his ability to handle the situation. or any other immediate haAard. evacuation of a seriously $ounded soldier should never be delayed to a$ait aircraft.esist the urge for action. %5* /elicopters or heated vehicles.

routine.#uipment re#uired for the rescue operation. medical. $hen. such as aircraft accidents %mass casualties*. c. Circumstances of the rescue are as follo$s: %. H =umber of casualties by precedence %urgent. Cake a realistic estimate of time available . treatment. $hat. his evaluation can be divided into three major steps: H Identify the task. H errain features and location of the casualties. H -lan the action. that may re#uire specialiAed skillsR H !hat is the $eather conditionR H Is the terrain haAardousR H /o$ much time is availableR %0* he time element may cause a rescuer to compromise planning stages or treatment %beyond first aid*. relate it to the circumstances of the situation. In planning a rescue. the rescuer tries to obtain the follo$ing information: H !ho. and the nature of their injuries. $hy. $here. he task must be identified. H number of casualties by type %litter or ambulatory*. and evacuation. H Are additional personnel. d. H . H If treatment can be provided at the scene@ if the victims re#uire movement to a safer location. priority. H . he rescue team leader must evaluate the situation and analyAe the factors involved. tactical immediate*. or special rescue e#uipment neededR H Are there circumstances. rescue.b. security. H actical situation.* After identifying the task. H If ade#uate assistance is available to aid in security.valuate the circumstances of the rescue. and ho$ the situation happened.

he rescue plan should proceed as follo$s: %. $arm clothes. ropes. reliable trails or roads is essential. and stretchers. $alking trails. remember to think things through logically for safety and to prevent the rescuer from accidentally untying himself or the fallen climber. and the personnel and e#uipment available. stove. tents. %b* -repare the evacuation route %ground transport to hospital. and rescue belay points*. pulse rate. . e. sleeping bags. the rescuers are al$ays tied in for safety.* In estimating time available. %d* Constantly inform the casualty %if they are conscious* as to $hat you are doing and $hat he must do. he key elements are the casualtyUs condition and environment. All problems or comple"ities of rescue are no$ multiplied by the number of casualties. attach a paper $ith the medical actions that $ere performed on the ground %for e"ample. %'* Considerations for the main rescue group for a planned rescue are as follo$s: %a* Carry all needed e#uipment. %1* Cass casualties are to be e"pected on the modern battlefield. the situation. blood pressure. hot food and drinks. and so on*. If the victim is airlifted out. ime becomes the critical element. fi"ed lines. the casualtiesU ability to endure is of primary importance. anchor points. Age and physical condition may vary. %c* !hen performing all rescues. lo$ering lines. %0* Consider altitude and visibility. Ca"imum use of secure. bivouac sacks. !ith all rescue techni#ues. drugs started. ime available is a balance of the endurance time of the casualty.as #uickly as possible to determine the action time remaining.

=6. H 9. H T-=.nsure that blankets and rain gear are available. and to #uickly transport casualties to a medical treatment facility. H F=. H 9.vacuation of $ounded personnel is based on the victimUs condition and is prioritiAed as follo$s: H 9. an orderly rescue may involve further planning. H 9. H F6E. a. b. separate stages are taken. H S$C63D ST7<$4 .=TD 63$4 -ersonnel $ith life(threatening injuries that re#uire immediate emergency care to survive@ first aid and stabiliAation are accomplished before evacuation. .$$4 Injured personnel $ho can evacuate themselves $ith minimal assistance. . In high altitudes.=6.ST ST7<$4 . o manage a mass casualty rescue or evacuation. %'* /igh altitudes and gusting $inds reduce the ability of fi"ed($ing or rotary($ing aircraft to assist in operations. such as moving large amounts of debris or cutting through a $all. but $hose e"traction only re#uires the e#uipment on hand and little time.=TD F6E.ST7<$4 .=6.emove the remaining personnel $ho are trapped in e"tremely difficult or time(consuming situations. . Specia! Training .=TD T-.otary($ing aircraft may be available to remove casualties from cliffs or inaccessible sites.D ST7<$4 .emove dead personnel.emove personnel $ho are not trapped among debris or $ho can be easily evacuated.ven a mild rain can complicate a normally simple rescue.emove personnel $ho may be trapped by debris. available time is drastically reduced. .T.4 he logistics removal of dead personnel.%1* .=TD T(64 -ersonnel $ith injuries that re#uire medical care but speed of evacuation is not essential. e"treme cold.elying on aircraft or specialiAed e#uipment is a poor substitute for careful planning. or gusting $inds.=6. :ass Casua!ties !hen there are mass casualties.

<ased upon the evaluation of the type and e"tent of the soldierUs injury.* re#uires a '. saddleback. the best method of manual transportation is selected. he members of litter teams must be proficient in the techni#ues of belaying and choosing belay points. %a* he bearer kneels on all fours. -roper support and protection must be given to victims and litter bearers $hen evacuating over steep. %.<efore receiving training in basic mountain evacuation. the type and e"tent of his injury must be evaluated.* S!ing-. herefore. t$o(hand.(.. Conscious or unconscious casualties may be transported this $ay. 6ne-:an Carries. Bitter bearers and medics must kno$ the use and care of rope as an item of e#uipment. and poncho litter* are viable means of transporting injured personnel@ ho$ever. -ersonnel $ho are injured and re#uire prompt evacuation should not be forced to $ait for mobile evacuation or special e#uipment. and fractured bones must be properly immobiliAed and supported. difficult terrain. before trying to move the $ounded soldier. the mountainous terrain lends itself to several other techni#ues. 2ressings over $ounds must be reinforced. %b* he assistant places the casualty face do$n on the bearerUs back ensuring the casualtyUs armpits are even $ith the bearerUs shoulders.ope Carry. or inade#uate protection from the elements. he sling(rope carry %&igure . he basic carries taught in the +oldierUs Canual of Common asks %firemanUs carry. Dne( man carries include the sling(rope carry and the rope coil carry. pistol belt. litter teams should receive instruction in military mountaineering and basic first aid. piggyback. four(hand.7( meter sling rope and t$o men—one as the bearer and the other as an assistant to help secure the casualty to the bearerUs back. 9reparations #or $2acuation Although the $ounded soldierUs life may have been saved by applying first aid. . it can be lost through carelessness. rough handling. a. :anua! Carries -ersonnel $ho are not seriously injured but cannot evacuate themselves may be assisted by fello$ soldiers.

should be placed $here the rope passes over the bearerUs shoulders and under the casualtyUs thighs. %f* he rope must be tight.K0( meter coiled rope. around the casualtyUs thighs. crosses the ends. %d* he assistant runs the ends of the sling rope under the casualtyUs armpits. and back around to the front of the bearer.ope Coi! Carry. Figure ))-). %0* . $hen available. forming t$o almost e#ual groups. %e* he assistant runs the ends of the rope bet$een the casualtyUs legs. It can be used to transport a conscious or unconscious victim.%c* he assistant then finds the middle of the sling rope and places it bet$een the casualtyUs shoulders. he rope coil carry re#uires a bearer and a 1) . %b* +eparate the loops on one end of the coil. -adding. S!ing-rope carry. %a* -lace the casualty on his back. and runs the ends over the bearerUs shoulders and back under the bearerUs arms. he rope is tied $ith a s#uare knot $ith t$o overhand knots just above the bearerUs belt buckle. .

tied $ith a joining knot at chest level. using his legs to lift up and keeping his back as straight as possible. he victim is top(rope belayed from above. In this case. If the coils are too long and the bearer is shorter. the rappeller faces the cliff and assumes a modified B(shape body position to compensate for the $eight of the victim on his back. his also prevents the coils from slipping off the carrierUs chest. /e then moves for$ard until the coil is e"tended. the bearer rolls over %to$ard the casualtyUs uninjured side*. he $raps holding the coil should be in the casualtyUs crotch $ith the loops on the other end of the coil e"tending up$ard to$ard the armpits. $hich frees the bearerUs hands. A sling(rope harness can be used around the victimUs back and bearerUs chest. %u&&y . the bearer carefully stands. he methods for securing a victim to a rappellerUs back are described belo$. %g* A sling rope around both the casualty and bearer. %f* /olding the casualtyUs $rists. $hich provides the victim $ith a point of attachment to a secured rope.%c* +lide one group of loops over the casualtyUs left leg and the other group over the right leg. If this is not done. he carrier can also conduct a seat(hip rappel $ith a victim secured to his back. b. pulling the casualty onto his back. 3ote4 he length of the coils on the rope coil and the height of the bearer must be considered. the rope must be uncoiled and recoiled $ith smaller coils.appe!. %d* he bearer lies on his back bet$een the casualtyUs legs and slides his arms through the loops. %e* 9rasping the casualtyUs arm. . the casualty $ill hang too lo$ on the bearerUs back and make it a cumbersome evacuation. aids in keeping an unconscious victim upright.

from right to left. %8* A large rucksack can be slit on the sides near the bottom so that the victim can step into it. since the carrier is most comfortable $hen the victim rests high on his back %see &C 5(17*. he victim is belayed from the top $ith the carrier conducting a standard rappel. across the carrierUs chest. and the belay man secures the loose ends of the pistol belts under the victimUs buttocks. % his method describes the procedure for a seat(hip rappel $ith right(hand brake.* %1* he remaining long end of the sling rope is routed under the victimUs buttocks. he rope is passed under the victimUs right armpit and over the carrierUs right shoulder. from left to right. %4* he knot is positioned on the victimUs left hip. A '7(centimeter tail of the sling is placed on the victimUs left hip. +lack in the pistol belt sling should be avoided. across the carrierUs chest and back across the carrierUs and victimUs left hip. he carrierUs shoulders may need to be padded to prevent cutting by the rope. across the victimUs back.* o secure the victim to the carrierUs back $ith a rope. depending on the injury* and rests his hands on his knees $hile the victim straddles his back. %7* he rope is run diagonally.0(meter sling rope is used. the carrier ties a standard rappel seat %brake hand of choice. and back under the victimUs left armpit. . %0* A '. %5* An alternate method is to use t$o pistol belts hooked together and draped over the carrierUs shoulders. %'* he rope is then run horiAontally. %)* he t$o rope ends should no$ meet. he rope is run diagonally.%. he t$o ends are tied together $ith a s#uare knot and overhand knots. he carrier $ears the rucksack $ith the victim inside. he victim straddles the carrier. from right to left. over his left shoulder. and passed over the victimUs and carrierUs right hip.

depending on the number of litter bearers* by a girth hitch. can be rappelled do$n a steep cliff using a seat(shoulder or seat(hip rappel. hese slings help distribute the load more evenly.:* A casualty secured to a carrier. :anu#acture& 8itters. 7!! casua!ties must e secure&. his litter may be used $hen rappelling. his enables the carriers to hook and unhook the litter from the belay. hese slings are attached to the litter rails %t$o or three to a side. a sling rope should be $ound around the litter end and tied off in a l(meter(long loop. If the litter must be carried. 8itters Cany types of litters are available for evacuating casualties in rough mountain terrain. and then routed up along the handling arm. and readily available.* he poleless. his should be done under medical supervision after stabiliAation.%. on traverse lines. he follo$ing litters are readily available to mountaineering units. Casualties should be secured $ith the chest strap and pelvic straps. and on hauling lines in the vertical or horiAontal position. %. It can be improvised $ith poles. he rope is folded in half. and the loose ends are tied together $ith an overhand knot. >tility rope or $ebbing ) meters long may be used. Casualties may be secured to litters in many different $ays. easy to carry. he casualtyUs and rappellerUs shoulders should be padded $here the sling rope and rappel lines cross if a seat(shoulder rappel is used. $hich is important if a great distance must be traveled. and then carried again.:* is best issued for company medics since it is light$eight. nature of injuries. $hich are se$n on one side. belayed. It is also important to render psychological support to any victim a$aiting evacuation. over the shoulder. he buddy team should be belayed from above $ith a bo$line tied around the victimUs chest under his armpits. as described above. depending on the terrain. he belay rope must run over the rappellerUs guide hand shoulder. and then do$n along the other arm. and e#uipment available. . a. he knot can be adjusted to help the outside arm grip the $ebbing. behind the neck. +lings are available to aid the soldiers $ith litter carrying. nonrigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(47.

!hen joined together the shoulder and $aist straps are used to secure the casualty to the litter. It offers more victim protection and back support because of the $ooden slats se$n into it. !inding the rope around the frame end $ill distribute the force over a $ider area and stabiliAe the system. the casualty must be moved in and out of the litter since no other litter $ill fit inside it.%0* he poleless semi(rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(451(4)::* may be used the same as the nonrigid litter. All other litters may be placed inside this litter basket and transported across traverse lines. he folding aluminum litter %=+= )71:(::(451( 40:7* is a compact version of the pole litter and is better suited for for$ard deployment. $hich is a potential breaking point. he litter consists of t$o parts that join together to form a rigid litter. !heel sets are another accessory to the > 0::: litter %either t$o $heels or one*@ they attach to the litter for use during a lo$(angle rescue. %'* he +tokes metal litter %=+= )71:(::(:'0(5.(44)4* is best suited for areas $here several casualties are to be transported. %)* he > 0::: is manufactured in Austria and is specifically designed for mountaineering operations.:() or >+A& D ::(47(7 for additional information on the +tokes litter. . his litter is rectangular and has no vertical leg divider so that it $ill accommodate other litters.* is suited for situations as above@ ho$ever.ach part has shoulder and $aist straps that can be used to man(pack the litter making it e"tremely light and portable. %+ee &C 5(.5. %1* he mountain basket(type rigid litter %=+= )71:(::(. .* %7* he standard collapsible litter %=+= )71:(::(451(48:7* %rigid pole folding litter* is most readily available in all units and. +trapping is also provided to make a secure hoist point for aircraft e"traction and high(angle rescues. although heavy and unsuited to for$ard deployment. +ome +tokes litter frames have a central $eld on the frame end. It is also kno$n as a modified +tokes litter.1. may be rigged for movement over rough or mountainous terrain.

* Bitters can also be made by securing poles inside blankets. doors. such as a blanket. shelter halves. and other similar items. ladders. . these objects should be padded.(0):(. hen the rolls can be used to obtain a firm grip to carry the victim.esuce an& reco2ery systems /3S3 651*-*)-. and poles.000* provides e"cellent patient support and protection %&igure . and most other immobiliAation e#uipment. his system $ill accommodate long and short backboards. cots. tarpaulin. A backboard must be used $ith this system for patients $ho have injuries to the shoulder area. shirts.. $indo$ shutters.0..6*-). not dragging on the ground. %.. %0* If poles cannot be found. sacks. b. Fie!&-$Bpe&ient 8itters. it is not a spinal immobiliAation device. the hood must be up and under the victim. skis..%4* he patient rescue and recovery system %=+= )71:(:. benches. +uch objects include boards. /o$ever. jackets. +ome may need to be tied together to obtain the re#uired siAe. . -oles can be improvised from strong branches. Cost flat(surface objects of suitable siAe can be used as litters. scoop stretchers. A litter can be improvised from many different things. can be rolled from both sides to$ard the center. If possible. Figure ))-. If a poncho is used. tent supports. ponchos.(0*. a large item. or mattress covers. bags.

&our to si" bearers are re#uired to carry the litter.ope !itter. 2ress the clove hitches do$n to$ard the closed end of the bight to secure the litter and tie off the ends of the rope $ith clove hitches. starting in the middle of the rope so that t$o people can $ork on the litter at one time. centimeters long.%1* A rope litter is prepared using one rope %&igure . %c* -ass the remainder of the rope through the bights outside of the clove hitches. . %b* !ith the remainder of the rope.. empty bo"es.(1*. 3ote4 Above the tree line. he rope litter is the most commonly used field(e"pedient litter. %d* Bine the litter $ith padding such as clothing.7 centimeters from the closed end of the bight $hen the litter is complete. . Figure ))-1. %a* Cake 0' bights about '7 to ).ach clove hitch should be about . It re#uires 0: to 1: minutes to prepare and should be used only $hen other materials are not available. make a clove hitch over each bight. . little material e"ists to construct litters. sleeping bags.

A large number of soldiers $ill not al$ays be available to help $ith a rescue. 2ress do$n the clove hitches against the poles.7 centimeters. and slide each pole do$n through the bights on each side. After placing the clove hitches over the bights.0 inches belo$ the mule knot. %1* >ntie the mule knot $ithout letting the follo$ing climber descend any more than necessary. a. >sing a mechanical advantage rescue system allo$s a minimal amount of rescuers to perform tasks that $ould take a larger number of people $ithout it. %.(meter poles. . %e!ay 7ssist. -lace the tail from the mule knot into the carabiner in the -rusik cord. slide them in %a$ay from the closed end* about .%e* Cake the rope litter more stable by making it about ) inches $ider. his system is used to bring a climber over a section that he is unable to climb. ake t$o . 3ote4 he above measurements may have to be altered to suit the overall length of rope available.* &irst. and place a carabiner into the loop. %0* ie a -rusik knot $ith short -rusik cord about . and tie them off across the head and foot of the litter $ith the remaining tails of the climbing rope. . %'* Caintain control of the brake side of the rope and pull all of the slack through the carabiner in the -rusik cord.escue systems are indispensable $hen conducting rescue operations. ake t$o 1( to '( meter poles. 2o not remove the belay. but $ill continue climbing once he is past the difficult section. tie off the follo$ing climber at the belay $ith a mule knot.escue Systems . 5 centimeters in diameter at the butt ends. he rope $ill automatically feed through the belay. %7* -ull up on the rope.

clip a nonlocking carabiner through the loop in the overhand knot and clip it over the rope.emove the -rusik cord and carabiner. %7* . %1* >sing a guard knot or Cunter mule. o accomplish this he must escape the belay system. %'* >ntie the mule knot in the belay device attached to the harness and slo$ly lo$er the climber. %4* After the climber can continue climbing. then untie the mule knot and continue belaying normally. 3ote4 !ith all rescue techni#ues make sure that you al$ays think everything through. . b. the leader secures the belay $ith a mule knot. %0* Attach a short -rusik cord to the load rope and secure it to the anchor $ith a releasable knot. 2o not compound the problemW !hen doing any rescue $ork the rescuers $ill al$ays be tied in for safety. and double check all systems to ensure that you donUt accidentally untie the fallen climber or find yourself $ithout back(up safety. he belayer $ill remain secured to an anchor at all times. tie off the belay device on your body using a mule knot. transferring the $eight of the climber onto the -rusik. and must assist the injured climber or go for assistance. he belay escape is used $hen a climber has taken a serious fall and cannot continue. %e!ay $scape. o improve this system. %5* . %.%)* If the leader has to pull for a distance he can tie another mule knot at the belay to secure the second climber before sliding the -rusik do$n to get more pulling distance.emove the climbing rope from the belay device attached to the harness. he belayer is anchored and is performing an indirect belay. attach the climbing rope from the belay device.* After a climber has been injured.

it becomes easy to overstress and break anchors and hand ropes. hand $inches. %. 8o+-7ng!e $2acuation Cliffs and ridges. !hen considering a raising system for evacuations. and can be modified and augmented to handle heavier loads. +ince all means of raising a victim %pulley systems. Although the vertical or horiAontal hauling lines can also be used. transferring the $eight to the anchor. a. belays. <ackup -rusik safeties should be installed in case any part of the pulley system fails. the V(pulley system is the most adaptable. and backup safeties are of special importance in any raising operation. %0* %e!ays. .%)* . $hich theoretically gives three pounds of lift for each pound of force e"pended. It can be rigged $ith the e#uipment on hand. and other variables.aising operations place a greater load on all elements of the system than do lo$ering operations.elease the mule knot securing the -rusik. >sing mechanical raising systems tends to reduce the soldierUs sensitivity to the siAe of the load. $hich must be surmounted. <ecause the stresses generated by the V(pulley system can cause anchors to fail. A separate belay rope is attached to the litter and belayed from a separate anchor. .aising Systems? %e!ays? an& %ackup Sa#eties. the overriding safety concern is damage to the ropes. his is the main reason for t$o(rope raising systems %raising rope and belay rope*. %1* %ackup Sa#eties. and po$er $inches* depend on mechanical advantage. .aising systems. these numbers decrease due to rope(pulley friction. rope(edge friction. the V(pulley system offers a mechanical advantage that re#uires less e"ertion by the transport team.aising System. It becomes important to monitor the system and to understand the forces involved. are often encountered along the evacuation path. he primary raising system used is the V(pulley system. In practice. backup safety -rusiks are used to .* . !henever ropes are used for an evacuation operation. %4* At this point the climber is secured by the rope to the anchor system and the belayer can no$ assist the injured climber.

% his is the signalman or relay man.safeguard the system. %7* Dne member of the cre$ secures himself to an anchor and moves to the edge of the cliff to transmit signals and directions. the litter and victim are prepared as described earlier %&igure . taking care not to jar the casualty. . if possible.( '*. assisting him in lo$ering the litter. %.aising the 8itter. b. %. the signalman assists the attendant in moving the litter over the edge and onto the loading platform.* Dne man serves as the belay man and another takes his position on the rope in front of the belay man. c.* 3ote4 If the load is too heavy at this time. %'* he raising cre$ sets up the V(pulley system. %4* As the litter nears the cliff edge. %1* he litter attendants secure the ropes to the litter. hese should be attached to alternate anchor points. !hen descending a moderately steep slope that can be do$n(climbed. another pulley is added to the system to increase the mechanical advantage. . %0* -adding is placed at the cliff edge and over any protrusions to protect the ropes from abrasion..* he raising ropes and belay ropes are secured to top anchors and are thro$n do$n to the litter cre$. Descen&ing S!opes. he litter is prepared as already described. %)* Attendants guide the litter around obstacles $hile the cre$ continues to raise the system. he litter bearers take their positions and move the litter do$n $ith the speed of descent controlled by the belay man.

+ite selection should have the follo$ing features: suitable anchor points.. Dne of the easiest and safest techni#ues is as follo$s %&igure . clearance for the casualty along the route. practical passage should be taken utiliAing available natural anchors as belay positions. and anchor points for the A(frame. >se multiple anchors for the litter and litter tenders.Figure ))-4. %1* he most direct. Cake the attached ropes adjustable $ith -russik knots so that each corner of .(7*: a. %0* he e"tra man may assist $ith the litter or precede the team to select a trail. -igh-7ng!e $2acuation .vacuation do$n cliffs should be used only $hen absolutely necessary and only by e"perienced personnel. +ecure the litter to the lo$ering rope $ith a minimum of four tie(in points %one at each corner of the litter*. here are many $ays to lo$er a casualty do$n a steep slope. if used. he cliffs $ith the smoothest faces are chosen for the route. b. 8o+-ang!e e2acuation . As long as safety principals are follo$ed. good loading and unloading platforms. /e reconnoiters so that the team need not retrace its steps if a cliff is encountered. Bengths of sling rope or 4(millimeter cordage $ork best.&escen&ing. clearing a$ay shrubs and vines. many different techni#ues can be used.

ie the top of the ropes $ith loops and attach to the lo$ering rope $ith a pear shaped locking carabiner. Figure ))-5. Dnce the steep slope has been negotiated. hey can be attached to separate anchors and either self( belay themselves or be lo$ered by belayers. c. continue the rescue $ith a lo$(angle evacuation. d.the litter can be raised or lo$ered to keep the litter stable during descent. $o litter tenders $ill descend $ith the litter to control the descent and to monitor the casualty.:1814 Inches . C!i## e2acuation &escent. :easurement Con2ersion Factors :E8T=98D %D T6 6%T7=3 Cillimeters .

if a member of your group is in an avalanche.1814 . A human body is bulky and is apt to be thro$n to$ard the surface or the sides. they are depending on you for rescueA =mme&iate 7ction +urvivors at the avalanche site organiAe into the first rescue team and immediately start rescue operations.< percent if the victim is located within the first => minutes... Chances of survival after burial by an avalanche are appro)imately .14 1.7.:105. 18. Suffocation accounts for ?> percent of avalanche fatalities.robability of survival drops rapidly and.05. random probing starts in that vicinity.. <enera! 9roce&ures . . If any indication of the location of the victim is found.escue Techniques 'he effect of an avalanche can be disastrous.)0. he tip and edges of the slide are also likely areas to search. and hypothermia and shoc0 accounts for =< percent. 'he best chance of survival in snow country is to avoid an avalanche: but.14 .:81) . collision with obstacles such as roc0s and trees accounts for @> percent. after two hours.Centimeters Centimeters Ceters Ceters Ceters ?ilometers ?nots . . chances of survival are remote.) Inches &eet Inches &eet Iards Ciles C-/ 72a!anche Search an& .

Book for skis. and repeat it as long as a live rescue remains possible. b. . or any other article the person may have been carrying—it might still be attached to the victim. immediately select personnel to begin a beacon search. . >sing this and any other information.esort to the fine probe only $hen the possibility of a live rescue is highly improbable. gloves. goggles. terrain. urbulence. boots. DrganiAe initial searchers and probers. usually the toe of the slide. . a high probability e"ists that the victim $ill be near the do$nhill flo$ line passing through these t$o points. his probing should take only a fe$ seconds. packs. A human body. ice a"es. If t$o points of the victimUs trajectory can be established. establish a probable victim trajectory line leading to high priority search areas. poles. make an initial probe search in that area. If using avalanche beacons. and the victimUs o$n efforts to e"tricate himself all interact to determine the final burial position. Cake a #uick but systematic check of the slide area and the deposition area. if enough personnel are available. $sta !ishing the Aictim's :ost 9ro a !e 8ocation In many respects. several factors influence the bodyUs location. • • he majority of buried victims are carried to the place of greatest deposition. If the initial search reveals items from the victim. a. +tudy of a large number of case histories leads to the follo$ing conclusions. hats. a moving avalanche resembles a li#uid. and mark all clues. Cake a coarse probe of all likely areas of burial.nsure all other beacons are turned off or to receive to eliminate erroneous signals. $ith a higher density than the flo$ing sno$. start the coarse probe at the deposition area. a digger can be standing by to assist $hen needed. • Any terrain features that catch and hold avalanche debris are also apt to catch a victim. $ould be e"pected to sink deeper and deeper into the avalanche@ ho$ever. >nless other$ise indicated.stablish from $itnesses $here the victim $as located just before the avalanche to determine the point $here the victim disappeared—the 6last seen6 point.. All personnel should have a shovel or other tool for digging or.

all debris deposit areas are likely burial spots. • Ca"imum speed of the flo$ing sno$ occurs at the avalanche center. he likelihood of a victim being buried in a particular bend is proportional to the amount of debris deposited there. and other obstacles act as snares. Victims have been located in tree tops outside the slide area. &riction reduces flo$ velocity along the edges. he victim may not be buried but may have been hurled a$ay from the avalanche by $ind blast. 9ro ing #or 72a!anche Aictims -robing offers the advantage of re#uiring simple e#uipment that can be operated by personnel $ith no previous training. especially in a high $ind.: feet long is recommended for the primary probe pole. Conversely. Cany models of transceivers are available. Although the probers do not need previous training the search leader must be familiar $ith the techni#ue to ensure proper e"ecution of the probe line. • Vegetation. • . but only if the victim is $earing an active transceiver. he closer the victimUs trajectory is to the center of the slide.• If an avalanche follo$s a $andering gully. each $ith its o$n manufacturerUs instructions for proper use and care. rocks. a. a search of the surrounding terrain is advisable. All currently available transceivers are compatible. Although this type of pole .fforts of the victim to e"tricate himself by vigorous motion and 6s$imming6 definitely minimiAe burial depth.igid steel tubing appro"imately 1K'(inch in diameter and appro"imately . although they may operate differently in the search mode. In the case of large and violent avalanches. he victim tends to be retained above the obstacle. leading to final burial do$n flo$ from the obstacle. the limp body of an unconscious victim is likely to be buried deeply. >se of avalanche transceivers is the most efficient method of searching for an avalanche victim. • An occasional e"ception to the above is emphasiAed. the greater $ill be his burial depth. An obstacle may simply delay the victimUs motion. . 9ro e 9o!es. Bonger poles are difficult to manage.

$enty per line is satisfactory. b.ach person operating in avalanche areas should carry folding sectional poles. A common problem is encountering debris $ithin the sno$ that can be mistaken for the victim. the number of personnel per line should be limited. but $ill re#uire added time to maintain. he only sure check is by digging. . $hich is easily recogniAable in soft sno$ but less recogniAable in hard compacted sno$. %0* +triking a body gives a distinct feel to the probe. $o distinct probing methods are recogniAed: coarse probe and fine probe. probing $ith the $rist strap do$n@ or the basket can be removed so that the point is do$n %the preferred method*. probing lines must be orderly and properly spaced. $hich allo$s the ski pole to penetrate the sno$ more easily. hese poles are similar to folding tent poles. $hile thirty is normally the upper limit. A string may be used to keep the probe lines aligned. he probe is left in contact and the line continues. %0* If no probing poles are available. it is difficult to transport to the avalanche site because of its length and $eight. coarse probing implies a . initial probing attempts can be started using ski poles in one of t$o $ays: the ski pole can be reversed. &or the probing operation to be effective. %. but are stronger and are connected $ith cable instead of bungee cord. A shovel cre$ follo$s up on the strike by digging do$n along the pole. 9ro ing Techniques. %. c. he number of probers in the line $ill be dictated by not only the $idth of the area to be probed but the number of personnel available. Advancing uphill automatically helps set the pace and permits easy probing to the full length of the probe.* ."tra probes are carried by the shovel cre$ to replace those left in contact. +uch a plan of operation is especially important $hen more than one victim is buried. 9ro ing 8ines.performs best. hese poles should be carried on the outside of the pack for immediate access. -robing does not come to a halt $hen a possible contact is made.* he probe line maintains a steady advance upslope. o ensure systematic and orderly probing. As evidenced by their names.

. %b* A single probe pole insertion is made at the center of the straddle span. %c* Dn command of the probe line commander.$ider spacing of probe pole insertions $ith emphasis on speed.!A. essentially. $hich almost guarantees finding the body. A string may also be used along the probe line to keep the probers dressed.&D. It is important that the commands be adjusted to a rhythm that enforces the ma"imum reasonable pace.7 inches apart.6 6>. %0* he fine probe functions as follo$s: . although this re#uires the use of t$o soldiers to control the string. %. &ine probing involves close(spaced probing $ith emphasis on thoroughness. clear commands are essential for efficient probing.D<.::(percent chance of locating the body. %d* hree commands are used for the complete se#uence: • • • 62D!= -. Coarse probing is used during initial phases of the search $hen live recovery is anticipated. $hile the fine probe has.-. &ine probing is the concluding measure. a . the leader can maintain closer control of the advancing probe line.6 6+ .. +trict discipline and firm. he probers themselves $ork silently. he coarse probe techni#ue has a 4:(percent chance of locating the victim on a given pass. $ith feet about .D<. the group advances 0: inches and repeats the single probe.6 <y using these commands..* he coarse probe functions as follo$s: %a* -robers are spaced along a line 1: inches center to center.2.

..6 6>.& -. foot.2. .D<.: inches from the adjacent one. $hich is then moved ahead . %c* he commands for the fine probe are: • • • • • • • 6B.-.6 %d* 9ood discipline and coordinated probing is even more important in fine probing than $ith the coarse probe. the line advances . then in the center of his straddled position.D<.= .6 6+ .. -..&D. Careless or irregular probing can negate the advantages of fine probing.6 6>..%a* -robers are spaced the same as for the coarse probe.D<. he three insertions are made along the line established by the string.-.I9/ -..ach probe is made . ..!A. foot and repeats the probing se#uence.6 6C..6 6>.D<. .6 6.ach man probes in front of his left foot.-.D<. %b* Dn command. and finally in front of his right foot.D<. >se of a string to align the probers is especially important $ith the fine probe.

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