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The Period of a Function When the values of a function regularly repeat themselves, we say that the function is periodic Definition: If, for all numbers x, the value of a function at x + p is equal to the value at x If f(x + p) = f(x), then the function is Periodic and has a period ‘p’ Example

The function y = sin x has period 2π, because sin (x + 2π) = sin x. The height of the graph at x is equal to the height at x + 2π, for all x Properties of Trigonometric functions The properties of the 6 trigonometric functions: sin (x), cos(x), tan(x), cot (x), sec(x) and csc(x), include the graph, domain, range, asymptotes (if any), symmetry, x and y intercepts.

1. Sine Function, f(x) = sinx

Domain: Real Numbers Range: [-1 , 1] Period: 2 π Symmetry: sin(-x) = - sin (x) then sin (x) is an odd function and its graph is symmetric with respect to the origin (0 , 0). x- Intercept: n π , where n is integer y- Intercept: y = 0 Intervals of increase/decrease: Over one period from 0 to 2 π , sin (x) is increasing on the intervals (0,

π

2

) and (

3π π 3π , 2 π ), and decreasing on the interval ( , ). 2 2 2

Cosine Function : f(x) = cosx

**Domain: Real numbers Range: [-1 , 1] Period = 2 π X-intercepts: x =
**

π

2

+ n π , where n is an integer.

Y-intercepts: y = 1 Symmetry: since cos(-x) = cos (x) then cos (x) is an even function and its graph is symmetric with respect to the y axis Intervals of increase/decrease: Over one period and from 0 to 2 π , cos (x) is decreasing on (0 , π ) increasing on ( π , 2 π ).

Tangent Function: f(x) = tanx

Domain: Real numbers except Range: Real Numbers Period = π

π

2

+ n π , n is an integer.

x-intercepts: x = n π , where n is an integer. y-intercepts: y = 0

Symmetry: since tan(-x) = - tan(x) then tan (x) is an odd function and its graph is symmetric with respect the origin. Intervals of increase/decrease: over one period and from ( increasing. Vertical Asymptotes: x =

π

2

π

2

to

π

2

), tan (x) is

+ n π , where n is an integer.

Co-Tangent function: f(x) = cot x

**Domain: Real Numbers except n π , n is an integer. Range: Real Numbers Period = π X intercepts: x =
**

π

2

+ n π , where k is an integer.

Symmetry: since cot(-x) = - cot(x) then cot (x) is an odd function and its graph is symmetric with respect the origin. Intervals of increase/decrease: Over one period and from 0 to π , cot (x) is decreasing Vertical Asymptotes: x = n π , where n is an integer.

Secant Function: f(x) = secx

Domain: all real numbers except Range: (- ∞ , -1] U [1, + ∞ ) Period: = 2 π Y intercepts: y = 1

π

2

+ n π , n is an integer.

Symmetry: since sec(-x) = sec (x) then sec (x) is an even function and its graph is symmetric with respect to the y axis Intervals of increase/decrease: over one period and from 0 to 2 π , sec (x) is increasing on (0,

π

2

)U(

π

2

, π ) and decreasing on ( π ,

π

2

3π 3π )U( , 2 π ). 2 2

Vertical Asymptotes: x =

+ n π , where n is an integer.

Cosecant Function: f(x) = cscx

Domain: Real numbers except n π , n is an integer. Range: (- ∞ , -1] U [1, + ∞ ) Period = 2 π Symmetry: since csc(-x) = - csc(x) then csc (x) is an odd function and its graph is symmetric with respect the origin. Intervals of increase/decrease: Over one period and from 0 to 2 π , csc (x) is decreasing on (0,

π

2

)U(

3π π , 2 π ) and increasing on ( , 2 2

π ) U ( π , 3π )

2

Vertical Asymptotes: x = n π , where n is an integer. QUIZ 1. What is the period of that function y = sin 2x. A) π B) 2 π C) - π D) None of these

2. y = a cos bx is a periodic function with period _______ A) 2 π B) 2 π /b C) 2 π /a D) None of these

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