# 2010

**FERMI ENERGY LEVEL
**

CONCEPTS

IES material

[Type text]

Mukund Bihari ASE ,TCS biharimukund@gmail.com 08882215887

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FERMI ENERGY Also known as CHARACTERISTIC ENERGY. Unit- eV It is defined as the max. energy possessed by an electron at 0K. Fermi energy is also defined as max. kinetic energy possessed by an electron at 0K. It is also defined as the possessed energy by the fastest moving electron at 0K. EF = max. K.E. EF =0.5m(vmax)2 Max. velocity of electron , Vmax = (2Ef/m)1/2 FERMI – DIRAC FUNCTION → f(E) Also known as FERMI DIRAC PROBABILITY. In a semiconductor or metal f(E)=

1 1+e(E-Ef)/kT)

Fermi-Dirac function indicates the probability of electron existing has a function of energy. In formula of f(E) , E = energy possessed by an electron in eV

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** If T = 0K We get conditions below 1 E > EF
**

, f(E)

=

1+e∞

f(E) = 0 E < EF ,

1

f(E) =

1+e--∞

f(E) = 1 If T ≠ 0K If E = EF

,f(E)

=

1

1+e0

f(E) = 0.5 = 50% Fermi level energy is also defined as the probability of existing is 50 % , if forbidden energy band does not exist. In metal Fermi –Dirac function f(E) = 1 or 100% In a semiconductor of an electron existing is given by f(E) and the probability of hole existing is given by 1-f(E).

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FERMI LEVEL IN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR The Intrinsic semiconductor n=p Nc e-(Ec-Ef)/kT = Nv e-(Ef-Ev)/kT NC/NV = e (Ec+Ev-2Ef)/kT (Ec+Ev – 2Ef)/kT = ln (Nc/Nv) EF = (Ec+Ev)/2 – kT/2 ln (Nc/Nv) ---------------[1] In Intrinsic semiconductor Fermi level depends on Temp CASE I Let mn = mp Then Nc = Nv Now , EF = (EC + EV)/2 The Fermi level exist at the center of forbidden energy gap

CB

EC EF

VB

EV

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CASE II Let T = 0K Eqn [1] will become EF = (Ec+Ev)/2

In Intrinsic Semiconductor , Fermi level exist exactly at the center of forbidden energy band when If mn = mp When T = 0K At T = 0K , electron concentration and hole concentrations is zero and conductivity is zero and Intrinsic semiconductor at 0K is a perfect insulator.

CB

EC EF EF

VB

At 0K

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**CASE III At T = 300K EF = (Ec+EV)/2 – kT/2 ln (Nc/NV) Electron conc. = Hole conc. EF Because of electron concentration
**

VB Hole Concentration CB Electron Concentration

**and concentration .There will be a conductivity in intrinsic semiconductor at room temperature. CASE IV
**

T > 300K CB

T = 300K

Position of Fermi level at different temp. T > 300K As temp. increases electron concentration Increases & the hole concentration Increases & therefore conductivity Increases. In intrinsic semiconductor σ ↑ temp. ↑.

VB T = 300K

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FERMI LEVEL IN n –TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR

n = ND NC e-(Ec-Ef)/kT = ND Nc/ND = e(Ec-Ef)/kT ln(NC/ND) = (Ec – EF)/kT Ec – EF = kT ln(NC/ND) EF = Ec – kT ln(NC/ND).

In n-Type semiconductor , Fermi Level depends on temp. and doping concentration. Case I If T = 0K , then EF = EC. EF coincides with EC

CB

EC = EF ED

EV

VB

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Electron conc. and holes conc. is zero. The n-type semiconductor at 0 K is an INSULATOR. Case II If T = 300K EF = EC – kT ln(NC/ND). In n-type semiconductor , Fermi level exist just below the donor energy level.

EC

CB Electron concentration

ED

EC

At 300K

EF

+

CB VB

EV Hole concentration

VB At 300K

ED

EF

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**CASE III EC – EF = kT ln(NC/ND). Let Temp.↑
**

T > 300K 300k

Let NC ↑ and NC > ND EC – EF > 0 » E C > EF As temp. ↑ , n-type semiconductor , EF moves away from CB or EF moves towards the center of energy gap. Hence σ ↓ temp. ↑.

At curie temp. the Fermi level exist at the center of energy gap.

Let doping ↑

Let ND and ND > NC EC - EF < 0 As doping ↑ , n-type semiconductor EF moves into CB or EF is away from the center of the energy gap.Hence , σ increasing with doping. In n-type semiconductor upward shift.

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as doping increases Fermi-level takes

In a highly doped n-type semiconductor or highly (doped) degenerative n –type semiconductor , the Fermi level lies in the conduction band.

CB Electron concentration Electron EC ED concentration

EC

EV

Hole concentration

EV VB

Hole concentration

N+ semiconductor at 300K CASE IV Shift in the position of EF of N-type semiconductor w.r.t the center of the enery gap. Or Shift in the position of EF of N-type semiconductor due to doping is given by Shift = KT loge(ND/ni) eV Shift = KT loge(n/ni) eV

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FERMI – LEVEL IN P - TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR P ≈ NA NV e (Ef-Ev)/kT = NA NV/ NA = e (Ef-Ev)/kT ln(NV/ NA ) = (EF – EV)/kT

EF = EV + kT ln(NV/ NA )

In the P – type semiconductor, Fermi-level is a function of temp. and doping concentration. CASE I

CB

**At T = 0K EF = Ev At 0K , electron concentration and hole concentration are zero
**

VB At 0K

EC

EV = EF

& therefore conductivity is zero And p-type semiconductor will work as INSULATOR.

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CASE II T = 300K It means that semiconductor Fermi-level exist just above the acceptor energy level. Hole conc. > electron conc.

CB

Electron concentration

VB

Hole concentration

**CASE III EF - EV = kT ln(NV/ NA ) As Temp ↑ Let NV ↑ & NV > NA EF - EV > 0 » E F > EV
**

EA

VB CB

EC

T > 300K

T = 300K

In p-type semiconductor as Temp. ↑ EF moves away from VB or EF moves towards the center of the energy gap.

Hence σ ↓ with temp.↑

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As doping ↑ In p-type semiconductor at curie temp. Fermi-Level exists at the center of energy gap i.e. NA ↑ & let NA > NV EF - EV < 0 » E F < EV

As doping ↑ , in p-type semiconductor , EF moves into the VB or EF will be shifting away from the center of energy gap. Hence , in p-type semiconductor σ↑ with doping ↑. In a highly doped p-type semiconductor or highly degenerative p-type semiconductor Fermi-Level exist in the valency band.

CB

electron concentration

EC EV Hole concentration

EA EV

VB

At 300K P+ semiconductor at 300K

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In p-type semiconductor as doping increases Fermi-Level takes downward shift. CASE IV Shift in the position of EF p-type semiconductor due to doping or shift in the position of EF of p-type semiconductor w.r.t. EF of intrinsic semiconductor is given by

CB

Shift = kT ln(NA / ni) eV Shift = kT ln(p / ni) eV

EA

shift

VB

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When doping is suddenly introduced in a semiconductor : In an INTRINSIC semiconductor , at first the conductivity decreases and thereafter the conductivity increases with doping.

In beginning , conductivity falls because when doping is introduced few charge carrier are created and therefore the mean path of electrons and holes get reduced .Therefore the conductivity decreases . And when semiconductor enters into steady state the conductivity σ increases(↑) with the doping(↑).

When ND and NA semiconductor :

doping are simultaneously introduced into the

In an INTRINSIC semiconductor , if donor and acceptor impurities are simultaneously introduced then i. ii. iii. ND > NA------semiconductor turns n-type NA > ND -----semiconductor turns p-type NA = ND-----semiconductor remains intrinsic

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LOW LEVEL INJECTION If the concentration of minority carriers is negligible when compared to the concentration of majority carrier , the semiconductor is under low level injection. When minority carrier are introduced into the semiconductor , these will be moving from higher concentration to lower concentration and this minority carrier flow due to diffusion . Under low level injection hole drift

Minority carrier concentration

n-type n≈1016 cm-3 n >> ni

current is negligible when compared to hole diffusion current. Hence , under low level injection minority carrier current s only due to diffusion.

WHEN LIGHT FALL ON A SEMICONDUCTOR When light falls on a semiconductor minority carrier are generated . The photon energy will ionize the covalent bond and equal no. of electrons and holes are generated.Therefore under steady state condition ∆n = ∆p The minority carrier so created moves from higher concentration to lower concentration and therefore this minority carrier moves under diffusion.

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When light falls on n-type semiconductor there are two components of current: 1. Hole drift current 2. Hole diffusion current(dominating over hole drift current) The generation rate of minority carriers in n-type semiconductor is dp

=

excess hole generated Minority carrier (hole) life time

dx Unit : e-h pair/cm3/sec

When light is focused on the n-type semiconductor , the rate of generation minority carrier is given by following : p0 denotes hole concentration under thermal equilibrium in n-type semiconductor. (p-p0) (p-p0)e-x/lp

Excess hole concentration

**Lp Light is Light is turned ON
**

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turned OFF

The length of diffusion of the hole is defined as the distance into the semiconductor in which the injected concentration falls to 1/e of its peak value. If the distance x is slightly greater than Lp .The excess hole concentration will be reduce to zero.

PHOTOCONDUCTORS

They are also called PHOTORESISTORS. When light falls on a semiconductor , its conductivity increases or its resistivity decreases. When light falls on a semiconductor, the photon energy will ionize the covalent bond.Therefore σ ↑ as or ρ ↓. The property due to which σ increases with the light is called PHOTOCONDUCTIVE EFFECT. The property due to which the resistivity(ρ) of the material decreases with light is called PHOTORESISTIVE EFFECT. Photoconductive effect is also called photoresistive effect. If electrons are excited from valance band to conduction band , it is INTRINSIC EXCITATION.

Minimum photon energy required for intrinsic excitation = Energy Gap.

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**According to photon energy equation
**

CB

EC2 =hμ = hc/λ

For intrinsic excitation hμ = EC2

VB

EC2

A photon energy can excite an electron from donor energy level into conduction band in the n-type semiconductor OR photon energy can excite from valance band into acceptor energy level in the p-type semiconductor .This phenomenon is known as EXTRINSIC EXCITING. For extrinsic excitation the minimum photon energy required is 0.01 eV → Ge 0.05 eV → Si

CB

CB

EC ED EA EV

VB VB

n-type

p-type

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WAVELENGTH OF RADIATING LIGHT

λ = 1.24/EC2 μm

The response curve of Ge and Si material response

**When compared to Si , Ge is more sensitive to light. wavelength of visible light is in range of 0.38 μm to 0.76 μm.
**

1.2

Si Ge

1.7

λ

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