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Thermal computation:

Storage and processing of Phononic

Information

Presented by:

Deeparnak Bhowmick

Zuber Ahmed

Electronics and Communication Engineering

What is a Computer

· n. an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

The most important invention of the 20 th century!

The most important invention of the 20 century!

How about heat?

Can we invent similar device to control heat?

Heat is more important than electricity for

human being and other forms of life.

How exactly does heat flow? Fundamentally, heat is nothing but a form of energy that induces

How exactly does heat flow?

Fundamentally, heat is nothing but a form of energy that induces vibrational motion to particles

Quantization of Heat

The particles in a lattice cannot vibrate at any arbitrary frequencies even when heat is

applied

These particles can vibrate only at any of the predefined normal modes of vibration

Quantization of Heat The particles in a lattice cannot vibrate at any arbitrary frequencies even when

The lattice particles vibrating

at their resonant

frequency result in this wave pattern, thus transmitting

phonons, the

fundamental quanta or packets

of heat energy

The lattice particles vibrating at their resonant frequency result in this wave pattern, thus transmitting phonons,
The lattice particles vibrating at their resonant frequency result in this wave pattern, thus transmitting phonons,
The lattice particles vibrating at their resonant frequency result in this wave pattern, thus transmitting phonons,

How do we control the heat flow?

When two different materials are placed in contact, heat can flow easily only when their

resonant frequencies match

In non-linear crystals, the resonant frequency vary with temperature

We need different models to represent linear and non-linear crystals

Models for heat flow

Linear crystals

This model consists of particles connected with

springs that follow normal

Hooke’s law

Non-linear crystals (Frenkel-Kontorova-Tomlinson Model)

Here the particles vibrate in

sinusoidal potential wells

Models for heat flow Linear crystals • This model consists of particles connected with springs that
Models for heat flow Linear crystals • This model consists of particles connected with springs that

The thermal diode

The thermal diode

The thermal transistor

The thermal transistor

The thermal transistor

The thermal transistor
The thermal transistor
The thermal transistor

Decision making

Decision making

Thermal logic

; if T <T c ; T output = T off T output = T on
;
if
T
<T c ;
T output = T off
T output = T on
input
;
if
T input >T c :

Thermal repeater

Thermal repeater Function of a thermal repeater that contains six thermal transistors. The outputs are better

Function of a thermal

repeater that contains

six thermal transistors. The outputs are better and better as the

number of transistors is increased. The final output from the 6th

transistor is very close

to that

The NOT gate

The NOT gate

AND/OR

AND/OR • An AND gate works like this: If one input is off, then the output

An AND gate works like this: If one input is off, then the output must be

off regardless the other

input. Otherwise, if one input is on, then the output follows the other

input.

An OR works like this: If

one input is on, then the output must be on regardless the other input. Otherwise, if one input is off, then the

output follows the other

input.

Thermal memory

Thermal memory

The bistable states of memory

The bistable states of memory

Memory operations

Memory initialization Write operation Storage Read operation

Memory operations • Memory initialization • Write operation • Storage • Read operation

Physical realization

Heat diodes using Si-Ge

lattice have already been

built

We have the technology to make nano-wires that further miniaturizes the elements

Thermal memory has been demonstrated theoretically, but its realization requires

newer materials that can

operate at ambient temperatures

Physical realization • Heat diodes using Si-Ge lattice have already been built • We have the

Conclusion

Immensely concentrated and small : 1 sq.inch

chip with a thickness of 1 atom can store 30Tb

of data under ideal conditions.

This technology will be scalable, hence leading to rapid drop in production cost over time

Heat is no more “Waste heat”

With the advent of new materials, this technology will become more efficient and

easier to implement

Thank You