This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
which usually refer to all chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, flax, etc. There are some man made fibers names given: 1. Acetate Fiber 2. Nylon fiber 3. Polyester fiber 4. Ceramic fiber 5. Carbon fiber 6. Spandex fiber 7. Viscose rayon fiber 8. Glass fiber 9. Silicon carbide fiber 10. Stainless steel fiber 11. Acrylic fiber 12. Modacrylic fiber
Therefore. also called nylon 66. USA. Nylon fibres are now used to make many synthetic fabrics.Nylon Fiber: Nylon is a synthetic polymer. The most common variant is nylon 6. It was the first synthetic fibre to be made entirely from inorganic ingredients: coal. du Pont de Nemours and Company of Wilmington. nylon is a condensation polymer made of repeating units with amide linkages between them: hence it is frequently referred to as a polyamide. most commonly hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid (a dicarboxylic acid). These are formed into two intermediate chemicals. invented on February 28. The diacid and diamine units alternate in the polymer chain.6. unlike natural polyamides like proteins. 1935 by Wallace Carothers at the E. .I. a plastic. which refers to the fact that both the diamine and the diacid have 6 carbon backbones. a nylon bristle toothbrush made with nylon yarn (went on sale on February 24. and solid nylon is used as an engineering material. Delaware. water and air. The material was announced in 1938 and the first nylon products. 1940). the direction of the amide bond reverses at each bond. Chemically. 1938) and more famously. which are then mixed to polymerise. women's stockings (went on sale on May 15.
Some knitters also complain that the fiber "squeaks" . To be called acrylic in the U. The disadvantages of acrylic are that it tends to fuzz or pill easily and that it does not insulate the wearer as well as wool or cashmere. chemicals. and is very resistant to deterioration from sunlight exposure. and it isn't as warm as alternatives like wool. oils. due to the similar feeling of the materials. static and pilling can be a problem. Acrylic has recently been used in clothing as a less expensive alternative to cashmere. The fiber requires heat to "block" or set the shape of the finished garment.S. use this fiber to create the illusion of cashmere. Many products.Acrylic Fiber: Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100. like fake pashmina or cashmina. soft. Its fibers are not very resilient. and wrinkle easily. about 1900 monomer units.000. Acrylic is colored before it is turned into a fiber as it does not dye very well but has excellent colorfastness. Acrylic is lightweight. but most acrylic fabrics have good wrinkle resistance. acrylic yarn may be perceived as "cheap" because it is typically priced lower than its natural counterparts. However. The Dupont Corporation created the first acrylic fibers in 1941 and trademarked them under the name "Orlon". with a wool-like feel. Acrylic is resistant to moths. and warm. Acrylic has a bad reputation amongst many crafters who knit or crochet. Typical comonomers are vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate. the polymer must contain at least 85% acrylonitrile monomer.
On the other hand. which require constant washing. like garments for babies. .when knitted. it can be useful in certain items. because it is machine-washable.
and nowadays SiC is widely used in hightemperature/high-voltage semiconductor electronics. Most often it is used as an abrasive. is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC. Large single crystals of silicon carbide can be grown by the Lely method. . Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics which are widely used in applications requiring high endurance. Silicon carbide powder has been mass-produced since 1893 for use as an abrasive. The simplest manufacturing process is to combine silica sand and carbon in an Acheson graphite electric resistance furnace at a high temperature. It occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. such as car brakes. Electronic applications of silicon carbide as light emitting diodes and detectors in early radios were first demonstrated around 1907. and more recently as a semiconductor anddiamond simulant of gem quality.g. Silicon carbide with high surface area can be produced from SiO2contained in plant material. they can be cut into gems known as "synthetic moissanite". Fine SiO2 particles in plant material (e. silicon carbide is typically man-made. rice husks) can be converted to SiC by heating in the excess carbon from the organic material. between 1600 and 2500 °C. Due to the rarity of natural moissanite. also known as carborundum.Silicon Carbide Fiber: Silicon carbide (SiC). car clutches andceramic plates in bulletproof vests.
In graphite the carbon atoms are arranged into big sheets of hexagonal aromatic rings. hence the name carbon fiber. Graphite is a form of pure carbon. Bunches of these ribbons like to pack together to form fibers. These fibers aren't used by themselves. they're used to reinforce materials like epoxy resins and other thermosetting materials. We call these reinforced materials composites because they have more than one component. Carbon fiber is a form of graphite in which these sheets are long and thin. You might think of them as ribbons of graphite. Figure 1 bag made by acetate fiber . The sheets look like chicken wire.Carbon Fiber: Carbon fiber is a polymer which is a form of graphite. Instead.
Polyester Fiber: Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. bed sheets. such as in the cutin of plant cuticles. Polyesters include naturally-occurring chemicals. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable. coated fabrics and plastic . the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Industrial polyester fibers. but most synthetic polyesters are not. as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. however the most common polyesters are thermoplastics. Although there are many polyesters. safety belts. blankets and upholstered furniture. yarns and ropes are used in tyre reinforcements. fabrics for conveyor belts. from shirts and pants to jackets and hats. Fabrics woven from polyester thread or yarn are used extensively in apparel and home furnishings. Depending on the chemical structure polyester can be a thermoplastic or thermoset.
. comforters and upholstery padding.reinforcements with high-energy absorption. Polyester fiber is used as cushioning and insulating material in pillows.
They have outstanding resistance to chemicals and solvents. In 1960 the Federal Trade Commission decided to separate the two fibers and establish a category for each.Modacrylic Fiber: A modacrylic is a synthetic copolymer. Commercial production of modacrylic fiber began in 1949 by Union Carbide Corporation in the United States . furlike outerwear. Among their uses are in apparel linings. . and dimensionally stable. scatter rugs. and are nonallergenic. and are quick to dry. They can be easily dyed. and work clothing and as hair in wigs. strong. are not attacked by moths or mildew. Modacrylic and acrylic fibers are similar in composition and at one time were in the same category. resilient. Modacrylics are soft. carpets. show good press and shape retention. paint-roller covers.
Brand names associated with Spandex include Lycra (made by Invista. It is apolyurethane-polyurea copolymer that was invented in 1959 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro. The name "Spandex" is an anagram of the word "expands". Linel (Fillattice). Creora (Hyosung).Spandex Fiber: Spandex. and exercise apparel. and ESPA (Toyobo).It is the preferred name in North America.glove . Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fibre known for its exceptional elasticity. its major non-synthetic competitor. ROICA and Dorlastan (Asahi Kasei). It is stronger and more durable than rubber.ski pants. bra straps and side panels . netball bodysuits. it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry. Virginia. wetsuits. aerobic. in many European countries it is referred to as "elastane". previously a part of DuPont). . competitive swimwear. Major spandex fiber uses: Athletic. swimsuits/bathing suits. Elaspan (also Invista's). When first introduced.
Although it might be assumed that the fiber is weak in compression.Glass Fiber: Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP). . because a typical fiber is long and narrow. Therefore if a collection of fibers can be arranged permanently in a preferred direction within a material. also known as glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP). across its axis. It is also known as GFK (for Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff).e. the glass fiber is unstiff and unstrong in shear²that is. or simply by the name of the reinforcing fibers themselves: fiberglass. it buckles easily. then that material will become preferentially strong in that direction. along its axis.. An individual structural glass fiber is both stiff and strong in tension and compression²that is. On the other hand. is a fiber reinforced polymer made of a plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers made of glass. and if the fibers can be prevented from buckling in compression. i. it is actually only the long aspect ratio of the fiber which makes it seem so.
although no longer produced in the United States.Acetate Fiber: ACETATE is not a strong fiber but can be extruded into fibers of different diameter and woven into fabrics that have the luxurious look of silk but do not wear like silk. their chemical compounds differ. Remember. Acetate does not absorb moisture readily but dries fast and resists shrinking. acetate in nail polish and nail polish remover will melt acetate as will alcohol so take care with perfumes and nail products including SuperGlue. Triacetate is an improved acetate fabric which doesn¶t melt as easier and is easier to care for. . although they are similar. contain a higher ratio of acetate-to-cellulose than do acetate fibers. Acetate fiber is known as modified or secondary acetate having two or more hydroxyl groups. Acetate and triacetate are mistakenly referred to as the same fiber. Triacetate is known as a generic description or primary acetate containing no hydroxyl group. Triacetate fibers. This is a resilient fabric that resists wrinkling in addition to being pliable and soft with a good drape.
if you pre-wash rayon fabric prior to construction of the garment. Rayon does not melt but burns at high temperatures.Viscose Rayon Fiber: RAYON. and has a smooth. from cellulose. has a soft. Rayon is strong. Rayon will wrinkle easily and may stretch when wet and shrink when washed. comes in a variety of qualities and weights. extremely absorbent. napped. a natural cellulose fiber. Like silk. or bulky surface. . and can be made to resemble natural fabrics. has many of the qualities of cotton. you have a washable garment. Technological advancemnts to the rayon process have produced high wet modulus [HWM] rayons such as lyocell and modal which makes fabric less prone to stretch when damp or wet. Washable rayon will state the care on the fabric label. silky hand. Rayon drapes well.
stainless steel fibre. We have types of Hooked Ends.Stainless Steel Fiber: Supplying concrete fibres. Flat Ends and Micro steel fiber etc. for reinforcement of concrete. Steel fibres are filaments of wire. It is often used to instead of Xorex steel fiber. mainly Metallic fibres. mortar and other composite materials. . Corrugation. deformed and cut to lengths. It is a cold drawn wire fibre with corrugated and flatted shape. Metallic fibres include low carbon cold drawing steel fibres. and sheet steel fibres etc.
They provide excellent insulation at high temperature.Ceramic Fiber: Ceramic Fiber is an aluminosilicate based refractory fiber. and resist corrosive chemicals such as commonly used acids and alkalis. . It resists temperature as high as 2300º F. CeraTex products are lightweight with very low thermal conductivity. white and odorless.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.