11 views

Uploaded by halideacyl

- Coplex Number Formulas
- Calculus Success in 20 Minutes a Day2ndEdition[1]
- Introduction to Structural Mechanics
- SAT IIC
- Circular Function Module 2
- Core 2 Revision Booklet
- 246534946-MATHEMATICS-THEORY-BOOK-for-IIT-JEE.pdf
- 13031(1)
- Determinations of Analogues of Gauss Sums and Other Trigonometric Sums
- EJP 2006 a Sphere Rolling on the Inside Surface of a Cone
- Plane Trigonometry PArt 2
- CHSAM2
- 1b45chap2
- Add Math Rivision
- Crash iit-jee - Trigonometry Combined.pdf
- Mth 123 Proficiency Practice Exam Updated
- Sum of Sines as an AP
- MATH2412-product sum identities.pdf
- Chapter 2 Signals and Systems_student Degree
- Sd 666. Homeworks

You are on page 1of 14

OFFICE PAB 4-907

BC

Aristotle 384-322 4 elements, Earth is a sphere

BC

Archimedes 287-212 Buoyancy, solid geometry

BC (pre calculus)

William of Ockham 1300-1349 No unnecessary assumptions

Nicholas Coperni- 1473-1543 Earth moves around sun

cus

Tycho Brahe 1546-1601 Best data on planets until

then

Johannes Kepler 1571-1660 Analyzed Brahe data, Kep-

lers laws

Issac Newton 1642-1727 3 Force laws, calculus, optics

Charles Coulomb 1736-1806 Force Law of Electricity

Hans Oersted 1777-1851 Electricity and Magnetism are

related

Andre Ampere 1775-1836 Electric Current and Magnetic

Fields

Michael Faraday 1791-1867 Concept of Field, Faraday’s

Law

Boltzman 1844-1906 Statistical mechanics, ther-

modynamics

1

James Clerk Max- 1831-1879 Displacement current, Max-

well wells equations

Michelson 1852-1931 Perfected interferometer, dis-

proved aether

Albert Einstein 1879-1955 Relativity, quantum mechan-

ics, Brownian motion, photoe-

lectric effect, etc

THE most general equation of motion is a differential equation and may be written as:

∂2 y ∂y

(1) m 2 + b + ky = F(y,t)

∂t ∂t

The first term is mass times acceleration. The second term is velocity dependent and is

a frictional drag term. The third term is a restoring force which will study when we dis-

cuss springs and the term on the left hand side a forcing or driving term. This would be

present if you consider a child on a swing and once a period you give her a push.

(a) Where does equation (1) come from and what do the terms in it mean?

(b) What are the solutions to (1)

(c) What are problems in the real world that the equation addresses?

The answer to (c) is :Planetary motion, motion of satellites about the earth, pendulums,

motion of springs, electrical circuits, vibrations of molecules, motion of cannonballs and

projectiles, ……

Then we have what you studies in 1A

∂2 y 1

(1a) m 2 = F = mg with solution y − y0 = v0t − gt 2 . We wont go over this you did it

∂t 2

already.

Suppose k = 0 and F = mg

2

mg ⎛ − ⎞

( ) ( )

bt

dy

v= - ĵ ; v= 1 − e m

⎟⎠ − ĵ

dt b ⎜⎝

This is the equation of an object with a limiting velocity. A graph of v is shown below

The abscissa is time and the ordinate is velocity. The velocity does not continually in-

crease as it would if the b term (or drag term was missing) but reaches a limit. For ex-

ample if you jumped out of a plane 5 miles up you would not hit the ground at superson-

ics speeds, you limiting velocity would be about 100 MPH. You could do just as well

driving into a wall at that speed.

∂2 y

(1c) m 2 + ky = 0 This is the equation of a mass on a spring on a track

∂t

3

The surface that the mass is on is frictionless, and k is the spring constant. This is dis-

cussed in the book and we wont reproduce what is there but the key point is that if the

spring is not stretched or compressed there is no force on the mass. The y in the equa-

tion (which might as well be x) is the amount of stretch or compression.

k

(3) x = A cos (ω t ) + Bsin (ω t ) ; or x=A cos (ω t + φ ) where ω =

m

b

(4) W = ∫ Fid l The force exerted by the spring on the mass is -kx if the spring is

a

stretched in the + x direction. The person doing the stretching must exert and equal

and opposite force kx to stretch the spring thus the work done is

4

x

1

(5) U = ∫ kxidx = k(x)2 . in stretching the spring a distance xʼ from its equilibrium po-

0

2

sition. From the work energy theorem when one does work W on an object the po-

tential energy, U, increases. The relationship between the energy U and the Force

can be written as:

∂U

(6) = −F(x)

∂x

U(x)

minima

x x=x’

Examining the curve we see there are maximaʼs and minimaʼs. Let us do a power se-

ries expansion of U about the minima at xʼ:

∂U 1 2 ∂ U

2

1 3 ∂ U

2

(7) U ( x ) = U ( x ') + ( x − x ') |x = x ' + ( x − x ') |x = x ' + ( x − x ') |x = x ' +....

∂x 2 ∂x 2 6 ∂x 3

This is an infinite series. Suppose we are very close to x=xʼ and we look only at the bot-

∂U

tom of the “potential well” there. Since the bottom is a minima = 0 and

∂x

2 ∂ U ∂2 U ∂

2

1

(8) U ( x ) − U ( x ') ≅ ( x − x ') |

2 x=x '

But from equation (6) = − F(x) = k

2 ∂x ∂x 2

∂x

If the position xʼ corresponds to the place where a spring is not stretched then equation

(8) becomes equation (5). This means that the most general potential shown in the

graph above will describe a spring close to the “bottom” of a minima. The equation kx2 is

that of a parobola so the bottom of the potential well is parabolic.

5

Are there any other solu-

tions to the force equation

that give harmonic motion?

Sure, plenty. Another is

the pendulum

massless rod. The force of

gravity is mg. The tension

in the rod has to balance

mg cosθ . The sideways force is therefore mg sin θ . It is negative because it points in

the negative x direction. It is a restoring force. How do we get an equation of motion?

The force produces an acceleration (sideways)

∂ 2θ ∂ 2θ

The torque is given by τ = Iα = I 2 = mL2 2

∂t ∂t

( )

but τ = r × F = Lmg sin θ − k̂

The equation of motion is :

∂ 2θ mg

(9) m 2 = − sin θ . Now we must assume that the pendulum moves through a very

∂t L

x ∂2 x x

small angle namely so small that sin θ θ = , therefore = −g

L ∂t 2

L

k g

Notice that this is exactly the same equation as for the spring with ⇒ . It has to

m L

g

have the same solutions only now ω = . Note the oscillation frequency is inde-

L

pendent of the mass. This is true for small displacements. We must be careful since

we can expand the sine in a power series:

6

θ3 θ5

sin θ = θ − + − ...

6 120

Consider the driven system

∂2 y ∂y

(10) m 2 + b + ky = 0

∂t ∂t

(11) e iθ = cosθ + isin θ ; where i = -1 . (note i2=-1) . We will use this as a general an-

swer and then when we are done take the real ( or imaginary) part. Let y = Ae ist .

Note the angle phi can be positive negative or even imaginary! Substituting 11 into

10 we get:

( )

A −ms 2 + isb + k e ist = 0 . Remember we agreed to take the real part when we are

through so we get a cosine on the left side. When is this always true when:

-ms 2 + isb + k = 0 . The last equation is a quadratic equation and it has an i in but

blindly using the quadratic theorem:

ib 1

s=− ± −b 2 − 4(−m)k

(−2m) (−2m)

ib k b2

s= ± −

(2m) m 4m 2

Therefore :

i2 bt k b2 bt k b2

it − − it −

± ±

(12) y = Ae 2m

e m 4 m2

= Ae 2m

e m 4 m2

Note that since eiθ eiφ = ei(θ + ϕ ) if φ is a constant taking the derivatives in equation 10

bt k b2

− it −

iφ ±

wonʼt affect it and a solution is also y = Ae e 2m

e m 4 m2

Suppose b = 0 then

= Ae iφ e ± iω t ⇒ A cos (ω t + φ )

it

iφ ±

y = Ae e m

This is the same answer we had before.

k b2

When b is not zero, and small such that > the first term is a damping term and

m 4m 2

the second an oscillation (and for simplicity let φ = 0 ):

7

−

bt it

k

−

b2

−

bt ⎛ k b2 k b2 ⎞

y = Ae 2m

e± m 4 m2

= Ae 2m

⎜ cos t − + isin t − ⎟

⎝ m 4m 2 m 4m 2 ⎠

−

bt ⎛ k b2 ⎞

(13) y = Ae 2m

⎜ cos t − ⎟ This is a decaying cos (or sine) wave. The plot looks

⎝ m 4m 2 ⎠

like:

bt

−

This is a sine wave decaying because of the e 2m

factor.

2

k b

If the the two terms in the cosine balance − then the cosine is 1 and the system

m 4m 2

exponentially decays as :

8

k b2

This means it does not oscillate. What happens if < . Then the term in the

m 4m 2

square root becomes imaginary! If you go back to Eulerʼs thereom and equation 12

you find that the damping is even faster than critical damping. Try it!

The next case is what happens when the system is driven, that is the is a force on the

right hand side so our equation is:

∂2 y ∂y

(14) m 2 + b + ky = F0 cos (ω ct ) This system is driven and must oscillate at fre-

∂t ∂t

quency ω c .

The solution must be a cosine or a sine at that frequency. The general solution must be

Substituting this in

Aeiφ = ⎡⎣ −ω c2 m + iω cb + k ⎤⎦ = F0

(16)

A = ⎡⎣ −ω c2 m + iω cb + k ⎤⎦ = F0 e−iφ

Then A (which is complex is

9

F0 e−iφ

A = Ar + iAIM =

⎡⎣ −ω c2 m + iω cb + k ⎤⎦

k

We know that the natural frequency of oscillation of the system is ω = . To find the

m

magnitude of A we multiply it by its complex conjugate

A 2 = AA* ; A = AA*

Doing the algebra (try it)

F02

AA =*

⎡ b 2ω c2 ⎤

( )

2

m 2 ⎢ ω 2 − ω c2 +

⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦

We have next to find the phase substituting in 16

ibω c ⎤

F0 ⎡

((

⎢⎣ ω − ω c + m ⎥⎦ = F0 e

2 2

1

−iφ

))

⎡ b 2ω 2 ⎤

( )

2 2

m ⎢ ω 2 − ω 2c +

⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦

But this is of the form

F0

1 [ a + ib ] = F0 e−iφ = F0 ( cos φ − i sin φ )

⎡ b 2ω 2 ⎤

( )

2 2

m ⎢ ω 2 − ω 2c +

⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦

bω c

−

tan φ = 2 m 2 To summarize

(

ω − ωc )

F0 ⎡ −ω b / m ⎤ k

(17) A = ; φ = tan −1 ⎢ 2 2 ⎥

; ω=

⎣ω − ω c ⎦

1

m

⎡ b 2ω c2 ⎤

m ⎢(ω − ω c ) +

2 2

⎣ m 2 ⎥⎦

10

Finally: What if we have a complicated Forcing function such as

2

1 ⎛ x⎞

U(x) = kx 2 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ A graph of U(x) is :

2 ⎝ L⎠

∂U

2

⎛ x⎞ 1 ⎛ x⎞⎛ 1⎞

F=− = −kx ⎜ 1 − ⎟ − kx 2 (2) ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟

∂x ⎝ L⎠ 2 ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠

⎛ x ⎞ ⎧⎛ x⎞ x⎫ ⎛ x⎞⎛ 2x ⎞

F = −kx ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎨⎜ 1 − ⎟ − ⎬ = −kx ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎜ 1 − ⎟

⎝ L ⎠ ⎩⎝ L⎠ L⎭ ⎝ L⎠ ⎝ L⎠

T

11

This has to be solved numerically. Write a computer program and try it!

b is a frictional term so we know the motion will die down in time. Also if we give the

system enough kinetic energy to start with it will originally will move from one potential

well to another as shown in the plot to the right, the object moves back and forth from

one well to another until it does not have enough energy to get to the left hand well (at

x=-5) and then oscillates back and forth in the right hand well. The friction takes energy

from the system until finally it stops moving and settles at x=20+ which is the well on the

right. If one plots the velocity as a function of time:

This is done by stepping the the velocity according to x = x + v dt ,Suppose ω c = 0

new old new

t = t old + dt

12

Finally

sup-

pose

ωc ≠ 0

and the

poten-

tial

does

change

in time.

Each bar has mass m and they are balanced at right angles. The system is tilted at a

small angle θ . What is the period of oscillation? The mass on the left moves up,

above and the ,mass on the right moves down

13

θ π

4

π 1

given θ 0 =

, cosθ 0 = sin θ 0 =

4 2

Since the center of mass of each bar is in the center of the bar and

d 2θ 1

τ = Iα = I 2 ; I= mL2 . Each bar contributes to the torque.

dt 3

L ∂ 2θ 1 2 ∂ 2θ

−mg ⎡⎣sin (θ 0 + θ ) − sin (θ 0 − θ ) ⎤⎦ = 2τ = 2I 2 = 2 mL 2

2 ∂t 3 ∂t

1 2 ∂ 2θ

−g ⎣sin (θ 0 + θ ) − sin (θ 0 − θ ) ⎦ = L 2

⎡ ⎤

2 3 ∂t

expanding the sines using a trig identity:

sin (θ 0 + θ ) = sin θ 0 cosθ + cosθ 0 sin θ

sin (θ 0 − θ ) = sin θ 0 cosθ − cosθ 0 sin θ

1 4 ∂ 2θ

−g2 sin θ = L 2

2 3 ∂t

∂ 2θ 3 3g

= −g sin θ − θ

∂t 2

2L 2 2L 2

3g

ω=

2L 2

14

- Coplex Number FormulasUploaded byMohan Khedkar
- Calculus Success in 20 Minutes a Day2ndEdition[1]Uploaded bydangeroussheep
- Introduction to Structural MechanicsUploaded byFaraj Libya
- SAT IICUploaded byWisaruth Maethasith
- Circular Function Module 2Uploaded byArman Pestaño
- Core 2 Revision BookletUploaded byjake1731
- 246534946-MATHEMATICS-THEORY-BOOK-for-IIT-JEE.pdfUploaded bypsingh2701
- 13031(1)Uploaded byngkghef
- Determinations of Analogues of Gauss Sums and Other Trigonometric SumsUploaded byapi-26401608
- EJP 2006 a Sphere Rolling on the Inside Surface of a ConeUploaded byluis199555
- Plane Trigonometry PArt 2Uploaded byMaria Lourven Abraham
- CHSAM2Uploaded byJASON_INGHAM
- 1b45chap2Uploaded byRoy Vesey
- Add Math RivisionUploaded bydamiwadihah
- Crash iit-jee - Trigonometry Combined.pdfUploaded byAnonymous vRpzQ2BL
- Mth 123 Proficiency Practice Exam UpdatedUploaded byYb Andik Adi Cahyono
- Sum of Sines as an APUploaded byKuldeep Lamba
- MATH2412-product sum identities.pdfUploaded byManuel Alexander Jauregui Bonifacio
- Chapter 2 Signals and Systems_student DegreeUploaded byPei Xin Cheong
- Sd 666. HomeworksUploaded bysimon maaakla
- MathsPaper2QuestionCalc_JUNE2014Uploaded bykaruneshn
- em11Uploaded byMauro Pérez
- Math Bank 6Uploaded byRavi Prakash Jadhav
- SAT Subject Math Level 2 FactsUploaded bySalvador
- Placement QnsUploaded byManjunath Mohite
- Question Bank 1_2013-14Uploaded byAllanki Sanyasi Rao
- NOV 2016 P2 MEMO.pdfUploaded byrowan chibi
- 25678015Uploaded byMonal Bhoyar
- UntitledUploaded byapi-139761950
- Rpet Maths 98Uploaded byMahboob Hassan

- Characteristics of Surface Acoustic Waves in (100) AlN/64oYX-LiNbO3 StructuresUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Complex NumbersUploaded byCollegebuddy New
- MATH F112-Handout (3)Uploaded bysaurabharpit
- Cntrl SystemsUploaded bymafzalsial
- Applied Mathematics IIUploaded byAnubHav YadAv
- B.Tech - CS - 2011- (C)Uploaded byRavi Kumar
- History of Number SystemUploaded byVaibhav Gurnani
- Stroud EngineeringMathematics1stEd TextUploaded bychetanudct
- FP2 QuestionsUploaded bySamuelChan
- HP 28S Quick ReferenceUploaded byJoão Apel
- TEST ON ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.docxUploaded byVincent Mitchell
- IJAE-44Uploaded byJose Mauricio Pulgarin Lotero
- kerja kursus addmathsUploaded bynursyahirah
- Chapter 1Uploaded byalula1
- 20110715130033-BE__IT_-2011-12Uploaded byKaranveer Singh Brar
- Antwoorden - Fourier and Laplace Transforms, Manual SolutionsUploaded byEstefanía Páez Coy
- chapter 1Uploaded byuccs1
- matlabUploaded bytmoney5151
- Syllabus MATDIP301 & MATDIP401Uploaded byNaveen A Reddy
- TextbookUploaded bySixue Mirabella Chen
- 0387283404 WidebandAmplifiers.pdfUploaded byJoseph Reeves
- Jk Lecture Notes on Electric Power SystemsUploaded bytabibujuha84
- Complex Analysis Christer BennewitzUploaded byDivy Chhaya
- lesson plan complex numbersUploaded byapi-215853893
- Bologna Process and Core Curriculum in MathematicsUploaded byadnanmomin
- Final Syllabus - b Tech Syllabus Tool Engg of Dite2010Uploaded byHimanshu Mehrotra
- JNTUK R16 Syllabus for ECEUploaded byVenugopal Konapala
- Smale, Topology of AlgorithmsUploaded byFernanda Aiub
- Tutor.com's Concept ListUploaded byMegan O'Donnell
- MATH 17 COURSE OUTLINEUploaded bymeghan8597