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You are on page 1of 63

• Logistical details

• What you’ve (hopefully) done so far

• What we’re going to do: outline of the course

Logistics

Prof. Douglas Natelson

Office: Space Sciences Bldg., Rm. 329

Phone: x3214

E-mail: natelson@rice.edu

Problem sets: mostly weekly, handed out Wednesday due following

Wednesday. (45% of grade)

First paper (25%)

Second paper (25%)

Participation (5%)

Course webpage: https://owlspace-ccm.rice.edu/portal/site/phys534

More logistics

Text: no specific text. There will be some written lecture notes, as

well as handouts based on a number of books. Also a large number

of papers. I’m working on a textbook for this course and 533. If by

some miracle I am able to get draft sections into workable form this

semester, I’ll hand them out accordingly.

Goal: to make you literate about the physics of nanostructures and

their current and future roles in technology, to the point where you at

least know what to consider and where to look for more information.

Class size may mean that we can have more discussions and less

pure lecturing.

Assignments will include readings of papers so that we can talk

about them in class, as well as some very brief written assignments

(paragraph-length).

What you’ve done so far

Review of condensed matter physics

Band theory

Electronic properties of bulk solids

Finite size effects for quantum systems

Physical electronics - industry demands

Semiclassical

Quantum effects: Tunneling, Landauer-Buttiker

Nanoelectronics

Nanoscale FETs

Single electron devices

Molecular electronics

What you’ve done so far

Magnetism and electronics - industry demands

Domains

Couplings between magnetism and current

Nanomagnetism

GMR, TMR, MRAM

What we’re going to do:

Physical optics

Photonics

Nanophotonics

Continuum mechanics

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)

Fluid mechanics

Micro- and nanofluidic devices

Integrated nanosystems: nanobiotechnology, sensors

nanoscale lead to very exciting commercial and scientific possibilities.

Physical optics

Refresher about E&M field propagation and effects of interfaces:

• Bragg reflectors, dielectric mirrors, optical waveguides (fibers)

• Basics of lasers

• Evanescent waves, near-field effects, plasmons

Photonics

Photonics and optoelectronics - industrial needs

• Semiconductor lasers

• Resonators

• Interferometers and optical switching

Oxford University Mat. Sci.

http://www.physik.uni-osnabrueck.de

Photonics

Photonics

Photonics: near-field

Near-field + evanescent fields for patterning and imaging well

below the diffraction limit.

Univ. of Kansas

Bell Labs

Photonics: “superresolution”

Photonics: plasmons

Sub-wavelength metal

nanoparticles or metal surface

patterns exhibit plasmon

resonances.

These lead to:

• remarkable optical properties

• local concentrations of

electric field intensity

• possibility for controlled

manipulation of optical energy

at small scales.

Halas lab

Photonics: novel spectroscopies

Jiang et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 9964 (2003)

Nanostructured metals

• Colloids

• Nearly-complete nanoshells

• Nanoscale electrodes

Small gaps in metal surfaces ->

dramatically enhanced local electric

fields when illuminated.

Raman intensity ~ |E|4

Result: enhancements of Raman

scattering by up to 1012 (!)

Photonics: superlenses and metamaterials

• “Invisibility cloaks”.

Continuum mechanics

• Bending of beams; torsion of rods

• When should continuum theory break down?

θ(x)

x

MEMS / NEMS

Commercial application: accelerometers

MEMS / NEMS

Commercial application: gyroscopes

micromechanical devices.

MEMS / NEMS

MEMS / NEMS

Fundamental science:

• Quantum forces

• Quantum limits on resonators +

damping

• True quantum mechanics.

MEMS / NEMS

Fundamental science:

• Quantum forces

• Quantum limits on resonators +

damping

• True quantum mechanics.

UCSB

MEMS / NEMS

Falvo et al., Phys. Rev. B 62 R10665 (2000)

Fundamental science:

• Origins of friction

• Superlubricity (!)

no friction

friction

Fluid mechanics

• Basic fluid mechanics

• Viscosity and laminar flow: “Life at low Reynolds number”

Microfluidic devices

Combine micro / nanofabrication capabilities and fluids to

contrl fluid flows on very small length scales.

Very low Reynolds numbers = extremely laminar flow.

Microfluidic devices

nanoscale quantities of fluids.

Microfluidic devices

pumps, etc. using

elastomers and

microfabrication.

Result: “Lab-on-a-chip”

capabilities.

Microfluidic devices

Craighead group, Cornell

Takayama et al., Nature 411, 1016 (2001)

manipulation of individual macromolecules, etc.

Nanoscale fluid manipulation

• No-slip condition at walls?

• Breakdown of continuous medium properties in confined

geometries?

Soong et al., Science 290, 1555 (2000)

Nanobiotechnology

Combine top-down

nanofabrication (Ni wires,

SiO2 posts) with biochemical

tools (histadine tags, F1-

ATPase biomolecular motor).

Result: ATP-powered

“propellers”.

Nanobiotechnology

http://golgi.harvard.edu/branton/index.htm

do single-strand DNA and RNA sequencing.

Nanobiotechnology Zheng et al., Nature Biotech. 23, 1294 (2006)

http://golgi.harvard.edu/branton/index.htm

Summary:

We’re going to look at several other areas of technology, and see where

the ability to manipulate matter on the nm scale is increasing our

capabilities and understanding.

These include:

• Photonics

• Micro-and nanomechanics

• Microfluidics

• Nanobiotechnology

Will conclude with some overview and perspective on nanotechnology.

Next time:

Light at interfaces

Physical optics

Fourier analysis and dispersion

Boundary conditions and interfaces

Total internal reflection

Evanescent waves

Microscopics of media: dispersion

Diffraction

The near-field

Maxwell’s equations (no sources)

∂

∇×E = − μH ∇ ⋅ μH = 0

∂t

∂

∇ × H = εE ∇ ⋅ εE = 0

∂t

Combining these quickly gives wave equations for the fields:

∂ ∂

∇ × (∇ × E) = ∇ × (− μH ) ∇ × (∇ × H ) = ∇ × ( εE)

∂t ∂t

∂ ∂

= −μ (∇ × H ) =ε (∇ × E)

∂t ∂t

∂ 2E ∂ 2H

= − με 2 = − με 2

∂t ∂t

Recall: ∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇(∇ ⋅ A) − ∇ 2 A

∂ 2E ∂ 2H

For uniform media, ∇ E = με 2

2

∇ H = με 2

2

∂t ∂t

Wave equations

∂ 2E ∂ 2H

∇ E = με 2

2

∇ H = με 2

2

∂t ∂t

These are wave equations. For uniform media, the solutions consistent

with these and Maxwell’s equations are plane waves.

Let’s start in the linear world, where we believe in superposition. Then

we can break down any general solution into Fourier components:

∂

We can then translate differential operations into algebra: → −iω

∂t

Plugging into our wave equations, we see ∇ → ik

Phase velocity and field strengths

(−k + μεω )E 0k e

2 2 i ( k ⋅r −ωt )

=0 (−k 2 + μεω 2 )H 0k ei (k ⋅r −ωt ) = 0

of the waves:

ω 1 1

vp ≡ = In vacuum, vp → =c

k με μ 0ε 0

με c

Define index of refraction, n ≡ ⇒ vp =

μ 0ε 0 n

Can use Faraday’s law to relate E0k and H0k:

1 ε k ε

→ H 0k = k × E 0k = × E 0k = eˆ k × E 0k

μω μ k μ

Field directions (uniform media)

Gauss’ law: ∇ ⋅ εE = 0 → k ⋅ E 0k = 0

electric field

magnetic field

oriented along y-axis (x-axis). Wave propagates in +z direction.

Complex vectors

From our notation, you’ve already guessed that E0k and H0k are

complex vectors, where each cartesian component is complex, and

the physical field is the real part of the complex vector.

For example,

E 0k e − iωt = ( E x xˆ + E y e i (π / 2 ) yˆ )e − iωt

So, at ωt = 0, the (real part of the) field points along x.

At ωt = π/2, the field points along +y.

E 0k (t ) = E x cos(ωt )xˆ + E y sin(ωt )yˆ

With different magnitudes Ex and Ey, this is elliptically

polarized light.

Superposition

superposition of plane waves. Starting from a given electric field

at t = 0, and using the properties of Fourier series,

2

3/ 2 ∫

−ik ⋅r 3

E 0k + E =

*

0 −k E (r , 0 ) e d r

(2π )

Knowing direction of propagation, can then pick out Fourier

terms we care about, and figure out the future configuration of

the wave:

1

3 / 2 ∫ 0k

i ( k ⋅r −ω ( k ) t ) 3

E(r, t ) = E e d k

(2π )

Group velocity and dispersion

Consider a generic wave built up from components this way:

1

3/ 2 ∫

ψ (r,0) = A(k ) e ik ⋅r 3

d k

(2π )

We want to time-evolve this:

1

3/ 2 ∫

i ( k ⋅r −ω ( k ) t ) 3

ψ (r, t ) = A(k ) e d k

(2π )

Obviously, if ω is proportional to k, then the whole shape of

ψ has just been translated by a distance ωt/k.

If ω depends on k, and the wavepacket is “localized” around

some k0, we can Taylor expand:

ω (k ) ≈ ω (k 0 ) + (k − k 0 ) ⋅ ∇ kω k

0

= ω 0 + (k − k 0 ) ⋅ v g

Group velocity and dispersion

1 i ( k ⋅r − (ω 0 + v g ⋅( k −k 0 ) t )) 3

3/ 2 ∫

ψ (r, t ) ≈ A (k ) e d k

(2π )

i ( v g ⋅k 0 −ω 0 ) t 1

3/ 2 ∫

ik ⋅( r − v g t ) 3

=e A ( k ) e d k

(2π )

i ( v g − v p )⋅k 0t

=e ψ (r − v g t ,0)

So, the envelope of the wave moves forward at velocity vg.

The individual components move with their phase velocity.

Poynting’s theorem and vector

Start from Ampere’s law and dot with E:

∂

E ⋅ (∇ × H ) = E ⋅ J + E ⋅ εE

∂t

Note: ∇ ⋅ (E × H ) = H ⋅ (∇ × E) − E ⋅ (∇ × H )

1 ∂

H ⋅ (∇ × E) − ∇ ⋅ (E × H ) = E ⋅ J + E ⋅ εE

2 ∂t

Plugging in Faraday’s law,

∂ 1 ∂

H ⋅ ( − μH ) − ∇ ⋅ ( E × H ) = E ⋅ J + E ⋅ εE

∂t 2 ∂t

Rearranging,

1 ∂ 1 ∂

∇ ⋅ (E × H ) = −E ⋅ J − E ⋅ εE − H ⋅ μH

2 ∂t 2 ∂t

1

1 EH ≡ H ⋅ μH

S ≡ E× H EE ≡ E ⋅ εE 2

Poynting vector 2 electric energy magnetic

density energy density

Energy densities

Evaluating this for the plane wave case, we have to remember

that it’s the real parts of the complex fields that matter.

In free space,

ε ⎛1

2

1

( ) ⎞

EE ≡ E ⋅ ε 0 E = 0 ⎜ E0k ei (k ⋅r −ωt ) + E*0k e −i ( k ⋅r −ωt ) ⎟

2 ⎝2

2 ⎠

Ugly! If all we care about, though, is the time-average,

ε0

EE = E0k ⋅ E*0k

4

Same idea for magnetic energy density:

μ0

EH = H 0k ⋅ H *0k

4

Time averaged Poynting vector

⎛1

( ) (

1

) ⎞

S ≡ E × H = ⎜ E 0k ei (k ⋅r −ωt ) + E*0k e −i (k ⋅r −ωt ) × H 0k ei (k ⋅r −ωt ) + H *0k e −i (k ⋅r −ωt ) ⎟

⎝2 2 ⎠

Again, looking just at time average,

S =

1

2

((E0k × H *0k ) + (E*0k × H 0k ))

In free space,

ε

H 0k = eˆ k × E 0k

μ

So,

ε0

S = eˆ k

2

E 0k

μ0

Energy densities and superposition

What about superposing waves with different wavevectors?

General rule: for nonlinear quantities (like energy density), need

to write down full expression for real fields, then square to find

energy densities.

For linear media, we get a bit lucky, and the final answer ends up

looking like:

ε

EE = ∫ 0k 0k k

⋅ * 3

E E d

4

That is, we can find the energy content for each frequency (or

wavevector), and add them. Again, this is something of a

lucky break.

Interactions with media

The previous expressions can be complicated when realistic

media are involved.

We’ll ignore magnetic media, and assume μ → μ 0 .

Potential complications:

• Dielectric “constant” can depend on frequency (dispersion).

• Dielectric “constant” can depend on direction (tensor!).

• Dielectric “constant” can be complex (conductors).

• Dielectric “constant” can be spatially varying (interfaces).

Complex dielectric function

• Remember, a complex ε(ω) just means that polarization

doesn’t have to be in phase with the electric field.

electric field, causing damping.

∞

In general, D(t ) / ε 0 = E(t ) + ∫ f (τ )E(t − τ )dτ

0

Fourier transforming,

D(ω ) = ε (ω )E(ω ),

∞

ε (ω ) / ε 0 = 1 + ∫ f (τ )eiωτ dτ

0

ε (−ω ) = ε * (ω ) ⇒

ε ' (−ω ) = ε ' (ω ), ε ' ' (−ω ) = −ε ' ' (ω )

Kramers-Kronig relations

It is possible to use the analytic properties of ε(ω) (which

come from the causal definition of the dielectric function) to

relate the real and imaginary parts to each other.

The results are: (see Jackson, p. 310ff)

ℑ[ε (ω ) / ε 0 ]

∞

ℜ[ε (ω ) / ε 0 ] = 1 +

1

P∫ dω '

π −∞ ω '−ω

ℜ[ε (ω ) / ε 0 ] − 1

∞

ℑ[ε (ω ) / ε 0 ] = −

1

P∫ dω '

π −∞

ω '−ω

We will see shortly that the imaginary part of ε(ω) is

related to conductivity and absorption. Thus, one can

measure an absorption spectrum and infer dielectric

properties, and vice-versa.

Reflection and refraction at interfaces

ε2 t kt

ε1

i r

ki z=0 kr

Will find appropriate boundary conditions and treat two specific cases.

Reflection and refraction at interfaces

Incident: ε2 t kt

Ei = E 0i e i (k i ⋅r −ωt )

ε1 n

Hi = eˆ k × Ei

μ i

x=0

Reflected: ε1

i ( k r ⋅r −ωt )

E r = E0 r e

ε1 i

Hr = eˆ k × E r r

μ r

ki kr

Et = E 0t ei (k t ⋅r −ωt ) k i = k r = k = ω με1

ε k t = kt = ω με 2

H t = 2 eˆ k × Et

μ t

Boundary conditions

• The tangential component of E must be continuous.

(E0i + E0 r − E0t )× n = 0

(k i × E0i + k r × E0 r − k t × E0t ) ⋅ n = 0

(k i × E0i + k r × E0 r − k t × E0t )× n = 0

TE wave at a single interface +x

ε2 t E kt

Apply cont. of tang. E at x = 0; 0t

n H0t

origin.

Since ki = kr, this immediately gives ε1

that angle of incidence = angle of E0r

reflection. E0i i r

ki H0r kr

Similarly, one finds H0i

ki sin θ i = kt sin θ t

TE wave at a single interface

+x

Using the tang. H condition gives a ε2 t E kt

0t

second equation,

n H0t

E0i n1 cosθ i − E0 r n1 cosθ r = E0t n2 cosθ t

unknowns, and can find the reflected ε1

E0r

and transmitted amplitudes in terms

of the incident amplitude: E0i i r

ki H0r kr

H0i

n1 cosθ i − n2 cosθ t

E0 r = E0 i

n1 cosθ i + n2 cosθ t

2n1 cosθ i

E0 t = E0 i This is an example of a Fresnel formula.

n1 cosθ i + n2 cosθ t

TM wave at a single interface

+x

Can do same thing for case where ε2 t E0t kt

polarization is offset by 90 degrees.

H0t

Can then do any version of n

polarization by superposition….

Skipping to the result,

ε1

H0r

E0i

n cosθ i − n1 cosθ t i r

E0 r = 2 E0 i ki H0i E0r kr

n2 cosθ i + n1 cosθ t

2n1 cosθ i

E0 t = E0 i

n2 cosθ i + n1 cosθ t

wave (for example) with quite different polarization. Remember this….

Percent polarization

frequency by some small amount, Ω. The electric field at some

fixed position from the superposition of the two looks like:

= E (yˆ + zˆ e −iΩt )e −iωt

at a frequency Ω.

A very slow detector will see an average of all polarizations,

and its output would be indistinguishable from one

illuminated by unpolarized light.

Now suppose amplitudes of two frequency components differ

slightly….

Percent polarization and Stokes parameters

1+ p 1− p

E=E yˆ e −iωt + E zˆ e −i (ω + Ω ) t

1+ p2 1+ p2

1− p 2p 1− p

=E yˆ e −iωt + E yˆ e −iωt + E zˆ e −i (ω + Ω )t

1+ p2 1+ p2 1+ p2

I= E y + Ez

2

that it’s equivalent to an unpolarized wave ε 2

Q= E y − Ez

2

containing the fraction (1-p)2/(1+p2) of the μ

energy, while the polarized wave contains

2p/(1+p2) of the energy. ε

U= 2 Re( E *y E z )

μ

Colloquially, the wave has a fractional

polarization of 4p2/(1+p2) in the y-direction. ε

V= 2 Im(E *y E z )

μ

Useful quantities: Stokes parameters

(assuming x-dir. propagation)

Q2 + U 2 + V 2

Fraction of polarized light =

I2

Total internal reflection n1 sin θ i = n2 sin θ t

Returning to waves at interfaces, it’s clear from Snell’s law that

something weird happens when n1 sin θ i > n2 .

The result is total internal reflection; cos θt becomes purely

imaginary. The reflected amplitude is equal to the incident

amplitude (conservation of energy).

The reflected wave picks up a phase shift, though, that depends

on the direction of polarization.

For TE waves,

E0 r ⎧⎪ ⎡ n 2 sin 2 θ − n 2 ⎤ ⎫⎪

⎥ ⎬ = exp(iφTE )

−1

= exp⎨i 2 tan ⎢ 12 i 2

⎢⎣ n1 (1 − sin θ i ) ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

2

E0 i ⎪⎩

For TM waves,

⎧ ⎡ 2

n12 sin 2 θ i − n22 ⎤ ⎫⎪

E0 r ⎪ −1 ⎛ n1 ⎞

= exp⎨i 2 tan ⎢⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬ = exp(iφTM )

⎢⎣⎝ n2 ⎠ n1 (1 − sin θ i ) ⎥⎦ ⎪⎭

2 2

E0 i ⎪⎩

Evanescent waves

S =

1

2

((

E0k × H *0k + E*0k × H 0k ) ( ))

second material are an example of an

i ( k ty y −ωt ) −κx

evanescent wave. Et = Et ẑe

ω 2 2 ε2

medium 2 is ktx = i n1 sin θ i − n22 ≡ iκ Ht = eˆ k × Et zˆ e

i(k ty y −ωt ) −κx

c μ t

= (kty xˆ − iκyˆ ) Et e

i(k

positive root, so that the fields decay μ

exponentially moving into medium 2.

⇒ S t ∝ Et exp(−2κx)yˆ

2

Note: the wave in medium 2 actually

propagates in the y-direction, so there’s

no dissipation here. Look at avg. No average energy flux into

Poynting vector (TE case): medium 2!

θi = 60 degrees gives ~ 600 nm.

Waveguides

optical waveguides (e.g. optical fibers).

There are two basic approaches to analyzing optical waveguide

structures:

• Ray optics (throws out intensity and phase information, but

can be mathematically simpler and revealing sometimes)

• Wave-field method (actually solve Maxwell’s equations,

keeping track of all boundary conditions)

A couple of general points:

n=1.5

n=1

Waveguides n=1.5

n=1

• (Ray optics picture) Because of lateral bounces, longitudinal

propagation (of energy, signals, etc.) is typically slower than just c/n.

• (Wave field picture) Solution to boundary value problem leads to

well-defined modes that are naturally orthogonal. That is, in a

completely linear medium, a waveguide will only pass radiation of

particular wavelengths; furthermore, populating one mode does not

affect propagation in the other modes.

• (Wave field picture) Fields from these modes extend outside the total

internal reflection interface. Placing two waveguides in close

proximity can cause mixing - completely analogous to our work on

quantum wells from last semester.

• Real optical fibers can be very complicated: birefringent; dispersive;

lossy; etc.

Loss

What do we mean by loss? We’ll see a specific case in a minute.

General idea: EM wave does work on something, and that

energy is lost from the EM wave.

Manifests itself as a complex index of refraction. Remember,

ε (ω ) μ

n(ω ) ≡

ε 0μ0

harmonic potential that interacts with the EM wave:

[ ]

m&r& +γr& +ω02r = −eE(r,t)

Can solve for the polarization, assuming N of these per

unit volume:

P=

m

(

Ne 2 2

ω 0 − ω 2 − iωγ ) E

−1

Loss

Dielectric constant is then:

P

ε ≡ ε0 + = ε0 +

E m

(ω 0 − ω 2 − iωγ )

Ne 2 2 −1

Can take square root of this, and look at real and imaginary parts of

k = n(ω) ω /c to find the absorption coefficient.

Real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant look like:

Re[ε]

Im[ε]

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