This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to carry out research into an extended activity
of an aspect of the product development process of quality products and services. Design/Methodology/Approach: A short paper focusing on system design in the product development process and brief explanations of the activities running in parallel in the system design process are given in the literature.
Paper Type: Academic literature
Extended activity requiring research of one aspect of product development process
The product development processes: 1. Planning 2. Concept Development 3. System Design 4. Detail Design 5. Testing and Refinement 6. Production Ramp Up
Introduction WHAT IS A SYSTEM? According to Mariam Webster dictionary online, a system is “: a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole <a number system>: as a (1): a group of interacting bodies under the influence of related forces <a gravitational system> (2): an assemblage of substances that is in or tends to equilibrium <a thermodynamic system>” System Design is a process that requires quite a few iterations to get right. A carefully study into a problem, reveals that the solution of a problem and the actual problem interlock and lie in the same domain and like our good old onion, the system will iterate through finite details until it finds an optimum solution for the design of the system. There are common core design activities that run in parallel in the product development process whether in building, product, service or in IT and computer systems design.
The designer must find optimum solutions to ostensible differing objectives to solve a given problem. the designer will find that a good design or a bad design is often liable only to personal decision. . However. at the end of the process.
Create Design Customer Needs Prepare Use Cases Manage User Requirements Functions definitions Develop system Architecture Evaluate Designs Designs . Define Subsystems & Interfaces. Create Design Describe Concept-3. Create Design Describe Concept-2.A typical System Design Process Redesign Describe Concept-1. Define Subsystems & Interfaces. Define Subsystems & Interfaces.
reviewed and agreed upon to reflect the Customer needs. Thorough search for fact must be made and at this phase. and it is in this stage of the process that all customers‟ needs. Therefore the prime objective of requirements gathering is to create a detailed Functional system model for the product or service. designers ask if the design is feasible and hence a viable design when it is deployed. Detailed requirements result from effective communication and teamwork among all members of the system design team.Preliminary Investigation and Business Rationalisation A critical task here in the system design process is to understand the problem and the opportunities that are available to creating the design while setting out the boundaries to the design and the scope. it is vital to the success of the organization to involve all of the functional areas of the organization in design decisions . System Requirements analysis and management can be challenging. and this procedure provides the best chance of creating a system that will completely meet the needs of the Customers. The efficacy and the final outcome of the system depend heavily on this process. SYSTEM DESIGN – includes decisions concerning but not limited to: Product or service design Capacity planning Process selection and facility layout Design of business processes System design decisions have strategic implication for business organization because of the significant relations between various operations and each of the strategic sectors of the system. business rules and business process are carefully and thoroughly assessed. which must be well defined. The system designers must estimate the cost and time to design the system in order for the design to continue or an alternative sort System Analysis and requirements Gathering The objectives of System Analysis and requirements gathering is to gain a comprehensive and complete understanding of the business needs as defined by the origin of the system taken and broken down into separate requirements. A framework is developed at this stage which should act as a basis for all subsequent designs.
. It measures the overall resource usage by workload and Identifies components of response time. Capacity is the maximum amount of work that a system is capable of completing in a given period of time. It is the developmental stage of new product and services that set out total quality management goals. ." Capacity planning analysis the current system capacity and the business process measuring its service levels compared to its objectives. (2) developing conceptual alternatives. (5) evaluation and improvement.PRODUCT OR SERVICE DESIGN This process is significance in the sense that it aims to transform customer wants and needs into product and service requirements while improving the present products and services and according to Garcia and Sangura (2009) the process for designing a service involves the following steps: (1) accumulating information. (6) prototyping and final design. making allowance in the system to cope with the future and determining future processing requirements and planning future system configuration. System design must be clear what government regulations are and what new technologies are available that can provide their system a competitive advantage. System design is about determining service level requirements and also defining the workloads the system can and should handle. as well as the choice of various parameters by means of which the object is created Rindova & Petkova (2007). manage cost target.. (3) screening the concepts.. producing and marketing a particular product or service Systems must be continually aware of what customer wants and have up to date information of what their competitors are doing. Blackstone (1989) refers to strategic capacity planning as resource requirements planning. the scope of such decision making falls in the realms of economics and strategic planning. Capacity planning will determine the unit of work and Identify service levels for each workload. The term „design‟ expresses the different aspects of the structure of an object. He gives a few examples of the impact of doing this planning incorrectly and then states ". (4) preliminary design. CAPACITY PLANNING Capacity planning is a process used to determine the input and output production capacity of a system designed to meet the needs of its product.. The fact is that adequate information must be gathered to clearly define what the customer wants and must be communicated to those responsible for designing. conceptualise and test prototype.
The type of process selected for a system will depend on whether the process has repetitive or intermittent operations. which are systematic in time and space. However in Legal. design and prototyping." A process is "a structured.and that the change taking place within the process must add to the customer value CONCLUSION Systems design has other activities that can be seen to run across its product development process for instance: Processes. measured set of activities designed to produce a specified output for a particular customer or market”. lots of financial resources can be lost if system design ignores legal and intellectual property. Designs must respect copyright laws and unnecessary waste of time and money in litigations can be avoided if the system does not infringe on any copyright laws. Intellectual Property. Business processes as transformations of inputs to outputs Input Output In accordance with Davenport's definition of a process. Commercial Product Portfolio of the attributes of the system and competitors system should be kept and according to John Stark (2005) “The lifetime of some products is now so short. it is safe to conclude that a process must have clearly defined boundaries. Design and prototyping. input and output. The discussion in this article so far has touched on processes. that the development of a future generation has to start before the development of the previous generation has been finished. The business service requirements for a product or service typically determines the operation of the business process requirements which forms the basis for the selection of the system design process DESIGN OF BUSINESS PROCESSES Davenport & Short (1990) define business process as "a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. that it is made up of smaller parts and activities.PROCESS SELECTION AND FACILITY LAYOUT Process selection has been recognised as a key in ensuring product quality and reduction in production cost WANG and LIANG (2005).“ .the end user . that there must be some recipient of the process outcome.
E. 18(2). & Petkova. P. Rubén. pp. 1 June 2005.H.P. and perceptions of value for product innovations” Organization Science.. product form design. Vol. Consolación-Segura.Reference Blackstone. South-Western Publishing. pp. Cincinnati. Vol. 31 No. (1990). OH. J. J (2005) „Product lifecycle management: 21st century paradigm for product realisation‟ Stark 2005 p3-4 WANG. T. Stark. and Short. 11. process selection and machining parameter optimization problems” International Journal of Production Research. 2237–2262 . (2005) “An integrated approach to tolerance synthesis. 43. 4. International Journal of Market Research. J. “A framework for designing new products and services “Carolina. 51 Issue 6. No. Vol. Sloan Management Review. 2009. “The new industrial engineering: information technology and business process design”. (2007) “When is a new thing a good thing? Technological change.H. Capacity Management. V. 217–232.P. and LIANG. A. 1989 Davenport. p819-840 Rindova. 11-27. M. Huertas-García.