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Spring Quarter 2010 Physics 1B Class NotesCR

Professor Walter Gekelman


OFFICE PAB 4-907

Democritus 5th century All matter is made of atoms


BC
Aristotle 384-322 4 elements, Earth is a sphere
BC
Archimedes 287-212 Buoyancy, solid geometry
BC (pre calculus)
William of Ockham 1300-1349 No unnecessary assumptions
Nicholas Coperni- 1473-1543 Earth moves around sun
cus
Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 Best data on planets until
then
Johannes Kepler 1571-1660 Analyzed Brahe data, Kep-
lers laws
Issac Newton 1642-1727 3 Force laws, calculus, optics
Charles Coulomb 1736-1806 Force Law of Electricity
Hans Oersted 1777-1851 Electricity and Magnetism are
related
Andre Ampere 1775-1836 Electric Current and Magnetic
Fields
Michael Faraday 1791-1867 Concept of Field, Faraday’s
Law
Boltzman 1844-1906 Statistical mechanics, ther-
modynamics

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James Clerk Max- 1831-1879 Displacement current, Max-
well wells equations
Michelson 1852-1931 Perfected interferometer, dis-
proved aether
Albert Einstein 1879-1955 Relativity, quantum mechan-
ics, Brownian motion, photoe-
lectric effect, etc

THE most general equation of motion is a differential equation and may be written as:
∂2 y ∂y
(1) m 2 + b + ky = F(y,t)
∂t ∂t

The first term is mass times acceleration. The second term is velocity dependent and is
a frictional drag term. The third term is a restoring force which will study when we dis-
cuss springs and the term on the left hand side a forcing or driving term. This would be
present if you consider a child on a swing and once a period you give her a push.

(a) Where does equation (1) come from and what do the terms in it mean?
(b) What are the solutions to (1)
(c) What are problems in the real world that the equation addresses?

The answer to (c) is :Planetary motion, motion of satellites about the earth, pendulums,
motion of springs, electrical circuits, vibrations of molecules, motion of cannonballs and
projectiles, ……

Suppose F(y,t) is a constant and b and k = 0


Then we have what you studies in 1A

∂2 y   1
(1a) m 2 = F = mg with solution y − y0 = v0t − gt 2 . We wont go over this you did it
∂t 2
already.
Suppose k = 0 and F = mg

(1b) since gravity points down

The solution to this equation is:

2
mg ⎛ − ⎞
( ) ( )
bt
 dy
v= - ĵ ; v= 1 − e m
⎟⎠ − ĵ
dt b ⎜⎝
This is the equation of an object with a limiting velocity. A graph of v is shown below

The abscissa is time and the ordinate is velocity. The velocity does not continually in-
crease as it would if the b term (or drag term was missing) but reaches a limit. For ex-
ample if you jumped out of a plane 5 miles up you would not hit the ground at superson-
ics speeds, you limiting velocity would be about 100 MPH. You could do just as well
driving into a wall at that speed.

Suppose that F=0 and b = 0 then we get :


∂2 y
(1c) m 2 + ky = 0 This is the equation of a mass on a spring on a track
∂t

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The surface that the mass is on is frictionless, and k is the spring constant. This is dis-
cussed in the book and we wont reproduce what is there but the key point is that if the
spring is not stretched or compressed there is no force on the mass. The y in the equa-
tion (which might as well be x) is the amount of stretch or compression.

Hookeʼs law (which is an experimental observation by Hooke who studied this)

(2) F = −kx This equation has a solution:


k
(3) x = A cos (ω t ) + Bsin (ω t ) ; or x=A cos (ω t + φ ) where ω =
m

What about work. The definition of work is

b
 
(4) W = ∫ Fid l The force exerted by the spring on the mass is -kx if the spring is
a

stretched in the + x direction. The person doing the stretching must exert and equal
and opposite force kx to stretch the spring thus the work done is

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x
1
(5) U = ∫ kxidx = k(x)2 . in stretching the spring a distance xʼ from its equilibrium po-
0
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sition. From the work energy theorem when one does work W on an object the po-
tential energy, U, increases. The relationship between the energy U and the Force
can be written as:

∂U
(6) = −F(x)
∂x

Consider an energy diagram Let us plot U(x) as a very general curve:

U(x)

minima

x x=x’
Examining the curve we see there are maximaʼs and minimaʼs. Let us do a power se-
ries expansion of U about the minima at xʼ:

∂U 1 2 ∂ U
2
1 3 ∂ U
2
(7) U ( x ) = U ( x ') + ( x − x ') |x = x ' + ( x − x ') |x = x ' + ( x − x ') |x = x ' +....
∂x 2 ∂x 2 6 ∂x 3
This is an infinite series. Suppose we are very close to x=xʼ and we look only at the bot-
∂U
tom of the “potential well” there. Since the bottom is a minima = 0 and
∂x
2 ∂ U ∂2 U ∂
2
1
(8) U ( x ) − U ( x ') ≅ ( x − x ') |
2 x=x '
But from equation (6) = − F(x) = k
2 ∂x ∂x 2
∂x

If the position xʼ corresponds to the place where a spring is not stretched then equation
(8) becomes equation (5). This means that the most general potential shown in the
graph above will describe a spring close to the “bottom” of a minima. The equation kx2 is
that of a parobola so the bottom of the potential well is parabolic.

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Are there any other solu-
tions to the force equation
that give harmonic motion?
Sure, plenty. Another is
the pendulum

The mass m hangs from a


massless rod. The force of
gravity is mg. The tension
in the rod has to balance
mg cosθ . The sideways force is therefore mg sin θ . It is negative because it points in
the negative x direction. It is a restoring force. How do we get an equation of motion?
The force produces an acceleration (sideways)
 ∂ 2θ ∂ 2θ
The torque is given by τ = Iα = I 2 = mL2 2
∂t ∂t
  
( )
but τ = r × F = Lmg sin θ − k̂
The equation of motion is :

∂ 2θ mg
(9) m 2 = − sin θ . Now we must assume that the pendulum moves through a very
∂t L
x ∂2 x x
small angle namely so small that sin θ  θ = , therefore = −g
L ∂t 2
L
k g
Notice that this is exactly the same equation as for the spring with ⇒ . It has to
m L
g
have the same solutions only now ω = . Note the oscillation frequency is inde-
L
pendent of the mass. This is true for small displacements. We must be careful since
we can expand the sine in a power series:

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θ3 θ5
sin θ = θ − + − ...
6 120
Consider the driven system
∂2 y ∂y
(10) m 2 + b + ky = 0
∂t ∂t

We will use Eulerʼs equation to find the general solution to this.

(11) e iθ = cosθ + isin θ ; where i = -1 . (note i2=-1) . We will use this as a general an-
swer and then when we are done take the real ( or imaginary) part. Let y = Ae ist .
Note the angle phi can be positive negative or even imaginary! Substituting 11 into
10 we get:

( )
A −ms 2 + isb + k e ist = 0 . Remember we agreed to take the real part when we are
through so we get a cosine on the left side. When is this always true when:

-ms 2 + isb + k = 0 . The last equation is a quadratic equation and it has an i in but
blindly using the quadratic theorem:

ib 1
s=− ± −b 2 − 4(−m)k
(−2m) (−2m)
ib k b2
s= ± −
(2m) m 4m 2
Therefore :
i2 bt k b2 bt k b2
it − − it −
± ±
(12) y = Ae 2m
e m 4 m2
= Ae 2m
e m 4 m2

Note that since eiθ eiφ = ei(θ + ϕ ) if φ is a constant taking the derivatives in equation 10
bt k b2
− it −
iφ ±
wonʼt affect it and a solution is also y = Ae e 2m
e m 4 m2

Suppose b = 0 then

= Ae iφ e ± iω t ⇒ A cos (ω t + φ )
it
iφ ±
y = Ae e m
This is the same answer we had before.
k b2
When b is not zero, and small such that > the first term is a damping term and
m 4m 2
the second an oscillation (and for simplicity let φ = 0 ):

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bt it
k

b2

bt ⎛ k b2 k b2 ⎞
y = Ae 2m
e± m 4 m2
= Ae 2m
⎜ cos t − + isin t − ⎟
⎝ m 4m 2 m 4m 2 ⎠

Now take the real part:


bt ⎛ k b2 ⎞
(13) y = Ae 2m
⎜ cos t − ⎟ This is a decaying cos (or sine) wave. The plot looks
⎝ m 4m 2 ⎠
like:

bt

This is a sine wave decaying because of the e 2m
factor.
2
k b
If the the two terms in the cosine balance − then the cosine is 1 and the system
m 4m 2
exponentially decays as :

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k b2
This means it does not oscillate. What happens if < . Then the term in the
m 4m 2
square root becomes imaginary! If you go back to Eulerʼs thereom and equation 12
you find that the damping is even faster than critical damping. Try it!

The next case is what happens when the system is driven, that is the is a force on the
right hand side so our equation is:

∂2 y ∂y
(14) m 2 + b + ky = F0 cos (ω ct ) This system is driven and must oscillate at fre-
∂t ∂t
quency ω c .

The solution must be a cosine or a sine at that frequency. The general solution must be

(15) y = A cos (ω ct + φ ) = Re Aei (ω c t + φ )


Substituting this in

Aeiφ = ⎡⎣ −ω c2 m + iω cb + k ⎤⎦ = F0
(16)
A = ⎡⎣ −ω c2 m + iω cb + k ⎤⎦ = F0 e−iφ
Then A (which is complex is

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F0 e−iφ
A = Ar + iAIM =
⎡⎣ −ω c2 m + iω cb + k ⎤⎦

k
We know that the natural frequency of oscillation of the system is ω = . To find the
m
magnitude of A we multiply it by its complex conjugate
A 2 = AA* ; A = AA*
Doing the algebra (try it)
F02
AA =*

⎡ b 2ω c2 ⎤
( )
2
m 2 ⎢ ω 2 − ω c2 +
⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦
We have next to find the phase substituting in 16

ibω c ⎤
F0 ⎡
((
⎢⎣ ω − ω c + m ⎥⎦ = F0 e
2 2
1
−iφ
))
⎡ b 2ω 2 ⎤
( )
2 2
m ⎢ ω 2 − ω 2c +
⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦
But this is of the form

F0
1 [ a + ib ] = F0 e−iφ = F0 ( cos φ − i sin φ )
⎡ b 2ω 2 ⎤
( )
2 2
m ⎢ ω 2 − ω 2c +
⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦

Equating the real and imaginary parts

bω c

tan φ = 2 m 2 To summarize
(
ω − ωc )

F0 ⎡ −ω b / m ⎤ k
(17) A = ; φ = tan −1 ⎢ 2 2 ⎥
; ω=
⎣ω − ω c ⎦
1
m
⎡ b 2ω c2 ⎤
m ⎢(ω − ω c ) +
2 2

⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦

A graph of this taken from the book is:

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Finally: What if we have a complicated Forcing function such as

2
1 ⎛ x⎞
U(x) = kx 2 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ A graph of U(x) is :
2 ⎝ L⎠

We take our equation (1) and must find F. But :


∂U
2
⎛ x⎞ 1 ⎛ x⎞⎛ 1⎞
F=− = −kx ⎜ 1 − ⎟ − kx 2 (2) ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟
∂x ⎝ L⎠ 2 ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠
⎛ x ⎞ ⎧⎛ x⎞ x⎫ ⎛ x⎞⎛ 2x ⎞
F = −kx ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎨⎜ 1 − ⎟ − ⎬ = −kx ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ 1 − ⎟
⎝ L ⎠ ⎩⎝ L⎠ L⎭ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠
T

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This has to be solved numerically. Write a computer program and try it!
b is a frictional term so we know the motion will die down in time. Also if we give the
system enough kinetic energy to start with it will originally will move from one potential
well to another as shown in the plot to the right, the object moves back and forth from
one well to another until it does not have enough energy to get to the left hand well (at
x=-5) and then oscillates back and forth in the right hand well. The friction takes energy
from the system until finally it stops moving and settles at x=20+ which is the well on the
right. If one plots the velocity as a function of time:

The force varies in time The acceleration is

We have to solve this numerically

vnew = vold + adt


This is done by stepping the the velocity according to x = x + v dt ,Suppose ω c = 0
new old new

t = t old + dt

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Finally
sup-
pose
ωc ≠ 0
and the
poten-
tial
does
change
in time.

Let us try a problem of an oscillating system:

Each bar has mass m and they are balanced at right angles. The system is tilted at a
small angle θ . What is the period of oscillation? The mass on the left moves up,
above and the ,mass on the right moves down

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θ π
4

π 1
given θ 0 =
, cosθ 0 = sin θ 0 =
4 2
Since the center of mass of each bar is in the center of the bar and
d 2θ 1
τ = Iα = I 2 ; I= mL2 . Each bar contributes to the torque.
dt 3

L ∂ 2θ 1 2 ∂ 2θ
−mg ⎡⎣sin (θ 0 + θ ) − sin (θ 0 − θ ) ⎤⎦ = 2τ = 2I 2 = 2 mL 2
2 ∂t 3 ∂t
1 2 ∂ 2θ
−g ⎣sin (θ 0 + θ ) − sin (θ 0 − θ ) ⎦ = L 2
⎡ ⎤
2 3 ∂t
expanding the sines using a trig identity:
sin (θ 0 + θ ) = sin θ 0 cosθ + cosθ 0 sin θ
sin (θ 0 − θ ) = sin θ 0 cosθ − cosθ 0 sin θ
1 4 ∂ 2θ
−g2 sin θ = L 2
2 3 ∂t
∂ 2θ 3 3g
= −g sin θ  − θ
∂t 2
2L 2 2L 2

This is the same as a pendulum (or spring oscillation) with

3g
ω=
2L 2

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