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English Vocabulary English Vocabulary Without grammar very little can be conveyed; without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed

D.A. Wilkins, Linguistics in Language Teaching - Edward Arnold, 1972


English Idioms Idioms are fun and useful expressions that usually cannot be understood by defining the separate words. For example, if your host mother says, "I think it's time to hit the hay", she means, "I think it's bed-time"! You would not be able to understand her by looking up the words hit and hay. Like phrasal verbs, these expressions need to be memorized as a whole. Try visualizing them or drawing pictures when you study them. For example, draw a picture of a cow sleeping in some hay. The idiom out of the blue means "unexpectedly". Your teacher or homestay family will call you one smart cookie if you come up with an idiomatic expression like that when they least expect it! Most idioms don't seem to make any sense because their origins are so old. Some of them come from ancient literature or even classic films. Learning the background of idioms can help you to remember them. Try checking your dictionary or asking a teacher or native speaker if they know the origin. Remember, not all idioms are considered standard English. Some English-speaking regions use specific idioms that other native English speakers have never heard before. You can find information about most expressions by looking them up online. Try studying these idioms by learning one list at a time. Or, use these lists to help you when you come across an idiom you don't understand. One important thing to remember is that the subject of the idiom doesn't usually relate to the meaning. • • • • • • • Animal Idioms Body Idioms Colour Idioms Clothing Idioms Food Idioms Geography and Weather Idioms Sports Idioms

After you study the idioms, try writing your own sentences with them. If you have studied hard enough, you will find that the quizzes are a piece of cake! Animal Idioms Idiom ants in one's pants (the) birds and the bees cat nap cat's got one's tongue Meaning unable to sit still or remain calm out of nervousness or excitement sex education a short sleep said about someone who doesn't speak (usually due to shyness) Example Sentence Lisa had ants in her pants the day before her interview. I learned about the birds and the bees when my baby brother was born. I'm going to have a cat nap while you're cooking dinner. It looks like the cat's got your tongue, Lucy. Are you always this quiet?

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English Vocabulary chicken out to decide not to do something out of fear (usually just before) become quiet suddenly a person who does the same thing as someone else very hot days dying/giving up quickly a person who is excited about doing certain work odd, suspicious get extremely upset (often over something minor) wait and be patient Wow, I'm surprised! play roughly get the greatest percentage in trouble with another person

ThaoThy’s I was going to take a ride on Geoff's motorcyle, but I chickened out when he gave me a helmet to wear. Arthur clammed up when I asked him about his family. My sister is such a copy cat. First she bought the same car as me, and now she's applying to my school. I sleep in the basement during the dog days of August. My roses are dropping like flies in this early frost. Ever since he got his new drill set my husband has been an eager beaver around the house. I knew something fishy was going on when I saw all of my friends' cars in my mom's driveway. My teacher had a cow when she realized nobody had done the homework. Hold your horses! I'll be done in the washroom in a minute. Holy cow! I can't believe you ate everything on your plate. If you're going to horse around, please go outside. My aunt got the lion's share of the inheritance. I don't think Marsha is coming out tonight. She's still in the dog house for forgetting Aaron's birthday. If you pick the groceries up when you drop George off for his shift, you will kill two birds with one stone. The gas station is kitty corner to the library. Who let the cat out of the bag about the surprise party? A little bird told me that you are thinking of quitting your job. My grandma made a beeline for the smoking Page 2 of 156

clam up copy cat

dog days dropping like flies eager beaver fishy have a cow hold your horses holy cow! horse around get the lion's share in the dog house

kill two birds with one stone kitty corner let the cat out of the bag (a) little bird told me make a beeline 2b collected

get two things done at once

diagonal direction reveal a secret I heard something (usually secretive or unknown) from someone (not named) go straight for something

English Vocabulary

ThaoThy’s room as soon as she got off the airplane.

monkey see, monkey do nest egg pig out

silly/unintelligent people tend to copy each other's actions money saved for the future eat a lot of something

Our one-year-old is saying bad words now. I told my husband, "Monkey see, monkey do!" We have a nest egg that we might have to use if Jim goes on sick leave. I pigged out on pancakes so I don't have room for lunch.

raining cats and dogs rat race smell a rat straight from the horse's mouth take the bull by the horns until the cows come home

raining heavily fierce, competitive struggle for power, position etc begin to suspect trickery etc directly from the original source face a challenge or danger boldly for a very long time

I forgot my umbrella, and it was raining cats and dogs. I'm ready to leave this rat race and retire in Mexico. I asked my brothers not to tell my parents that I went out, but I could smell a rat as soon as I opened the door. I know Jenny is pregnant, because I heard it straight from the horse's mouth. If you really think you deserve a promotion, you'll have to take the bull by the horns. I could eat pizza and ice-cream until the cows come home.

Body Idioms Idiom all ears break a leg cold feet cost an arm and a leg Meaning fully listening good-luck nervous just before a big event be very expensive Example Sentence Give me a minute to finish my work and then I'll be all ears to hear about your project. Today's the big game, eh? Break a leg! My sister didn't get cold feet until she put her wedding gown on. These cakes are delicious, but they cost an arm and a leg.

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Keep your chin up. I just needed to get this off my chest. watch in order to protect try to be cheerful memorize relax. She's my own flesh and blood. The kids gave Anthony a head start in the bicycle race because he was the youngest. I heard that they might be opening a post office in our neck of the woods soon. My lips are sealed. I'm sure you'll make some friends soon. Page 4 of 156 (my) flesh and blood get something off one's chest give a hand. lend a hand have one's head in the clouds head over heels head start in over one's head keep an eye on keep one's chin up learn by heart. He'll know what the problem is. I stayed out all night. I have to hire Mia. have fun promise to keep a secret makes me very angry nearby location or region an experienced person not unless I'm dead and can't stop you ThaoThy’s I cried my heart out when my best friend moved away. stand up to unpleasant conseqences. for example criticism or punishment relative tell someone your problems help (someone) do something be unaware or unrealistic about something deeply in love an earlier start taking on a task that you can't handle take care of. Go to the cottage and let your hair down this weekend. I can give you a hand when you move if you like. My brother is head over heels for his new girlfriend. know by heart let one's hair down (my) lips are sealed makes my blood boil neck of the woods (an) old hand over my dead body 2b collected . My daughter wants a tatoo. Don't worry. When I eventually got home I had to face the music from my wife. I learned my multiplication tables by heart in the fourth grade. I was in over my head when I agreed to babysit the triplets and the dogs. I'll keep an eye on the dinner while you're on the phone. Amy has her head in the clouds if she thinks she's going to pass her exams without studying. My uncle's an old hand at car repair. I told her she'd get one over my dead body.English Vocabulary cry your heart out face the music cry very hard meet. I won't tell your mother how much you spent. Thanks for listening to me complain about my boss. It makes my blood boil when people don't tie up their dogs.

He dropped out of school at fifteen. She was born with a silver spoon in her mouth. I always black out at the sight of blood. very clear faint the odd or bad member of the group born into a rich family Example Sentence My sister's face turned beet red when I caught her singing in front of a mirror. She is going to have to get some professional help. I passed my exam by the skin of my teeth. joke or tease someone basic rule (not always followed) agree just barely help someone a lot. I was just pulling your leg. We'll have to play it by ear. No answering the phone or the door. My oldest brother was the black sheep in our family. I have a sweet tooth. We don't know if the weather will be good enough for camping. I stuck my neck out for Bessie when she was thrown out of her house.English Vocabulary pat on the back play something by ear pull one's leg rule of thumb see eye to eye (by the) skin of one's teeth stick your neck out sweet tooth thick in the head wash one's hands of something recognition or a thank-you do something without a plan ThaoThy’s The party organizers deserve a pat on the back for a job well done. Page 5 of 156 . I'm not really a police officer. We found the poor guy black and blue near the train tracks. The rules we gave the kids were black and white. I'm a bit thick in the head when it comes to reading a map. I'm washing my hands of Mary's addiction. with possible bad consequences for oneself a love of sugar or sweet things not very intelligent stop dealing with an issue or problem Colour Idioms Idiom beet red black and blue black and white black out black sheep born with a silver spoon in one's mouth 2b collected Meaning dark red (usually to describe face) bruised and beaten straight forward. I need three spoonfuls of sugar in my tea. The couple don't see eye to eye on how to train their pets. The rule of thumb is that the students wear black pants and white shirts. Keiko hasn't worked a day in her life.

Writing personal email in the office is a grey area that needs to be discussed at the next meeting. When we were in the red we almost had to sell the house. My mom was tickled pink when my father brought roses home for her. I got a phone call from a long lost cousin out of the blue last week. The builders were given the green light to begin the tower. I always have the the blues during the winter time. Suzanne doesn't show her true colours when we have guests over. When relatives come to town my grandmother rolls out the red carpet.English Vocabulary catch red handed catch someone in the act of doing something wrong or illegal the perfect chance you always want what you don't have something without a clear rule or answer permission very jealous be skillful in the garden be sad or depressed unaware in debt very rarely unexpectedly official or bureaucratic tasks an airplane flight that takes off after midnight treat someone like royalty unrealistic view be very angry very pleased and appreciative real self ThaoThy’s The kids were caught red handed stealing chocolate bars. Antoine left his wife in the dark about their honeymoon destination until they got to the airport. I caught the red eye so that I would see the sunrise over the mountains. You can tell by her flower garden that Sheila has a green thumb. I am green with envy over Julio's new wardrobe. The models' conference was a golden opportunity for me to sell my beauty products. Paula imagines Hollywood with rose coloured glasses. but now I wish I had time to get a job. We only go out for dinner once in a blue moon. I always wanted to go to university. golden opportunity grass is always greener on the other side grey area. gray area the green light green with envy (have a) green thumb have the blues in the dark in the red once in a blue moon out of the blue red tape red eye roll out the red carpet rose coloured glasses see red tickled pink true colours 2b collected Page 6 of 156 . There is still some red tape to deal with in terms of the inheritance. Grass is always greener on the other side. I saw red when that guy grabbed my sister's purse.

I had never taught art to kids before. which was actually a white lie. Milan has had a bee in his bonnet all day. but he won't tell me what's wrong. The police looked for fingerprints with a fine-tooth comb. I forgot about the field trip. My cousin was dressed to kill on her birthday. I passed my road test with flying colours. not by plan treat delicately Example Sentence an innocent lie to protect another person's feelings with distinction ThaoThy’s We told Grandma that her cake was delicious. extremely carefully do by instinct. so I need to buckle down this weekend. dress to the nines fit like a glove fine-tooth comb fly by the seat of one's pants handle with kid gloves Food Idioms Idiom Meaning Example Sentence Meaning without needing any advance notice something that is annoying someone beyond what is fair or socially acceptable not fitting anymore unprepared have a secret or reserve plan work extra hard money that one is tempted to spend dress in nice or sexy clothes fit perfectly (tight to one's body) in great detail. There's a hundred dollar bill burning a hole in my pocket. I think Josh has a card up his sleeve cause he wants me to wear a dress to the fast-food restaurant. It's almost exam time. Please handle my grandmother's tea set with kid gloves. I had to fly by the seat of my pants. Let's go to the mall after school.English Vocabulary white lie with flying colours Clothing Idioms Idiom at the drop of a hat (have a) bee in one's bonnet below the belt bursting at the seams caught with one's pants down (have a) card up one's sleeve buckle down burn a hole in one's pocket dress to kill. 2b collected Page 7 of 156 . My students caught me with my pants down on Monday. Anita's prom dress fits me like a glove. His comment about Manfred's handicap was below the belt. My Grandma will babysit for anyone at the drop of a hat. I ate too much. I'm bursting at the seams in these jeans.

My husband has had to bring home the bacon ever since I broke my leg. the main thing earn the income things done or said that make someone else like you better be extra nice to someone (usually for selfish reasons) want more than your fair share or need person with red or orange hair silly very relaxed the best get upset over something that has happened and cannot be changed cup of coffee something you enjoy (usually used negatively) urge someone to do something be very cold .English Vocabulary apple of one's eye (have a) bun in the oven bad egg big cheese a person that is adored by someone be pregnant a person who is often in trouble very important person (VIP) ThaoThy’s Baby Jessica is the apple of her father's eye. but I was cool as a cucumber all the way to England. You don't have to go into details. We hired the cream of the crop to entertain us at the Christmas party. He wants to be single but he doesn't want me to date anyone else. Simon is the first carrot top I've ever gone out with. I don't think Jan will come to the bar because she has a bun in the oven. Let's stop for a cup of joe before we head to work. I thought I was afraid of flying. We'll have to butter Angie up before we tell her the news about the broken vase. Page 8 of 156 bread and butter bring home the bacon (score) brownie points butter someone up (have one's) cake and eat it too carrot top cheesy cool as a cucumber cream of the crop (don't) cry over spilled milk cup of joe (not my) cup of tea egg someone on freeze one's buns off 2b collected necessities. The gang tried to egg us on but we didn't want to fight. Just explain the bread and butter of your report. I froze my buns off at the ice rink. I love reading cheesy romance novels because I don't have to think. The mirror is broken and we can't fix it. I scored brownie points with my teacher by bringing her a cup of coffee. I don't want my little brother hanging around with the bad eggs on the street. There's no need to cry over spilled milk. I thought I was just going to interview the secretary. Rick wants to have his cake and eat it too. but they let me talk to the big cheese himself. Opera isn't exactly my cup of tea.

Harry has been out to lunch ever since he lost his job. Choosing a location for our new store is a hot potato right now. She reads much higher than her grade level. so I bought some red and gold paint. She doesn't always do her research. The professor's daughter had her college diploma handed to her on a silver platter. I'm going to spill the beans about my travel plans. Take Mandy's advice with a pinch of salt. On Monday. It's an extra difficult one. Even though I'm majoring in Art. the baby came out bald. made more powerful or stylish bought by many people make something more exciting reveal the truth don't consider something 100% accurate use your brain 2b collected Page 9 of 156 . You're going to have to really use your noodle on this crossword puzzle. I'm nuts about classical music these days. Except for a bit of peach fuzz. someone out to lunch one smart cookie peach fuzz piece of cake put all of ones eggs in one basket souped up sell like hot cakes spice things up spill the beans take something with a pinch (grain) of salt use your noodle have a lot of (silly) energy extremely good pay for minimal work receive without working for something difficult to understand (often a person) a controversial or difficult subject simply like a lot crazy or mad a very intelligent person small amount of hair growth very easy rely on one single thing ThaoThy’s The kids were full of beans after the circus.English Vocabulary full of beans gravy train (have something) handed to someone on a silver platter hard nut to crack hot potato in a nutshell nuts about something. The exam was a piece of cake. Angelo is a hard nut to crack when something is bothering him like this. Your daughter is one smart cookie. I wanted to spice things up in the office. In a nutshell. I'm having a bad day. The car was souped up with shiny rims and a loud stereo. I'm taking a maths course because my Dad says I shouldn't put all of my eggs in one basket. The unionized grocers have been enjoying the gravy train for twenty years. The new Harry Potter books sold like hot cakes.

I'm exhausted. It's getting late. The lost tickets were just the tip of the iceberg. The kids had a field day at the water slide park. The doctor said my heart is doing better. Whenever I had a dance recital. It's hard to keep my head above water with all of these medical bills. You're making a mountain out of a molehill. my older brother always rained on my parade. I just went with the flow. Page 10 of . Nobody trained me at work. I knew I was over the hill when I started needing glasses to read. I had to dig deep to find my old report cards. Wow! Your shower was as quick as lightning. I can't talk to Nancy about my boyfriend problems. Lucile is really down to earth for a woman with so much money. Who knows which way the wind will blow? I just hope Jesse gets one of the jobs he's applied for. We had better hit the road. The clothes at the thrift shop are dirt cheap. but I'm not out of the woods yet. My grades started going downhill when I got a part-time job.English Vocabulary Geography and Weather Idioms Idiom (on) cloud nine dig deep dirt cheap down to earth fair-weather friend a field day go downhill go with the flow hit the hay hit the road keep one's head above water know which way the wind blows make a mountain out of a molehill out of the woods over the hill rain on someone else's parade stick-in-the-mud (as) quick as lightning the tip of the iceberg 2b collected 156 Meaning extremely happy look hard for information very inexpensive natural or real (personality) a person who is only a friend in good times a very enjoyable time get progressively worse continue in the same way as others go to sleep leave have just enough money to live know how things will turn out make a small problem seem big clear of danger past middle age ruin somebody else's happiness a loner or person who won't join in very fast a small part of a large problem Example Sentence ThaoThy’s Andrea was on cloud nine when she bought her new car. I think I'll hit the hay early tonight. They didn't bother inviting Charles to the party because he's alway a stick-in-the-mud. The car only got a tiny dent. She's only a fair-weather friend.

The examples will help you understand the meanings.32. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet. while others do not. I got wind of it over dinner tonight. Your purchases add up to $205. Review the grammar lesson on phrasal verbs from time to time so that you don't forget the rules! Most phrasal verbs consist of two words. Phrasal Verbs List This is a list of about 200 common phrasal verbs.English Vocabulary take a raincheck under the weather up the creek win by a landslide (get) wind of something accept at a later date ill in trouble win by a lot of points overhear something about someone or something (often gossip) ThaoThy’s I'd love to go out for dinner. Some phrasal verbs require a direct object (someone/something). My Dad has a new girlfriend. you need to learn how to use phrasal verbs properly. but a few consist of three words. you will be able to remember it more easily. with meanings and examples. Like many other verbs. As well as learning their meanings. phrasal verbs often have more than one meaning. Verb ask someone out ask around add up to something 2b collected 156 Meaning invite on a date ask many people the same question equal Example Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie. rather than trying to memorize many at once. but can I take a raincheck? I was feeling under the weather so I went back to bed. which always stay together. If my Dad finds out I had a party I'll be up the creek. The skiier in the green coat won by a landslide. Phrasal verbs are usually twoword phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. while others cannot. Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you don't recognize. If you think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning. Page 11 of . Some phrasal verbs can be separated by the object. Study them as you come across them.

The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking. The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children. He drank so much that he brought his Page 12 of . Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.English Vocabulary back something up back someone up blow up blow something up break down break down break something down break in break into something break something in break in break up break up break out break out in something bring someone down bring someone up bring something up bring something up 2b collected 156 reverse support explode add air stop functioning (vehicle. Our teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts. My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports. My grandparents brought me up after my parents died. The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death. The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking. My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America. I broke out in a rash after our camping trip. machine) get upset divide into smaller parts force entry to a building enter forcibly wear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new interrupt end a relationship start laughing (informal) escape develop a skin condition make unhappy raise a child start talking about a subject vomit ThaoThy’s You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out. Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. I need to break these shoes in before we run next week. The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died. We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party. The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence. This sad music is bringing me down. My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.

Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside. investigate look at (informal) become happier make happier help tidy. We will get the hotel keys when we check in. You need to calm down before you drive the car. 2b collected 156 Page 13 of . If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon. call around call someone back call something off call on someone call on someone call someone up calm down not care for someone/something catch up check in check out check someone/something out check out someone/something cheer up cheer someone up chip in clean something up come across something phone many different places/people return a phone call cancel ask for an answer or opinion visit someone phone relax after being angry not like (formal) get to the same point as someone else arrive and register at a hotel or airport leave a hotel look at carefully. Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé. You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty. The professor called on me for question 1. I brought you some flowers to cheer you up. I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet. I don't care for his behaviour. I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend. We called on you last night but you weren't home. The company checks out all new employees.English Vocabulary dinner up in the toilet. clean find unexpectedly ThaoThy’s We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed. Check out the crazy hair on that guy! She cheered up when she heard the good news. You are still mad. Give me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town. You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.

English Vocabulary come apart come down with something come forward come from somewhere count on someone/something cross something out cut back on something cut something down cut in cut in cut in cut something off cut something off cut someone off cut something out do someone/something over do something over do away with something do something up 2b collected 156 separate become sick volunteer for a task or to give evidence originate in rely on draw a line through consume less make something fall to the ground interrupt pull in too closely in front of another vehicle start operating (of an engine or electrical device) remove with something sharp stop providing take out of a will remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal) do again (N.Amer.) discard fasten, close

ThaoThy’s The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough. My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend. The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints. The art of origami comes from Asia. I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out. Please cross out your old address and write your new one. My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods. We had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm. Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle. The bus driver got angry when that car cut in. The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22ºC. The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured. The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill. My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried. I cut this ad out of the newspaper. He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang. My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic. It's time to do away with all of these old tax records. Do your coat up before you go outside. Page 14 of

English Vocabulary It's snowing! dress up drop back drop in/by/over drop someone/something off wear nice clothing move back in a position/group come without an appointment take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there quit a class, school etc eat at a restaurant eventually reach/do/decide break into pieces fall to the ground separate from an interior (of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached understand, find the answer to write information in blanks (Br.E.) to write information in blanks (N.Amer.) fill to the top discover discover


It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up. Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike. I might drop in/by/over for tea some time this week. I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over. I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult. I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out. We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre. My new dress fell apart in the washing machine. The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning. The money must have fallen out of my pocket. His hair started to fall out when he was only 35. I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room. Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number. The form must be filled out in capital letters. I always fill the water jug up when it is empty. We don't know where he lives. How can we find out? We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out.

drop out eat out end up fall apart fall down fall out fall out figure something out fill something in fill something out fill something up find out find something out

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English Vocabulary get something across/over get along/on get around get away get away with something get back get something back get back at someone get back into something get on something get over something get over something get round to something get together get up get up give someone away give someone away communicate, make understandable like each other have mobility go on a vacation do without being noticed or punished return receive something you had before retaliate, take revenge become interested in something again step onto a vehicle recover from an illness, loss, difficulty overcome a problem finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to something) meet (usually for social reasons) get out of bed stand reveal hidden information about someone take the bride to the altar

ThaoThy’s I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen. I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on. My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair. We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week. Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests. We got back from our vacation last week. Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate. My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat. I finally got back into my novel and finished it. We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus. I just got over the flu and now my sister has it. The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations. I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards. Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend. I got up early today to study for my exam. You should get up and give the elderly man your seat. His wife gave him away to the police. My father gave me away at my wedding.

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I think I'll go over for an hour or two. I am giving up smoking as of January 1st. My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet. I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game. Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter. We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight. My roses grew back this summer. My brother tried to go after the thief in his car. oppose start. They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store. I haven't seen Tina for a long time. We're going out for dinner tonight. but he finally gave in.English Vocabulary give something away give something away give something back give in give something out give something up give up go after someone go after something go against someone go ahead go back go out go out with someone go over something go over go without something grow apart grow back 2b collected 156 ruin a secret give something to someone for free return a borrowed item reluctantly stop fighting or arguing give to many people (usually at no cost) quit a habit stop trying follow someone try to achieve something compete. I have to go back home and get my lunch. The library was giving away old books on Friday. Please go over your answers before you submit your test. My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. Page 17 of . When I was young. we went without winter boots. My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up. proceed return to a place leave home to go on a social event date review visit someone nearby suffer lack or deprivation stop being friends over time regrow ThaoThy’s My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident. I went after my dream and now I am a published writer. Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.

We will hand out the invitations at the door. This bike is too big for him now. Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department. grow into something hand something down hand something in hand something out hand something over hang in hang on hang out hang up hold someone/something back hold something back hold on hold onto someone/something hold someone/somethingup keep on doing something keep something from someone grow big enough to fit give something used to someone else submit to distribute to a group of people give (usually unwillingly) stay positive (N. informal) wait a short time (informal) spend time relaxing (informal) end a phone call prevent from doing/going hide an emotion wait a short time hold firmly using your hands or arms rob continue doing not tell 2b collected 156 Page 18 of . I'm sure you'll find a job very soon. We kept our relationship from our parents for two years. but he should grow into it by next year. A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning. I have to hand in my essay by Friday.English Vocabulary grow up grow out of something become an adult get too big for ThaoThy’s When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman. Hang in there. Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones. He didn't say goodbye before he hung up. I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.Amer. Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside. I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park. The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons. Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral.. Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes! Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place. Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.

My little sister has always looked up to me. If you keep those results up you will get into a great college. We are going to look into the price of snowboards today. lie about something forgive each other apply cosmetics to confuse two or more things die ThaoThy’s Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room. Don't let me down this time. My sisters made me up for my graduation party. I mixed up the twins' names again! His uncle passed away last night after a long illness. I'm looking forward to the Christmas break. Can you let the cat in before you go to school? I have to look after my sick grandmother. Page 19 of 2b collected 156 . I need you to be on time.English Vocabulary keep someone/something out keep something up let someone down let someone in look after someone/something look down on someone look for someone/something look forward to something look into something look out look out for someone/something look something over look something up look up to someone make something up make up make someone up mix something up pass away stop from entering continue at the same rate fail to support or help. consider inferior try to find be excited about the future investigate be careful. I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding. disappoint allow to enter take care of think less of. Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes? We can look her phone number up on the Internet. vigilant. examine search and find information in a reference book or database have a lot of respect for invent. Josie made up a story about about why we were late. We were angry last night. but we made up at breakfast. Look out! That car's going to hit you! Don't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail. Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me. and take notice be especially vigilant for check.

I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car. The professor passed the textbooks out before class. I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by. I'll pay you back on Friday. I picked out three sweaters for you to try on. Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show. The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short. We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane. The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived. Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party. Thanks for buying my ticket. I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway. I passed up the job because I am afraid of change.English Vocabulary pass out pass something out pass something up pay someone back pay for something pick something out point someone/something out put something down put someone down faint give the same thing to many people decline (usually something good) return owed money be punished for doing something bad choose indicate with your finger put what you are holding on a surface or floor insult. You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter. review leave unexpectedly. I ran into an old school-friend at the mall. I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives. Page 20 of put something off put something out put something together put up with someone/something put something on run into someone/something run over someone/something run over/through something run away postpone extinguish assemble tolerate put clothing/accessories on your body meet unexpectedly drive a vehicle over a person or thing rehearse. The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days. That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother. escape 2b collected 156 . make someone feel stupid ThaoThy’s It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.

limit yourself to one particular thing stop the energy flow. I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work. We are both impatient. The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.English Vocabulary run out send something back set something up set someone up shop around show off sleep over sort something out stick to something switch something off switch something on take after someone take something apart take something back take off take something off take something out take someone out tear something up 2b collected 156 have none left return (usually by mail) arrange. He always shows off on his skateboard You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home. I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots. We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio. He took the car brakes apart and found the problem. The light's too bright. We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month. I take after my mother. turn on resemble a family member purposely break into pieces return an item start to fly remove something (usually clothing) remove from a place or thing pay for someone to go somewhere with you rip into pieces ThaoThy’s We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap. Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake! Can you take the garbage out to the street for me? My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie. organize trick. Could you switch it off. Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company. I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and Page 21 of . resolve a problem continue doing something. My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp. trap compare prices act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) stay somewhere for the night (informal) organize. turn off start the energy flow. My plane takes off in five minutes. You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.

I wish I had studied harder.English Vocabulary gave them back to him. You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace. The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more. switch off start the energy. I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run. I turned the job down because I don't want to move. but I don't think they will fit. Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song. think back think something over throw something away turn something down turn something down turn something off turn something on turn something up turn up try something on try something out use something up wake up warm someone/something up warm up wear off work out work out 2b collected 156 remember (often + to. switch on increase the volume or strength (heat. light etc) appear suddenly sample clothing test finish the supply stop sleeping increase the temperature prepare body for exercise fade away exercise be successful ThaoThy’s When I think back on my youth. I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision. Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner. sometimes + on) consider dispose of decrease the volume or strength (heat. I'm going to try these jeans on. It's too dark in here. Page 22 of . Our plan worked out fine. I work out at the gym three times a week. light etc) refuse stop the energy flow. Please turn the TV down while the guests are here. We have to wake up early for work on Monday. We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery. Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party. I am going to try this new brand of detergent out. Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood. Let's turn some lights on.

Tara told John that she loved him. The simple way to think of say and tell is: • • You say something You tell someone something You tell someone something Ram told Jane that he was tired. Say or Tell? Say and tell have similar meanings. • She said that she loved John. Anthony says you have a new job. We usually use say without a personal object: • She told me that she loved John. • He told everybody that he had to leave. 2b collected 156 Page 23 of . But we often use them differently. of course. Here are a few rules to help you. it is not always so easy. Tara said: "I love you. Personal object We usually follow tell with a personal object (the person that we are speaking to).English Vocabulary work something out make a calculation ThaoThy’s We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house. You say something Ram said that he was tired. Anthony tells me you have a new job. They both mean to communicate verbally with someone." But.

"Where were you at 8pm?" Reported speech We can use say and tell to talk about reported information: • • She said that it was raining. Tara said to Ram that he had done very well.English Vocabulary • He said that he had to leave. ThaoThy’s Say "to someone" With say. Tell Neil to have a holiday and forget her. We use tell only with direct speech that is an instruction or information: • • • • Amanda said. We cannot use say or tell to talk about reported questions. "Hello John. Direct speech We can use say with direct speech." "I'd like to sleep. advice We use tell + object + infinitive for orders or advice: • • • She told him to sit down. Anthony said to her. We must use ask (or a similar verb): • • • • She asked if I had ever been there. Phrases Here are a few fixed phrases with tell." We can use say with direct questions. we sometimes use "to someone": • • • • He said to me that he was tired. She asked where he lived. He asked if she wanted to go home. but we cannot use tell: • • She said: "Do you love me?" The policeman said to the prisoner. "I hope you come soon. Orders." she said to him quietly. They asked what I wanted to eat." She told me. We cannot use say with these phrases: • • • • • tell (someone) a story tell (someone) a lie tell (someone) the truth tell the future (= to know what the future will bring) tell the time (= know how to read a clock) 2b collected 156 Page 24 of . They told me not to wait. "I have never been to England. How are you?" "That's great'" she said. He told her: "Open the door quietly. She told me that she would call at 2pm.

") (Ram told Nok: "I was born in 1985. Tara told Jo to go away. Tara said Jo to go away. He said that he likes coffee. tell somebody "direct speech" (except instructions and information) Ram told Nok: "Let's turn on the TV. She asked if I wanted to come. ThaoThy’s Panita told me that she was hungry. Took asked what I wanted to do..") She said if I wanted to come.English Vocabulary Right and wrong Read these examples of correct and incorrect usage: We cannot. Siriluck always tells lies. Ram said to Nok: "Let's turn on the TV. say someone to do something say someone something tell something These are NOT possible. say or tell a reported question Tookta told what I wanted to do... He told that he likes coffee. Tookta told me that she was coming... 2b collected 156 Page 25 of .. These are possible." say a lie Siriluck always says lies." (Ram told Nok. Tookta said to me that she was coming. "Turn on the TV. tell to someone Tookta told to me that she was coming. Panita said me that she was hungry.

" . now I understand.. How are you today?" "Dear me! That's a surprise!" "It's hot today." Page 26 of "Hello! My car's gone!" "Hey! look at that!" "Eh! Really?" "Let's go. Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often.English Vocabulary Interjections Hi! That's an interjection." "Ah! I've won!" "Alas." "Hello John. it can't be heped. joy etc hi hmm oh. eh?" "Lima is the capital of." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today. :-) ThaoThy’s "Interjection" is a big name for a little word. usually more in speaking than in writing. o expressing greeting expressing hesitation. that feels good. When interjections are inserted into a Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!. I'm not so sure. she's dead now." "Oh! You're here!" "Oh! I've got a toothache. hullo expressing surprise calling attention hey expressing surprise.. eh?" "Ah well. doubt or disagreement expressing surprise expressing pain 2b collected 156 "Hey! What a good idea!" "Hi! What's new?" "Hmm. Here are some interjections with examples: interjection meaning expressing pleasure expressing realization ah expressing resignation expressing surprise alas expressing grief or pity expressing pity dear expressing surprise asking for repetition expressing enquiry eh expressing surprise inviting agreement er expressing hesitation expressing greeting hello. they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written." "What do you think of that." "Ah.Peru." "Oh dear! Does it hurt?" example "Ah.

um. what did he say?" "Oh. umm expressing pain expressing hesitation expressing agreement expressing hesitation expressing surprise well introducing a remark "Well.I don't know the answer to that. please say 'yes'!" "Ouch! That hurts!" ThaoThy’s "Uh....English Vocabulary expressing pleading ouch uh uh-huh um.." "Well I never!" 2b collected 156 Page 27 of .17.." "85 divided by 5 is.." "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh.

English Vocabulary Irregular Adjectives (comparative. My house is the farther one. Your teacher is older than my teacher. however. The most important ones are listed here: Adjective good well (healthy) bad far far old (people in a family) old (general use) Comparative better better worse further farther elder older Superlative the best the best the worst the furthest the farthest the eldest the oldest irregular irregular irregular irregular regular irregular regular Example Tara is the best athlete in the school. are irregular and some of these can be regular or irregular. A small number of adjectives. You are the worst driver I have ever known. superlative) ThaoThy’s The regular way to make comparative/superlative adjectives is to add -er/-est or to use more/most. My house is the furthest one. but he is better than he was last week. He is still in hospital. Ram is my elder brother. 2b collected 156 Page 28 of .

all around completely having. corwith. confide. This is a list of the most common prefixes in English. aback ascend. annotate. assemble. change into. affirm. Prefix aaalso anMeaning not. affiliate. at. anticlimax. abstract advance. ap-. But be very careful. towards in the process of. antibiotic. col-. not prefixes. completely against. because often what appears to be a prefix is not a prefix at all. You should use this list as a guide only. ataway.English Vocabulary Prefixes ThaoThy’s A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. con-. collude. without to. adjunct. You can find more detail or precision for each prefix in any good dictionary. counteract anteantibe- 2b collected 156 Page 29 of . Antarctic bespatter. an-. adulterate. addition or increase before. from movement to. preceding also antopposing. corrode contraceptive counter-attack. ag. af-. beset bewitch. arrive. aggravate. apprehend. codriver. alleviate. bemuse bejewelled befog becalm combat. covered with affect with (added to nouns) cause to be (added to adjectives) comcontracounteralso co-. opposite opposition. together with their basic meaning and some examples. ac-. to help you understand possible meanings. ante-room anti-aircraft. attend antecedent. the opposite all over. against. because these are "combining forms". aglow anew abashed abdicate. anaemic aside. The origins of words are extremely complicated. opposite direction Examples atheist. in a particular state aof completely abadalso absalso a-. Note also that this list does not include elements like "auto-" or " bio-".

imalso il-. im-. extol excruciate. influx. more than. irinfrainterintranonoboutalso oc-. enrage exit. within absence. efout upward completely previous extrahemihyperhypoinalso il-. exasperate ex-wife extracurricular hemisphere hypersonic. reversal diadisenalso dialso dialso emthrough. into. deduct denude. outboard ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 30 of . denigrate de-ice. non-alcoholic obstruct. exceeding external. impossible influence. removal. against. occult. concealing surpassing. across negation. depend. imbibe infrared. towards. more than normal under not. hyperactive hypodermic. intravenous non-smoker. inside below between. negation blocking. without in. of-. expulsion put into or on bring into the condition of intensification exalso e-. embitter entangle. oppose outperform outbuilding. offend. enmesh enlighten. interchange intramural. hypothermia infertile. beyond half beyond. disbud. infrastructure interact. expand exalt.English Vocabulary dedown. exclude. away from descend. opoutside. despair. dismount. disbar engulf. decamp diagonal disadvantage. inappropriate. among inside. away completely removal.

2b collected 156 Page 31 of . unmanned unplug. partly at a lower position lower in rank nearly. susagain half. unhappy. place or order resemisubalso suc-. undercarriage undersecretary underdeveloped ThaoThy’s A prefix goes at the beginning of a word. approximately syntransalso symin union. beyond into a different state ultrabeyond extreme unnot reversal or cancellation of action or state underbeneath. overburdened. ultrasonic ultramicroscopic unacceptable. unreal. semi-conscious submarine. subsoil sub-lieutenant sub-tropical synchronize. acting together across. overjoyed overcoat. below lower in rank not enough overconfident. above peripostpreproround. about after in time or order before in time. in support of acting for motion forwards or away before in time. overcast perimeter postpone pre-adolescent. place. order or importance favouring. over. sup-. symmetry transnational. unmask underarm. transatlantic translate ultraviolet. suf-. sug-.English Vocabulary overexcessively. sur-. reawake semicircle. outer. completely upper. precondition pro-African proconsul propulsion prologue repaint. reappraise. prelude.

2b collected 156 Page 32 of .English Vocabulary A suffix ThaoThy’s goes at the end of a word.

ThaoThy’s It is possible. There's a taxi! That's my car! That'll be $10. please. and common. to contract three words. for example: I'd've thought so = I would have thought so. There'll be nobody here tomorrow. How's your wife? What'll people think? What's the matter? When's the wedding? Where's the cinema? Who's your teacher? Who'd like ice-cream? Who'll be there? 2b collected 156 Page 33 of .English Vocabulary Other Contractions Here are some more examples showing some very common contractions. Informal Contractions > Short form here's there'll there's that's that'll how's what'll what's when's where's who's who'd who'll Long form here is there will there is that is that will how is? what will? what is? when is? where is? who is? who would? who will? Example Here's your meal.

but they are a little like slang. or even drop some words completely. Please remember that these are informal contractions. Also note that. and we almost never use them in writing. except in appropriate situations. • • ain't = am not/are not/is not I ain't sure. ain't = has not/have not I ain't done it. That means that we do not use them in "correct" speech. for example. If you say "going to" very fast. we do not usually use apostrophes (') with informal contractions when written. Can you gimme a hand? • gonna = going to Nothing's gonna change my love for you. even in informal speech. without carefully pronouncing each word. it can sound like "gonna". Do not use them in a written exam. She ain't finished yet. that is because the written words represent the spoken words or dialogue. It is probably true to say that informal contractions are more common in American English. For example: • • • or • • • • • • Do you want a beer? Do you wanna beer? D'you wanna beer? D'ya wanna beer? Ya wanna beer? Wanna beer? What are you going to do? >> Whatcha going to do? >> Whatcha gonna do? These informal contractions are not "correct" English. unlike normal contractions. with example sentences. 2b collected 156 • Page 34 of . for example with friends. For example. (If you see them in writing. On the right are some common informal contractions.) We normally use them only when speaking fast and casually. Don't gimme that rubbish. Note that the example sentences may be a little artificial because when we use a contraction we may also use other contractions in the same sentence. for example in a comic strip. You ain't my boss. "gonna" is a short form of "going to". They are not exactly slang. gimme = give me Gimme your money.English Vocabulary Informal Contractions ThaoThy’s Informal contractions are short forms of other words that people use when speaking casually. Some people never use them.

Have you gotta car? gotta = (have) got to I've gotta go now. lemme = let me Lemme go! wanna = want to I wanna go home. What are you gonna do? • gotta = (have) got a I've gotta gun. She hasn't gotta penny.English Vocabulary I'm not gonna tell you. We haven't gotta do that. whatcha = what are you Whatcha going to do? whatcha = what have you Whatcha got there? ya = you Who saw ya? ThaoThy’s • • • • • • • • 2b collected 156 Page 35 of . I gotta go now. I gotta gun. Have they gotta work? kinda = kind of She's kinda cute. wanna = want a I wanna coffee.

English Vocabulary Illustrated Vocabulary .Clothes ThaoThy’s coat trousers (UK) pants (US) hat casual jacket jacket shorts cap sports jacket jacket dress tie necktie jumper skirt bow tie shirt pants panties socks tee-shirt bra brassiere shoes waistcoat dressing gown trainers 2b collected 156 Page 36 of .

Clothing Accessories ThaoThy’s hair ribbon scarf wallet glasses ring purse sun glasses bracelet handbag ear-rings belt keys necklace watch umbrella 2b collected 156 Page 37 of .English Vocabulary Illustrated Vocabulary .

bytes .Transport ThaoThy’s bicycle. bike van submarine motorbike.A program that finds and removes viruses from a computer. Backup . A backup is used in case the hard disk file(s) are erased or damaged. 2b collected 156 Page 38 of .A bit is the smallest piece of information that computers use. a PC uses bits in groups of 8 called bytes (8 bits = 1 byte).A copy on floppy disk or tape of files on a PC's hard disk. auto.English Vocabulary Illustrated Vocabulary . For simplicity. airplane bus ship helicopter Computer Vocabulary Anti-virus software . motorcycle lorry (UK). Bit. automobile (US) train plane. truck (US) balloon car (UK).

boot up. Browser. DOS . You type in commands instead of pointing and clicking. See floppy disk.The device used to run a floppy disk (usually drive 'A'.The equipment inside a computer that creates the image on the screen. This describes the speed of computer equipment. ROM and Cache.All hard disks and floppy disks have to be electronically prepared for use by a process called formatting. megabytes. You can see email on the screen or print it out. Kb. If you buy a floppy disk that is not preformatted. Floppy drive .You boot (or boot up) your computer when you switch it on and wait while it prepares itself. boot disk . Arial is a font.A small image or picture on a computer screen that is a symbol for folders. Used to measure computer memory and storage. removable disk used for storing or transferring information. Internet .A kind of memory used to make a computer work faster. Memory . CPU .The main disk inside a computer used for storing programs and information. Format . Driver . You use it to view or browse the Internet. Bug .Central Processing Unit. Floppy disk . Graphics card . disks. It looks like an audio CD. to browse . Cache . The higher the MHz the better the performance. The original system used for PCs. 2b collected 156 Page 39 of . See hard disk.A particular sort of lettering (on the screen or on paper).Disk Operating System. Hard disks are pre-formatted by the computer manufacturer.Memory is for the temporary storing of information while a computer is being used. you format it yourself. peripherals. This is a PC's heart or 'brains'.A cheap.International network of computers that you connect to by telephone line. CD-ROM . MHz .) Folder (directory) . Icon .Megahertz. which is usually the hard disk. Font . Mb. Times New Roman is another. gigabytes. using a program that comes with your PC.A sub-division of a computer's hard disk into which you put files. Hard disk . It is floppy (soft) because it is plastic.A small program that tells a PC how a peripheral works.A (small) defect or fault in a program.Kilobytes. Two popular services of the Internet are the World Wide Web and electronic mail.A browser is a program like Netscape or Internet Explorer.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s Boot. Instructions for startup are given to the computer from the boot disk. e-mail) . See RAM.Messages sent from one computer to another. Electronic mail (email. Gb . programs etc.A disk for storing computer information. It is hard because it is metal.

It lets you access millions of pages through a system of links. Because it is 'world-wide'. printers. PC card .Equipment for converting paper documents to electronic documents that can be used by a computer. to send electronic mail and to fax.'What You See Is What You Get. Peripheral . Pixel .Optical Character Recognition. World Wide Web. Virus . Scanner . shows the programs in use.Two areas of the screen in Windows 95. the basic binary unit for storing data.The number of dots or pixels per inch (sometimes per centimetre) used to create the screen image.Thin Film Transistor. if you print a document it looks the same on paper as it looks on the screen. modems and hard disks as PC cards. For example. The taskbar. WYSIWIG . The first 6 letters on Frenchlanguage keyboards are A-Z-E-R-T-Y. Start button .A small.An operating system used by the majority of PCs. Computers 1 application 2 bit 2b collected 156 n. OCR .English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s Modem . Windows .A socket at the back of a computer for connecting external equipment or peripherals. unauthorized program that can damage a PC. WWW. binary digit. it was originally called the World Wide Web or WWW.A device that is the same size as a thick credit card. You need a modem to connect to the Internet. Program Software that operates a PC and does various things. Taskbar. for plugging into a slot on notebook computers. especially printers. The current versions are Windows 98 and Windows NT. ROM (Read Only Memory) is for information needed by the PC and cannot be changed. a type of high quality screen for notebook computers. such as writing text (word-processing program). RAM (Random Access Memory) is the main memory used while the PC is working.Socket at the back of a PC for connecting peripherals. scanners and modems are peripherals. RAM is temporary. TFT . Parallel port . Serial port .WWW are initials that stand for World Wide Web. a program dedicated to a specific task [eg: word processing.The first 6 letters on English-language keyboards are Q-W-E-R-T-Y. points or pixels. OCR lets a PC read a fax or scanned image and convert it to actual lettering. in the bottom left corner.' With a WYSIWIG program.The image that you see on the screen is made of thousands of tiny dots. keeping accounts (accounts program) and drawing pictures (graphics program). You can buy memory.Any equipment that is connected externally to a computer. The Web is one of the services available on the Internet. QWERTY . RAM.see byte Page 40 of . the Web . Resolution . ROM . is for opening new programs.Equipment connected to a computer for sending/receiving digital information by telephone line. The start button.Two types of memory. either 0 or 1 . at the bottom of the screen. graphics etc] n.

part of a computer for (temporary) storing of data . diskette n. gigabyte (1 billion) n. removable magnetic disc for (permanent) storing of data. not the hardware abbr. magnetic disc inside a PC for (permanent) storing of data n. What You See Is What You Get [data prints out exactly as on the screen] 2b collected 156 Page 41 of . floppy disk etc) . the alphanumeric keys or buttons used to input data [QWERTY = 1st 5 keys] n.000 bytes). 8 bits . megabyte (1 million). equipment linked to a computer [eg: printer. abbr. n.kilobyte (approx. not the software n. random access memory [it goes away when one switches off] n. data entered into a computer (by keyboard.also v. screen etc) . an area in memory used for temporary storage [eg: rapid input from keyboard] n. the surface area of the visual display unit on which the image is formed n. electronic mail. the mechanical and electronic parts of a computer.also v. fixed. routines etc for a computer. mouse etc] n.English Vocabulary 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 buffer byte Email floppy disk hard disk hardware input keyboard memory modem operating system output peripheral program RAM screen software WYSIWYG ThaoThy’s n. small. system of sending messages through the internet. scanner. device that converts data to a form that can be transmitted by telephone etc n. e-mail n. 1.see ram n. n. software that contains coded instructions to control a computer .also v. the programs. enabling applications to run n. software that communicates with hardware. data delivered by a computer (by printer. modem.

The vocabulary on this page is for Soccer. attack attacker away game away team beat bench captain centre circle champions championship changing rooms cheer corner kick cross crossbar defend defenders draw dropped ball equalizer extra time to make a forceful attempt to score a goal a player that has possession of the ball a game played at the opponent's ground the team that is visiting the opponent's ground to defeat a long seat for several people the player who leads and directs the other players on the field a circular marking in the centre of the field from which kickoffs are taken a team that has beaten all other teams in a sporting contest a sporting contest for the position of champion the rooms where players dress to play to shout in encouragement and give support a restart of the game where the ball is kicked from one of the four corners of the field a pass from an attacking player near the sideline to a team player in the middle or on the opposite side of the field (also a verb) the horizontal beam across the top of a goal to resist an attack the players that do not have possession of the ball a game that ends with both teams having the same number of goals a way of restarting the game where the referee drops the ball between two players a goal that makes the score even (the same for both teams) a further period of play added on to the game if the scores are equal 2b collected 156 Page 42 of . Association Football—also known as soccer from (as)soc(iation football). the form most closely related to the original and the form played in the FIFA World Cup. The most common forms of football are: Rugby Football. American Football.English Vocabulary Football Vocabulary ThaoThy’s Football or soccer? Football refers to any of several games played with an inflated leather ball by two teams on a field with a goal at each end.

when a player touches the ball with his arm or hand the striking of the ball by a player with his head a team's own ground. the structure consisting of two posts linked by a crossbar into which all goals are scored the rectangular area 20 yards wide by 6 yards deep in front of each goal a way of restarting the game where the ball is kicked from inside the goal area away from the goal the boundary or line at each end of the field the player in front of the goal who tries to stop the other team scoring one of the two upright posts of the goal.English Vocabulary field field markings FIFA FIFA World Cup first half fit fixture fixture list forward foul free kick friendly game goal goal area goal kick goal line goalkeeper. winning one point 2. before half-time in form. the official body of international football a solid gold statue given to the champion of each World Cup tournament to keep for the next 4 years the first 45 minutes of the game. against the rules a kick given to a player for a foul by the opposition. in good health a game played on a particular date a programme of games one of the three or four players on a team who play at the front and are responsible for most of the scoring an unfair or invalid piece of play. the player kicks the ball without any opposing players within ten feet of him a game that is not part of a serious contest 1. 8 feet high a player who puts the ball into the goal and so "scores a goal" the place where a game is played the 5-minute rest period between the first half and second half a foul. grass area where a game is played the straight and curved white lines painted onto the field Federation Internationale de Football Association. goalie goalpost goal scorer ground half-time hand ball header home 2b collected 156 the rectangular. ThaoThy’s Page 43 of . a ball that crosses the goal line between the goalposts and below the crossbar.

sprained ankle) a player who has been hurt or wounded time added to the end of the first or second half to compensate for time lost because of player injuries to strike or hit with the foot (also a noun) the start of a game. or restart after a goal. he starts and stops play. penalty shot penalty spot possession red card referee score (verb) 2b collected 156 a violent troublemaker a wound suffered by a player (for example: broken leg. they watch the sidelines and goal lines a game of football a region of the field near the midfield line a line that runs across the centre of the field. awarded for the most serious violations of the rules or used in the event of a draw the small circle 12 yards in front of the goal control of the ball a small card. centre line. 44 yards wide by 18 yards deep a kick from the penalty spot by a player against the opposing goal keeper. that the referee holds up to show that a player must leave the game for very bad behaviour the chief official. red in colour. when a player kicks the ball forwards the 17 main rules for football established by FIFA a group of teams that play each other for competition the 2 officials who help the referee. makes all decisions about the rules. halfway line the players that play behind the forwards the team representing a particular country or nation a team playing against another team a mistake.English Vocabulary hooligan injury injured player injury time kick kick-off Laws of the Game league linesman match midfield midfield line midfield player national team opposing team own goal pass penalty area penalty kick. when a team places the ball inside its own goal When a player kicks the ball to a teammate a rectangular area in front of the goal. and acts as timekeeper to put the ball into the goal and gain a point ThaoThy’s Page 44 of .

touchline a person who watches a game (or other performance) a special sports ground with seats for spectators where football (or another game) is played a team's best forward who plays near the centre of the field small points on the underneath of a player's boots to help prevent slipping a player who replaces another player on the field a spectator who supports one of the teams and wants it to win to try to take the ball away from another player by kicking or stopping it with the feet the members of one side when two teams have scored the same number of goals in a game. can also mean the goal itself the football field a person who tries to sell tickets at a price higher than the official price to be the goal keeper or goalie to put the ball into the goal or net ThaoThy’s Page 45 of . after half-time When the referee tells a player to leave the field for bad behaviour one of the two teams playing a game the line that runs along the length of the field on each side. for example by a series of penalty kicks the hollow sphere that players kick in soccer a person who trains a team the mesh of cord hung over and behind the goal. a draw a way of choosing the winner of a game when both teams have the same number of goals.English Vocabulary score (noun) score a hat trick scorer scoreboard second half send a player off side sideline spectator stadium striker studs substitute supporter tackle team tie tiebreaker ball coach net pitch ticket tout to keep goal to score a goal 2b collected 156 the amount of goals for each team When one player gets three goals in the same game a player who scores or gets a goal a large panel or other display that shows the current score or number of goals for each side the second 45 minutes of the game.

yellow in colour.English Vocabulary to shoot at goal touch line underdog unsporting behaviour whistle winger World Cup yellow card to kick the ball towards the goal the line that runs along the length of the field on each side. the month leading up to Christmas a spiritual being acting as a messenger of God (usually shown as a human being with wings) a small round fruit the small town in the Middle East believed to be the birthplace of Jesus Christ a cylinder of wax with a central wick (like string) which burns to produce light a vertical pipe in a house that allows smoke and gases to escape from a fireplace (Father Christmas traditionally enters a house through its chimney) the title of Jesus (also used as His name) a person who believes in Christianity. eaten at Christmas a greetings card that people send to friends and family at Christmas Page 46 of . high-pitched sound a forward who plays to the side of the striker or strikers the international soccer competition between nations. organized by FIFA every 4 years a small card. also an adjective the religion based on the teachings and person of Jesus Christ the annual Christian festival celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ (Christmas Day is on 25 December) a rich fruit cake covered with white icing. sideline a team that is not expected to win rude or bad conduct the instrument that the referee blows to create a loud. that the referee holds up to warn a player for bad behavior ThaoThy’s Christmas Vocabulary advent Advent angel berry Bethlehem candle chimney Christ Christian Christianity Christmas Christmas cake Christmas card 2b collected 156 the arrival of someone or something important the coming (or second coming) of Jesus Christ.

English Vocabulary Christmas carol Christmas Day Christmas Eve Christmas holidays Christmas present Christmas tree cracker decoration egg-nog Father Christmas fireplace frankincense gold holly Jesus Joseph magi manger Mary mistletoe myrrh nativity the Nativity nativity play new year New Year's Day New Year's Eve 2b collected 156 a religious song or popular hymn that people sing at Christmas 25 December, the birthday of Jesus Christ the evening or day before Christmas Day (24 December) the holiday period for about a week before and after Christmas Day a gift or present given at Christmas


an evergreen tree (often a spruce) that people decorate with lights and ornaments at Christmas a decorated paper tube that makes a sharp noise ("crack!") and releases a small toy when two people pull it apart something that adds beauty; ornament a traditional Christmas drink made of alcohol with beaten eggs and milk an imaginary being who brings presents for children on the night before Christmas Day (also known as Santa Claus) - traditionally an old man with a red suit and white beard a partly enclosed space in a house where people light a fire for warmth a gum used for incense, one of the gifts that the three wise men gave to Jesus a yellow precious metal, one of the gifts that the three wise men gave to Jesus an evergreen plant with prickly dark green leaves and red berries the name of Christ, the central figure of Christianity (believed by Christians to be the Son of God) the husband of Mary (the mother of Jesus) the wise men from the East who brought gifts for the baby Jesus a trough for food for horses or cattle (used by Mary as a cradle or bed for Jesus) the mother of Jesus a parasitic plant with white berries, traditionally used as a Christmas decoration a gum used for perfume or incense, one of the gifts that the three wise men gave to Jesus the birth of a person the birth of Jesus Christ a play that people perform at Christmas based on the birth of Jesus the start of a year; the period just before and after 1 January 1 January 31 December Page 47 of

English Vocabulary ornament present reindeer Santa Claus shepherd sleigh snow star the star of Bethlehem tinsel turkey white Christmas Xmas an object that adds beauty to something; a decoration a thing given to somebody as a gift.


a deer with large antlers found in some cold climates (believed to pull the sleigh for Santa Claus or Father Christmas) an imaginary being who brings presents for children on the night before Christmas Day (also known as Father Christmas) - traditionally an old man with a red suit and white beard a person who looks after sheep a sledge or light cart on runners pulled by horses or reindeer over snow and ice water vapour from the sky that falls as white flakes and covers the ground a bright point in the night sky which is a large, distant incandescent body like the sun the star that announced the birth of Jesus and guided the wise men to find Him a decoration consisting of thin strips of shiny metal foil, traditionally used at Christmas a bird like a large chicken, traditionally eaten at Christmas a Christmas with snow on the ground abbreviation or informal term for Christmas

Christmas Expressions • • • • • Merry Christmas! Happy Christmas Happy New Year! Wishing you a prosperous New Year All the best for the coming year

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English Vocabulary British/North American Vocabulary Here are some of the main differences in vocabulary between British and North American English. British anywhere autumn barrister beeper, pager bill (restaurant) biscuit block of flats bonnet boot (of car) car caravan chemist chest of drawers chips chocolate bar the cinema clothes peg coffin condom crisps crossroads cupboard cutlery diversion drawing-pin driving licence 2b collected 156 Canadian anywhere autumn/fall lawyer pager bill cookie apartment block hood trunk (of car) car trailer drugstore dresser French fries/chips chocolate bar movies clothes peg coffin condom potato chips intersection cupboard cutlery diversion, detour thumbtack driver's licence American anyplace fall attorney beeper check cookie apartment building hood trunk (of automobile) automobile trailer drugstore bureau French fries candy bar the movies clothespin casket rubber potato chips intersection closet silverware detour thumbtack driver's license


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English Vocabulary dummy (for babies) dustbin dustman engine estate agent film flat flat tyre flyover galoshes gear-lever Girl Guide ground floor handbag holiday jam jeans jug lift lorry luggage mad main road maize maths mobile (phone) motorbike motorway motorway napkin 2b collected 156 soother garbage can, trash can garbageman engine real estate agent movie apartment flat tire overpass galoshes gearshift Girl Guide ground floor, main floor handbag holiday jam jeans jug elevator truck luggage crazy main road, main thoroughfare corn math cellular phone motorbike, motorcycle highway, thoroughfare freeway serviette, table napkin pacifier ashcan, garbage can, trashcan garbage collector motor realtor movie apartment flat overpass toe rubbers gearshift Girl Scout first floor purse vacation jelly blue jeans pitcher elevator truck baggage crazy highway corn math cellular motorcycle freeway, expressway freeway napkin


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post mailbox. post-box postal code mailman. store one-way (ticket) lawyer somewhere wrench spirits diaper tic-tack-toe shorts sidewalk gas. gasoline Big Dipper pocket money mail. refuse garbage can. asphalt roundabout eraser garbage. pub bathroom flat railway return collect call. trash garbage can. trashcan sedan (car) shop. reverse the charges ring road road surface. gasoline Big Dipper allowance mail mailbox zip code mailman bar rest room flat railroad round-trip call collect beltway pavement traffic circle eraser garbage. letter carrier bar.English Vocabulary nappy naughts and crosses pants pavement petrol The Plough pocket money post postbox postcode postman pub public toilet puncture railway return (ticket) reverse charge ring road road surface roundabout rubber rubbish rubbish-bin saloon (car) shop single (ticket) solicitor somewhere spanner spirits 2b collected 156 diaper tick-tack-toe shorts sidewalk. trash. pavement gas. trashcan sedan (automobile) store one-way attorney someplace wrench hard liquor ThaoThy’s Page 51 of .

English Vocabulary sweets tap (indoors) tap (outdoors) taxi tea-towel telly. sweets tap (indoors) tap (outdoors) taxi dish-towel TV third-party insurance schedule tin can toll highway flashlight pants subway. scotch windshield zipper candy faucet spigot cab dish-towel TV liability insurance schedule can turnpike flashlight pants subway subway shorts truck undershirt vest billfold rubbers whiskey. TV third-party insurance timetable tin toll motorway torch trousers tube (train) underground (train) underpants van vest waistcoat wallet wellington boots whisky windscreen zip candy. metro shorts truck undershirt vest wallet rubber boots whisky. scotch windshield zipper ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 52 of . metro subway.

English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 53 of .

a.i. A. P. HQ Inc.o.H. insurance.M.f. 123456789] cost.o.P. v.t.O.M. E. WP Annual General Meeting (of company shareholders) any other business (at the end of a meeting agenda) account.) A.G. f. PLCUK p. freight care of [on an envelope eg: Mrs G Smith.G.US LtdUK O.A. f. c/o cc: Co.o. JSA] Company for example [from the Latin exempli gratia] Extraordinary General Meeting (of company shareholders) free on board free of charge headquarters (of a company or other organisation) Incorporated [after the name of a firm organised as a legal corporation] Limited [after the name of a firm organised as a legal company] overhead projector personal assistant Public Limited Company [for a firm whose shares are sold on the open market] please turn over [at the end of a page] value added tax word processing (or creation of text by computer) ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 54 of . as for bank account [eg: a/c no.c. c/o Mrs B Brown] copies to [at the end of a letter eg: cc: TE.g. e. JMR.t.b. a/c c.English Vocabulary Abbreviations The rule for punctuation of abbreviations is: • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 if last letter of word and abbreviation are the same: no full stop (for example Ltd) if last letter of word and abbreviation are NOT the same: full stop (for example Co.B.

samples etc n. for advertising posters. usually illustrated. in magazine. the evening hours v. Attention. n. advertisement . hoardingUK n. usually leading to certain benefits n. what makes a product different from others 2b collected 156 Page 55 of . usually derived from its features n. n. advantage of a product or service. average number of copies of a magazine sold in a particular period n. large sheet of paper.the objective of all advertisements n. Action . paid advertisement on radio or TV n. usually outdoors. something that especially attracts one’s attention . signboard. special characteristics of a product. company specialising in producing and placing advertisements for clients abbr. Desire. specific time in a broadcasting schedule. for advertising posters. billboardUS n. on TV etc n. advertisement printed across 2 pages in a magazine or newspaper audience n. Unique Selling Proposition. Interest. esp. objective. item of publicity for a product or service. to (try to) increase sales of a product by publicising and advertising it n.advert abbr. what one is aiming at . hours on radio & TV with largest audience.eye-catching adj. abbr. signboard. part of a printed advertisement used for ordering goods. used as advertisement n. usually outdoors.English Vocabulary Advertising 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ad advertisement advertising agency AIDA benefit billboardUS circulation classified ads commercial coupon double-page spread eye-catcherUS features hoardingUK poster prime time promote slot target U. when a commercial may be shown n. small advertisements in magazine or newspaper categorised by subject n. ThaoThy’s abbr.

an aeroplane scheduled to fly a certain route at a certain time n. passenger’s telephone validation of return reservation. special ticket showing that passenger has checked in and may board plane v. reconfirmation n. not international [a domestic flight is entirely within one country] adj. checking of tickets. destinations etc of departing flights adj. place where passengers go to find their luggage (cases etc) at the end of a flight v. passports. exempt from customs taxes n. extreme tiredness etc after a long flight between extreme time zones n. the strip on which planes land and take off n. n. briefcases etc that may be carried on board by passengers abbr. perfume etc] not taxable. a break for a day or two on an international flight n. luggage that is more than the permitted or allowed weight n. government official responsible for checking passengers’ passports n. inc. to register for a flight. national.also n. large display in airport showing times. An air ticket has one coupon for each journey n. International Air Transport Association n. n.English Vocabulary Air Travel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 aisle baggage claim board boarding pass check in confirmation departures board domestic duty free excess baggage flight gate hand luggage IATA immigration officer jet lag runway stopover ticket transit ThaoThy’s n. corridor in aeroplane between the seats [there are usually one or two] n. A transit passenger is one stopping at an airport that is not his destination 2b collected 156 Page 56 of . [of products: cigarettes. light bags. the point in an airport at which a particular flight arrives and departs n. luggage etc . receipt for transportation etc.on board adv. to get on or enter an aeroplane .

to fill outUS n.withdrawal n. a sum deducted from a bank account.also v. sum added to a bank a/c. as for a cheque . bank a/c on which interest is paid.interest rate n. person to whom money is paid n. written order to a bank to pay the stated sum from one’s account. money lent by a bank etc and that must be repaid with interest . n. n. n. chequebookUK n. (plastic) card from a bank authorising the purchasing of goods on credit n. book containing detachable checks.also v. an instruction to a bank to make regular payments n. paid] to deposit or put money in to a bank account n. the difference between credits and debits in an account n. savings accountUS v. money in a bank a/c. ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 57 of . -drawn] to take money out of a bank account . n. local office or bureau of a bank n. small document recording money that you pay in to a bank account n. a record of transactions in a bank account v. [-drew. deficit in a bank account caused by withdrawing more money than is paid in v.English Vocabulary Banking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 balance bank charges branch checkbookUS checkUS credit credit card current account debit deposit account fill inUK interest loan overdraft pay in payee paying-in slip standing order statement withdraw n.also v. checking accountUS n. money paid for the use of money lent . money paid to a bank for the bank’s services etc n. to add written information to a document to make it complete. [paid. bank a/c from which money may be drawn at any time. chequeUK n. money lent by a bank .

advertising etc n. department responsible for Research and Development of (new) products n. senior director after the chairman responsible for day-to-day direction n. person who heads a Board of Directors. organisation chart Personnel Dept. responsible for putting goods on market. head of a company n. dept.chief executive officer n.M. the place where visitors and clients report on arrival at a company n. inc. presidentUS Production Dept. a table or plan showing a company’s structure graphically n. person who manages the affairs of a corporation ..UK board of directors chairmanUK director executive officerUS headquarters manager managing directorUK Marketing Dept. a group of people chosen to establish policy for and direct or control a company n. each responsible for a separate division 2b collected 156 Page 58 of . packaging. person who holds or owns shares in or a part of a company or corporation n. the highest executive officer of a company. department responsible for recruitment and welfare of staff or employees n. head of a company. Purchasing Dept. executive officerUS n. department responsible for physical creation of product n. chairperson n. n. department responsible for finding and buying everything needed by a company n.G. any of several executive officers. a company’s principal or main office or centre of control n. department responsible for finding customers and making sales n. Annual General Meeting of a company’s shareholders n. R & D Department reception Sales Department shareholder vice presidentUS ThaoThy’s n. a member of the board of directors n. A.English Vocabulary Company Structure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Accounts Dept. person responsible for day-to-day running of a dept. department responsible for administering a company’s financial affairs abbr.

per pro registered mail salutation shorthand sign Yours faithfullyUK Yours sincerelyUK Yours trulyUS ThaoThy’s n. postscript [used to indicate a note added at the very end of a letter] abbr. woman (married or not). Best wishes first word of most SALUTATIONS. p. enclosure. to say or read aloud words to be written down .signature n. a secure postal service for important or valuable letters or packages n. married woman. polite close to a letter not naming the recipient as in Dear Sir.s. [eg: A per pro B (where B is signing for A)] n.. Yours trulyUS polite close to a letter naming the recipient as in Dear Mr Smith. a sheet of letter paper printed with a person or firm’s (name and) address abbr. when taking dictation v. abbr. usually commencing with 'Dear.Kind regards. Yours trulyUS polite close to a letter. Sincerely yoursUS 2b collected 156 Page 59 of . the place to which a letter is to be sent friendly close to a letter . of title for man. esp.p. enclosed [indicating something that is included with a letter] SALUTATION when writing to a firm and not to any particular individual in the firm n. GentlemenUS letterhead Mr Ms Mrs Miss p.dictation n. a system of speed writing. to write one’s name at the end of a document . formal or not [eg: Dear Sir.English Vocabulary Correspondence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 address Best regards Dear Dear Madam Dear Sir Dear SirsUK dictate enc.. unmarried woman abbr. through the agency of. Dear Jo] formal SALUTATION to an unnamed woman formal SALUTATION to an unnamed man SALUTATION when writing to a firm and not to any particular individual in the firm v. opening or first line of a letter.' n. Dear Mr Won.

for (person etc). to specify as an essential condition . a particular statement or stipulation in a contract etc. on behalf ofUK invalid. additional or supplementary material at end of contract. conditions or stipulations v. to guarantee conj: it being the case that. in this (document etc) adv: in the following part (of this document etc) adv: to this (document etc) [eg: attached hereto] adv: up until now. article n. a particular statement or stipulation in a contract etc. an arrangement between two or more people. in view of the fact that [in introduction to contracts 2b collected 156 Page 60 of . before this in the interests of (person etc).to arbitrate v. not binding on one side . to give formal assurance. without legal force. unforeseeable event excusing one party from fulfilling contract v: to satisfy a condition. the person or persons forming one side of an agreement v. n.on the other hand on the other side n. countries etc. to complete the required task.English Vocabulary Contracts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 agreement appendix arbitration article clause condition force majeure fulfil herein hereinafter hereto heretofore in behalf of null and void on the one hand party stipulate terms warrant whereas ThaoThy’s n. n. book etc n.stipulation n. contract n. superior. until the present. clause n. settlement of a dispute by a person chosen by both parties . power. anything necessary before the performance of something else n. to fulfillUS adv: in here.

mixed [eg: nationality. a letter that is sent with one's CV. usually as day/month/year [eg: 05/11/76] n.challenging adj. an activity outside work in which one is interested or concerned. the course of one's (professional) life n. the language one first learned to speak. letter of application n. training and experience adj. able to use two languages with equal ease . the whole of one's education. languages spoken. jobs held. the status of belonging to a particular country [eg: Japanese nationality] n. mother tongue n. marital status] n. study of handwriting as a guide to the character of the writer . university etc . the kind of work or challenge that one is looking for adj. jobs held. n. posts etc. work history .see BI-LINGUAL n.graphologist n. the day on which one was born.professional experience n. a written statement by another person about one's character and ability educate v. n. hobby n. an ability. a difficult or demanding task that needs special effort . training and instruction at school. adj. dates. posts etc. various.English Vocabulary CV/Resume 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 background bi-lingual career challenge cover letter date of birth education experience fluent graphology interest job objective miscellaneous nationality native language qualifications reference skill training work history ThaoThy’s n. expertness or aptitude in a particular activity [eg: language skill] n. EXPERIENCE 2b collected 156 Page 61 of . including dates. n. inc. the education and experience that make one suitable for a particular job n.see FLUENT n. able to speak and write a foreign language easily . the process of learning a particular SKILL [eg: sales training] n.

taken] to employ. esp. career etc. n.recruitment n. [colloq. training and welfare of personnel n.]. short account of one’s education. employees v. usually monthly.] to dismiss v. to fireUS n. the people who work for a firm n. resumeUS v. n. v. regular payment. promotion etc n. to look for and employ personnel . advancement in rank or position . v. an oral examination of an applicant for a job . additional pay given to employee as incentive or reward n. because of age .to promote v. something additional to regular salary [eg: free meals.retirement n. to remove or discharge from employment. the people who work for a firm or a particular department. v. person employed v.employee n. to leave employment. [took. perquisite. a car] n. manager responsible for recruitment. [made. to sack [colloq. opportunity for success. to give up a job . made] to dismiss because of not being needed . to hire ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 62 of .redundancyUK n. résuméUS. person or firm who employs people .English Vocabulary Employment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 bonus curriculum vitaeUK dismiss employer fireUS interview make redundantUK maternity leave notice perk personnel personnel officer promotion prospects recruit resign retire salary staff take on n. abbr. n. made by employer to employee n. a fixed. period of absence from work (for a woman) when having a baby n.letter of resignation n. CVUK. advance warning of intention to resign .also give or tender one’s notice v.

to send or transport by land.irrevocable letter of credit n. freight irrevocable letter of credit merchandise packing list pro forma invoice quay ship shipping agent waybill ThaoThy’s n. v.i. cost.f. commodities. wares . to make a statement of taxable goods . c. n.also n. list of goods and shipping instructions.English Vocabulary Import/Export 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 bill of lading c. bill of lading . a person acting for or representing a ship or ships at a port n. free on board: includes loading onto ship n. a solid. things bought and sold. unalterable .quayside n. shipment n.container port n. list of goods and shipping instructions. artificial landing place for (un)loading ships. cargo adj. sea or air . an invoice or request for payment sent in advance of goods supplied n. wharf .o.air waybill n.s. cargo certificate of origin container customs declare f. a document that shows where goods come from n. to containerise v. abbr. n. 1 government tax or duty on imported goods 2 the people who collect this tax v. a letter from a bank authorising a person to draw money from another bank n. 2b collected 156 Page 63 of . waybill abbr.&f. goods or products that are being transported or shipped n.a. huge box to hold goods for transport .also v.b. goods being transported. a document that is sent with goods to show that they have been checked n. n. cost & freight: includes shipping to named port but not insurance abbr. n. insurance & freight: includes insurance and shipping to named port n. f.customs declaration form n. that cannot be undone. free alongside ship [includes delivery to quayside but not loading] abbr.

responsibility of a firm for damage caused to a member of the public n. injury etc. n. property. n. an application for payment under an insurance policy . a loss that happens as a consequence of or as a result of another n.liability n. yearly etc. providing complete protection n. car etc] n. legally obliged to pay for damage. liability or responsibility of a firm for damage caused to one of its employees n. damage etc that is the basis for a claim . a person who assesses the amount of compensation arising from a claim n. middleman between insurer & policyholder n. responsible . agent who arranges insurance. usually monthly. a contract of insurance [eg: a product liability policy] n. 1 chance or possibility of injury. a payment. the protection given by an insurance policy [eg: public liability cover] n. n. merchandise or any goods in the process of being transported n. loss etc 2 person or thing causing risk 2b collected 156 Page 64 of . the person to whom an insurance policy is issued n. injury. the insuring of a risk by one insurance company with another . 1 the state of being liable 2 anything for which a person is liable adj. for an insurance policy lose make a claim v. a person who calculates the value of something [eg: a building. a person who calculates risks for insurance companies n. liability or responsibility of a firm for damage caused by one of its products n. reinsure v. [of an insurance policy] all-inclusive.English Vocabulary Insurance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 actuary assessor claim comprehensive consequential loss coverUK employer’s liability goods in transit insurance broker liability liable loss loss adjuster policy policyholder premium product liability public liability reinsurance risk ThaoThy’s n. death.

1UK lawyer advising clients & briefing barristers 2US law officer for a city etc v. between two or more parties n. court . to start legal action against someone in a court of law .courtroom n. 1 a person appointed to act for or represent another 2US lawyer n. 1UK instructions to a barrister .guilt n.also v. a group of people chosen to hear the evidence of a case and give a decision n. esp. information presented to a court to prove or support a point in question adj. a person trained in law and who advises or represents others v. responsible for wrong. 2US written statement of facts for a court n. a formal agreement. n.also v. public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a court of law .also v.English Vocabulary Law 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 attorney barristerUK brief case contract court of law evidence guilty judge jury lawsuit lawyer plead sentence solicitor sue sum up trial verdict without prejudice ThaoThy’s n. to summarise & review the evidence of a case [said of a judge] . not guilty adj.lawsuit n. the place where law cases are hear and decided. a formal examination of a case in a court of law . n. v. usually in writing. n. esp. statement of the facts in a trial.summing up n. culpable . a lawyer who pleads before a superior court n. n. a trial at court between two private parties n. n. as to the punishment 2 the punishment . n. n. 1 to defend a law case 2 to declare oneself to be guilty or not guilty . 1 decision of a court. the formal decision or finding of a judge or jury without detriment or damage to a legal right or claim 2b collected 156 Page 65 of .plea n. the argument of one side try v.

packaging. after-sales etc n. n.public relations officer n. often for a particular product produce v.also v. costed] to estimate the price of making a product . the concept or perception of a firm or product held by the general public n.costing n. word etc used to represent a product or firm . metal etc on a product giving information about it v. to introduce a new product.branded adj. costed.mail-order catalogue n. total product trademark ThaoThy’s n. n. creation and maintenance of a good public image . special symbol. v.product development n. Threats n. advertising. inc. inc. registered or officially recorded as a trademark . [ register v. small piece of paper. the whole product.W. n. study of consumers’ needs & preferences. customer etc who is the ultimate (and so real) user of a product n. v. adj. something made to be sold.point-of-sale adj. .® abbr. n. n. design.O. firm supporting an organisation in return for advertising space .to consume v. the delivering of products to end-users. the person who buys and uses a product or service .T. storing etc n. .to brand v. the person. Opportunities. to create a new product or improve an existing one . n. with publicity etc .English Vocabulary Marketing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 brand consumer cost develop distribution end-user image label launch mail order market research packagingUK point of sale product public relations registered sponsor S. merchandise [includes services] . Strength. the selling of goods by post . Weaknesses.product launch n. name. reliability. abbr. n. 2b collected 156 Page 66 of . instructions. a particular make of product . the place where a product is actually sold to the public . the wrapping or container for a product n." abbr.

English Vocabulary Meetings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A.G.M. A.O.B. absent agenda apologies ballot casting vote chairman conference conference call consensus decision item matters arising minutes proxy vote show of hands unanimous videoconference vote


abbr. Annual General Meeting abbr. Any Other Business [usually the last item on an agenda] adj. not here; not at the meeting; not present n. a written programme or schedule for a meeting n. item on agenda announcing people who are absent; apologies for absence n. a type of vote, usually in writing and usually secret- secret ballot n. n. a deciding vote (usually by the chairman) when the votes are otherwise equal n. the person who leads or presides at a meeting; chairperson; chair n. formal meeting for discussion, esp. a regular one held by an organisation n. telephone call between three or more people in different locations n. general agreement n. a conclusion or resolution to do something - to decide v. n. a separate point for discussion [as listed on an agenda] n. item on agenda for discussion of what has happened as a result of last meeting n. a written record of everything said at a meeting n. a vote cast by one person for or in place of another n. raised hands to express an opinion in a vote adj. in complete agreement; united in opinion n. conference of people in different locations linked by satellite, TV etc v. to express opinion in a group by voice or hand etc - also n. - to cast a vote v.

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English Vocabulary Money 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A.T.M. banknote billUS black market bureau de change cash cash dispenserUK cashier coin currency debt exchange rate foreign exchange hard currency invest legal tender petty cashUK soft currency speculate transaction


abbr. Automated Teller Machine; cash dispenserUK n: a piece of paper money; billUS n. a banknote; a piece of paper money n. illegal traffic in officially controlled commodities such as foreign currency n. establishment where currencies of different countries may be exchanged n. 1 coins or bank notes (not cheques); 2 actual money paid as opposed to credit n: automatic machine from which clients of a bank may withdraw money; ATM n. person dealing with cash transactions in a bank, store etc n: a piece of metal money n. the money in general use or circulation in any country n. money etc owed by one person to another n. the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another n: the currency of other countries n. currency that will probably not fall in value and is readily accepted v. to put money for profit into business, land etc - investment n. n: currency that cannot legally be refused in payment of a debt n. a cash fund for small, everyday expenses n. currency that will probably fall in value and is not readily accepted v. (risky) buying of foreign currency, land etc for rapid gain - speculation n. n. a (usually commercial) exchange; a deal - to transact v.

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English Vocabulary Newspapers & Journalism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 article broadsheetUK censor chequebook journalism correspondent critic desk edit editor editorial exclusive rights feature front page headline journalist media opinion paper story tabloid


n. a text or piece of writing on any non-fiction subject n. a large-format newspaper with usually serious contents n. official with the power to stop publication of certain articles - censorship n. n. the obtaining of exclusive rights to a story by payment of large sums of money n. 1 person who writes a letter to a paper 2 person who writes articles for a paper n. a person who writes articles, esp. stating opinion, about art, music etc n. a department of a newspaper [eg: the sports desk] v. to check, modify and generally prepare written material for publication n. 1 a person who edits 2 the head of a newspaper or newspaper department n. an article written by the editor stating his opinion n. rights or permission for one paper to publish a story that no other paper can n. a special or regular article in a newspaper, usually displayed prominently n. the first page of a paper, usually carrying the most important story n. 1 the title at the top of an article 2 headlines the most important stories n. a person employed to write articles for a newspaper - journalism n. n. the media all the means of mass communication (papers, TV, radio etc) n. what a person thinks about a particular subject; a subjective point of view n. 1 thin, flexible material for writing or printing on 2 newspaper n. a news article or report n. a small-format paper, with short, sensational stories - see broadsheet

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to put one number together with another [eg: 2 plus 2] . 1012 n.M abbr. nought 2b collected 156 Page 70 of .multiplication n. 106 p.see multiply multiplication of a number by itself [eg: 2 to the power of 3 = 8] n.000. n.000. n.000. v. 2 ÷ 2 [is expressed as] two divided by two . a million million. 2 x 2 [is expressed as] two multiplied by two . to multiply a number by the same number [eg: 3 squared = 9] n. 1. n.000. 2 .000. one million . 103 p. 100.000. K abbr.000. 2 x 2 [is expressed as] two times two .division n.2 [is expressed as] two minus two v. 1.k. 1. number that multiplied by itself gives a certain number [3 is the square root of 9] v. to deduct one number from another [eg: 2 minus 2] . to be the same as [eg: 2 + 2 equals 4] one billion n. one thousand million.English Vocabulary Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 add billion divide equal giga hundred kilo mega million minus multiply plus square square root subtract thousand times to the power of trillion zero ThaoThy’s v.addition n.1.subtraction n. 2 + 2 [is expressed as] two plus two v. p. 109 v.000.000.000. one thousand thousand. oh. 0. 102 one thousand .

maps. when good n. charts etc] n. Turning now to . small (usually 35mm) photographic transparency . sample etc) handed or given to people at a presentation Typical phrase used to signal the summing up or final part of a presentation Polite phrase often used to address an audience of men and women n. . esp. flat. screen etc n. relationship of presenter with audience. .H.P.t. non-verbal communication through facial expressions.O. .T. handout In conclusion . anything (report. . .slide projector n. reflective white surface on which films. flip chart For example . .h. electrical instrument that one speaks into for amplification of the voice etc abbr.H. overhead transparency. sheet of film with image for overhead projector n. flat. large. device that projects an o. white surface or board on which to write or draw with markers 2b collected 156 Page 71 of . visual aids whiteboard ThaoThy’s n. to help the audience understand where one is in a presentation . onto a screen . n. . device (rod or electric torch etc) for indicating things on a map. slides etc are projected v. overhead projector pointer screen signal slide To start with . n. . a pad of large paper sheets on a stand for presenting information Typical phrase used to signal an illustration or sample of a particular point n. felt tip for writing on whiteboards n. . large. Typical phrase used to signal the beginning of a particular subject or topic Typical phrase used to signal a change from one subject or topic to another n.English Vocabulary Presentations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 audience rapport body language Finally .signalling n. . whiteboard marker a pen with a broad. things that one can look at in a presentation [eg: films. body movements etc Typical word used to signal the last of several points or subjects n. ladies & gentlemen marker microphone O. abbr.

also adj. space or ground surrounding a building.also n. available to be bought n. n. space or ground surrounding a building. yardUS n. storyUS n. a number of buildings on a large piece of land . office etc and lets it to a tenant n. house.real-estate developer n. a person whose business is to sell or let land or property on behalf of others n. office etc from a landlord n. storey of a building at the same level as the street or furnish v. liftUK adv. n. one of the levels of a building. gound floorUK n. the holding of land or property for an unlimited period of time . a person who rents an apartment. forming one unit [eg: bedroom with bathroom en suite] . house. a room or group of rooms to live in. v. storey of a building at the same level as the street or ground. garden ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 72 of . first floorUS n. n. n. to make periodic payments (monthly etc) for the use of a building etc . flatUK n. a person who owns an apartment. adj.also adj. [of a house. floor. [let. usually on one floor. elevatorUS v. let] to give the use of a building etc in return for periodic payments or rent n. to be sold. usually on one floor. often with flowers. trees etc.English Vocabulary Property & Real-Estate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 apartmentUS development elevatorUS en suite estate agentUS first floorUS flatUK for sale freehold furnished garden ground floorUK landlord leasehold let liftUK rent storeyUK tenant yardUS n. a room or group of rooms to live in. apartmentUS offered for purchase. a compartment for moving people from floor to floor in a building. the holding of land or property for a predetermined period of time . a compartment for moving people from floor to floor in a building.also adj. apartment etc] let with furniture .

sometimes carrying the blurb . poem etc) v.also v.English Vocabulary Publishing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 © copyright author bind blurb chapter contents edit fiction front cover hardback index inside front cover jacket non-fiction paperback spine title title page type typeset ThaoThy’s n. the person who writes or originates something (book. chapter.also adj. author’s name etc n. first. front flap of the book’s jacket. outside part of a book’s jacket carrying the title. short. v. biography etc] . n.also adj. n. n. names etc at end of book with page numbers . n. b. modify and generally prepare written material for publication . the name of a book. the page of a book (usually the 3rd) that carries the title in large type n.see fiction n.fictional adj. table of contents list of chapters etc at front of book v. legal right of an author to the publication of his work .typeface n. n.also v. to check. writing that describes imaginary events & people . n. printing type system of letters (a. exclusive. see non-fiction n.dust jacket n. promotional description of a book usually printed on its jacket n. [-set. a book with soft. stiff covers made of board . one of the main divisions or sections of a book n. 2b collected 156 Page 73 of . [bound.also adj. unimagined events [eg: history. the protective paper cover supplied with most hardbacks . alphabetical list of words. a book with hard. writing about real.binding n. the part of a book’s jacket that usually faces outwards on a shelf n. -set] to set in type [eg: to change handwriting to type] . n. c etc) for printing text . poem etc n.editor n.IFC abbr. flexible covers made of paper or card . n. article. bound] to put pages of a book together after printing .

inverted commas dagger ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 74 of . slash.. colon semi-colon question mark (square) brackets.. (round) parenthesis asterisk comma 1 full stop 2 point ellipsis points. ? [] \ __ ‘’ † hyphen dash exclamation mark sharp ampersand bullet (round) brackets. . (square) parenthesis backslash underline quotation marks. .English Vocabulary Punctuation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 — ! # & · () * . ellipsis dots oblique. / : .

salesperson v.also n. to continue to follow persistently. service that continues after a product has been sold [eg: repairs etc] n. in large quantity. [-came.also v. see retail 2b collected 156 Page 75 of .to produce v. something made and usually for sale . useful indication of a possible customer to be followed up serve v. a business transaction .also n. a reason given by a prospect for not buying . to sell in small quantities (as in a shop to the public) . see overcome v. to finalise a deal or sale. see wholesale n. to sell in bulk (as to a shop for resale to the public) . usually at a lower price object v. -come] to overcome an obj-ection to show an objection is invalid n. to maintain contact [eg: after a lead] n. 1 any person who buys anything 2 a person employed by a firm to buy n. a deduction [usually expressed as a percentage (%)] v.English Vocabulary Selling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 after-sales service buyer client close cold call customer deal discount follow up guarantee in bulk lead objection overcome product prospect representative retail service wholesale ThaoThy’s n.also n.also v. a reduction in the price. to make a sale v. dealer n. prospective customer n. a promise that a product will be repaired or replaced etc if faulty . sales representative person who represents & sells for a firm. see service n. see product v. n. work done usually in return for payment . to telephone a prospect without previous contact . n. architect or other professionals v. a possible or probable customer. a person who buys services from a lawyer. a person who buys goods or services from a shop or business n.

I think I'll take the dog for a walk. so we all jumped into the lake. The skiers were warned about a possible avalanche. It's supposed to go below freezing before the weekend. Forest fires are a serious danger Page 76 of measurement for temperature raining slightly a long period with no rainfall . so we put off our camping trip. It's only drizzling now. They're calling for a cold spell. but the nights were cool and comfortable for sleeping. I don't feel the heat until it's about forty degrees Celsius outside. In the summer. so I think you should wear a coat. It's a bit chilly today. The days were boiling hot. There is always a breeze near the ocean. On a clear night you can see a lot of stars. It was boiling hot. the average temperature here is 20 degrees Celsius. but the sun always comes out by afternoon. The airplane couldn't take-off because of the blizzard.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s Weather Vocabulary Word Part of speech airconditioner/airconditioning noun avalanche noun below freezing preposition/adjective blizzard noun boiling hot adjective + noun breeze noun Celsius noun chilly adjective clear adjective cloud/cloudy noun/adjective cold spell adjective + noun cool adjective degrees noun drizzling continuous verb drought 2b collected 156 Meaning an appliance that cools down the air in a home or building a dangerous slide of snow down a mountain temperature less than 0 degrees Celsius/ (32F) a storm with lots of snow and wind common expression for describing a very hot day light wind measurement of temperature (0 degrees is freezing/100 is boiling) cold when the sky is blue because no clouds are blocking the sun water in the sky that appears as a white or grey mass a period of colder than average weather temperature in between warm and cold Example Sentence The airconditioner keeps the office nice and comfortable even when it's very hot outside. It may look cloudy in the morning. Don't bother with a hat.

I lost my hat while I was skiing. The roads are icy so please avoid driving down any hills.English Vocabulary noun Fahrenheit noun flood noun flurries noun fog/foggy noun/adjective forecast noun/verb freezing cold adjective + noun frost noun frostbite noun hail noun heat stroke noun heat-wave noun humid/humidity adjective/noun hurricane noun icy adjective lightning noun mild 2b collected 156 measurement of temperature (32 degrees is freezing/212 is boiling) overflow of rain water very light snowfall during a drought. Some flowers are so strong they can withstand frost. There was so much hail that some of the trailer homes were destroyed. Half of the buildings on the island were flattened by the hurricane. We couldn't see the bridge because there was too much fog. The outdoor pool always closes when the lifeguards suspect lightning. During the heat-wave we cooled our beds down with ice packs. Bring lots of water and wear a hat to avoid heat stroke in this weather. The flood was so bad. and I ended up with frostbite on my ears. ThaoThy’s It was 100 degrees Fahrenheit when we got to San Francisco. It feels a lot hotter than it actually is because of the humidity. There are a few flurries but the snow isn't sticking to the roads. our basement was full of water. According to the 5 day forecast. It was a freezing cold day for the Santa Claus parade. it's going to rain on our wedding day. It's quite mild out so I didn't Page 77 of thick water vapor that blocks one's vision the expected weather for the future common expression used to describe a very cold day ice crystals on a frozen surface a skin condition caused by over exposure to the cold (typically reddish skin with white spots) small pieces of ice that fall during a storm a flu-like condition one can acquire after spending too long in the sun extremely hot weather that is much higher than average--usually lasts a short time moisture in the air a tropical storm with very strong wind and rain slippery because of ice electric flash caused by two clouds hitting temperature that is warmer than .

I love catching raindrops on my tongue. You really notice the smog Page 78 of indicates that a temperature is below zero no sun is visible term often used in a weather forecast to indicate that the skies are sunny and cloudy at the same time rain or snow that falls on an area collection of rain water water that falls to earth a single measurement of rain a band of colours found in the sky after a rainfall raining heavily extremely hot temperature/a very hot day time of year characterized by certain weather Winter. They've been calling for showers all week. According to legend you can find a pot of gold at the end of a rainbow. Tomorrow's forecast is partly cloudy with clear skies by nightfall. but the sun is supposed to come out by late afternoon.Summer. All-weather-tires are best if you have to drive in sleet. The sky is overcast this morning. They cancelled the football game because it was raining cats and dogs. Children love to splash in puddles when they are wearing rubber boots. The meteorologist predicted that the cold spell would be over by now. My hair is all wet and messy from the rain.dark cloud cover caused by . but so far it's been dry. The snow turned to slush as soon as it started to rain.Fall (or Autumn) quick/light rainstorm rain that freezes as it falls snow on the ground that has been rained on heavy. It was a scorcher.Spring. because I love to watch the leaves changing colours. There is very little precipitation in the desert. so the whole family slept in the cool basement. My favorite season is Fall. It was minus twenty degrees at the top of the skil hill.English Vocabulary adjective meteorologist noun minus/negative adjective overcast adjective partly cloudy adverb + adjective precipitation noun puddle noun rain/raining/rainy noun/continuous verb/adjective raindrop noun rainbow noun raining cats and dogs idiom scorching/a scorcher adjective/noun season noun shower noun sleet(similar to hail) noun slush/slushy noun/adjective smog 2b collected 156 average(in a cold season) a person who studies weather patterns ThaoThy’s bother with a hat or mittens.

English Vocabulary noun snow/snowy/snowing noun/adjective/ continuous verb snowstorm noun sun/sunshine/sunny noun/noun/adjective sunburn noun sunglasses/shades noun suntan/tanned noun(also verb)/adjective(also verb) sunscreen/suntan lotion noun temperature noun thermometer noun pollution frozen water that warms slightly as it falls to earth large amounts of wind and snow the gassy star that warms the earth ThaoThy’s downtown in this type of humidity. We hope to have sunshine on the day of the beach picnic. It is already snowing up in the mountains. so the ski season should be great this year. I forgot my shades and I was driving right into the sun. It's minus two. All of the schools were closed because of the snowstorm. It looks like a thunderstorm is coming. but it has already faded away. I always keep an umbrella in my car in case of rain. the thermometer said it was already thirty degrees Celsius. The tornado picked up everything in its path. Don't forget to reapply your sunscreen when you get out of the lake. I got a suntan on the cruise. It's too windy to play golf today. Ultra violet rays can cause skin cancer if you don't wear sunscreen. The bald man got a sunburn on his head. Let's close all of the windows. but with the wind Page 79 of painful red/pink skin caused by being in the sun too long dark eyewear that protects you from the sun brown/golden skin caused by long periods of sun exposure cream that protects your skin from sun damage how warm or cold the air is instrument for measuring the temperature of the air thunder/thunderstorm noun tornado/cyclone noun umbrella noun UV (ultra violet) rays noun wind/windy noun/adjective wind chill factor 2b collected 156 the crashing of clouds (often followed by a strike of lightning and heavy rain) violently spinning windstorm held over one's head and body for rain protection the damaging rays from the sun blowing air outside when the wind makes the air feel colder . including animals and cars. Can you check the temperature before we get dressed for our walk? When I checked the temperature this morning.

English Vocabulary noun than the actual temperature ThaoThy’s chill factor it's minus fifteen. 2b collected 156 Page 80 of .

English Vocabulary Weight ThaoThy’s "Weight" tells us how heavy something is (or how much it weighs).8 kg 1.18 kg 2b collected 156 Page 81 of . Metric Weights The metric system is used in many countries of the world.454 kg 6. There are basically two systems in use in English-speaking countries.35 g 0.21 lb 0.016 kg 45.35 kg 50. Abbreviation 16 drams 16 ounces 14 pounds British 8 stones 20 hundredweight US 100 pounds 2000 pounds 1 ounce 1 pound 1 stone 1 hundredweight 1 ton 1 (short) hundredweight 1 (short) ton oz lb st cwt t cwt t Metric Equivalent 28.035 oz 2.36 kg 907. Abbreviation 1000 milligrams 1000 grams 1000 kilograms 1 gram 1 kilogram 1 tonne g kg t British Equivalent 0.98 tons British/US Weights The British and US systems are the same except where shown.

Antarctica. Oceania Curiously. Antarctica. America. Eurasia. Political Divisions "Political" divisions are made by man. earth. Antarctica. Oceania. Europe. Oceania. North America. South America 6 Continents: Africa. Asia. but we have no word for somebody who comes from 2b collected 156 Page 82 of . (The word continent comes from the Latin terra continens. even the experts cannot agree on how many continents there are: • • • • • 7 Continents: Africa. Oceania 5 Continents: Africa. The world essentially consists of three parts: • • • Air Water Land ThaoThy’s Geographical Divisions We can divide the land and water into the following major features: • • • • • Continents Islands Mountains Oceans and Seas Lakes and Rivers These features are called "geographical". North America. Antarctica. Oceania 4 Continents: Eurafrasia. Antarctica. we have a word for somebody who comes from Mars (a Martian).English Vocabulary The World The "world" is also called Earth. Mother Earth. Eurasia. meaning "continuous land". South America 6 Continents: Africa. the globe. They exist with or without man. America. the planet. Europe. Asia. Politically. They are not "man-made". we can divide the land into: • Countries On these pages we will look in more detail at: Continents Countries Countries & Nationality Continents A continent is one of the world's main continuous pieces of land. America.) Unfortunately.

English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s Antarctica. She drives a French car. She speaks French. She is French. This chart lists what is probably the most widely-accepted number of continents (7). Countries & Nationality This chart lists many of the countries or nations in the world. Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Argentina Armenia 2b collected 156 Adjective Afghan Albanian Algerian Andorran Angolan Argentinian Armenian Person an Afghan an Albanian an Algerian an Andorran an Angolan an Argentinian an Armenian Page 83 of . with the following information: • • • Name of country Adjective used for that country (also describes nationality) Noun used for a person from that country Look at these example sentences: She comes from France. not political. She is a Frenchwoman. Her nationality is French. and shows the associated adjective and the noun used for a person from each continent: Continent Africa Antarctica Asia Europe North America Oceania South America Adjective African Antarctic Asian European North American Oceanian South American Person an African an Asian a European a North American an Oceanian a South American "Continent" is a geographical term.

English Vocabulary Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Britain Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Burma (official name Myanmar) Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Islands Chad 2b collected 156 Australian Austrian Azerbaijani Bahamian Bahraini Bangladeshi Barbadian Belorussian or Byelorussian Belgian Belizian Beninese Bhutanese Bolivian Bosnian Botswanan Brazilian British Bruneian Bulgarian Burkinese Burmese Burundian Cambodian Cameroonian Canadian Cape Verdean Chadian an Australian an Austrian an Azerbaijani a Bahamian a Bahraini a Bangladeshi a Barbadian ThaoThy’s a Belorussian or a Byelorussian a Belgian a Belizian a Beninese a Bhutanese a Bolivian a Bosnian a Tswana a Brazilian a Briton a Bruneian a Bulgarian a Burkinese a Burmese a Burundian a Cambodian a Cameroonian a Canadian a Cape Verdean a Chadian Page 84 of .

an Englishwoman an Eritrean an Estonian an Ethiopian a Fijian a Finn a Frenchman. a Frenchwoman a Gabonese a Gambian a Georgian a German Page 85 of . the Georgia Germany 2b collected 156 Chilean Chinese Colombian Congolese Costa Rican Croat or Croatian Cuban Cypriot Czech Danish Djiboutian Dominican Dominican Ecuadorean Egyptian Salvadorean English Eritrean Estonian Ethiopian Fijian Finnish French Gabonese Gambian Georgian German a Chilean a Chinese a Colombian a Congolese a Costa Rican a Croat or a Croatian a Cuban a Cypriot a Czech a Dane a Djiboutian a Dominican a Dominican an Ecuadorean an Egyptian a Salvadorean ThaoThy’s an Englishman.English Vocabulary Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador England Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon Gambia.

South Korea Kuwait Laos Latvia 2b collected 156 Kuwaiti Laotian Latvian a Kuwaiti a Laotian a Latvian Ghanaian Greek Grenadian Guatemalan Guinean Guyanese Haitian Dutch Honduran Hungarian Icelandic Indian Indonesian Iranian Iraqi Irish Israeli Italian Jamaican Japanese Jordanian Kazakh Kenyan a Ghanaian a Greek a Grenadian a Guatemalan a Guinean a Guyanese a Haitian ThaoThy’s a Dutchman. a Dutchwoman a Honduran a Hungarian an Icelander an Indian an Indonesian an Iranian an Iraqi an Irishman. an Irishwoman an Israeli an Italian a Jamaican a Japanese a Jordanian a Kazakh a Kenyan Page 86 of .English Vocabulary Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guyana Haiti Holland (also Netherlands) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland. Republic of Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea see North Korea.

a Dutchwoman. the (see Holland) Lebanese Liberian Libyan Lithuanian Macedonian Malagasay or Madagascan Malawian Malaysian Maldivian Malian Maltese Mauritanian Mauritian Mexican Moldovan Monégasque or Monacan Mongolian Montenegrin Moroccan Mozambican Namibian Nepalese Dutch a Lebanese a Liberian a Libyan a Liechtensteiner a Lithuanian a Luxembourger a Macedonian ThaoThy’s a Malagasay or a Madagascan a Malawian a Malay a Maldivian a Malian a Maltese a Mauritanian a Mauritian a Mexican a Moldovan a Monégasque or a Monacan a Mongolian a Montenegrin a Moroccan a Mozambican a Namibian a Nepalese a Dutchman. or a Netherlander 2b collected 156 Page 87 of .English Vocabulary Lebanon Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar see Burma Namibia Nepal Netherlands.

the Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia 2b collected 156 Nicaraguan Nigerien Nigerian North Korean Norwegian Omani Pakistani Panamanian Papua New Guinean or Guinean Paraguayan Peruvian Philippine Polish Portuguese Qatari Romanian Russian Rwandan Saudi Arabian or Saudi Scottish Senegalese Serb or Serbian Seychellois Sierra Leonian Singaporean Slovak a New Zealander a Nicaraguan a Nigerien a Nigerian a North Korean a Norwegian an Omani a Pakistani a Panamanian ThaoThy’s a Papua New Guinean or a Guinean a Paraguayan a Peruvian a Filipino a Pole a Portuguese a Qatari a Romanian a Russian a Rwandan a Saudi Arabian or a Saudi a Scot a Senegalese a Serb or a Serbian a Seychellois a Sierra Leonian a Singaporean a Slovak Page 88 of .English Vocabulary New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria North Korea Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru the Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saudi Arabia Scotland Senegal Serbia Seychelles.

English Vocabulary Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Korea Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvali Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Kingdom (UK) 2b collected 156 Slovene or Slovenian Somali South African South Korean Spanish Sri Lankan Sudanese Surinamese Swazi Swedish Swiss Syrian Taiwanese Tajik or Tadjik Tanzanian Thai Togolese Trinidadian and Tobagan Tunisian Turkish Turkmen or Turkoman Tuvaluan Ugandan Ukrainian British ThaoThy’s a Slovene or a Slovenian a Solomon Islander a Somali a South African a South Korean a Spaniard a Sri Lankan a Sudanese a Surinamer or a Surinamese a Swazi a Swede a Swiss a Syrian a Taiwanese a Tajik or a Tadjik a Tanzanian a Thai a Togolese a Trinidadian and Tobagan a Tunisian a Turk a Turkmen or a Turkoman a Tuvaluan a Ugandan a Ukrainian a Briton Page 89 of .

Word part of speech adjoining rooms noun amenities noun attractions noun baggage noun 2b collected 156 Meaning two hotel rooms with a door in the centre local facilities such as stores and restaurants things for tourists to see and do bags and suitcases packed with personal belongings Example sentence If you want we can book your parents in an adjoining room. so we are close to all of the amenities. Read and listen to the lessons. Then take the quizzes to test your comprehension. Chances are. others will be tourists and visitors. We are located downtown. Do you know how to speak politely to a guest in English? Can you understand their requests and serve them accordingly? Whether your job is to take reservations or clean the hotel rooms. a Welshwoman a Western Samoan a Yemeni a Yugoslav a Zaïrean a Zambian a Zimbabwean English for Hotel Staff Working in the hotel industry you will come across many types of travellers. plenty of your guests will speak English. Some will be business guests. these pages can help you learn important words and expressions to use on the job in the hotel industry. Page 90 of . Many will speak a different language other than your own. If you need help with your baggage we have a cart you can use.English Vocabulary United States of America (USA) Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuata Vatican City Venezuela Vietnam Wales Western Samoa Yemen Yugoslavia Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe Uruguayan Uzbek Vanuatuan Venezuelan Vietnamese Welsh Western Samoan Yemeni Yugoslav Zaïrean Zambian Zimbabwean a citizen of the USA a Uruguayan an Uzbek a Vanuatuan a Venezuelan a Vietnamese ThaoThy’s a Welshman. The zoo is our city's most popular attraction for kids.

English Vocabulary Bed and Breakfast noun bellboy noun book verb booked adj brochures noun check-in verb check-out noun complimentary breakfast noun cot. Please return your parking pass when you check-out. You can check-in anytime after four o'clock. All of our rooms have complimentary soap. rollaway bed noun damage charge noun deposit noun double bed noun floor noun front desk. we have cots available. There is an ice machine by the elevator on all of the even numbered floors. a single bed on wheels that folds up money a guest owes for repairs to hotel property (when caused by violent or careless acts) amount paid ahead of time to secure a reservation a bed large enough for two people a level of the building the place where guests go to check in and Towels are available at the front desk. If you need an extra bed. and coffee. You will not receive your deposit back if you cancel. reception noun guest noun hostel noun hotel manager noun housekeeping. I'll let you make your complaint to the hotel manager. The bellboy will take your bags to your room for you. In the hostel you probably won't get your own room. shampoo. They are a family of four. no vacancies small booklets that provide information on the local sites and attractions go to the front desk to receive keys return the keys and pay for the bill free of charge ThaoThy’s I can book you into a beautiful Bed and Breakfast on the lake. Put a sign on the door if you want housekeeping to come in and change the sheets on the bed. Page 91 of . Feel free to take some brochures to your room to look at. I'm afraid the hotel is booked tonight. so give them a room with two double beds. We will have to add a damage charge for the hole you put in the wall. out and to get information a person that is staying at the hotel a very inexpensive place for backbackers and travelers on a budget person in charge at the hotel staff members that clean the rooms and linen a machine that automatically makes ice that guests can use to keep drinks cold Our washrooms are for guests only. The swimming pool is on the main floor. maid noun ice machine noun 2b collected 156 a home that offers a place to stay and a place to eat a staff member who helps guests with their luggage arrange to stay in a hotel full. I can book your family in for the weekend of the seventh.

the charge will appear on your bill. Display this parking pass in your window to show that you are a hotel guest. You will be charged a ten dollar late charge for checking out after 11 am. A room with a king size bed costs an extra ten dollars a night. whirl pool noun king-size bed noun kitchenette noun late charge noun linen noun lobby noun luggage cart noun maximum capacity noun motels noun noisy adj parking pass noun pay-per-view movie noun pillow case noun queen size bed noun rate noun reservation noun room service noun sauna 2b collected 156 place for guests to swim inside the hotel another word for "hotel" a small hot pool for relaxation ThaoThy’s The heated indoor pool is open until 10 pm.English Vocabulary indoor pool noun inn noun Jacuzzi. filled with steam . We will come in and change the linens while you are out of your room. They have a queen size bed so the small child can eaily fit in the middle. Please return the luggage cart to the lobby when you are finshed with it. You can stand in the lobby and wait for your bus. Our motel is very clean and is close to the beach. We don't recommend bringing young Page 92 of extra large bed a small fridge and cooking area a fee for staying past the check-out time sheets. If you would like a bottle of wine. blankets. hot tub. Our honeymoon room has a personal hot tub. They say they made a reservation but it doesn't show on the computer. If you order a pay-per-view movie. pillow cases large open area at the front of the hotel a device on wheels that guests can push their luggage on the most amount of people allowed accommodations that are slightly cheaper than hotels loud a piece of paper that guests display in the car window while in the hotel parking lot extra charge for movies and special television features the covering that goes over a pillow bed with plenty of space for two people (bigger than a double) cost of renting a room for a certain time period a request to save a specific room for a future date delivery of food or other services requested by guests a hot room for relaxation. Room 201 doesn't need their sheets changed. Our rates change depending on the season. The guests next to you have complained that you are being too noisy. but they requested one new pillow case. Your room has a kitchenette so you can prepare your own breakfasts and lunches. just call room service. There's an inn on the other side of town that has a vacancy. The maximum capacity in the hot tub is ten people.

How can I help you? What date are you looking for? How long will you be staying? How many adults will be in the room? I'm afraid we are booked that weekend. Will two double beds be enough? Do you want a smoking or non-smoking room? The dining room is open from 4 pm until 10 pm. What time would you like your wake up call? Our weight room has a stair climber and a stationary bicycle. There are only a few vacancies left. and it is for a single room. pull-out couch noun towels noun vacancy noun vacant adj valet noun vending machine noun view noun wake up call noun weight room.English Vocabulary noun single bed noun sofa bed. We serve a continental breakfast. The rate I can give you is 99. acts as an alarm clock a room that guests can use for exercise and fitness If you leave your car keys with us. Page 93 of 2b collected 156 . You can get your swimming pool towels at the front desk. We only have one vacancy left. Take Exit 8 off the highway and you'll see us a few kilometers up on the left hand side. used to cover and dry the body after swimming or bathing available rooms staff that parks the guests' vehicles a machine that distributes snacks and beverages when you insert coins a window that offers a nice image for guests a morning phone call from the front desk. the valet will park your car underground. gym noun a bed for one person a bed built into a sofa or couch children into the sauna. The vending machine on the fifth floor has chocolate bars and chips. The room contains a sofa bed so the room actually sleeps five. We have an indoor swimming pool and sauna. but the movie channel is extra. Lise speaking. workout room. The room is more expensive because it has a spectacular view of the beach. Taking a Reservation Front Desk Receptionist • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Enterprise Hotels.54 with tax. We require a credit card number for a deposit. We advise that you book in advance during peak season. Cable television is included. ThaoThy’s The economy priced room includes one single bed.

but I'm not positive if she is coming. I have to find my husband's credit card..season? ThaoThy’s Sample Conversation Receptionist: Thanks for calling Quality Inn.. Can we pay when we arrive? Receptionist: Yes. Caller: Okay. from pilots and flight crew to caterers and grounds crew. Caller: That's reasonable. Receptionist: Okay. The airline industry employs many different people. all of our rooms have two double beds. You can cancel up to five days in advance and we will refund your deposit. I'll call you right back. The cot is free. Do you have any rooms with two double beds? We're a family of four.English Vocabulary Guest • • • • • • • • • • • I'd like to make a reservation for next week. Receptionist: I'm afraid we're totally booked for that weekend. It's still considered peak season then.our outdoor pool will be closed. And do you have cots? One of my daughters might be bringing a friend. Caller: Oh. English is the most common second language that crew members need to learn. Well what about the weekend after that? Receptionist: So. The rate for that weekend is $129 dollars a night. Caller: Okay. Friday the seventeenth? Caller: Yes. Morine speaking. Caller: Hello. Receptionist: We do. I'm interested in booking a room for the September long weekend. and just to let you know. Receptionist: Yes... There's a convention in town and we're the closest hotel to the convention centre. I didn't realize. Whether your job is to book passengers on their flights. Most airline companies require that the flight crew be fluent in at least two languages. Receptionist: It looks like we have a few vacancies left. or fly the airplane itself. these pages can help you learn important words and 2b collected 156 Page 94 of . Oh. Is it necessary to book ahead? Do you charge extra for two beds? How much is it for a cot? Do you offer free breakfast? Is there a restaurant in the hotel? Do the rooms have refrigerators? Do you do group bookings? Is there an outdoor pool? Do you have any cheaper rooms? When is it considered off. We recommend that you make a reservation. Many of these jobs require communication in English. but we also charge an extra ten dollars per person for any family with over four people. Friday and Saturday. English for Airline Staff Getting airline passengers safely and happily from one destination to another requires teamwork. Caller: Great. but our indoor pool is open. but we do require a fifty dollar credit card deposit to hold the room. whether it be among co-workers or with passengers. though. assist passengers with luggage.

I'm afraid your baggage got on the wrong airplane. up and down movement of the aircraft interior of the aircraft a button passengers can press to get a crew member's attention the person who is in charge of the plane discount airline the part of the plane where the captain and his co-pilots sit feel good physically. Read through the vocabulary. There is no smoking allowed inside the cabin. Airline Vocabulary Word part of speech airfare noun aisle noun aisle seat noun assist verb baggage noun baggage. but you have to pay for alcohol. part of the ticket that you give to the Your must present your boarding pass crew as you step onto the plane at the gate. Because you have long legs you might be more comfortable in an aisle seat. just press the call light. The announcement will direct you to the correct baggage claim. Page 95 of . We offer complimentary coffee or tea. I'll give you an aisle seat in case you need to walk around with the baby. If the captain gets sick the co-pilot can take over. If you feel cold I can get you a blanket. and take the quizzes to test your comprehension. able to relax free of charge person who helps the captain fly the plane It might be a bumpy ride because we are flying through a storm. Would the kids like to go and meet the captain? If you take a charter it will cost you half as much. listen to the spoken English. Please wait until everyone is off the plane so that we can assist you. We aren't doing any more tours of the cockpit because it's almost time to land.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s expressions to use on the job in the airline industry. rough adj cabin noun call light noun captain noun charter noun cockpit noun comfortable adjective complimentary adjective co-pilot noun 2b collected 156 Meaning cost of a plane ticket the long empty space that you walk down the seat that is next to the aisle help the bags and suitcases that travellers put their belongings in place where you pick up your baggage after arrival warm covering Example sentence The cost of your meal is covered in your airfare. luggage claim noun blanket noun boarding pass noun bumpy. Please keep your bags out of the aisle so that nobody trips. If you need anything.

The flight is overbooked. earphones noun international adj jet lag noun land verb life vest. We will be coming around to sell headsets for five dollars. You'll have to put your bag under your seat because all of the overhead bins are full. For international departures. a device that goes over a person's face. Infant car seats and sporting equipment can be picked up at the over-sized baggage counter. with better When you sit in first-class you get a services better meal to eat. My body doesn't suffer from jet lag anymore. The pilot is circling over the airport until it is safe to land. go up one level. Put your oxygen mask on first before putting one on your child. more expensive seating. I'm used to travelling now. Please take a moment to locate the life vest under your seat. You can either pay for your excess baggage or leave one of your bags behind. life jacket noun motion sickness noun overbooked adj overhead bin/compartment noun over-sized baggage adj oxygen mask noun passport noun pilot noun within the same country section of the plane that opens in the case of an accident airfare purchased on the internet heavier/more bags than you are allowed ThaoThy’s You should be at the airport two hours ahead of time for domestic flights.English Vocabulary domestic adjective emergency exit noun e-ticket noun excess baggage noun first-class noun/adj gate noun headset. Four of our passengers will have to wait for the next flight. provides air in case of cabin air pressure loss document that proves a person's identification and nationality the person who drives the plane 2b collected 156 Page 96 of . Please have your passport out when you go through security. There is a paper bag in front of you in case you experience motion sickness. Are you comfortable sitting next to the emergency exit? You will need to present your identification along with your e-ticket. We will be landing in Tokyo in approximately ten minutes. place where passengers go to wait to board a plane device that allows passengers to listen to music or a movie worldwide tiredness due to travelling through different time zones returning to the ground after being in the air a blow-up device that you put on in an emergency over water a bad feeling in the stomach that passengers get during a rough ride more passengers than available seats place above the seats for storing luggage items that do not fit in suitcases Gate 3B is down this hall and to your right.

Please remain in your seats while the seatbelt light is on. a seat for pushing elderly. • How many bags are you checking? • Will you be bringing a carry-on bag? • I'm afraid that bag exceeds the size restrictions. air host noun stopover noun take off noun/verb taxi in.English Vocabulary refreshments noun row noun runway noun seatbelt noun steward (male). 2b collected 156 drinks and snacks a number of seats beside each other the strip of land that an airplane takes-off and lands on device that holds passengers in their seats man or woman who provides service for passengers during a flight touching down at more than one airport during a flight when the plane leaves the ground driving an airplane to the correct place for taking off or deboarding when the aircraft wheels land on the ground rough flight ThaoThy’s It's a short flight. We are next in line to take off on this runway. That was a very smooth touch down. It's not a direct flight. You are in seat B of row nine. stewardess (female). so we will be serving refreshments but not a meal. We're making one stopover in Toronto. This turbulence should only last a few minutes. flight attendant. Please remain in your seats until we taxi in to the gate. A steward will take you to the gate with a or injured people wheelchair. • Did you pack your bags yourself? • Would you like an aisle or a window seat? • Would you like a wheelchair? • You'll board at Gate 7. • Did you need any tags for your luggage? • Your flight is expected to take off on time. noun turbulence noun wheelchair noun window seat noun Checking In Passengers Check-in Assistant • Can I see your ticket. The plane almost missed the runway because it was such a bad storm. out verb touch down verb. • Do you have a second piece of identification? • I'll need to see your child's birth certificate. Ask one of the stewardesses for a pillow if you're tired. please? • Do you have your passport with you? • I'm afraid your passport has expired. disabled. seat next to the window where passengers can look out If your child wants a window seat I can move you back a row. Page 97 of . • Please be at the gate thirty minutes before your scheduled flight.

Great. Your flight is overbooked. Frank Bates. Are you flying to St. Did you pack these bags yourself? Yes. I'll take my knapsack as my carry-on. Uh. Great. It's Bates. Thanks. Okay. would we be able to get an aisle seat? I may have to walk her around if she gets fussy.English Vocabulary • • • • • Your flight has been delayed by one hour. Flight 87B to Toronto has been canceled. I'll need to see your passport as well. Would you be interested in giving up your seat? Enjoy your flight. Yes. Can I take my stroller to the gate? Yes. Oh OK. Sure. Can you check to confirm? Can I take my child through security? Is the flight on time? Will they be serving a meal today? Will they be showing an inflight movie? Where can I get a luggage cart? Can I use my laptop on board? Sample Conversation Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in Assistant: Passenger: Check-in 2b collected 156 Hello. Are you just checking these two bags today? Yes. my daughter Mia. I'll need to see your daughter's birth certificate to prove that she is under two years of age.. we'll check it in the over-sized luggage after you board.. Here is your boarding pass. She's 14 months. Here we are. Here you are. I have an this the part you need? Actually I just need your name and I can find you on the computer. You will be Page 98 of . Oh. you're traveling with an infant today. Say. Okay. Martin today? Yes. I'm afraid you're too late to check-in. ThaoThy’s Passenger • • • • • • • • • I'm not sure which of these papers is my ticket. Be at the gate one hour prior to boarding time. I'll put you near the washroom too. Is it possible to get an aisle seat? I requested a vegetarian meal. I have my ticket here.

English Vocabulary Assistant: ThaoThy’s able to preboard because you are traveling with an infant. or waiter/waitress working in a tourist spot? Maybe you're a student who wants to work part-time in a restaurant while you go to school abroad. you will come across many English customers and staff members in the food and beverage industry. Vocabulary part of speech à la carte adjective à la mode adjective alcohol. These pages are designed to help people who are employed. including in the kitchen. or behind the bar. You will learn helpful English vocabulary and expressions that will allow your guests to enjoy their dining experience and help you to communicate with your fellow staff members. liquor noun all you can eat adjective appetizer noun appetizing adjective apron noun awful (taste) adjective bar noun barbeque noun/verb Meaning without a side dish with ice cream a distilled liquid such as rum or whiskey customers pay one fee and can eat as much as they wish small snack before a meal looks pleasing to eat a cloth covering worn over the clothes while cooking very bad taste place in an establishment where people go to get a drink (especially alcoholic drinks) southern style of cooking over a grill Example sentence Is it possible to get the steak à la carte? I don't eat potatoes. or looking for work in many different areas of the hospitality industry. Whatever the case may be. The customer said that her pasta was awful. Vocabulary Note: Many English words and expressions about food come directly from French. Remove your apron before you come out to the dining room. 2b collected 156 Page 99 of . If you sit up at the bar you don't have to order any food. Our flight crew will have some special instructions for take-off and landing. Do the exercises and take the quizzes to test your knowledge and understanding. These are all you can eat fries. This is why some words about food are written with an accent (for example: à la carte). However. English for Food and Drink Staff Are you a chef. so let me know if you want more. you may also see such words written without accent. bartender. Would you like your apple pie à la mode? This beer has 5% alcohol. Studying and practicing Food and Beverage English and gaining a better understanding of the industry may even help you find a job. Would you like some garlic bread or another appetizer to start? I'm afraid these pancakes don't look very appetizing. on the floor. The barbeque wings are our specialty.

cheque. The toast is burnt around the edges.English Vocabulary barstool noun bartender noun beverage noun bill. or do you take your coffee black? style of cooking that involves placing food in a We usually boil the potatoes first so that deep pot of extremely hot water they will cook faster. I'll bring you a bread basket to hold the kids down until dinner. You've been into the booze already. pours. Can I bring you some beverages while you look at the menus? Table 3 would like you to bring them their cheque. We don't have a cashier. mark a day that you cannot work a plastic unit that fits on top of a chair to help small children reach the table type of seating in which people sit side by side on a cushioned area alcohol a device used for opening beer bottles that don't twist off slices of bread and butter served before and with a meal rolled and cooked in bread crumbs self-serve tables of food that are set out for the customer to pick and choose from overcooked to the point of turning black rubber tub used for collecting dirty dishes a person who helps out in a restaurant (especially clearing and setting tables) paper money payment counting and submitting the payment of all of the customers bills at the end of one's shift staff member responsible for collecting customer's money at the front of an establishment I need to book off the first week of May. you have to pay your server. haven't you? All of the servers keep bottle openers on their keychains. The plates and everything you need are up at the buffet. The shrimp is breaded in our homemade batter. Ask the busboy to help you bring out all of the food. Will your child be needing a booster seat today? We'd prefer a booth if you have one available. busser noun cash noun cash out verb cashier noun 2b collected 156 tall seats that customers use at the bar staff member that mixes. check noun black coffee adjective + noun boil verb book off verb booster seat noun booth/bench noun booze noun(idiom) bottle opener noun bread basket noun breaded adjective buffet noun burnt adjective buspan noun busboy. I don't have any cash. I do part-time work as a bartender in a local pub. Page 100 of . Do you accept Visa? Don't forget to include any coupons from tonight when you cash out later. and serves alcoholic beverages drink the slip of paper that tells the customer how much to pay coffee without any milk ThaoThy’s The guest fell off his barstool before he even ordered a drink. The buspan is stacked so high it's too heavy for me to carry. Should I bring some cream.

Our head chef is one of the best cooks in town. and chicken fingers. guest noun 2b collected 156 to add a fee make sure the guests are satisfied ThaoThy’s I will have to charge you an extra dollar to add ice cream. staff member who is professionally trained to prepare food remove finished or unused items from a table an alcoholic drink with juice machine that dispenses coffee into a glass container for pouring an offering of coffee and refills around a section of a restaurant mixture a piece of paper that customers are given to record their dining experience a problem with service or food types of sauces that are added for flavouring (i. flat area often used for placing dishes on or preparing food a slip of paper that offers the customers a discounted rate free of charge small plastic container of cream for coffee a plastic card that allows people to pay for something later person who goes to an establishment to be served You will need to learn how to work a corkscrew before you start bartending. Page 101 of .English Vocabulary charge verb check on verb chef noun clear verb cocktail noun coffee maker noun coffee round noun combo. Your coupon is only valid for food. All of the condiments you should need are on the table. combination noun comment card noun complaint noun condiments noun cook verb/noun corkscrew noun counter noun coupon noun complimentary adjective creamer noun credit card noun customer. Would anyone care for a cocktail on this warm sunny day? You need to teach the new waitress how to operate the coffee maker. The combo platter has veggies. I left one of the salads on the kitchen counter by mistake. It is our policy that the customer is always right. The guest brought his complaint to the manager. mustard) prepare and heat food until it is ready to serve The guest says that this chicken isn't cooked enough. The desserts are complimentary because the dinner took so long.e. When she asked for a comment card I knew she was going to complain about the food. You should always check on your guests about two minutes after you serve the meal. Will you need more than two creamers for your coffee? You forgot to sign your credit card slip. You need to clear this table and set it for four. not for alcoholic drinks. tool for removing the cork from the top of a wine bottle. Let's ask the busboy to do a coffee round while we take a smoke break. ribs.

Can we pay by debit here.English Vocabulary customer service noun cutlery. I'll just clear these dirty dishes and make some room for you. please. Can you bring the dishwasher these pans to clean? I can't finish my steak. We got a discount because we are regular customers. We have a selection of local beers on draft. silverware. utensils noun cut off verb debit noun deep fried adjective defrost. Don't forget to defrost some pies for tomorrow. spoon) ThaoThy’s Our restaurant got the award for having the best customer service this year. thaw verb delicious adjective delivery noun designated driver adjective + noun dessert noun dessert tray noun dirty dishes adjective + noun discount noun dishpit noun dishwasher noun doggie bag noun double noun draft noun dressing noun 2b collected 156 treatment of guests tools for eating with (fork. or do you only take credit cards? Most of the appetizers on our menu are deep fried. the staff member/machine that washes the dirty dishes unfinished food that is packed up for the customer to take home two shots of alchohol in one drink beer from a keg that pours out of a tap liquid topping for salads . knife. I cut off the man with the beard because he'd had too much to drink. Do you have delivery or do we have to come in to eat? Is there a designated driver in your party or are you taking a taxi? I think we're too full to have dessert tonight. The cookies were so delicious they were gone in half an hour. I'll bring the dessert tray around and see if I can tempt any of you with a slice of cake or pie. In a fine dining restaurant the staff has to polish the silverware. Would you like Italian or French dressing? Page 102 of stop serving a customer any more alcohol use bank card to pay directly from bank account cooked in a large pot of oil remove frozen food from the freezer to prepare very good taste food brought to the home person in a party who agrees not to consume alcohol in order to drive everyone home safely sweet treat after a meal a plate of all of the desserts that customers can view and order from plates that customers are finished with at a cheaper cost area in the restaurant where the dirty dishes are placed. Make that a double in a tall glass. Jody is not going to want to go into the dishpit today. but I'll take a doggie bag.

cook over an element in oil food that is added to a plate for appearance or colour(i. We're expecting a rush because it's almost happy hour. you can wear a hairnet. Make sure the glassware doesn't have any spots before you put it away. Don't forget to garnish all of the entrees that go out. The healthiest way to prepare meat is on a grill. If you don't want to wear a hat. The party is for ten plus a highchair. hostess noun 2b collected 156 an eatery that offers quick inexpensive food a very expensive eating establishment small amount of cash used to make change at the beginning of a server or bartender's shift beverages that can be filled again without any Have all of the soda you want. We serve the best homemade soup in town. it's free cost refills here. Page 103 of .English Vocabulary dry adjective no sauce ThaoThy’s I'll have dry toast with two eggs. I'll take a hamburger. noun before dessert) fast-food noun fine dining noun float noun free refills adjective + noun fry verb garnish noun/verb glassware noun gloves (plastic) noun gratuity/tip noun greet verb grill noun/verb hairnet noun happy hour noun highball noun highchair noun hold verb homemade adjective host. Whenever you are handling food make sure you are wearing gloves. Your priority as a hostess is to greet the guests at the door with a smile. main course the largest part of a meal (after appetizer. The entrées are after the lunch specials on page 6 of the menu. entrée. I need a roll of quarters for my float. Please wait and the hostess will seat you.e. This is a fast-food restaurant. Our highballs are on for half price today. The waiters wear bowties because it's a fine dining restaurant. We don't provide table service. parsley or fruit) group of drinking glasses covering for the hands to prevent the spread of germs extra money given as a thank you for service say hello and welcome customers to the establishment cooking over iron slats that allow for oil and fat to drop down a covering worn on the head while preparing food short amount of time when alcoholic drinks are on sale alcohol served with soda a tall chair with a plastic tray designed for a baby leave off/without made from a recipe staff member in charge of greeting and seating customers in a restaurant Don't fry the vegetables too long or they will go soggy. hold the bun. When we have a large party we're allowed to add a 15% gratuity to the bill.

For the nachos. Is this the lineup to pay or get seated? Can I offer you a coffee liqueur to go with your dessert? We can make change if all you have is large notes.e. Do you have a children's menu we could see? We can heat your dinner in the microwave if you like. I'll take a whiskey on the rocks. lime wedge noun lineup noun/verb liqueur noun make change verb + noun manager noun/adjective melt verb menu noun microwave noun mild adjective nightclub noun non alcoholic beverage adjective + noun notepad noun on the rocks preposition + noun on the side preposition + noun order verb/noun over charge verb pack up 2b collected 156 all of the different foods that are combined in a recipe pot for boiling water for tea the last chance for a person to get an alcoholic drink before the establishment closes a small segment of lemon or lime put on the rim of a glass a number of people waiting for something alcohol that has a syrupy/sweet taste give customers money back from a payment person in charge of a section of a restaurant warm to soften (i. melt two tablespoons of butter in the microwave. If you work at the nightclub you will have to stay until 2 AM. I'd like a half dozen mild chicken wings. I'd like to speak to the floor manager about the service. Can I order a non alcoholic beer? Just let me grab my notepad and I'll take your order. First. can we have the sour cream on the side? Is everyone ready to order lunch now? I think you over charged us for our drinks. I'd like a lemon wedge for my ice water please. I'll put the kettle on and make some fresh tea. put in a take-out container for the customer to Would you like me to pack up the rest of Page 104 of . cheese/butter) a booklet of all of the food that can be ordered a small appliance that heats and cooks food quickly not spicy establishment where adults go to dance and drink alcoholic beverages a drink that resembles a certain drink without the alchohol paper that a server uses to write down orders on ice request for a food item to NOT be put on top of another food item make a request to a server give a customer a bill that is too high (by mistake) ThaoThy’s I'll check the ingredients to make sure there aren't any nuts. we only had one each. We'll have two more screwdrivers for last call.English Vocabulary ingredients noun kettle noun last call noun lemon.

beer. You'll get a paycheque every other Monday. We closed the patio because it looks like it's going to rain. Can I pour you folks another glass of water? The servers have to prepare the salads themselves. We always have a rush after church on Sundays. I'm going to punch in a large order now. The restrooms are to your left and down the stairs. I don't want staff members hanging around the punch clock. Before we punch out we have to prepare enough roll-ups for the night shift. The chicken fingers are already portioned in the freezer. Page 105 of punch something in enter an order into a computer system verb rare adjective recipe noun regulars noun reservation noun restrooms noun roll-up noun rush noun rush noun/verb 2b collected 156 cooked meat that is pink inside list of ingredients and instructions for preparing a certain type of food people who come into an establishment often a request to have a table saved for a certain amount of people place for people to use a toilet and wash hands a set of cutlery wrapped in a napkin a large amount of customers arriving at the same time prepare quickly for a certain reason . I forgot to punch it in. You can give the regulars a complimentary drink from time to time. Can you put a rush on this spaghetti. jug noun portion noun/verb pour verb prepare verb pub noun punch clock and punch card noun punch in. put a card in the punch clock to mark the time You can punch out as soon as you finish you start and end a shift sweeping the floors.English Vocabulary verb party noun patio noun paycheque noun pitcher. We don't take any reservations. or other beverages out of a separate amount of food dispense liquid from a container get food ready establishment that specializes in casual food and alcoholic beverages a machine that staff members place a card into when they begin and finish a work shift that pizza? ThaoThy’s A party of twelve just walked in without a reservation. Our chef is so talented that he almost never bothers with a recipe. We'll take a pitcher of beer with four glasses. I can wear whatever I want when I work at the pub. so get ready. it's first come first served here. out verb bring home group of people at or waiting for a table outdoor seeating money given to the staff every week or two a container with a spout to pour water. This steak is too rare for me to eat.

We have a buffet on. butterscotch or chocolate? If you want to book off a day. so it's self-serve for lunch. We have a senior's discount of 25% off on Mondays. let me know before I make the schedule.e. Is there a shooter that has orange juice in it? The two side dishes are mashed potatoes or french fries. bring items to a customer get a table ready with items such as cutlery and glassware place outside that is not in the sun one ounce of alcohol served in a small glass (shot glass) an ounce of alcohol and juice combined choice of food that goes with a main meal acid or fermented taste staff member who works under and assists the main chef ThaoThy’s What kind of sauce would you like on your ice cream. Our sous chef is leaving to become the head chef at another restaurant. Any item with three chilies beside it means that the dish is very spicy.English Vocabulary sauce noun schedule noun/verb seasoning noun self-serve adjective senior's discount noun separate cheques adjective + noun/verb +noun serve verb set verb shade noun shot noun shooter noun side dish noun sour adjective sous chef noun specials noun specialty noun spicy adjective stay verb stir. Can I please get a straw for my ice tea? Page 106 of . Let's do a shot to get this party started. Is there someone in charge of serving out on the patio? I need you to clear and set table five for a party of eight. He wants the chicken plain without any seasoning. We asked for separate cheques but it all came on one bill. We'd like to sit on the patio if there is any shade. I think the milk has gone sour from sitting out of the fridge too long. over 65) a different bill for each member/group sitting at a table look after a customer. Stir the soup for a few minutes before you serve it. items that were prepared particularly for a Would you like to hear the specials before certain day and are usually at a reduced price you decide on lunch. Are these coffees to go or to stay. mix verb straw 2b collected 156 liquid flavouring added to food a notice of the time and date each staff member has to work in a certain period of time dry flavouring added to food the customers bring their own food items to the table and do not pay for service a reduced price for people over a certain age (i. food item that a restaurant is popular for hot flavour to eat in the restaurant spin round and round with a spoon long hollow plastic stick for drinking out of Homemade fish and chips is our specialty.

We have a twenty minute waiting list tonight. There is another winery up the hill that you might enjoy stopping at. You can either eat in or order food to takeout. When I got promoted from a hostess to a waitress I started making tips. or bottle a place where wine is made. You will notice that we have a lot of local wine on our wine list.English Vocabulary noun straight up adjective substitute verb supervisor noun sweet adjective take-out adjective/verb two-minute check noun terminal noun till noun to go verb toppings noun uniform noun waiter. What type of toppings would you like to have on your pizza? The uniform here is black pants and a white shirt. you'll love our chocolate cheesecake. If you like sweet things. If you are intersted in trying some wines you should go on a wine tasting tour.done adjective wine list noun winery noun wine tasting adjective alcoholic drink without any mix or ice replace one item for another staff member in charge of watching over things and dealing with problems taste with a lot of sugar food that is packed up and eaten at home a visit to a table approximately two minutes after the food has been served to check for satisfaction computer system for punching in food orders drawer of a cash register that money is kept in to take out of the restaurant food items that go on top of other food items to add flavour clothing that staff members have to wear staff member in charge of taking orders and serving food and beverages list of groups who want a table to eat at heat food to an enjoyable temperature for eating cooked for longer than average a menu of all of the wine you can order from the glass. Can I substitute the carrots for corn? When I'm not here George will be your supervisor. Don't forget to do your two-minute check to make sure the steak is cooked properly. and sold sampling different types of wine ThaoThy’s He always has a straight up glass of rum after his meal. There's one terminal in the kitchen and one on the bar. You need a key to open the till and make change. tasted. Understanding the Menu 2b collected 156 Page 107 of . Would you mind warming up the baby's bottle for me? The meat was so well-done it had no flavour. litre. We're just going to order a pizza to go. waitress noun waiting list noun warm up verb well.

A guest might call a drink a beverage or a refreshment. Hot Wings. Description 2b collected 156 Meaning Example item Page 108 of . Nachos. Pasta. Cheeseburger. From the Deli. Fresh from the Sea South of the Border. Chicken Stirfry. especially North America.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s If you are going to be working in a restaurant. bartenders. Grilled Veggies Fish and Chips. Pepperoni Pizza. Tex-Mex Signature items. Soup of the Day Grilled Chicken Sandwich. Main Dish. Hearty Stew French Fries. You may need to help a guest find the entrees. such as appetizers or dessert. if an item says it is smothered in mozzerella cheese it can't just have a sprinkling of cheddar. Menu Section Also Known As Appetizers Salads (and Soups) Sandwiches Italian Main Course Sides Seafood Mexican Specialties Desserts Beverages Wine and Beer Kids Menu Appies. Chicken Fingers Descriptive Words and Expressions on a Menu Menus often contain special language to make items sound delicious. Starters Garden Fresh. Hosts. Snacks. Cheese Plate. These words and expressions can also convince the guests to order more food. Lighter Favourites. Milk Coolers. Enchilladas BBQ Ribs. Veggie (Garden) Burger. Specialty Drinks. Refreshments Example Items Garlic Bread. Fettucini New York Steak. 5 Stars Sweets. Juice. Jug of Beer. or desserts. Treats. Dinners. Peach Cider the Bar Juniors. Favorites. Little Tikes. Wraps Noodles. On the Side. Light Fare. Rice. having higher sales means earning better tips. Most menus are divided into sections. Lunch Menu. Different menus use different words to mean the same thing. Combo Platters. After all. Nachos Tossed Salad. Banana Split Soda Pop. In many English speaking countries. Fish. Spirits. Pizza Entrée. For the Sweet Tooth Drinks. From House Wine. Caesar Salad. Draft. Steak Sandwich Spaghetti. Low Calorie Choices. Greens. Kids Stuff. Low-fat Selections Burgers. It isn't just the server who should know the menu. Finger Food. Pleasers. Battered Shrimp. Smoked Salmon Fajitas. and bussers may also get asked questions about the menu from the guests. Cooks have to know the menu inside-out as well. Main Event Accompaniments. They also use certain words to make food sound more delicious. It is useful for servers to learn these expressions in order to sound more knowledgable and achieve better sales. Liquor. Side Dishes Catch of the day. Chicken Cordon Bleu Apple Pie. Learn the different terms that are used so that you can understand and serve your guests promptly and accurately. From the Grill. it is important that you understand the menu. For the Munchkins Spaghetti and Meatballs. Mocha Cheesecake. Non-alcoholic beverages.

All sandwiches are served with a generous portion of fresh cut fries. Try our chef's homemade chili with fresh baked bread. Our dinners are garnished with fresh parsley and seasonal fruit. A steaming bowl of chunky vegetable soup Breast of chicken coated in teriyaki sauce Caesar salad with fresh lettuce and crispy croutons Apple pie and vanilla ice cream drizzled with butterscotch A generous portion of spaghetti and garlic tomato sauce. loaded with home style. homemade. Coffee and tea is bottomless. heaping. or other mixture and cooked left in fridge to soak up sauce/juice/flavoring variety. Guests can have more without paying. Our steaks are marinated in a rich peppercorn sauce. finished with homemade meatballs All omelettes are made with three fresh egg whites. Roasted chicken seasoned with fresh basil and oregano fresh garnished with generous portion. eggs. A vegetable medley tossed in olive oil and served over rice Finish your meal off with one of our mouth watering desserts. many large pieces of meat or vegetables covered in a sauce (often before cooking) makes a crunchy sound when you chew a small amount of liquid poured over top final step of the food preparation ThaoThy’s All burger selections are available with whole wheat buns.English Vocabulary available with bottomless (free refills) chunky coated in. made from scratch juicy lightly breaded. Garden salad with juicy tomatoes. mixture appearance causes mouth to salivate on top of a layer of produce varies at different times during the year herbs and spices added 2b collected 156 Page 109 of . battered marinated in medley mouth watering on a bed of seasonal seasoned with just off the farm/ out of the garden/ decorated with a large amount of from a recipe (not a package) with liquid remaining for taste rolled in bread crumbs. and onions Our fish is lightly battered in beer. A ginger chicken stir fry served on a bed of rice Ask your server about our seasonal fruit pies. cucumbers. glazed crispy drizzled with finished with Guests can have this food served a different way.

Glassware brandy snifter half litre/litre highball glass a glass container for serving house wine a tall straight glass martini glass mug pint glass pitcher/jug rock glass/tumbler shot glass sleeve a cup or glass with a handle used for hot beverages 20 oz glass for draft Approximately 60 oz container for draft or water short glass for mixed drinks 1 oz glass for shots and shooters 12 oz glass for draft wine glass 2b collected 156 Page 110 of . and chatting with guests. mixing and serving drinks. such as learning special recipes. you are sure to come across English patrons who want a cold drink. No matter which country you are working in. 9j. 6f. 2e. 5h.English Vocabulary Matching Exercise Match the menu items with the menu section they belong in. Study the lists and expressions bartenders use. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Dessert Starters Specialties Refreshments Seafood Sides Kids Menu Sandwiches Spirits Salads a b c d e f g h i j Big Daddy's Hamburger with fresh cut fries Homemade Iced Tea Junior Spaghetti and Meatballs Peach pie a la mode Mouth watering garlic cheese toast Loaded mashed potatoes Chef Brian's homestyle chili Lemon and herb glazed Salmon Seasonal tossed greens 1/2 litre house white ThaoThy’s ANSWERS: 1d. Then read the dialogue and check your understanding. 3g. 8a. 10i Behind the Bar Tending bar requires special skills. 7c. measuring. 4b.

origin Caribbean clear alcohol made from grain or potato. orange liqueur. coffee liqueur.coconut milk. blended with ice vodka and orange juice. orange liqueur. origin Russia light brown alcohol made from grain. lime. dry vermouth. rum. Black Russian Bloody Mary Cosmopolitan Daquiri vodka.English Vocabulary Classic Cocktails ThaoThy’s There are many different ways to prepare classic cocktails. origin Scotland golden or clear alcohol. on ice Margarita Martini Pina Colada Screwdriver Tom Collins Common Liquor Gin Liqueur Rum Vodka Whisky (Rye in Canada) Tequila Beer and Coolers Domestic Local Cans Bottles Draft Keg Ciders Coolers 2b collected 156 beer from country that bar is located in beer brewed nearby beer served in a tin beer served in glass bottle beer on tap beer in a large barrel alcoholic drink from apples or other fruit premixed and bottled alcoholic drinks Page 111 of clear alcohol flavoured with juniper berries various sweet alcohols clear alcohol made from sugar cane. lime. lemon juice. and mixes. soda water. on ice (for a white russian-add milk) vodka. Every bar or restaurant has rules about how much alcohol to put in a cocktail and how to build it. liquors. blended with ice (for a strawberry daquiri use strawberry mix or syrup) Long Island Iced Tea vodka. on ice . Use them to learn the names of the cocktails. pineapple juice. origin Mexico tequila. tobasco sauce. on ice light rum. pepper. sugar. The following recipes do not contain specific amounts. lime juice. gin. on ice gin. lemon juice. cranberry juice. worchestershire sauce. slice celery. (garnish with olive) rum. salt. sugar. salt. blended with ice gin. celery salt. on ice vodka. cola. tomato juice.

A pint of Heineken coming up. I'll take a pint. Keep the change. and dialogue and then check your understanding by taking the quiz. and cooked. or fast-food joint. I meant for beer. baker: 2b collected 156 specializes in baking bread and desserts Page 112 of . which is also where the dishes get cleaned. you better just make it a sleeve. I'm afraid we don't. I'm driving. ThaoThy’s Back of the House Working in the food and beverage industry may also mean working where the food gets stored. Sure. The kitchen area. vocabulary. I guess I should have brought a friend. Actually.25. I think I'll just have a Heineken for now. Our beer special tonight is a pitcher of local draft with a half dozen wings for $12. Here's 6. You've come to the right place. is commonly referred to as the back of the house. Sure. Do you have any specials on? We have highballs on for half price. Sorry.99. you will have to understand their needs. there are a number of different jobs in the back of the house. And should I start you a tab? No. That's okay. What can I get for you? I need something cold. would you like that on tap or in a can? Do you have it in a bottle? No. Study the expressions. cafe. You may also need to communicate with coworkers whose first language is English. Even though you may not have to deal with English guests directly. Whether the establishment is a restaurant. all requiring different types of English skills. prepared. Thank you. How much do I owe you? $5.English Vocabulary Sample Conversation Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Guest: Bartender: Hi there.

trained in culinary arts helps other cooks by doing odd jobs such as slicing and portioning cook with the most seniority and experience person who is in charge of the staff in the back of the house cook that helps with food preparation. We just got five orders at once. and put the dressing on the side for another one. The special is a rack of lamb with a tossed salad. Should I get the salads and soups ready? Yes. floors. but it's going to cost extra. Are you too busy to make me a staff meal? How much should I charge for an extra side of salsa? ThaoThy’s cleans dishes. I can do it. restrooms highest cook. let's see. Should I get the steaks on the grill? We're going to hold on the steaks until the appies are out. hold the croutons on one salad. Didn't I punch in a garlic bread with cheese? I'm missing three side salads. It's going to be another minute for the rice. Are all of these separate cheques for the same table? Did you want the chicken wings to come up first? You asked for that hot sauce on the side. works under and learns from executive/head chef Chef to wait staff • • • • • • • • • • • Can you run this food? It's getting cold. Table seven said to give compliments to the chef.English Vocabulary dishwasher: executive chef: food preparation worker: head cook: kitchen manager: line cook: short order cook: sous chef: Wait staff to chef • • • • • • • • • • • Can you put a rush on table two's order? What's the ETA (estimated time of arrival) on the lasagna? How much longer for the roasted chicken? What's the soup of the day? One of my customers wants to know what you put in your cream sauce. Taste this soup and tell me what you think. Anna is punching in her order of ten now. We need five caesar salads and two soups of the day. but may not have experience or training specializes in fast-food. right? How does your table like their cheesecake? Don't forget to punch in those salads. I need you to put down two orders Page 113 of . Sample Conversation Executive chef: Line cook 1: Executive chef: Line cook 1: Executive chef: Line cook 2: Executive chef: 2b collected 156 Get ready. My customer says this hamburger isn't cooked enough. simple cooking chef that is second in command. Any holds? Yes.

they're not going to be happy about that. ThaoThy’s Mary. She just went for a smoke break.English Vocabulary of fries. but I wrote it on the notice board. It's to go with the kids' meals. Line cook 2: Executive chef: Line cook 2: Executive chef: I thought we were all out of fries? Oh. Tell them ice cream for dessert is on me. Kids? Oh. Did you tell Anna that when she started? No. that's right. can you tell Anna there's no fries left for her table's order. Tell them we can do roasted or mashed potatoes instead. Waitress: Executive chef: Waitress: Executive chef: 2b collected 156 Page 114 of . I'll check with them. Ask her what they want instead.

In addition. There you will find all of your conveniences. many tour guides hold the responsibility of teaching tourists about safety. It's a custom to hang beads in the windows at this time of year. The church is the central meeting place in this town. If you want to catch a movie while you're here. and safe. The water park is our most recent attraction . Page 115 of business district castle church conveniences a building for royalty a place to worship God things that make life easier custom en route entertainment district exception something people of a region do often on the way a place where there are theatres and concert halls something/someone that does not follow the usual rules or expectations 2b collected 156 . No one has lived in this castle since the last king died twenty years ago. We are going to visit the art gallery where local painters exhibit their art. With the exception of Johnson Street. The following pages will help you learn some important vocabulary and phrases that you can use with your English-speaking tourists. the tour guide is a traveller's first impression of a foreign country. Keep in mind that this is the business district so that grocery store may be expensive. If you're having trouble getting your bearings just remember that the mountains are west. In many cases. informative. from suntan lotion to shampoo. In other cases a tour guide may be responsible for teaching tourists about the culture and sites in a city or town. it is safe to walk around here at night. Vocabulary (nouns) Word activities architecture art gallery attractions bearings Meaning things to do design of a building place to look at professional paintings and drawings places for tourists to see feeling for understanding one's location/surroundings in an unknown area area in a city that has many offices Example sentence There are lots of activities that the whole family will enjoy. it is your responsibility to make the short trip interesting. the entertainment district is off to your left. The architecture of this building is typical of the Renaissance age. While we are en route to the hotel I will point out the beach and the golf course. Even if you are only responsible for taking a tourist from the airport to his or her hotel. Check your understanding as you go.English Vocabulary English for Tour Guides ThaoThy’s Being a tour guide is a very important job.

We will meet in the lobby at 8 am sharp. custom. but children are free.e. art) displayed for a short time for the public to view place to buy food to take home ThaoThy’s It may be tough to find parking with the car exhibition on this week. The museum charges a small fee for adults. The gift shop has many great souvenirs. According to an old legend. It is an old native ritual to dance during Page 116 of the best part a person or story known for a long time front entrance people who live in an area place where something can be found shows roads and directions to places place to buy fresh food and homemade items a statue/structure that honours an event or person a place where historical items are displayed things that people need for every day living original state photograph postcard the way something appeared from the beginning picture taken with a camera a card with a picture on one side(usually an object or place that tourists see) that can be mailed without an envelope things that tourists may want to say or ask something that has been asked for politely questions or concerns request restaurant district part of a town/city with many places to eat ritual 2b collected 156 tradition. action (religious or cultural) . You may not take photographs here. Except for the roof. The locals are usually happy to show tourists around. such as postcards of the beautiful waterfalls. This location is the best because you don't need to bother renting a car. a sea monster lives in this lake. The plane almost missed the runway because it was such a bad storm. Since you have a kitchenette at your hotel you will need to know where the grocery store is. The driver has made a request that you throw all of your garbage in the bin at the front on your way out. This monument honours the men and women who died during the war. I'll give you each a map so you can follow along as we walk. We recommend that you only carry necessities in your purse and leave everything else at the hotel.English Vocabulary exhibition grocery store/supermarket highlight legend lobby locals location map market monument museum necessities objects (i. but you can purchase a postcard. this home has been left in its original state. You will see there are many more eateries to choose from when we head to the restaurant district. Every Sunday there is a farmer's market on Wade Street. People often say that the highlight of their trip is the botanical gardens.

site stairway/stairwell street people surroundings place. We will close the tour with a view of the city at sunset. I apologize for my voice today as I have a bit of a cold. The original settlers relied on oxen to carry their wares. You may want to save some spending money because we'll be visiting the shopping district this afternoon. You are permitted to have a beverage on the bus. We can peer in the window but I think they are probably closed for the day. You probably weren't expecting to see snow. Page 117 of 2b collected 156 . This is the site of a very famous battle. so please watch your step. If you're all finished looking here. we will continue on with the tour. lake. I have enjoyed meeting all of you today. The stairwell is very steep. including the secret garden. There will be plenty of live entertainment down at the waterfront. but please do not eat any food. Don't forget to bring your voucher for a free coffee in the hotel lobby. or river glass that you look out Vocabulary (verbs) Word arrive close continue on depart enjoy expect permit Meaning reach a destination to finish keep going leave have a good experience think that something will be/happen a certain way allow Example sentence I am glad to see you all arrived safely. often begging for money things that you see around you voice voucher waterfront window the sound you make when speaking a piece of paper that shows you have paid piece of land next to an ocean. I hope you enjoy the castle and its surroundings. The last ferry departs at 4pm. ThaoThy’s It is impossible to capture the beauty of this scenery in pictures. so make sure you don't miss it. You may be surprised how many street people ask you for money.location steps going up or down people who live on the street.English Vocabulary that people do often scenery settlers shopping district natural beauty to look at people who first made a home in an area area of town where there are many stores the sunrise.

and you can read more in the brochures. with people Page 118 of beautiful/gorgeous very nice looking breathtaking customary dangerous devastating elegant enormous exciting extensive fascinating haunted heritage international 2b collected 156 when a view is very impressive traditional not safe very sad. isn't it? This house has an extensive history. When we get to the museum someone else will show us around. The government named this school as a heritage site last year. It's so exciting to see new places. This enormous sculpture stands one-hundred feet high. It is fascinating to know how people lived back then. Under the starlight the waterfall is simply breathtaking. Vocabulary (adjectives) Word ancient Meaning very old Example sentence The ancient village has been left untouched. It is customary to shake hands and bow as you enter. It is dangerous to accept a ride from a local. yet simple very large makes one feel very happy/energetic covers a lot very interesting to learn about/see believed to have ghosts living there of historical importance around the world . You will find beautiful homemade jewellery in that shop. We recommend that you only keep a small amount of cash in your wallet.English Vocabulary proceed raise (a hand) recommend refer relax show someone around sit back speak up go forward lift suggest suggest sit back and enjoy time in peace take people to see an area relax in a seated position talk louder ThaoThy’s Please proceed all the way to the back of the bus. There is an elegant dining room for guests to eat in. please let me know. The house is said to be haunted and no one has lived in it for fifty years or more. Every year it is an international celebration. Please sit back and enjoy the bus tour. If you need me to speak up or slow down. if you are interested. I will gladly refer you to my favourite restaurants. unfortunate attractive. Tomorrow you will have a day to just relax on the beach. please raise your hand. The tsunami was devastating for local hotels. If you have any questions during the tour.

you can anticipate certain types of questions and certain ways that questions will be asked. I'll have to look into that further. Finally. Cliff jumping is a thrilling experience for those of you who aren't afraid of heights. entertainment) exciting too amazing/strange to seem true able to be seen ThaoThy’s This is a lovely place to sit and watch the local birds. The water is safe to drink here.English Vocabulary coming from as far away as Africa. I wish I knew the answer. food. Crime is prevalent in the old parts of town. Hmm. Unlike a speech that you can memorize. it is important to know how to politely explain that you don't understand a question.) That's an interesting question. Sir? Yes? (if you see a hand raised) Is there something I can help you with? I'll try my best to answer your questions. All of the antique furniture has been professionally restored.e. The top of the tower may not be visible because of the fog. service. Answering Questions As a tour guide you will face new challenges every day. (Sorry. June is the most popular time for tourists to come here. (Sorry I don't know. I'm afraid I don't have the answer to that. I've never been asked that before. You may lose interest in your job if you say the same thing each time.That's a tough (difficult) question. lovely magnificent popular prevalent reconstructed restored safe scenic superb thrilling unbelievable visible very nice (appearance or personality) amazing liked by many very noticeable built again returned to its original state not dangerous nice to look at (nature) very good (i. We will go up to the balcony for a scenic view of the grounds. you won't always know what questions people will ask. You should also learn how to use variety when you answer questions or respond to comments. The village was reconstructed after the major fire in 1910. It is unbelievable what some of these street entertainers can do. Page 119 of 2b collected 156 . Tour Guide • • • • • • • • • • • Do you have a question. However. One of the hardest parts of your job may be answering questions. The children put on a superb concert at Christmas time. I'll have to ask someone about that. This part of town is known for its magnificent wall murals.) Hmm. I don't know.

I don't quite understand your question. It's going to come up on your right in a few minutes. My personal favourite is Spaghetti Alley. Woman: Oh. Sorry. by asking. How do we get there? I'll point it out when we pass it.English Vocabulary • • Tourist • • • • • • • • • • • • • Where is the ______ from here? How long has _______ been here? Where are we headed (going)now? What time does _______ stay open until? What else is there to do here? Which _________ do you recommend? Are we allowed to take pictures? What's that over there? (tourist points) Where's the best place to buy _______? My son wants to know if _________? (parent asking a question for shy child) Do you know where the nearest washroom is? Could you tell us where the nearest bank is? You don't happen to have a first-aid kit. Explaining Rules. That's what I'm here for. Woman: My daughter wants to know if we're going to be be passing any castles today? Guide: Man: Guide: Man: Guide: Castles. that's a tough question. I can give you a map of the city. There are so many good restaurants. please don't hesitate to ask. It shows where all of the castles are. do you? Pardon my English. what's that? Where's the best place to have dinner around here? Well. No I'm afraid all of the castles are further into the city. No problem. I have a question actually. It is best if you memorize a speech rather than read from a card. though. However. ThaoThy’s Sample Conversation Guide: Man: Guide: Man: Guide: Man: Guide: If you have any questions while we're going along. I forgot to mention that taking photographs inside the art gallery and the museum is prohibited. but I can find out for you. I'm not sure. "Are there any questions about this?" or "Is everyone clear on the 2b collected 156 Page 120 of . People will pay more attention to you and understand you more clearly if you look into their eyes as you speak. After you have explained the rules and safety precautions make sure that guests have understood you. I'm glad you asked that. Sure. The architecture is beautiful. Are we allowed to take pictures once we get inside the museum? Oh. you can take pictures of the grounds and the outside of the buildings. I have another question. Safety and Etiquette When giving a tour there may be rules and safety precautions that you need to explain. We're going to be staying near the coast today. and what time will we be stopping for lunch? Guide: We'll break around noon and meet back at the bus at 12:45 sharp.

Please do not feed the animals. so we need to keep our voices down. Please remain seated until we come to a full stop. Please stay with your group at all times. Explaining safety Tour Guide • • • • • • • • • • • Please keep your seltbelts fastened at all times. The water is very rough. and culture (in English) for the places where you are giving tours so that you can keep the tourists interested. While you can't talk the whole time. and how to obey the traffic rules. Please pay attention to the time. In this region we bow rather than shake hands during a first meeting. Showing Places of Interest Silence can be uncomfortable during a tour. we ask that you refrain from putting your arms out the window. As a safety precaution. Please stay on the marked path. if there are any customs or matters of etiquette that you think tourists should be aware of. These rules are for your own comfort and safety. such as where to exchange their money. I do not recommend swimming here.. but remember to place all trash in the garbage bins. If you ever run out of something to say. Page 121 of 2b collected 156 . tourists will appreciate any helpful advice you can give them. what types of transportation to use. For your own safety. Explaining etiquette and customs Tour Guide • • • • It is customary in our country to tip the friendly bus driver. Please keep to the sidewalk.. We suggest only carrying small amounts of cash. you can always point out something such as a landmark or a type of tree or flower.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s rules?". it does not include tips for the bellboy. Classes are in session. Also. you should try to know as much about the history. I'm sure this goes unsaid. We don't want to keep the driver waiting. I ask that you keep your hands inside the train. please stand behind the yellow line. Tour Guide • In front of you is. Explaining rules Tour Guide • • • • • • • • You are strictly forbidden from taking photographs inside the museum. Here are some different ways you can point out interest points during the tour. Finally. To indicate that you want to get on or off the bus simply wave your hand at the driver. The bus will be leaving at 5:00 pm sharp. You'll have some free time to look around after lunch. scenery. Please meet back here in one hour. Though the all-inclusive includes tips for the servers. this is a good time to let them know.

Man: Guide: Woman: Can you ski throughout the year? 2b collected 156 Page 122 of . and geese have returned to the area. During the 70's there was a lot of clearcutting of forests in the area.. On your left you will see. I haven't seen any yet. ducks... Take a good look at. and these tours have been going on for over ten years without any accidents.... And to the right of that with the three small points is Mount Brown. actually... you don't have anything to worry about. which you we will be able to see in just a minute or so has the highest peak. We do about 100 trips a day up the mountain. We are now coming up to. Can you point it out again? Did I miss it? Will we see it on the way back? Sample Conversation Guide: Man: Guide: It's about a three minute ride up to the top of the mountain. As we pass the two towers the gondolla may sway a little. to the right of the green meadow? Guide: I'm glad you asked.English Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • On your right/left you will see... Since John Lake was built. Woman: What's that mountain to the left called? Guide: Man: Guide: That's Mount Karen.. this is the highest mountain for recreational purposes like skiing and guided tours. Keep your eyes open for. If you look up you will notice. In a few minutes we'll be passing... This thing is safe.. But... you should be able to see a large eagle's nest. Does everyone see it there? Are there any baby birds? That's a good question. I'd like to point out.? Are we going to see any.. Look to the east.. Mount Heather. Woman: What's that lake down there.. It's actually a man made pond that was built as part of a conservation effort over twenty years ago... Now. In the distance. To your west....... As you will see. swans... That's John Lake.. you will see.. You may have noticed.. It isn't uncommon to see deer and even bears.. ThaoThy’s Tourist Questions • • • • • • • Is that were talking about? Are we going to pass the. but we usually see them around this time of year. if you look up straight ahead.? Is it on the right or the left? I don't see it. Keep your eyes open for wildlife as we ascend. right? Yes... Off to the north. As we turn the corner here. Is this the highest mountain in this region? No. Up ahead.. and much of the wildlife was lost.

You will also learn how to talk to their loved ones and communicate with other medical staff who speak English. paramedics. They will help you learn some basic English expressions and vocabulary related to the medical field. pharmacists. We called the ambulance when Josh stopped breathing.. I can't sleep because my knees ache in the night. and a petting zoo for children. By studying and practising Medical English. Oh. look everyone. English for Nurses and Medical Professionals Patients come in all different shapes and sizes. If you look to your left you'll see the snowmobile trail going through the mountain. These pages can help nurses. We have horseback riding. Thanks. We knew the baby was coming right away because the woman's labour pains were acute. Your son is extremely allergic to peanuts. receptionists. They also speak many different languages. doctors. Vocabulary Word part of speech abnormal adj ache noun/verb acute adj allergy noun allergic adj ambulance noun 2b collected 156 Meaning not normal for the human body pain that won't go away quick to become severe/bad Example sentence This amount of weight loss is abnormal for women your age. So. it warms up enough to actually suntan up there in the summer. what is there to do besides ski at the top of the hill at this time of year? Oh. specialists or even those who volunteer. there's plenty to do.English Vocabulary Guide: Man: Guide: ThaoThy’s No. and have a better understanding of their needs. you will be able to make your patients feel more comfortable. that should be a great photo. there will come a time when you will need to rely on English to communicate. Whether you are working abroad or at home. There are two deer feeding in the clearing right below us. Page 123 of a body's abnormal reaction to certain foods or environmental substances (eg causes a rash) emergency vehicle that rushes people to a hospital . Do the exercises and take the quizzes to test your knowledge and understanding.. snowmobile tours.

The woman was badly bruised when Page 124 of wounds that develop on a patient's body from lying in one place for too long not harmful (not cancerous) removal of human tissue in order to conduct certain medical tests the amount of red and white blood cells a person has a person who gives blood to a blood bank or other person the rate at which blood flows through the body (high/low) a device that holds injured body parts in place position of an unborn baby in which the feet are down and the head is up a bone that is divided in two or more pieces as a result of an injury injured body tissue that is visible underneath . I carry an inhaler when I run because I have asthma. The anti-depressants helped me get on with life after Lucy died. Blood donors have to answer questions about their medical history. but the baby turned himself around. High blood pressure puts you at risk of having a heart attack. I've made you an appointment with a specialist in three week's time. you will develop painful bedsores. You will be happy to know that your blood count is almost back to normal. but it turned out his leg was broken. My grandmother can't knit anymore because the arthritis in her hands is so bad. To prevent the spread of bacteria it is important that nurses wash their hands often. We had to amputate his leg because the infection spread so quickly. If you don't get up and take a walk. We thought it was going to be a breech birth. We thought it was just a sprain. You will probably always have to wear a brace on your ankle when you jog. My throat infection went away after I started the antibiotics. The biopsy ruled out a number of illnesses. I have low energy because I am anaemic. We're hoping that the tests will show that the lump in your breast is benign.English Vocabulary amnesia noun amputation noun amputate verb anaemia noun anaemic adj antibiotics noun anti-depressant noun appointment noun arthritis noun asthma (attack) noun bacteria noun bedsore noun benign adj biopsy noun blood count noun blood donor noun blood pressure noun brace noun breech adj broken adj bruise noun 2b collected 156 a condition that causes people to lose their memory permanent removal of a limb occurs when the body doesn't have enough red blood cells medication that kills bacteria and cures infections medication that helps relieve anxiety and sadness a scheduled meeting with a medical professional a disease that causes the joints to become swollen and crippled a condition that causes a blockage of the airway and makes it difficult for a person to breathe a disease-causing organism ThaoThy’s I can't remember the accident because I had amnesia.

the chapel is on the third floor. It is hard to watch a loved one suffering with dementia. a priest who visits patients in the hospital type of treatment used on cancer patients a virus commonly contracted by children. The accident left the patient both deaf and blind. she's in critical condition. a person who determines the cause of death after a person dies requiring immediate and constant medical attention objects that people with injured legs or feet use to help them walk a sac in the body-tissue filled with fluid (sometimes diseased) unable to hear a lack of something necessary for one's health in need of water loss of mental capacity type of disease typically involving insulin deficiency We only call the coroner if we think a death is suspicious. It is easy for the elderly to become dehydrated in this heat. It is best to get chickenpox as a child characterized by itchy spots all over the body so that you don't get it worse as an adult. The baby was so large that we had to perform a Caesarean section. There are many different options when it comes to treating cancer. Csection noun cancer noun cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) noun cast noun chapel. experiencing pain This pain medication should relieve Page 125 of . a hard bandage that is wrapped around a broken bone to keep it in place a place where loved ones can go to pray for a patient's recovery. medical explanation of an illness or condition The doctor would prefer to share the diagnosis with the patient himself. My leg was in a cast for graduation. You saved your brother's life by performing CPR. We're going to remove the cysts just to be on the safe side. The tests show that you have an iron deficiency. chapeline noun chemotherapy noun chickenpox noun coroner noun critical condition noun crutches noun cyst noun deaf adj deficiency noun dehydrated adj dementia noun diabetes noun diagnosis noun discomfort 2b collected 156 the skin procedure that involves removing a baby from its mother through an incision in the woman's lower abdomen disease caused by the uncontrollable growth of cells restoring a person's breath and circulation ThaoThy’s she came into the emergency room. If you want a place to pray. People with diabetes have to constantly check their blood sugar levels. I'd rather hop on one foot than use crutches. You can't see her right now. My mother has already had three rounds of chemotherapy.English Vocabulary bruised adj Caesarean section.

The child was rushed into the ER after he had a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting. People who have the flu should not visit hospital patients. Do not get it near your ears. eyes. or mouth. bumps that appear on the surface of the skin I broke out in hives after I ate that during an allergic reaction potato casserole. He is very feverish. You will have to wear a sling because of your dislocated shoulder. The doctor made a fatal error when he wrote the wrong prescription. so we didn't know we were having a baby. a ball of tissue that grows bigger than normal. The doctor was concerned about my family history of skin cancer. This cream is for external use only. and his temperature is near danger point. general term for any condition that makes a Her illness went away when she Page 126 of . It is important that children know which number to dial in case of an emergency.English Vocabulary noun disease noun dislocated adj emergency noun ER (emergency room) noun external adj false negative noun adj family history noun fatal adj fever noun feverish adj flu (influenza) noun fracture noun fractured adj germ noun genetic adj growth noun heart attack noun HIV noun hives noun illness noun 2b collected 156 a medical disorder that is harmful to a person's health when a bone is temporarily separated from its joint a medical problem that needs immediate attention the hospital room used for treating patients with immediate and life-threatening injuries on the outside some of your discomfort. either on or under the skin instance in which blood stops pumping through the heart the virus that infects the human T-cells and leads to AIDS That growth on your shoulder is starting to worry me. HIV can be passed down from the mother to her fetus. a medical condition or physical feature that is The disease is part genetic and part passed on in the family environmental. We had two false negative pregnancy tests. ThaoThy’s I understand that this disease runs in your family. especially one that causes Flowers are not allowed in the ward to disease avoid the risk of germs being brought in. Your wrist is fractured and needs a cast. People who smoke are at greater risk of having a heart attack. a test that incorrectly comes back negative medical background of a person's family members causing death higher than normal body temperature many types of respiratory or intestinal infections passed on through a virus broken or cracked bone a micro-organism.

caused by lack of oxygen in the brain expected to grow and get much worse (especially related to cancerous cells) place where someone trains to be a doctor . lie down and call me. The lab results have come in and you are free to go home. She will remain in the ICU until she can breathe on her own. are taken for testing a machine that keeps patients alive by helping them breathe when injuries and conditions are extremely serious feeling of dizziness and being off-balance. We have to do more x-rays because the first ones were inconclusive. The wound should be covered when you swim to prevent it from becoming infected. My right ankle was so inflamed it was twice the size of my left one. The toddler was so dehydrated that the doctor decided to get him on an IV. just a few cuts and bruises. ThaoThy’s You can't have visitors because your immune system is low. I'll take these samples down to the lab on my way out. and viruses an injection that protects against a specific disease cut in the body made during surgery unclear young baby diseased area of the body (viral or bacterial) started eating better. If you are feeling light-headed again. If you are allergic to this medication your skin will get red and itchy. 2b collected 156 person feel sick for a certain period of time the parts of the body that fight diseases. The doctors will be monitoring her for any internal bleeding.English Vocabulary ill adj immune system noun immunization noun immunize verb incision noun inconclusive adj infant noun infection noun infected adj inflamed adj injury noun intensive care unit (ICU) noun internal adj itchy adj IV noun lab results noun lab (laboratory) noun life support noun life-threatening adj light-headed adj malignant adj medical school (med. The nurse will demonstrate how to bathe an infant. I had to have stitches to close the incision. The victim was shot in two places but the bullet wounds are not lifethreatening. inside the organs feeling discomfort on the skin's surface a tube that pumps liquids and medication into a patient's body tests that come back from a laboratory and help doctors make a diagnosis place where samples of blood/urine etc. Babies are immunized three times in their first year. infections. I'm afraid at least one of the tumours is malignant. Her injuries were minor. After eight years of medical school I Page 127 of appearance (red and swollen) of an injured body part damage to the body section of the hospital where patients get constant attention and doctors rely on specialized equipment under the skin. The woman has severe brain damage and is currently on life support.

drugstore noun physician noun poison noun poisonous adj prenatal adj prescription noun prescribe verb privacy noun private adj radiation noun residency resident 2b collected 156 an infant that is less than three months old no feeling in a certain body part the place where major surgeries and operations take place a medical procedure that involves going inside a person's body in an attempt to fix a problem can finally practice medicine.English Vocabulary school) noun newborn noun numb adj OR (operating room) noun operation noun operate on verb pain noun pain killer. The needle will make your lower body feel numb. the cancer will come back. John is a resident under Dr Brown. pain reliever noun paralyzed adj patient noun pharmacist noun pharmacy. ThaoThy’s You have to support her neck because she is still a newborn. personal (eg test results) high energy X-rays that destroy cancer cells part of a doctor's training that takes place in the hospital. If the radiation doesn't kill all of the abnormal cells. but it was successful. Page 128 of . The child was bitten by a poisonous snake. You will need to visit your doctor to get another prescription. but she is learning how to walk. The operation lasted seven hours. strong discomfort in certain areas of the body We gave your husband some medicine to relieve some of the pain. The patients in Room 4 are not getting along. You will have to pay for a private hospital room if you don't want a roommate. the correct amount and type of medication needed to cure an illness or relieve symptoms being alone. Ask the pharmacist if there is a generic brand of this medication. type of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury unable to move certain areas of the body a person staying in a hospital or medical facility a person who fills a doctor's prescription and gives people advice about medication a place where people go to buy medication and other medical supplies doctor a substance that is very dangerous if it enters the human body of the time period leading up to giving birth You can take two pain killers every four hours. You should be able to buy a bandage at the pharmacy. The woman was well prepared for labour because she took the prenatal classes. You must wear a face mask and gloves while you are in the OR. We thought her legs were paralyzed for life. Ask your family physician to refer you to a specialist.

a doctor that is an expert in a certain kind of medicine an injury (less serious than a break) to a joint I sprained my knee playing soccer. he is in no longer changing rapidly a stable condition. You need to take some time off work and relieve some of your stress. white. wrist. We brought Jesse to emergency because he was running a (high) temperature.English Vocabulary noun routine check-up noun scrubs noun scrub up verb second opinion noun seizure noun shock noun side effects noun sore adj spasm noun specialist noun sprain noun/verb stable condition noun sting noun/verb stress noun stressed adj swelling noun swollen adj symptoms noun temperature noun tender 2b collected 156 a student working under a doctor a doctor's appointment to check a person's general health plain uniform (usually green. ligaments (parts that hold the joints together) I knew my ankle was sprained because growing bigger and rounder after an injury to it was so swollen. Ever since I injured my leg I've been having muscle spasms in my upper thigh. carefully wash hands before and after seeing I have to scrub up and get ready for a patient surgery. The woman was in shock after being pulled from the river. One of the side effects of antidepressants is a loss of appetite. sharp. input from a second doctor about an illness or symptom sudden violent movements or unconsciousness caused by electrical signal malfunction in the brain body not getting enough blood flow other symptoms that might occur as a result of a certain medication or procedure painful the uncontrollable tightening of a muscle I went to another doctor to get a second opinion about these headaches. I have a sore throat and a runny nose. higher than normal temperature painful when touched or used You have all of the symptoms of a diabetic. People who suffer from epilepsy are prone to seizures. (ankle. I have some extra scrubs in my locker. temporary pain worry that causes muscles to tighten and blood pressure to rise It may sting when I insert the needle. The incision was tender after the Page 129 of . or blue) worn by medical professionals ThaoThy’s I'd like to see you a year from now for a routine check-up. knee etc) a patient is stable if their medical condition is You can see your husband now. My family doctor is sending me to a specialist. a joint pain or physical changes that occur because of an illness or disease amount of heat measured in a body.

a section of a hospital or health facility where I should warn you that we're entering patients stay the mental health ward.English Vocabulary adj test results noun therapy noun transplant noun ultrasound noun umbilical cord noun unconscious adj urine sample noun vein noun virus noun visiting hours noun vomit noun/verb ward noun wheelchair noun wound noun wounded adj x-ray noun/verb Human Body medical information that helps doctors understand a patient's condition or body treatment aimed at improving a person's mental or physical condition moving of an organ from one human to another a test that examines the body's internal organs and processes using sound waves (often used during pregnancies) the lifeline from the mother to the fetus (when cut at birth this forms the belly button) alive. The wounded soldiers are being airlifted to the hospital. I'm afraid you'll have to come back during visiting hours. The urine sample tells us how much alcohol is in your blood. You aren't pregnant. You will also need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts. The ultrasound shows that we are expecting a baby boy. 2b collected 156 Page 130 of . One of the first things you need to know when working in English is the parts of the body. I was able to go back to work a few weeks after starting the therapy. I hit my head on the steering wheel and was still unconscious when the ambulance arrived. a chair on wheels used for transporting patients from place to place injury to body ("flesh wound" means not deep) a photograph of a person's bones and organs If you get in the wheelchair I'll take you down to see the garden. ThaoThy’s The test results came back negative. The technician took x-rays of my shoulder to make sure it wasn't broken. The heart transplant saved your life. The pregnant woman can't stop vomiting. the thin tubes that transport blood around the I'm just looking for the best vein in body and back to the heart which to insert the needle. Here are the basics to get you started. You will need to learn the names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts. but appearing to be asleep and unaware of the surroundings a small amount of the body's liquid waste that is tested for different medical reasons surgery. a dangerous organism that causes the spread of minor and major diseases time of day when friends and family are allowed to visit patients in hospital discharge of a person stomach contents through the mouth The virus is contractable through the exchange of bodily fluids. I had an emergency C-section because the umbilical cord was wrapped around the baby's neck.

operating rooms. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body. At the bottom of a person's face is the chin. are the hips. the bladder for holding liquid waste. which is responsible for thinking. the nose for smelling. At the ends of the toes are toenails. Between the hips are the reproductive organs. The rear side of the upper body is called the back. and medical kits. On the front side of the upper body is the chest. Below the wrist is the hand with four fingers and one thumb.English Vocabulary Head ThaoThy’s Inside the head is the brain. Between the elbow and the next joint. Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead. inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body. Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's breasts. as well as the liver and the kidneys. The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow. and the joint in the middle of the leg is the knee. Lower Body Below the waist. Lower Limbs (legs) The top of the leg is called the thigh. is located here as well. more commonly referred to as the belly button. and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails. is the forearm. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeks and chin. on left and right. swelling and infection tool used to cut bandages a tool that measures the force of blood flow through a person's body 2b collected 156 Page 131 of . Beside the index finger is the middle finger. the penis (male) or the vagina (female). Each foot has five toes. The ankle connects the foot to the leg. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist. the wrist. The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the lower leg is the calf. Study the vocabulary and try the matching exercise. Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing. followed by the ring finger and the little finger. At the sides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. and the mouth for eating. antiseptic bandage bandage scissors blood pressure monitor liquid used to sterilize (clean) the surface of the skin a cloth covering that is placed over a wound to prevent bleeding. Upper Limbs (arms) The arms are attached to the shoulders. Beneath this area is called the armpit or underarm. which holds a baby when a woman is pregnant. The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting food. The navel. They are also commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children). At the back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. On the outside of the mouth are the lips. On the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and the lungs for breathing. Upper Body At the top and front of the upper body. This area also contains the woman's uterus. The smallest toe is often called the little toe while the large one is called the big toe. which in women includes the breasts. just below the neck is the collar bone. The top of a person's scalp is covered with hair. The upper arms have the muscles known as triceps and biceps. Food is swallowed down the throat. Beside the thumb is the index finger. Medical Supplies and Tools Here is a list of some of the most common supplies found in doctor's offices.

holding. I need to sterilize the wound. We'll have to get a blood sample.English Vocabulary dressing elastic tape eye chart forceps gauze hypodermic needle IV bag medicine cup microscope otoscope oxygen mask privacy screen scales stethoscope syringe table and head-rest paper test tube thermometer vial protective covering that is placed over a wound a thin roll of stretchy material that is sticky on one side ThaoThy’s a poster of letter. and number combinations of various sizes used to test a person's eyesight instrument used during operations and medical procedures (assists the doctor in pulling. netted material used for dressing wounds sharp pointed metal piece that pricks the skin (attached to a syringe). Prepare the examining table for the next patient. word. a table and head-rest paper b thermometer c oxygen mask d hypodermic needle Page 132 of 2b collected 156 . and retrieving) thin. used for taking blood or administering medicine the pouch that contains liquids to be pumped into a patient's body small plastic measuring cup equipment that makes small things appear larger than they are a device used for looking into a patient's ears equipment that fits over the nose and mouth and supplies oxygen an object that is used to separate the doctor and patient from others in an open room a device that measures a person's weight equipment for listening to a person's heart and lungs a cylinder-shaped piece that attaches to a needle and can be filled with liquid paper that is placed on an examining table or head-rest to prevent the spread of germs glass cylinder that is filled with blood or other liquids and can be capped and placed in a storage area an instrument used to check a person's body temperature a small bottle or container used for storing liquids Matching Exercise Match the comments with the supplies that are needed: 1 2 3 4 I can't catch my breath.

or they specialize in certain diseases. Study the list and then check your understanding by taking the quiz. such as the back or the brain. Let's check your vision. 2a. 4h. 6f. I need to examine the patient in private. 7j. Let's find out your weight. 3d. 8g. They either treat specific parts of the body. In many cases specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will see a patient. e bandage scissors f scales ThaoThy’s g eye chart h antiseptic i j IV bag privacy screen 10 Can you cut this gauze for me? Answers: 1c.English Vocabulary 5 6 7 8 9 We'll have to feed him with liquids. Let's see if you are running a fever. Family doctors keep a list of local specialists and can help patients choose the right specialist for each medical issue. such as cancer. 9b. including cancer specializes in eye diseases specialist for babies and children specializes in the body's movement foot specialist specialist in mental health specializes in imaging tests Page 133 of . Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. allergist: anesthesiologist: cardiologist: chiropractor: dentist: dermatologist: fertility specialist: gynecologist: massage therapist: midwife: naturopath: neurologist: obstetrician: occupational therapist: oncologist: ophthalmologist: pediatrician: physical therapist: podiatrist: psychiatrist: radiologist: Doctor's Diagnosis 2b collected 156 specializes in determining food and environmental allergies specializes in pain prevention during surgery heart specialist back specialist tooth specialist skin specialist helps people who have difficulty getting pregnant specializes in women's needs specializes in muscle relaxation helps women deliver babies in a natural way specializes in natural cures and remedies brain specialist specialist for pregnant women specializes in workplace health tumour specialist. 10e Medical Specialists Medical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. 5i.

Doctor: Okay. It looks like you're going to need surgery to remove the tumour from your leg.English Vocabulary Physician • • • • • • • • • • • • Patient • • • • • • • • • • I don't understand what this means. Patient: I was afraid you were going to say that. Which do you want first? Patient: Let's get the bad news over with. That means no soccer. It looks like you're ready to go home. Doctor: Now for the good news. I'd like to keep you here over night. The blood test came back negative. Doctor: Don't get too excited. your test results came in this morning. that's a load off my mind. We have several options to discuss. We still need to get to the bottom of all of this weight loss. How are you feeling today? Patient: A bit better. Doctor: Great. Thanks Doctor. I'm going to get a second opinion. but we're still going to do a few blood tests just to rule a few 2b collected 156 Page 134 of . Your test results have come in. Patient: Wow. The biopsy shows that the tumour is benign. Patient: It's about time. You're not in the clear yet. Doctor: These things often are stress related. Doctor: That's good to hear. I'm afraid the prognosis isn't good. The transfusion was a success. We're going to take it out anyway just to be on the safe side. Am I going to need surgery? Is it good news or bad? When will the tests results come in? How long do I have to stay in the hospital? What is the success rate? Are they going to run more tests? Is this a common problem for people my age? I'd like to discuss other options. You have a long road to recovery. We'll know more in a few days. ThaoThy’s Sample Conversation Doctor: Hi Jessica. We've ruled out diabetes. Are you still feeling nauseous? Patient: No. Patient: I've probably just been so worried about this stupid lump. which means it's not cancerous. After the operation you're going to have to stay off your feet for at least three weeks. Say. I'm hoping to get to the bottom of this soon. Is it good news or bad? Doctor: I guess it's a bit of both. I haven't felt sick to my stomach since you switched my medication.

Patient: Things like what? Cancer? Doctor: Actually. monitor. (I'm trying to find my sister's room. Depending on the condition of the patient.English Vocabulary things out. Could you tell me which room Mrs Smythe is in? Is my child going to be okay? When can we speak with the doctor? What time are visiting hours? I'm trying to locate my sister. while others will not. and some appropriate responses that you may be able to give them. boy and girl) Brother and Sister/siblings (other children of the patient's parents) Extended family Grandmother and Grandfather (mother and father of patient's parents) Aunt and Uncle (brother and sister of patient's parents) Niece and Nephew (girl and boy child of patient's siblings) Cousins (children of patient's aunt or uncle) Friends and other loved ones Best friend (patient's closest friend) Room-mate (a person the patient lives with) Neighbour (a friend who lives near the patient) Co-worker (a person who works with the patient) Boyfriend or Girlfriend (the man or woman the patient loves/dates) Fiancé (the man or woman the patient is engaged to marry) Questions and Concerns of Loved Ones • • • • • • • • • • • We're Michael's grandparents. Could you tell me where the chapel is? Please tell her to get well soon. certain loved ones will be allowed to visit. I'm thinking more along the lines of a food allergy. Then read some typical concerns and questions that visitors may have. and inform visitors on a daily basis. It is a difficult time for people who have loved ones in the hospital. involves dealing with the people who are close to your patients. When a patient is staying in a hospital or other health facility. it is often necessary to welcome.) Is there anything you can do to make him more comfortable. My child would like something to drink. Showing them compassion and explaining the rules is much easier if you have the necessary English skills. Immediate family Mother and Father (patient's parents) Husband or Wife (the man or woman the patient is married to) Son and Daughter (children of the patient. Is there somewhere I can lie down for a while. Study the different people that may come to visit the patient. Visiting Hours ThaoThy’s Part of being a nurse. In many cases you may form stronger relationships with the patients' visitors than the patients themselves. Page 135 of 2b collected 156 .

Booking a Doctor's Appointment Patient • I need to make an appointment. Does your daughter need anything? I'm afraid she's not having a very good day today. We had to transfer your mother-in-law to the ICU. 2b collected 156 Page 136 of . The doctor would like to have a word with you. Visitor: Some of her friends want to see her too.English Vocabulary Questions and Responses from Nurses • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What is your relation to Jessica? You'll have to come back during visiting hours. sir Visitor: My wife's in room 3B. we'll look after her. I'll give you two some privacy now. Visitor: Well. I'll tell her you were here and that you'll see her in the morning. Nurse: She's in good hands here. It's in your brother's best interest. Visitor: And leave her all alone overnight? Nurse: I'm afraid that's the policy. I'm going to bring your wife her dinner. but I'm afraid while your wife is on bedrest the doctor has requested that only immediate family members come in to see her. We do the best we can around here. We just can't risk any germs that might come in with them. What she really needs is her rest. • Do you think the doctor could squeeze us in today? • I need to make an appointment for my husband. I really hate to leave her. I guess it's all in her best interest. Nurse: Sorry. ThaoThy’s Sample Conversation Nurse: I'm afraid visiting hours are over. but that's probably a good idea.) She's doing much better this morning. Now. Visitor: Can't her friends even stop by to bring her flowers? Nurse: Flowers are not permitted in this ward. • I need to see the doctor. • When is the doctor free? • I need to renew my prescription. Visitor: Surely you can make an exception? What if she needs me in the night? Nurse: Don't worry. Ms Lee is too tired for visitors. There's a quiet room for families down the hall. you'll have to come back in the morning. (The doctor wants to speak to you. He's in isolation because of the transplant. Nurse: Thanks for understanding. When can they come? Nurse: Visiting hours are from 9 to 11 in the morning and 4 to 7 in the evening. Room 7 is down the hall to your right. Why don't you head home and get something to eat yourself? Visitor: Okay. sir.

and I think I might have a chest infection or something. sorry. we had a cancellation for 2:00pm today if you can get away from the office. You'll be seeing Dr Lindsay. Now. Receptionist: Okay Mr Mason. Receptionist: Thanks for waiting. please? Caller: George Mason. We'll call you if there are any cancellations. Harris. Receptionist: We're running a bit behind schedule. Caller: Sure. Receptionist: No problem. I've been fighting a cold for more than a week. We're running an hour behind schedule. what do you need to see the doctor about? Caller: Well. Caller: Gee. so you can probably count on seeing the doctor around 2:30. What's your name. Dr Jones is away. Mason. How can I help you? Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. Receptionist: Hmm. I think I can make it if I leave right now. My cough is getting worse each day. Receptionist: Actually. Thanks for fitting me in. ThaoThy’s Receptionist • • • • • • • • • • What is your chart number? What is the appointment regarding? Which day/what time is good for you? Is January the 3rd okay with you? How does four o'clock sound? We'll see you then. Maybe I'll have to go to the walk-in-clinic instead. Receptionist: No problem. Hold one moment while I grab your chart. I was really hoping to get in today or tomorrow in case I need some antibiotics.English Vocabulary • • My child needs to come in for a check-up. please. Do you think it can wait until Wednesday? Caller: Oh. Caller: That's great. Sample Conversation Receptionist: Doctor's office. Jane speaking. Receptionist: Do you know your chart number? Caller: No. It's at home and I'm at work right now. Doctor Harris is off tomorrow. Mr. The doctor wants to see me again in two week's time. I'm sorry the doctor is not taking new patients. 2b collected 156 Page 137 of . it's almost 1:00pm already. We'll see you in an hour or so.

Please be aware that there is a convict on the loose. We'll have to keep you in a cell until someone comes to pay your bail. we don't carry guns. Your job may also require you to speak to English witnesses. Your husband's bail is posted at 20. You cannot always wait for an interpreter. is carrying a weapon and has a violent background police that are called in to support or help large amount of money that someone pays as a promise to appear in cour heavy stick that police use for controlling crowds or defending themselves register someone as a criminal enter a residence. Do the exercises and take the quizzes to test your knowledge and understanding. No. While you are fighting crime and handling emergencies you probably come across many English speakers. These pages will help you learn vocabulary and phrases that will be useful when you encounter English speakers. Do you have any idea who would have broken into your car? We think the burglar got in through your chimney. We're calling for back up now that we know she has a gun. Did somebody here call the cops? Page 138 of .English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s English for Police As a police officer you have one of the most important jobs in the world: to serve and protect the people. In both cases. We're taking your brother down to the station to book him. running free Example sentence My partner arrested the man who set fire to the building. Vocabulary Vocabulary part of speech arrest verb assailant noun at large (on the loose) preposition + adjective armed and dangerous adjective back-up noun bail noun baton (night stick) noun book someone verb break into verb burglar noun cell noun convict noun cop/copper 2b collected 156 Meaning take into police control person who assaults or attacks not caught. Did you see the assailant run away? I'm afraid that the man who robbed the bank is still at large. He is considered armed and dangerous. We only have batons. Some may commit crimes. you need to ask and answer questions in English. car. or business illegally a person who breaks into a home or business and steals items individual room in a jail/prison a person who is doing (or supposed to be doing) jailtime police officer (common slang) Do not approach the thief if you see him. while others may be victims of crime. 000 dollars. Time can be a key factor in solving a crime or saving a life.

This is a crime scene. Page 139 of .English Vocabulary noun criminal record noun crime scene noun cruiser (squad car) noun (in) custody noun DUI/DWI a file that lists all of the crimes a person has committed the place where a crime happened police car under police control (Driving Under the Influence/Driving while Intoxicated). responsible for a crime. You will be happy to know that we have taken the kidnapper into custody. Your record says that you have two previous DUIs. because criminals (or the accused)from we saw him climbing through your window and escaping thought he was an intruder. Someone called to report an intruder on the third floor. Please stay outside the yellow tape. not responsible for the crime a person who enters a home or business illegally a place where criminals are confined We'll believe you are innocent when you show us your receipt for the items in the bag. We've had a number of calls reporting a domestic dispute in your hotel room. You won't be required to do any time but you will have to pay a fine. Please step out of your vehicle and get into the police cruiser. deserving of punishment You will be considered innocent until you are proven guilty. If you try to escape we will have to restrain you with handcuffs. detective noun do time verb + noun domestic dispute adjective + noun escape verb felony noun fine noun fingerprints noun firearms noun gang noun guilty adjective handcuffs noun innocent adjective intruder noun jail (prison) noun 2b collected 156 a group of people often associated with Stay away from this area at night as there is a lot crime and drugs of gang activity. The detective is going to ask you a few questions about the man's appearance. You can get charged a large fine for speeding in a school zone. Driving after drinking too much alcohol police officer responsible for solving crime receive punishment for a crime by spending time in jail argument/trouble in the home(often leads to violence) get away from a holding place a major crime (e. The guards will be patrolling the prison all day long. metal rings that attach to wrists to keep We put your boyfriend in handcuffs. Murder is considered a felony and is punishable by life in prison. It is illegal to carry unregistered firearms such as rifles and pistols. murder) money that a person pays for breaking a law marks left by fingers that identify a person weapons that shoot ThaoThy’s We don't allow anyone with a criminal record into our country. We're going to have to check your personal belongings for fingerprints.g.

We always patrol the downtown core on the weekends. My partner told me your license plate over his walkie-talkie. taking something that does not belong to you. You will only be promoting street crime. According to our radar you were driving well above the speed limit. We have twenty officers investigating the bank robbery. a fine given to a driver who gets caught Your license shows a clean driving record driving beyond the speed limit except for one speeding ticket from five years ago. often with force ThaoThy’s Stealing a road sign is considered a misdemeanor. to take something that does not belong Do you know who stole your wallet? to you crime such as drugs and prostitution somebody who steals hand held radio each partner carries being searched for by police to see something happen Don't give the beggars any money. We have found the thief who stole your car. The perpetrator is still at large.English Vocabulary misdemeanor noun noise complaint noun partner noun patrol (on patrol) verb perpetrator noun pickpocket noun pistol noun pursuit noun radar noun/adjective robbery noun speeding ticket noun steal verb street crime noun thief noun walkie-talkie noun wanted adjective witness verb a minor crime (punishment is usually a fine or less than one year in jail) a call to the police to complain of disturbing noise (usually music or a party) another officer that a policeman drives and works with observe and protect an area person who committed the crime a thief who steals from people's pockets in transit or in crowds a hand held firearm the act of searching for radio wave transmission that helps police track cars and map crime scenes theft. Your punishment will be less severe because you are a young offender. We are in pursuit of a man in a green jacket and orange pants. Two of your neighbours have made a noise complaint tonight. Three people witnessed the murder but they are afraid to speak. young offender a minor who commits a crime (usually (juvenile delinquent) under age of 18) noun 2b collected 156 Page 140 of . A man from your hotel is wanted for his involvement in a murder. I'm going to get you to tell your story to my partner. Beware of pickpockets on the subway.but is punishable by a large fine. Our local cops carry pistols but rarely use them.

I am taking you to the police station. Put your hands on your head. There is an important difference between criminal law and civil law. The police are not normally involved in civil law. You will have to pay a fine for this. Please get in the police car. for example. We'll tow your car to the station. time in prison or a fine. A punishment is a penalty imposed on somebody who is convicted of a crime. It is against the law to do drugs in public. I will give you a warning this time. Criminal law deals with matters such as murder. Types of crime Crime abduction/kidnapping armed robbery arson assault 2b collected 156 Definition taking a person to a secret location using force using a weapon to steal setting fire to a place on purpose hurting another person physically Page 141 of .English Vocabulary Crime and Punishment ThaoThy’s A crime is a serious offence such as murder or robbery. A punishment could be. Questions from law breakers or suspected criminals • • • • • • • Why did you pull me over? Have I done something wrong? Is this illegal? What are my rights? Can I call a lawyer? Where are you taking me? Can I make a phone call? Questions police may ask a suspected criminal • • • • • Are you carrying any illegal drugs? Do you have a weapon? Does this belong to you? Whose car is this? Where were you at eight last night? Informing someone of laws and police procedures • • • • • • • • • • You are under arrest. Civil law deals with matters such as contracts or divorce. Smoking in restaurants is illegal in this country. I'm going to write you a ticket.

parking) license suspension (drunk driving) fine (hunting out of season) house arrest (a young offender who is waiting to go to court) community service (a youth that steals a car for the first time) jail time (man who assaults his wife) 2b collected 156 Definition leaves marks on driving record/involves paying a fine driving rights are removed for a certain period of time pay money as punishment for minor/petty crime remain in one's home for a certain period of time trying to kill someone (but failing) going into another person's home or business with force injuring a child on purpose physical assault that occur within the home trading illegal drugs driving after having too much alcohol lying or cheating for business or monetary purposes holding people in transit hostage (usually on a plane) taking someone's life through violence stealing merchandise from a store bringing products into a country secretly and illegally driving beyond the speed limit acts of crime against a group (political/religious) or another country Stealing extremely cruel and unfair treatment (often towards prisoners) damaging public or private property (for example with spray paint) breaking the law in business ThaoThy’s do volunteer work such as teaching children about crime or cleaning up garbage spend a certain amount of months or years locked away from society Page 142 of .English Vocabulary attempted murder burglary. breaking and entering child abuse domestic violence drug trafficking drunk driving fraud hijacking murder/homicide shoplifting smuggling speeding terrorism theft torture vandalism white collar crime Types of punishment Punishment (example offence) traffic ticket (speeding.

I'm going to help you find her.. Questions police ask tourists • • • • • • • • • Which hotel are you staying at? When did you lose your wallet? How much money was in your purse? What did the thief look like? What was the man wearing? Did he have a weapon? Where/When did you last see your child? How old is your child? What was your child wearing? Comforting a tourist in distress • • • • • • • Please stay calm. What does Erica look like? Woman: She has brown curly hair.. We will do everything we can. What should I do? Who can we trust to exchange our money? Where is the bad part of town? Please help us. Our child is missing. 2b collected 156 Page 143 of . Woman: Help! Police! Police: What's wrong? Woman: My daughter is missing. My luggage/suitcase was stolen. The ambulance is on its way. Sample Conversation A Spanish police officer helps a British woman find her missing child. everything is going to be okay.English Vocabulary life in prison (a woman who commits homicide) ThaoThy’s spend the rest of one's life in prison with no chance of going back into society Helping Tourists Questions tourists ask police • • • • • • I'm lost. She's skinny and small for her age. Don't worry. I am going to help you. Can you help me find the Pacific Hotel? I'm looking for the American Consulate/Embassy. I can't find her anywhere! Police: Okay. I can give you a ride to the hospital. She's only five. Try not to panic. She doesn't know how to speak Spanish! Police: Okay. I'll give you a map of the city. Calm down. What's her name? Woman: Erica.

You didn't obey the traffic signals. You can go to the police station to pay the fine. You aren't wearing your seatbelt. 2b collected 156 Page 144 of . Woman: What should I do? Police: Stay right at the front of the store in case she comes looking for you.. Traffic and Accidents Pulling over drivers • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Can I see your driver's licence and passport? Have you been drinking tonight? How much have you had to drink? How fast do you think you were going? Do you know what the speed limit is? Is this a rental car? You were driving too fast. You were travelling too close to the car in front of you.English Vocabulary Police: Okay. You're driving the wrong way in a one-way street. Sample Conversation A Japanese police officer pulls over an American driver on the highway for speeding. Questions police ask an injured driver • • • • • • • • Are you hurt? Can you stand up/move? Where does it hurt most? How did the accident happen? Who was at fault? What did the other car look like? Is there someone you want to call? Don't worry. They will give your driving licence back to you. We've called an ambulance. I turned around and she was gone. I'm going to keep your driving licence and give you a ticket. You cut off another car. I think. We'll start looking for her now. everything is going to be okay. She has a hat on too. Police: Don't worry. What is she wearing today? ThaoThy’s Woman: Blue shorts and a pink T-shirt. You broke the speed limit. Police: And where did you last see her? Woman: We were just shopping in the vegetable section. You aren't allowed to park here. You were driving on the wrong side of the road.. Police: How long ago did she go missing? Woman: I've been looking for her for almost an hour now.

She had a baseball cap on. Man: Oh. Davidson? Man: I had one or two drinks. No. I'm going to have to ask you to step out of your vehicle and get into my car. Police: You were also going over the speed limit. I didn't know that. please notify us. Description of a suspect • • • • • He was wearing sunglasses. yeah. He had a mustache. A witness is somebody who is actually present when something happens and sees what happens. When you're in our country you have to respect our rules. Davidson. sorry. How long ago did this happen? If you think of anything else. Man: This is crazy. Page 145 of 2b collected 156 . though. Mr.English Vocabulary Police: Can I see your driver's license please? Man: Ah. He had a beard. I'm okay to drive. It's a rental car. Mr. Uh. The police usually like to question all witnesses as soon as possible after a crime. Yeah here. But what about my car? Police: We'll have the rental car towed to the agency. Police: In Japan you cannot operate a vehicle after consuming any alcohol. Questioning a Witness to witness (verb): to see something happen a witness (noun): a person who sees something happen Witnesses are valuable to the police. I think it's in my pocket. why? Police: It seems you are unaware of our zero tolerance for drinking and driving. Police: How long have you been in Japan? Man: A few weeks. I'll blow into a breathalizer. Questions police ask witnesses • • • • • • • Did you see what she was wearing? Did he have a weapon? Was the gun loaded? What kind of car was the thief driving? I will need to get a statement from you. Maybe my wallet. Police: Have you been drinking tonight. She was dressed in black. accident or other event. ThaoThy’s Police: Do you know how fast you were driving? Man: No. Man: I'm not drunk. I'm not used to it. I know my limit.

curly. Police and officials in these countries often use another system to identify people. short. Citizens are expected to have these cards on them at all times. That's all I know. brown. did he ask you for your money or anything? Woman: No.English Vocabulary • • • She was wearing gloves. such as asking for two pieces of ID. Hair: short. I'm running late for a class. I was the only other person in the bank besides the tellers. I don't know how much help I'll be. chubby. Asking for Identification (ID) and Information • • • • • • • May I see some photo ID? Can I see your passport? Driver's license. He threatened to use it. Probably fifteen or younger. Do you have your birth certificate? How long have you been in the country? Are you here for a holiday? Do you have another piece of ID? ID is different in every country It is important to keep in mind that every country requires different documentation that proves someone's identification (ID). straight. Woman: Yes.. The police question her as a witness. blond. Is it okay if I go now? Police: I just want to get your name and phone number. Probably five foot six. he had a pistol in his back pocket. black. medium build. shoulder length. red. long. but I doubt it was loaded. average height ThaoThy’s Sample Conversation An ESL teacher working in Korea witnesses a bank robbery. Police: Did he talk directly to you? I mean. please notify us. However. fat. I can't remember what else he was wearing. Police: I understand you were the key witness for the robbery. please. In many countries such as Greece and Spain a national ID card is compulsory. Police: Was he carrying a weapon? Woman: Yes. Types of ID • • Passport Government-issued Photo ID card Page 146 of 2b collected 156 . in a ponytail Body: skinny. If you think of anything else. He was wearing a baseball cap and sunglasses. muscular. Police: Are you okay to answer some questions for me? Woman: Sure. Police: What makes you say that? Woman: He was just a kid.. Police: Can you describe him for me? Woman: He was Asian. in other countries ID cards are not required. He made me get on the ground so I didn't get a very good look at him. he just told me to get on the ground. spiky. tall.

black. common law husband citizenship (native citizen. country where ID holder was born current job (doctor. brown. landed immigrant. immigrant. married. common law wife. separated. permanent resident.English Vocabulary • • • • • • Driving licence/Driver's license Birth certificate Permanent residence card Social security card Medical/Health card Voter registration card ThaoThy’s Information/security items that may appear on documentation bar code Date of birth (DOB) a series of thick and thin black lines that holds computerized information date when the ID holder was born: day/month/year: 23/05/1970 (23rd May 1970) month/day/year: 05/23/1970 (23rd May 1970) year/month/day: 1970/05/23 (23rd May 1970) date when documentation was created blue. teacher. green. retired) number that can be entered into government systems to find information about a person M (male). grey markings of a person's thumb or finger tip how tall a person is in centimetres or feet and inches a laser photograph which makes a picture or image look life-like a long black stripe found on the back of a card that can be swiped into a computer for information a woman's surname before marriage single. refugee) recent picture of ID holder city. divorced (no longer married). F (female) hand-written name of ID holder the last date when an ID document can be used Date of Issue Eye colour Fingerprint Height Hologram Magnetic stripe Maiden name Marital status National status Photograph Place of birth Profession Serial number or PIN (Personal Identification Number) Sex Signature Valid until/expiry date 2b collected 156 Page 147 of .

The words policeman or policewoman are countable. usually illegal not getting caught by police or the authorities disagreement surrounding an issue ThaoThy’s Today. searching the Internet for __________ companies). 2b collected 156 Page 148 of . As police find new ways to crack down on fake ID (i. We therefore treat it as plural and say. not real people who do not have government permission to live or work in a country to put a real stop to real. while others think it would help to prevent crime and illegal immigration. __________ is a major concern for police around the world. true stealing someone else's identity for personal use (or sale) not publicly known. such as concerts and nightclubs. Some people do not think that the police should have access to such personal information. ID fraud is a major concern for police around the world. an even greater problem for police is the concern of __________. for example: The Police are coming.English Vocabulary Reading Exercise: Identity Fraud Read the vocabulary and then try to fill in the blanks.e. new technology is created to help make fraudulent ID look __________. Some thieves make a profession out of stealing wallets. Many young people use __________ ID to access adult venues. such as concerts and nightclubs. such as magnetic stripes and barcodes help to prevent people from getting away with fake ID. purses. However. However. while others think it would help to prevent crime and illegal immigration. As police find new ways to __________ fake ID (e.g. new technology is created to help make fraudulent ID look authentic. purses. ID fraud counterfeit illegal immigrants crack down on authentic identity theft underground getting away with controversy lying about one's identity fake. Some thieves make a profession out of stealing wallets. Many young people use counterfeit ID to access adult venues. such as magnetic stripes and barcodes help to prevent people from __________ fake ID. ID cards with security measures. or personal mail in order to sell new identities to criminals or __________. There is great controversy over whether or not all countries should opt for national ID cards. an even greater problem for police is the concern of identity theft. for example: The policeman is asking questions. so can be singular or plural. Some people do not think that the police should have access to such personal information. ID cards with security measures. There is great __________ over whether or not all countries should opt for national ID cards. Answer Today. In English the word police is an uncountable noun. or personal mail in order to sell new identities to criminals or illegal immigrants. Three policewomen are coming. searching the Internet for underground companies).

English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s 2b collected 156 Page 149 of .

in face-to-face conversation you lip-read and watch for smiles. ring. There are also some practice sessions and a quiz for you to check your understanding. It's ten below.English Vocabulary English Speaking Weather ThaoThy’s English speakers love to talk about the weather. People talk about the weather on the phone and in person. Telephone English If the phone rings in English. and you will find it easy to start a conversation anytime and anywhere with anyone you meet! Common questions and responses about Weather What's it like out? How's the weather? Do you have rain? What's the temperature there? It's snowing here. The hardest part about using the phone in a language that is not your own is the fact that you cannot see the other person's eyes. Even strangers discuss the weather. (raining heavily) We couldn't ask for a better day than this.. It's 22 degrees Celcius. frowns and moving hands. The only difference is that you have to talk back! In this lesson we look at some of the words and expressions that we use for telephoning. answer answering machine busy signal call caller call back/phone back call display 2b collected 156 to say "hello" into the phone when it rings something that you can record a message on if the person you are calling isn't home a beeping sound that tells the caller that the other person is already on the phone with someone else a telephone conversation. Telephone Terms Here are some of the words and terms that we use to talk about telephoning. They're calling for blue skies all week. mouth and body movements (body language). Co-workers talk about the weather before starting a hard day of work. Listening to someone on the telephone is like doing a section from a taped recording in class. what's it doing there? Beautiful day. huh? What's the weather forecast? It's miserable out.. Learn the proper vocabulary and expressions. It is a way of breaking the ice (starting a conversation). Although you might not be aware of it. It's pouring outside. don't be afraid to answer it! The fear of talking on the phone in a second language will disappear if you practise often. And remember. practice makes perfect! Ring. (-10 degrees) We haven't had a drop of rain for weeks. Friends and family talk about the weather before they discuss what's new. to telephone the person who telephones to call someone who called you first a screen that shows you who is calling Page 150 of .

Jody speaking. (informal) Hello. (informal) Hang on one second. mobile phone a phone that is not attached to the wall (you can walk short distances with it at home or in the garden) dial to press the buttons on the phone dial tone the sound the phone makes when you pick it up directory/phone book a book that alphabetically lists local phone numbers of people and businesses hang up to put the receiver down and end a call operator a person who answers telephone-related questions when you dial "0" pager a small machine you wear that makes a noise (or vibrates) when someone wants you to call them phone a telephone. to telephone phone booth/pay phone a place where you can pay to use a telephone in public pick up to answer the phone receiver the piece on the phone that you speak into and listen from ring the sound a phone makes when somebody calls. Hey George.* Speaking. My English isn't very strong. • Is Fred in? (informal) • Is Jackson there. I'll get him.English Vocabulary cellular phone/cell phone cordless phone ThaoThy’s a telephone that you can take with you away from your house. This is she. to make that sound ringer the sound-piece that alerts a person that a call is coming through Telephone Language Here are some typical phrases that you can use in a telephone conversation. please? • • • • • • Would the doctor be in/available? Just a sec. Green. (informal) Please hold and I'll put you through to his office. Please hold for the next available person. It's Lisa calling. this is Julie Madison calling.* Introducing yourself Asking to speak with someone *The person answering says this if the caller does not recognize their voice. Could you please repeat that? Would you mind spelling that for me? Could you speak up a little please? Can you speak a little slower please. Answering the phone • • • • • • • • Hello? (informal) Thank you for calling Boyz Autobody. All of our operators are busy at this time. it's Gerry from the dentist's office here. please? (informal) • Can I talk to your sister? (informal) • May I speak with Mr. Hi. One moment please. How can I help you? Doctor's office. Page 151 of Connecting someone Making special requests • • • • 2b collected 156 .

English Vocabulary • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leaving a message on an answering machine • • • Finishing a conversation • • • • • • Can you call me back? I think we have a bad connection.Thank you. I'm sorry I'm not available to take your call at this time. My number is 334-5689. I'll talk to you again soon. I better run. Please give us a ring/buzz whenever it's convenient. Yes. Please leave a detailed message after the beep. Would you like to leave a message? He's on lunch right now. I don't think he has my number. Bye. When do you expect her back in the office? Thanks. or leave a message after the tone. I have to let you go now. this is Ricardo calling for Luke. Could you please return my call as soon as possible. This is Marina from the doctor's office calling. No.? You said your name was John. Please call back during these hours. Sammy's not in. it's James from CompInc.Who's calling please? He's busy right now. Well. Mindin's office. Confirming information Listening to an answering machine Telephone Tips 2b collected 156 Page 152 of . MondayFriday. Okay. Thanks for calling. ThaoThy’s Taking a message for someone Leaving a message with someone I'll make sure she gets the message. Thanks. Can I ask who's calling? I'm afraid he's stepped out. extension 12. Can you please hold for a minute? I have another call. Thank you for calling Dr. Our hours are 9am-5pm. can you tell him his wife called. please. Hi. this is Elizabeth. Leave me a message and I'll get back to you as soon as I can. Thank you. Can you call again later? I'll let him know you called. If this is an emergency please call the hospital at 333-7896. Talk to you soon. Yes. It's Yuka. Who's this? (informal) I'm sorry. Did you say 555 Charles St. Let me repeat that just to make sure. I just wanted to let you know that you're due for a check-up this month. I have another call coming through. Hello. Hey Mikako. Bye for now. could you ask him to call Brian when he gets in? Do you have a pen handy. You've reached 222-6789. I'll call back later. I've got it all down. here. Hello Maxwell. I guess I better get going. I'm afraid that's my other line. My number is 222-3456. that's okay. Lisa's not here at the moment. Call me! (informal) Hello. right? I'll make sure he gets the message.

Speak slowly and clearly Listening to someone speaking in a second language over the telephone can be very challenging because you cannot see the person you are trying to hear. you can practise by setting two chairs up back to back. The most important thing about practising telephone English is that you aren't able to see each other's mouths. However. Swap papers the next day and check your answers. call the number on the back of the cereal box and ask for coupons. You should also practise saying dates and numbers aloud. Practise with a friend Ask another student to practise talking on the phone with you. or role play different scenarios in a business environment. If you don't have access to a telephone. Think of a question you might want to ask and call the free number! For example. You and a friend can write out a list of dates and numbers and take turns reading them over the phone to each other. you can call and listen to recorded messages. Click here to learn more about numbers. but it is something that you will be able to use in any country. You may not realize that your pronunciation isn't clear because your teacher and fellow students know and understand you. Take the time to learn how to answer the phone and say goodbye in a polite manner. you may notice yourself speaking very quickly. it may be even more difficult for the person you are talking with to understand you. Call a salon to book a hair appointment. Even native speakers ask each other to repeat and confirm information from time to time. Learn the appropriate expressions that English speakers use when they don't hear something properly. How to answer and speak on the phone 2b collected 156 Page 153 of . Don't be afraid to remind the person to slow down more than once. Sometimes just one word such as "could" or "may" is necessary in order to sound polite. If you are nervous about using the phone in English. Some large cities have free recordings you can call for information such as your daily horoscope or the weather. Practise or write down what you are going to say and take a few deep breaths before you make a phone call. 2. You will have to give your name and address. 4. Try to talk for at least fifteen minutes. 3. Keep your telephone in an area that is away from other noise distractions such as a radio or television. Write down what you hear the first time. After business hours. Use businesses and recordings There are many ways to get free telephone English practice. 6. Pay special attention to your weak areas (such as "r's" and "l's" or "b's" and "v's") when you are on the phone. It is possible that the person on the other line will think that you are being rude on purpose if you don't use formal language in certain situations. as well as all the various ways one can start and end a conversation casually. 5. Many ESL speakers make the mistake of being too direct on the telephone. This is especially important if you are taking a message for someone else. (Make sure that you aren't going to get charged for these numbers first.) Some products have free phone numbers on the packaging that you can call for information. Use the phone in your everyday life. Practise dates and numbers It only takes a short time to memorize English Phonetic Spelling. and then call back and check if your notes are accurate.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s 1. Call for a pizza delivery instead of going out to eat. You can talk socially. It is amazing how much people lip-read without realizing. Learn telephone etiquette (manners) The way that you speak to your best friend on the phone is very different to the way you should speak to someone in a business setting. Make sure you have a pen handy so that you can repeat the information and check your comprehension. Make sure you understand the other speaker Don't pretend to understand everything you hear over the telephone. You can even phone the movie theatre to ask for the listings instead of using the newspaper. Record what you hear. You should use the same modals you would use in a formal "face-toface" situation. You might choose one night a week and take turns phoning each other at a certain time.

Small talk is a casual form of conversation that "breaks the ice" or fills an awkward silence between people. please? Problems ThaoThy’s Introducing yourself • This is Paul Smith speaking. take the time to see how much you have learned about small talk by taking the Small Talk Quiz. Could you put me through to John Martin. Small Talk In most English-speaking countries. please. • I'm connecting you now. The hardest part about making small talk is knowing how to start a conversation. Read through the Who. please? • I'm afraid you've got the wrong number. Could you speak up a little. it is sometimes considered rude to say nothing. When. I can't hear you very well. Review the conversation starters and practise them with a friend. please. there are also certain topics that people often discuss during these moments. • Can I take a message? • Would you like to leave a message? • Can I give him/her a message? • I'll tell Mr Jones that you called • I'll ask him/her to call you as soon as possible. Where. Could you hold the line. When. I'm afraid he's on another line at the moment. I don't understand. Elizabeth Jones speaking. • I'll connect you. • Who's calling. What. Why? 2b collected 156 Page 154 of . please. Even though you may feel shy using your second language. • I've tried to get through several times but it's always engaged.English Vocabulary Answering the phone • Good morning/afternoon/evening. • I'm sorry. I'm sorry. What. I'll see if Mr Jones is available. Where. he's in a meeting at the moment. please? • I'm sorry. Putting someone on hold • • • Just a moment. this is Paul Smith from Speakspeak International. please. • I'll put you through. Just as there are certain times when small talk is appropriate. please? Putting someone through • One moment. York Enterprises. in an English-speaking environment it is often better to make a few mistakes than to say nothing at all! Small Talk: Who. Could you repeat that. please? Hold the line. it is normal and necessary to make "small talk" in certain situations. And remember. Finally. • Could you spell that. • Hello. Why? page to gain a better understanding of small talk. please? Could I speak to someone who … Taking a message Explaining • • • I'm afraid Mr Martin isn't in at the moment. please? I'd like to speak to John Martin. Asking for someone • • • • Could I speak to John Martin.

Entertainment news. you do not know anything about them. hairdressers and receptionists often make small talk with customers. 2b collected 156 Page 155 of . such as a celebrity who is in town. to use small talk. that might be an indication that it is the right time to initiate a casual conversation. is simply to fill time. that may also be acceptable to talk about. Some social events (such as a party) require small talk among guests who do not know each other very well. Negative comments about another person not involved in the conversation are also not acceptable: when you do not know a person well you cannot be sure who their friends are. Finally. however. Discussing personal information such as salaries or a recent divorce is not done between people who do not know each other well. Similarly. Other people who have short casual conversations are office employees who may not be good friends but work in the same department. you have to start with some small talk. so in order to show a polite interest in getting to know them better. For example. For example. the next time you see each other you might just smile and say nothing. WHY do people make small talk? There are a few different reasons why people use small talk. small talk occurs in places where people are waiting for something. Some people make small talk in order to be polite. waitresses. it is not wise to continue talking about an issue that the other person does not seem comfortable with or interested in. It is called "mingling" when people walk around in a social setting and talk to a variety of people. such as a recent law concerning equal rights.English Vocabulary ThaoThy’s WHO makes small talk? People with many different relationships use small talk. however. It is also common for people who are only acquaintances. it is usually safe to discuss the news. Do not interrupt two people in order to discuss something unimportant such as the weather. Sports news is a very common topic. or to the person beside you waiting to get on an aeroplane. Customer service representatives. WHERE do people make small talk? People make small talk just about anywhere. is another good topic. After someone introduces you to another person. However. Though we often teach children not to talk to strangers. Another topic that is generally safe is current events. The weather is probably the number one thing that people who do not know each other well discuss. it is important to recognize the cue when the other person wants the conversation to stop. or at the poolside. you should never say something (good or bad) about a person's body. especially if a local team or player is in a tournament or play-off or doing extremely well or badly. You may not feel like chatting with anyone at a party. if you see a co-worker in the lounge you might say hello and discuss the sports or weather. You do not talk about private issues either. often called a "friend of a friend". is to break an uncomfortable silence. For example. The most common type of people to use small talk are those who do not know each other at all. but it is rude to just sit in a corner by yourself. As long as you are not discussing a controversial issue. people in an office might casually discuss the new paint or furniture. people make small talk in elevators or lunchrooms and even in restrooms. because you do not know if you can trust the other person with your secrets or personal information. adults are expected to say at least a few words in certain situations (see where). Lastly. If there is very little noise. Most often. Compliments on clothing or hair are acceptable. but there are certain places where it is very common. WHEN do people make small talk? The most common time for small talk to occur is the first time you see or meet someone on a given day. Sometimes even friends and family members discuss the weather when they meet or start a conversation. especially if there is a line-up. If someone is reading a book or writing a letter at the bus stop it is not appropriate to initiate a conversation either. Also. if the bus is extremely full and there are no seats available you might talk about reasons why. Another good time to make small talk is during a break in a meeting or presentation when there is nothing important going on. If there is something that you and the other speaker has in common. WHAT do people make small talk about? There are certain "safe" topics that people usually make small talk about. it is not safe to discuss subjects that society deems controversial such as religion or politics. For example. you might talk to someone you do not know at the punch bowl. If you happen to be outside when the mailman comes to your door you might make small talk with him too. you might chat with another person who is waiting for the bus to arrive. The first. Another reason. That is why it is so common to make small talk when you are waiting for something. and most obvious. or in queues at the grocery store. You should only spark up a conversation after someone smiles and acknowledges you. There are also some subjects that are not considered acceptable when making small talk. At the office. People also make small talk in a doctor's or dentist's waiting room.

You look like you've got your hands full (with children or goods). I heard on the radio today that they are finally going to start building the new bridge. isn't it? Can you believe all of this rain we've been having? It looks like it's going to snow. It sure would be nice to be in Hawaii right about now. isn't it? I didn't think it would be so busy today. It looks like we are going to be here a while. Pretty nice place. huh? I love your dress. can you? Has it been a long week? You look like you could use a cup of coffee.English Vocabulary Small Talk: Conversation Starters Talking about the weather • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Beautiful day. I hear they're calling for thunderstorms all weekend. How long have you been waiting? At the office At a social event Out for a walk Waiting somewhere 2b collected 156 Page 156 of . What do you think of the new computers? So. aren't they. huh? I'll have to remember not to come here on Mondays. The bus must be running late today. how do you know Justin? Have you tried the cabbage rolls that Sandy made? Are you enjoying yourself? It looks like you could use another drink. We couldn't ask for a nicer day. How about those Reds? Do you think they're going to win tonight? Looking forward to the weekend? Have you worked here long? I can't believe how busy/quiet we are today. could we? How about this weather? ThaoThy’s Talking about current events Did you order this sunshine? Did you catch the news today? Did you hear about that fire on Fourth St? What do you think about this transit strike? I read in the paper today that the Sears Mall is closing. Can I ask where you got it? How old's your baby? What's your puppy's name? The tulips are sure beautiful at this time of year. How do you like the new park? Nice day to be outside.