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By Sachita Nand Mishra U07EC397 Guided by Prof. Golak Santra
By Sachita Nand Mishra U07EC397 Guided by Prof. Golak Santra
By Sachita Nand Mishra U07EC397 Guided by Prof. Golak Santra
By Sachita Nand Mishra U07EC397 Guided by Prof. Golak Santra
By Sachita Nand Mishra U07EC397 Guided by Prof. Golak Santra

By Sachita Nand Mishra

U07EC397

Guided by

Prof. Golak Santra

outline

outline  What is smart dust ??  Smart dust requirements  MEMS technology in smart

What is smart dust ??

Smart dust requirements

MEMS technology in smart dust

Building block of WSM

How it works

Communicating with smart dust

Various applications Road transport domain, military, factory automation and chemical plant, agricultural sector, medicine …

Major challenges

conclusion

What is smart dust??  consist of large amount of millimeter scale electronic device referred
What is smart dust??  consist of large amount of millimeter scale electronic device referred
What is smart dust??  consist of large amount of millimeter scale electronic device referred
What is smart dust??  consist of large amount of millimeter scale electronic device referred

What is smart dust??

consist of large amount of millimeter scale electronic device referred to individually as motes. Motes as tiny as dust particles and consist of wireless transceiver. Thousands of motes collectively known as smart dust .

spread throughout the atmosphere powerful means of collecting and monitoring information.

sensing , computing, wireless and autonomous power supply within volume of few millimeters.

Contd…  Tiny dust size with extra ordinary capabilities.  A wireless sensor network(WSN). 
Contd…  Tiny dust size with extra ordinary capabilities.  A wireless sensor network(WSN). 
Contd…  Tiny dust size with extra ordinary capabilities.  A wireless sensor network(WSN). 
Contd…  Tiny dust size with extra ordinary capabilities.  A wireless sensor network(WSN). 

Contd…

Tiny dust size with extra ordinary capabilities.

A wireless sensor network(WSN).

Useful in monitoring real world phenomenon without disturbing the original process. So small and light in weight that they can remain suspended in the environment like an ordinary dust particle.

hard to detect the presence of smart dust.

Possible to see using green laser pointer

Who developed smart dust for first time

Conceived by Dr. Kris

pister at university of California in Berkeley,USA in 1988

Set out to build a

device with sensor communication device and small computer integrated into single

package.

device and small computer integrated into single package. UC Berkeley researcher blowing a Sample of glitter

UC Berkeley researcher blowing a

Sample of glitter into air

Contd…  Prof. David culler and a team of researchers created the Tiny OS operating

Contd…

Prof. David culler and a team of researchers created the Tiny OS operating system once installed on a mote, this software is responsible for operating the device , managing its power consumption and facilitating communication with other motes.

Smart dust requirements

Smart dust requirements o Power o Computation o Sensor.  sensor is the interface between motes

o

Power

o

Computation

o

Sensor.

sensor is the interface between motes and the

environment

can be temperature, pressure, humidity, light, sound, acceleration,position, magnetic fields

o

Communication.

A MEMS technology in smart dust  Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics
A MEMS technology in smart dust  Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics
A MEMS technology in smart dust  Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics
A MEMS technology in smart dust  Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics

A MEMS technology in smart dust

Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a chip to produce a system of miniature dimension.

Advantage small structure can be achieved thousands or even millions of system elements can be fabricated simultaneously

This allows system to be highly complex and extremely low cost

Building block of WSM  Processing unit  Sensing unit.  Transceiver unit.  power
Building block of WSM  Processing unit  Sensing unit.  Transceiver unit.  power
Building block of WSM  Processing unit  Sensing unit.  Transceiver unit.  power
Building block of WSM  Processing unit  Sensing unit.  Transceiver unit.  power

Building block of WSM

Processing unit

Sensing unit.

Transceiver unit.

power unit

Additional application dependent

location finding

system, power generator and mobilizer.

unit.  power unit  Additional application dependent location finding system, power generator and mobilizer.
How smart dust works?  Run by micro controller.  Determines the task performed by

How smart dust works?

Run by micro controller.

Determines the task performed by the mote.

Controls power.

Microcontroller consists of tiny sensors for recording various type of data.

Sensors are run by timers

Timers works for specific period by powering up the sensors

to collect data.

Data obtained are stored in its memory for interpretation or send to base controlling station.

The primary constraints of smart dust is volume, which in turn puts a severe constrain on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells.

Communicating with a smart dust  potential can only be attained when the sensor nodes
Communicating with a smart dust  potential can only be attained when the sensor nodes
Communicating with a smart dust  potential can only be attained when the sensor nodes
Communicating with a smart dust  potential can only be attained when the sensor nodes

Communicating with a smart dust

potential can only be attained when the sensor nodes communicate with one another or with central base station. Bidirectional communication between a central transceiver and up to 1000 dust motes. The downlink and uplink at several kbps. TinyOS an open source operating system for wireless embedded sensor network, whose library includes

network

Contd Protocol, distributed services, sensor drivers and data acquisition tools, uses power cons. algo 

Contd

Protocol, distributed services, sensor drivers and data acquisition tools, uses power cons. algo TinyDB - a query processing system extracting information from a network of TinyOS sensors.

Adhoc Network in mote

Each mote is a mobile node in a mobile adhoc network

Adhoc network means the device set the network themselves and the network structure changes through time. Network setup arbitirily because motes autonomous

Network topology for WSM  Consists of at least N slave motes and 1 master

Network topology for WSM

Consists of at least N slave motes and 1 master motes Pc mote collects and gathers information and

compute the data to obtain

a required sensed signal. Master mote synchronies slave mote, gather

information sent by them

and compute on them to produce particular

slave mote, gather information sent by them and compute on them to produce particular Fig. communication

Fig. communication among motes

Contd. Signal on pc.  Slave mote---obtain particular data and transfer using protocol stack when
Contd. Signal on pc.  Slave mote---obtain particular data and transfer using protocol stack when
Contd. Signal on pc.  Slave mote---obtain particular data and transfer using protocol stack when
Contd. Signal on pc.  Slave mote---obtain particular data and transfer using protocol stack when

Contd.

Signal on pc.

Slave mote---obtain particular data and transfer using protocol stack when required by master mote

Applications of smart dust  In transport domain  Road sign recognition application  smart

Applications of smart dust

In transport domain

Road sign recognition application

smart dust broadcaster

signals picked up

driver aware of road sign ahead poor visibility and bad weather conditions

Traffic light application

Traffic light color and time remaining

and bad weather conditions  Traffic light application  Traffic light color and time remaining on

on that color

 Military application  Monitoring activities in inaccessible areas.  Accompany soldiers.  Enemy movement
 Military application  Monitoring activities in inaccessible areas.  Accompany soldiers.  Enemy movement
 Military application  Monitoring activities in inaccessible areas.  Accompany soldiers.  Enemy movement
 Military application  Monitoring activities in inaccessible areas.  Accompany soldiers.  Enemy movement

Military application

Monitoring activities in inaccessible areas.

Accompany soldiers. Enemy movement

Alert to poisonous gas and dangerous substance in air

soldiers.  Enemy movement  Alert to poisonous gas and dangerous substance in air Fig. Smart

Fig. Smart dust in battlefield

 Factory Automation and chemical plant  Motes installed at critical points to monitor condition
 Factory Automation and chemical plant  Motes installed at critical points to monitor condition
 Factory Automation and chemical plant  Motes installed at critical points to monitor condition
 Factory Automation and chemical plant  Motes installed at critical points to monitor condition

Factory Automation and chemical plant

Motes installed at critical points to monitor condition of essential equipment on a continuous basis, provide critical data collection without human intervention.

Computers will turnoff light and climatic control in

empty rooms.

Air conditioners that cools servers automatically shut off and turn on again the servers get too hot

In chemical plant

corrosion detecting motes placed in pipes in plant,

accidental chemical release can be known

Agricultural sector  Monitor air temperature across a vineyard, protect crops from frost damage. 
Agricultural sector  Monitor air temperature across a vineyard, protect crops from frost damage. 
Agricultural sector  Monitor air temperature across a vineyard, protect crops from frost damage. 
Agricultural sector  Monitor air temperature across a vineyard, protect crops from frost damage. 

Agricultural sector

Monitor air temperature across a vineyard, protect crops from frost damage.

Plant growth monitored.

Monitor and capture soil pH and salinity levels.

Monitor humidity and temperature to access freshness

of food in

refrigerator.

 Detecting fires in forest  Drop a number of motes in the forest 
 Detecting fires in forest  Drop a number of motes in the forest 
 Detecting fires in forest  Drop a number of motes in the forest 
 Detecting fires in forest  Drop a number of motes in the forest 

Detecting fires in forest

Drop a number of motes

in the forest

In case of fire mote notices temperature change in that zone and through adhoc network transmitted to monitoring station of fire.

Proper care can be taken to

extinguish fire when its

amount is small.

transmitted to monitoring station of fire.  Proper care can be taken to extinguish fire when
In medicine/biological research  Monitor vital signs of elderly and sick  Placed throughout body
In medicine/biological research  Monitor vital signs of elderly and sick  Placed throughout body
In medicine/biological research  Monitor vital signs of elderly and sick  Placed throughout body
In medicine/biological research  Monitor vital signs of elderly and sick  Placed throughout body

In medicine/biological research

Monitor vital signs of elderly and

sick

Placed throughout body monitor health continuously

Monitor tiny muscular

movements in patients

Monitor movements and internal process of insects

muscular movements in patients  Monitor movements and internal process of insects Circulatory Net or small

Circulatory Net

or small animals

microrobotics  Add legs or wings  Sense, think and communicate Flying microrobot Crawling microrobot
microrobotics  Add legs or wings  Sense, think and communicate Flying microrobot Crawling microrobot
microrobotics  Add legs or wings  Sense, think and communicate Flying microrobot Crawling microrobot
microrobotics  Add legs or wings  Sense, think and communicate Flying microrobot Crawling microrobot

microrobotics

Add legs or wings Sense, think and communicate

microrobotics  Add legs or wings  Sense, think and communicate Flying microrobot Crawling microrobot

Flying microrobot

microrobotics  Add legs or wings  Sense, think and communicate Flying microrobot Crawling microrobot

Crawling microrobot

Other applications include  Habitat monitoring  Environmental protection  identification and monitoring
Other applications include  Habitat monitoring  Environmental protection  identification and monitoring
Other applications include  Habitat monitoring  Environmental protection  identification and monitoring
Other applications include  Habitat monitoring  Environmental protection  identification and monitoring

Other applications include

Habitat monitoring

Environmental protection

identification and monitoring pollution.

can be use to pinpoint location of nonworking light,

out of thousands of street light

As a virtual keyboard

glue dust mote to each finger tips, accelerometer senses orientation and motion of each finger and talks to computer

Major challenges  It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small smart
Major challenges  It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small smart
Major challenges  It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small smart
Major challenges  It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small smart

Major challenges

It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small smart dust both size and energy wise.

To incorporate all these functions while maintaining a low power consumption. Maximizing operating life within limited volume of energy storage.

Complicated design and mechanism.

conclusion  There are many ongoing researches on smart dust mainly because of its limitless
conclusion  There are many ongoing researches on smart dust mainly because of its limitless
conclusion  There are many ongoing researches on smart dust mainly because of its limitless
conclusion  There are many ongoing researches on smart dust mainly because of its limitless

conclusion

There are many ongoing researches on smart dust mainly because of its limitless application, the main purpose of this research is to make smart dust mote as small as possible. it has theoretical application in every field of science and industry. present achievable size of smart dust in 5mm.costs have been dropping rapidly with technological innovations with individual mote at $50 each, with hopes of dropping $1 per mote in near future.

References  "Smart Dust: Communicating with a Cubic- Millimeter Computer", Computer Magazine, Vol. 34, No.
References  "Smart Dust: Communicating with a Cubic- Millimeter Computer", Computer Magazine, Vol. 34, No.
References  "Smart Dust: Communicating with a Cubic- Millimeter Computer", Computer Magazine, Vol. 34, No.
References  "Smart Dust: Communicating with a Cubic- Millimeter Computer", Computer Magazine, Vol. 34, No.

References

"Smart Dust: Communicating with a Cubic- Millimeter Computer", Computer Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp 44-51, Jan. 2001

Arief, B., Blythe, P., Fairchild, R., Selvarajah, K., and Tully, A. (2008). “Integrating Smartdust into

Intelligent Transportation System”, Presented at 10th Internationa Conference on Application of Advanced Technologies in Transportation (AATT 2008), Athens, Greece, 27-31 May