Introductory Note



Priblishcd 1112007 by
PENTAGON PRESS A-38, Hauz Khas, New DelhHI0016 (India) Phones: 011-41656996/7/8, 41517091

Telefax: 011-41656997
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Wilson John

The volume holds together articles which I wrote for newspapers. websites and journals for the past several years. It was a conscious decision to include only those articles which document and analyse the growth of extremist and terrorist groups in Pakistan under the 'benevolent moderation' of General Pervez Musharraf. For me, this is an important part of Musharraf's legacy which has created a deep sense of anxiety about the region's peace and stability in the years ahead. Musharraf's dalliance with jihadis, overlooked by the US and India for reasons which were short-term, will prove to be the undoing of Pakistan with disastrous fall-outsfor the region, and a world, trapped between the demise of Cold War and a bitter, and bloody, struggle for dominance among top nations. Wilson John April 30, 2007

ISBN 10: 81-8274-302-8 ISBN 13: 978-81-8274-302-1 ~ (_J "> ~ All rights reserved, No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmi~ted, in an~ form ~ny means, electronic, mechanic~. photOCO?YlIl~,recor~g, o~ except for the inclusion of brief quotatlons m a review, WlthO'Cfi pnor permission in writing from the publishers. /'"



./ ~

Printed by New Elegant Printers. New Delhi.

Introductory Note




in 2007 by

PENTAGON PRESS A-38, Hauz Khas, New Delb.i-l100l6 (India) Phones: 011-416569961718, 41517091 Tele£ax: 011-41656997 email: pentagonpress@airtelbroadbandin


c Wilson John
ISBN 10: 81-8274-302-8 ISBN 13: 978-81~8174-302-1

The volume holds together articles which I wrote for newspapers, websites and journals for the past several years. It was a conscious decision to include only those articles which document and analyse the growth of extremist and terrorist groups in Pakistan under the 'benevolent moderation' of General Pervez Musharraf. For me, this is an important part of Musharraf's legacy which has created a deep sense of anxiety about the region's peace and stability in the years ahead. Musharraf's dalliance with jihadis, overlooked by the US and India for reasons which were short-term, will prove to be the undoing of Pakistan with disastrous fall-outsfor the region, and a world, trapped between the demise of Cold War and a bitter, and bloody, struggle for dominance among top nations.

I ...




All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form ~ any means, electronic, mechanic~, photoco~yin~. recor~g, o~ except for the inclusion of bnef quotatlons m a review, Wlthout pno~ permission in writing from the publishers. ,/



Wilson John April 30, 2007 http://ww\

Jr~; '.

Printed by New Elegant Printers, New Delhi.

General Zia chose him (in 1987)to command a newly-raised Special Services Group (SSG) based at Khapalu in the Siachen area. He was an adequate student. He later volunteered and served for seven years in the Special Service Group of "Commandos". Lahore (Intermediate Science). Though no one in the family had served in the military. Lahoreand SialkotSectorswith a self-propelledArtilleryRegiment. He was awarded Imtiazi Sanad for gallantry. young Pervez decided to become a soldier. As a Brigadier. Musharraf attended renowned educational Institutions of Pakistan like Saint Patrick's High School. Pervez Musharraf joined 'the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul (NVlFP) in 1961and was commissioned into an elite Artillery Regiment in 1964. cricket and body building. He participated in the 1971War as Company Commander in a Commando Battalion. Karachi (matriculation) and Forman Christian Collage. he had the distinction of commanding an Infantry Brigade as well as an Armoured Division. He spent some years of his childhood (1949~ 1956) in Ankara where his father was posted. After attending college in lahore. but thrived on football. 1943 in Delhi. But when Musharraf's name came up for the prestigious post of Military .General Peruez Musharraf: A Detailed Profile Second of three brothers. He saw action in the 1965War as a young officer in Khem Karan. Pervez Musharraf was born on August 11.

Quetta and the Narional Defence College.). Creekside Rd. he is well read in Military History. married Sharafuddin and had a son called Musharrafuddin. articulate A and extremely personable officer. Musharraf spends most of his leisure time playing Squash. a graduate of Aligarh Muslim University. she is a modern woman. which quietly works towards Indo. A graduate of Command and Staff College. The General also rakes keen interest in water sports. in 1974. Married to a Filipino. That decision probably saved his life because Zia-ul-Haq 's Military Secretary died with him in a helicopter crash in 1988. she worked for many years as an office secretary and retired from the International Labour Organisation in 1987. was a civil servant under the British.viti The General and] thad General PervCZMuslwrraf-A Detailed Profile ix Secretary to President Zia-ul-Haq. is an enthusiastic canoeist and loves to sail. His country is fortunate to have the services of a man of his undeniable quality. Sehba hails from a Syed family. Javed Musharraf. 1999. who made a most valuable impact here. She is a graduate from Delhi's Indraprastha College with a Masters in English Literature. Foreign Affairs. his commanding officer refused to recommend Musharraf's name "because he was not at home with pomp and show". later joining the Foreign Ministry. Qazi One of the daughters. Amina Begum.2001 A natural sportsman. An avid reader. South Asian Group of Action and Reflection. she does not wear a veil but observes all rituals. She is an American citizen (naturalized) but lives with her son in Islamabad. Naved has two college going sons. who has always loved the outdoors. He took over as the President of Pakistan on June 20. Naved and Pervez. Downers Grove. He was posted to Turkey for seven years. named after Musharraf's close friend who died in the 19n War. Syed Musharaff-ud-Din. IL~60516. She married Pervez Musharraf on 28th December . Musharraf's wife is Sehba (nee Farid) Musharraf. the eldest of the brothers. did his schooling at a military President Pervez Musharraf's great-great-grandfarher Motamushuddin had three sons and two daughters. is an anesthesiologist and has lived in Chicago for 27 years.1968. Naved Musharraf. General Pervez Musharraf had a remarkable stint at the Royal College of Defence Studies. Badminton or Golf.Musharraf's mother'S name is Zohra. In a bloodless coup. UK where his superiors wrote in their report: ~ capable. the youngest. He retired as a Joint Secretary. he replaced Prime Minister Nawaz Sharief on October 12. He is an economist and is one of the Directors of the International Fund for Agricultural Development." He was promoted to the rank of General on 7th October 1998 and appointed Chief of Army Staff. Naved is a member of an Illinois-based organization. Bilal. Family Tree sons-Javed. Son is Bilal Musharraf. After Partition. According to a close family friend. He worked as a cashier with the Directorate General of Civil Supplies in Delhi. In Pakistan. He was subsequently promoted as a Major General on 15th January 1991 He was given the command of an Infantry Division and later of a prestigious strike Corps as a Lieutenant General on 21st October 1995. The couple have a son and a daughter. Musharrafuddin has three . He served as the Pakistani Permanent Representative to CENTO and was also the chairman of the Turkish-Pakistani Friendship Association.Pak amity (SAGAR is located at 6921. is a Rhodes scholar and lives in Rome. he worked for the Pakistan government. He died in 1999.

Siddiqui was named in a Dawn report as a consultant to a construction firm (Husnain Construction) which was given the contract to build $7m M~3 motorway project by the Musharraf government. Her father. For this he was decorated with the Imtiyaz-i-Sanad (Mention in the Dispatches). daughter of Brig. Musharraf's daughter is AyIa. where he was reprimanded for a serious case of insubordination. 1966: Musharraf volunteered for a transfer to a formation known then as the 19th Baluch Regiment. an architect married to a Shiite. He finished his second tenure at the SSG. Served as a Company Commander (Major) in the 2 Battalion of the SSG. He lives with his wife and a daughter in a two-bed room condominium at Canton. He works as a chartered accountant. He is married to . Musharraf's battery was bombarded by Indian artillery. He shifted his permanent residence to Gujranwala in the Punjab and declared it as his hometown. He comes into contact with the ClA. During the 1965 war in the Chawinda (Sialkot) sector in Punjab at night. He was deployed in Gilgit .The Special Services Group (SSG) was part of the regiment. Massachusetts (near Boston). Musharraf spent time on the East Pakistan's border with India. The 2nd Battalion SSG saw action either around Dacca or in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the 19n war. Career Profile to abandon his position. most likely as a Major. Lahore and Sialkot. The plane on which he was supposed to leave for Rawalpindi 1967-68: 1961 Joined the Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) at Kakul (NVVFP). General Javed Ashraf Kazi (most probably a Lieutenant at that time). Sheikh Mubarak Ali Shah Gilani and encouraged him to set up [he 'Climbers Club of Pakistan'. Ayia has two daughters Mariam and Zainab. Musharraf also patronized a radical preacher. Musharraf stood second (passing out as BattalionJunior Under Officer) in his class (29th PMA). lram. He argued with a senior officer about the quality of the food in the presence of troops. Lt. Promoted as Captain. a front for training the SSG commandos in mountain climbing. His PA number is PA~6920. As a Captain he headed the 'Kamal' Company of the SSG and participated in the reconnaissance missions aimed at planning offensives against Indian Lines-ofCommunication in the region. Musharraf is punished for indiscipline. Khem Karan. Aftab Siddiqui (retd). She lives in Karachi where she helps her husband run an advertising agency. Completed the 29th PMA Long Course at Kakul and joined the 16th (SP) Field Artillery Regt as a 2nd Lieutenant. is at present Federal minister for Communications and Transport. He returned to the Infantry School in Quetta from Chittagong..x The:General alld Jihad General Pervez Musharraf-A Detailed Profile xi high school in Pakistan. Iram works for a bank and is a graduate of the prestigious Lahore University of Management Sciences in Pakistan. The 16 (SP) Artillery saw action in three sectors. Musharraf off-loaded ammunition from the burning gun before it could explode and refused • 1968: 1964: 1964: 1971: 1965: 1972~73: .

Served as Director General Military Operations (DGMO) at the General Headquarters. "A capable. member of the War Wing of the ational Defence College. As a Colonel. which was evolved to test the concept of establishing a Field Army HQ and work out modalities for moving a number of Division-size formations to their operational locations. Musharraf suppressed the Shi'ite revolt that demanded an independent 'Karakoram State'. and "Exercise Zarb-e-Mujahid-Il". captured two intermediate posts were. he commanded two selfpropelled Artillery Regiments. Commanded the clivisional artillery at Bhawalpur attached to the 1st Armoured Division at Multan. chose Musharraf for special assignments. 1990~9l: Attended a course at the Royal College of Defence Studies (RCDS). As a Lt. He worked on a research project tided "Impact of the Arms Race in the Indo. 1991. Brigadier Musharraf left RCDS with a Masters Degree.S. General Zia. Colonel Musharraf commanded a Field Artillery regiment. He also conducted two crucial GHQ~level exercises. Here he aided Naseerullah Babar in the conduct of the Taliban Operation. Musharraf served in a District Martial Law Administration HQ. In his coursework he performed well. Using an SSG unit andJihadis.Pakistan Subcontinent". and earned the following remark on his report from then Commandant. General PerveZMusharraf-A Detailed Profile xiii Military Secretary at the Military Secretary's Branch. Promoted to Major General and given the command of 40 Infantry Division at Okara (Punjab) on January 15. 1973~79: Attended the Command and Staff College. There are reports of Musharraf secretly attending a course at the Green Berets training school at Fort Bragg. Developed a personal friendship with Lt. He could not take the flight because of an avalanche. who made a most valuable impact here. "Exercise Tri Star". however. His country is fortunate to have the services of a man of his undeniable quality". Conunanded the 323 Infantry Brigade at Dansam in the Northern Areas where he set up a 'Special Snow Warfare Force' at Khapalu and launched an attack on the Indian position at Bilafond Pass. He held several staff postings. he also served in the DMO. He also held various intermediate posts like Brigade Major in an infantry brigade. articulate and extremely personable officer. He was involved in the task of preparing the 'Mujaheddin' for the Anti-Soviet Jihad in Afghanistan.xii The General alld Jihad crashed. reclaimed by the Indian troops. Quetta and the National Defence College. General Sir Anthony Walker. killing all on board. in the United Kingdom. Malik. who was then the Director-General of Inter-Services Intelligence (151). His coursemates included General( r) Ashok Mehta and Major Gen (r) B. General Javed Nasir. which was aimed at exposing senior service officers and select civilians to the planning and execution of joint military operations. which include Deputy 1979-85: 1991~93: 1985-87: 1993~95: 1988: 1989-90: . who took over as the Martial Law Administrator in 1999.

xi v The General and Jihad On October 21.1995. Introductory Note General PervezMu5harraf-A Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 v Detailed Profile vii 1 6 13 17 27 37 44 48 An Epilogue for a Dictator The General's Real Agenda A Danger to the World Sectarian Cauldron An Unreliable Ally The General's Jihadi Ally A Man with Thousand Faces Military Bureaucracy Stoking Fundamentalist Fire 51 S4 Chapter 10 Media and Military Chapter 11 Impending Danger 57 61 66 70 74 Chapter 12 Tower of Babel Chapter 13 Hoodwinking the World Chapter 14 West Winks at Musharraf Chapter 15 A Prisoner of Jihadis . Whenever General Jehangir Karamat travelled abroad. 1995-98: Contents Oct. On October 7. promoted to Lieutenant General and made Corps Commander-I Corps Mangla and moved later as the Corps Commander-Il Corps in Multan. Musharraf became acting COAS. 1999: Takes over as the Chief Executive of Pakistan in a coup.1998: General Karamat was retired and Musharraf promoted and appointed as the Chief of Army Staff by PM Nawaz Sharif.

xvi The Gencral alld ] iliad C011tClltS xvii Chapter 16 Cradle of Terrorism Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Political Chicanery Free for All Jihad 77 79 83 Chapter 38 Shadows in Khan's Network 166 Chapter 39 Why should AQK be Punished? Chapter 40 What US Knew About AQK 171 176 181 185 190 194 Chapter 19 Proxy War in Kashmir Chapter 20 Jihadi Coalition Chapter 21 New Phase of Proxy War Chapter 22 Big Picture of Terrorism 88 91 95 99 103 107 ill 114 U8 122 126 129 133 137 141 147 Chapter 41 The General's Losing Battle Chapter 42 March of Jihadis Nemesis Chapter 43 Impending Chapter Annexure 44 The General's Islamist Card Chapter 23 Jihad with Added Teeth Chapter 24 Swamp of Terrorism Chapter 25 Same old Charade Chapter 26 lSI's New Strategy Beginning of the End • • Index Musharraf's Pakistan: A Chronology Letter written by Pakistan Interior Minister Nasirullah Babar requesting India to free Maulana Masood Azhar 198 204 206 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 The London plot Chapter 29 India's Al-Qaida Chapter 30 Puppets on a String Chapter 31 Return of the Taliban Chapter 32 New Terror Matrix Chapter 33 Pakistan's Dialogue Strategy Chapter 34 Terror Unmasked Nuclear Underground Chapter 35 151 156 161 Chapter 36 AQ Khan Network Chapter 37 Pakistan.Iran Nexus .

he made it a point to elaborate on his vision. For the people of Pakistan. fostered the regrouping of Al-Qaida and the Taliban. ]aish-e-Mohammed. helped create one of the most dreaded terrorist groups. he would be remembered as a military dictator in South Asia who promoted terrorist groups with religious pretext. loaded with promises. Two months down the line. deepened chasms between communities not only in his country bur in the neighbourhood. 1999. scripted some of the worst human rights horror stories in the recent past. before the television cameras. When he took over from Nawaz Sharif in a bloodless coup. Daniel Pearl (Gen Musharraf said Pearl shouldn't have poked his nose . on October 12. which is likely to be sooner than later. his dream and his promise. it will be difficult to forgive Gen Musharra]. and turned the region over to Western powers to play their devious strategic games. fleeing from the US bombing in Afghanistan. corrupt politicians and mismanagement.CHAPTER 1 An Epilogue for a Dictator When the dust settles down on President Pervez Musharral's reign in Pakistan. the General allowed terrorists operating from his homeland to hijack an Indian passenger airliner (IC-S14). played politics with the murder of an American] ewish journalist. At every given opportunity. he said he will do away with corruption. He came to the scene.

a stretch of tribal land bordering Afghanistan where a see-saw battle has been going on between the Taliban (supported by Al-Qaida) and the NATO forces since 2003. The Us is a case in point. The Punjabi Prime Minister. successive Generals have ensured that civilian institutions of governance have remained perpetually in a state of atrophy. Nawaz Sharif. in one of the ironies of Pakistan'S history. In fact. most of whom have been operating from Waziristan which was allowed to become a sanctuary as part of a strategy. The very political establishment he vowed to change. He has only made the stable messier. He has also made it clear that he will not allow either Mr Nawaz Sharif or Ms Benazir Bhutto to return. In fact. The Waziristan truce has the potential of becoming Gen Musharraf's nemesis The region has become a staging ground for .troops which considers Afghanistan as a "strategic depth". a Mohajir General had created. The Pakistan Army views and uses the Taliban as a weapon to destabilise any regime in Kabul which is not friendly to Pakistan. the PML(Q). he expects to win. In Simpler terms. he co-opted them in his new scheme of things. It was the very set of jihadi5 created to oust the Soviets from Afghanistan in the early 1980s which planned the kamikaze attack on \A/Tc. the coalition of rich Punjabi clique which. Another promise Gen Musharraf made was to clean up politics. had thought that a Mohajir General would be more amenable to his orders. a strong foothold in Afghanistan is critical for Pakistan which considers itself a part of West Asia and not South Asia dominated by lndi 1. targeted Gen Musharraf). Gen Musharral. he cobbled together a party of rank opportunists whose sale objective was to hold on to power and prestige. not resign as the Chief of Army Staff and. India and other parts of the world. He should have learnt some lessons from recent history that terrorism often devours its creator or creators. In Pakistan. If the General had meant what he said. threatening not only life and property inside me country but also in Afghanistan.a coalition of terrorist and extremist groups. They are no different from the dispensation which he overthrew to give Pakistan a new life of politics and governance. What the General failed to factor in was that terrorist groups have a mind of their own (like the Taliban immediately after the September 11 attacks refused to assist the General in catching Osama bin Laden: more closer to home when terrorists belonging to Brigade 313. It is naive co believe that the General and his advisors were nor aware of the pitfalls of allowing Al-Qaida and the Taliban to regroup and recoup in Waziristan. Gen Musharraf was playing to the traditional Pakistan military strategy of keeping institutions of governance handicapped and subservient to the Army. it would have been possible to rein in the jihadis. had no intention to alter this strategy. The General's elevation as me Chief was an irony in itself. What he meant was that Pearl should have kept away from the lSI's game plan for Al-Qaida and the Taliban) and allowed all hues of extremist groups to spawn and flourish till some of them turned their guns at him. With the help of military muscle and money. Gen Musharraf has made it clear that he is going co contest the elections. This is clear from the run up to the forthcoming sham elections.2 Tile General and Jihad All Epilogue for a Dictator 3 into serious affairs. This means the elections will witness a contest between Gen Musharraf and Gen Musharraf and his party. despite his promises. The General's worst legacy would be the band of religious extremists and terrorists who have been allowed to run riot across Pakistan. of course. India's considerable stake in the region is a bone of contention with the General's .

Pakistan is today home to several of them. playing foul. for the past eight years. and presence. Any overt US operation on Pakistani soil will prove to be the death knell for Gen Musharraf In fact. His action. It is not Musharraf alone who has suffered. He has to either resign and disappear in the months to come or play his usual game of tactical retreat to survive another round. been able to retrieve some of the lost ground from one of the most ill-timed and pig-headed decisions of his reign. doddering between a clamouring ally and baying religious hounds. the image of the Army has dented substantially. his long honeymoon with his ally in Washington and Pakistan Army is on the wane. It might also 'witness the increasing focus. Today. living on the edge. . meeting hurdles headlong. roping in people from a divergent section of the society. There is no looking back. Though the crisis over the suspension of the Chief Justice may not threaten Musharraf for the present. Musharraf is fast running out on time and space. spawning countless offshoots of extremist elements across the world. and the subsequent beating up of journalists 5 global terrorists. of millions of people. dodging quite many of them. The world has seen his bared fangs and Musharraf will not be able to live down the image of a desperate despot playing with the lives. befriending enemies. he has taken the final bend of his last lap. his cleverly projected image of a suave. of international forces. This could prove to be his undoing unless he quits as the Chief of Army Staff and allows the rerum of genuine democracy in Pakistan. and signs of frown on the military leadership. liberal. Though Musharraf has. all to survive as a martial law administrator of Washington's strategic ally. well-meaning General. to quite some extent. in one swift motion. mostly from the US. creating in the process a foreboding sense of gloom and anxiety among the general populace. escaping death. There is no other option for him as protests over the judicial harakiri is gathering steam at an unprecedented speed. cheating friends. President Musharraf has been running an endless steeplechase. the domestic protest and international condemnation has certainly taken a lot of sheen off the General's in full media glare. which is increasingly getting worried about the possibility of terror networks operating out of the region to launch another September IIattack. has wiped out. By sacking Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry (March 2007).4 The General and 1ihad An Epilogue for a Dictator tuniC.

of President Musharraf. Kashmir and East Pakistan. found an able and willing ally in the General. He was a Mohajir officer in a his every move. he became a Chief Executive and then a President. He offered Kashmir the mullahs and told them religious army within Afghanistan found in Musharraf a willing and enthusiastic predominantly himself. All that he cares today is to retain his Presidentship. From an unsure. The bureaucracy watched to of the United States by way of raising a rebellious. Musharraf came into the charmed circle after he had pm down a popular rebellion in the Northern Areas with the heir of tribesmen. Musharral's role was to help establish training camps. routed men and material support and became part of a new. . evolving strategy being crafted by the Pakistan Army to rum its single point agenda of crippling India to avenge. He was ambitious as a young Army officer waiting for a chance to prove himself. was how to give a religious colour and fervour to a military operation. Whatever lessons he learnt as a young officer in the Army. only the end was. A guerilla warfare thus became ajihad-a holy war.The General's Real Agwda 7 When the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) sought the sen1ces of the Inter Services Intelligence (lSI) in recruiting and CHAPTER 2 training Afghan rebels as mujahideens (freedom fighters). One of the strategies he learnt in Afghanistan. helped them set up madrasas. Means were not of any concern. Pakistan has found itself increasingly enmeshed in sectarian violence. neurotic and ruthlessly ambitious politician. to name just two reasons. political collapse and global attention as an epicenter of terrorism. It controlled the destiny of Pakistan. he lost no time in turning into a selfobsessed. who were fast losing ground to democracy and liberal religious beliefs. He realized that religious was a tool in the hands of the army. He knew early on that the Pakistan Army was not like any other professional army. learner. set up logistics and infiltration routes and organizes guerilla attacks on the Soviet forces. The Soviet occupation Afghanistan intervention in the early '80s and the subsequent of covert mullahs had considerable clout over the people who were suspicious of Musharraf. The key to his schizophrenic personality lies in his military past. . He courted religious leaders. Political parties were planning to reverse the coup. social divide. It was the Establishment. from his seniors like lSI chief Nasirullah Bubar. There was intense opposition to his coup. The mullahs. it was Dot difficult for Musharraf to manage an assignment in the operatioIL He was one of the favourites of President Zia ul-Haq. He knew the The General's Real Agenda In eight years since October 1999. In Afghanistan. President Musharraf began to put them into action with a feverish passion as soon as he ousted a democratically elected government and anointed himself as the Chief Executive. One of his first acts was to court the mullahs. From a Chief of Army Staff. The period also witnessed rapid changes in the personality. Punjabi Army and was more than keen to prove he would extend all help for their Kashmir jihad. Madrasas and mosques flourished_ Mullahs became regular visitors to the President's House. and nomenclature. for a lifetime. cocky General.

there were 900 such madras as in Pakistan. Three of the hostages which Musharraf and the mullah5 wanted were Maulana Masood Azhar and his acolyte Saeed Omar Sheikh and Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar. All three were in Indian jails for indulging in subversive activities. he wanted a covert base [Q revive terrorism in Kashmir. since 1999. For this purpose. Saeed Omar Sheikh retained a deeply involved in planning Jaish low profile but remained of sectarian learning exceed 9500. at a press conference in Karachi Press Club and made known his agenda: To free Kashmir. J rush grew rapidly. has not only allowed various religious extremist and terrorist organisations to set up their offices in different parts of Pakistan but has also promoted establishment of madrasas which are increasingly becoming centres of fundamentalism. Finally. barely two months after his coup. In an interview to the New York Times magazine in 2000. Many of the mosque heads became rabble-rousers. "There is no question that terrorism and jihad are absolu rely different.8 The Gelleral (llld] iliad Musharraf's motive in courting the 1n1111ahs was two-fold. Musharraf's plan is to synergise the madra. jaish recruits received best of the commando training.5 number close to 50000. run by fundamentalists. the General sought to justify his support for jihad on these lines. Funds earned from illicit drug trafficking were diverted to these centres of terrorism. it had a full-fledged training camp running. Pak intelligence officers in Kathmandu gave them a satellite phone. four were from Pakistan. lSI and Army officers in Kathmandu planned the entire operation. Madrasas and mosques became recruitment and training centres. It was this religious-militaryterror nexus that masterminded the Kandahar hijacking of December 1999. in tightening his grip over Pakistan which he had taken over in a bloodless coup only two months ago. today these institutions Unregistered groups to The hijacking of lC814 Indian Airlines flight from Kathmandu to New Delhi was not an isolated incident. Recruitment centres opened up in every major city across Pakistan. Within days of his release. Training camps were set up with the help of the Pakistan Army and lSI. You in the West are allergic to term jihad but jihad is a tolerant concept. a serial killer of Srinagar. Of the five hijackers. motivating youngsters to join the jihad. even after September 11. Placards and banners said the money was meant far liberating Kashmir.". India's public humiliation of succumbing to terrorism helped none else but Musharraf. In fact. General Musharraf's role in the hijacking of IC814 is not a secret either. Musharral. jaish-e-Mohammad. Within weeks. operations in Kashmir and elsewhere in India. global community in supporting Pakistan economically and strategically. But what should worry the world the most is Musharraf's open dalliance with forces of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. It was part of Operation Revival. Zargar vanished . There are enough clues to reveal the Pak hand in the hijacking. luring them with an attractive salary and a place in the heaven. Jaish activists set up fund collection centres in markets and other public places. These hijackers were constantly in touch with the Pak Army's General Headquarters in Rawalpindi. The Genna/'s Real Agenda 9 Besides garnering support for his forced regime. 2001. They had most modern weapons and communication equipment. with mujahideen unleash a network of subversion and terror to blackmail the. Maulana Masood Azhar floated a terrorist outfit. In 1971.

A threeday conference (April 9-11. Amir (head). 59. Since the coup. 2001) held at a sleepy town of Taru 1abba in Peshawar was a pointer of things to unfold The conference was attended by members of the Deoband school from across the world. Two days after the Khidmat Deoband Almi Conference ended. more than 700 people have lost their lives in the sectarian violence let loose by these organisations. Lashkar-e. They recruited men for J aish and Lashkar under the pretext of running religious schools. They were rabidly anti-Shia. Most of the resolutions were against the US. There is enough evidence that Lashkar jhangvi helped the fleeing Al-Qaida members regroup in Pakistan-a fact that clearly confirmed the irrefutable link between these groups and the military-intelligence establishment headed by President Musharraf. Speakers after speakers called him hero of Islam. 1999. Darul Uloom Deoband leader Marghoobur Rahman and Maulana Nizarnatullah Azmi who were keen on Most of the dead belonged to the Shia highlighting academic issues but could not do so because of a pervasive mood of animosity against India and the United States. he has engineered promotions and appointments in the Army in such a manner that all his favourites now hold key positions within the force and in the civilian establishment. community. makes no bones about his ambition to be the savior of Pakistan. both promised to rid 'kafirs' (infidels) from the Pakistan society. International rerrorist Osama bill laden was praised sky high by the conference. the much touted global war on terrorism notwithstanding. He was last spotted driving out of the Kandahar airport on December 31. with equal munificence. Other leaders gave a detailed presentation of how members of their ji/lad group were causing destruction in Kashmir and other parts of India. another called for liberation of Al Quds and other Palestine areas Irom Israel. Taliban was applauded as a savior of Islam. The agenda at this convention was no dillerent.Tayyeba held its annual convention at its headquarters in Muridke. Those not favourable to his dispensation have either been dumped along the road to anonymity or . including India. What is more significant for the present is the enormous clout these groups and their protectors hold in Pakistan. Musharraf. Beneath the crisp military fatigue and a chest full of medals. Jaish was only parr of the overall Kashmir Plan drawn up by Musharraf. In the words of Hafiz Mohammad Saeed. These groups had a hidden agenda too. In the last three years (2001-03). the single point programme of the organisation was to destroy India through jihad. Two other outfits promoted and supported by the Musharraf regime were Lashkar-e-jhangvi and Sipah-e-Saheba of Pakistan. From India went jamiat Ulema Hindi leader Asad Madni. in the shadow of religion in Musharraf's Pakistan. These are two of the countless instances how terrorism has been allowed to retain its roots. there lurks a mind committed to ride the twin horses of Islamic fundamentalism and military power to history. Their agenda was to set up an Islamic State of Pakistan. He promoted another terrorist outfit. one called the US a man-eater. Both Jaish and Lashkar were established to create mayhem in the Kashmir valley and force India to come to the discussion table with Pakistan. Lashkar-eTayyeba. a third one called for forming a united Muslim bloc outside the "pro-jewish" United Nations to protect the rights of Muslims.10 The GCIleral (lHd Jihad The General's Real Agwda II from sight. LeT. His actions prove the meticulous manner in which he is going about achieving his objective.

a perverted justification that might have won admirers in the western capitals and among the elite bur is far from the truth. given half a chance. Second. General Musharraf is one of the few Generals in the world today with direct access to the nuclear weapon. Two reasons can be cited. a reliable US government report early this year (2002) put the number at 24. Musharraf is not the only threat. in the lSI and in the nuplear establishment who could. This is important to understand There are quite a few other characters. his ability and willingness to blackmail the international community by waving the nuclear threat. snatch the n~clear weapons. He justifies his actions on the plea that military officers are less corrupt than the civilians. more ~ealous and insane than him in the Army. CHAPTER-3 A Danger to the World Pervez Musharraf is today more dangerous to the world than any other dictator. First is his control of one of the most lethal and effective network of terror organisations. Retired or serving officers from the Army or the lSI now man almost all the top civilian positions. His National Accountability Bureau is a perfect weapon for such blackmail. Although there are conflicting estimates of the number of nuclear warheads in his arsenal. The General's continuing utterances against India and the persistent threat to use nuclear weapons only confirm that he is displaying signs of extreme military paranoia. a syndrome that makes soldiers vulnerable to insane decisions. Intermediate-range missiles and a fleet of F~16 aircraft can deliver these warheads. .12 The Genera! and ]ilwd threatened with prosecution on charges of corruption. In case of Pakistan.

He is trying to side-step the main issue: After Afghanistan and Sudan. all the points that would make Pakistan a terrorist-free State. Addressing his troops and officers at Sialkor and Kharian garrison on December 4. palpable fear: an insurrection within the lSI to seize the nuclear weapons. including Karachi and Peshawar. while briefing me. the Inspector General of Police. For instance. He is the one who took our traditional and lavish hospitality in Agra and Delhi and spewed venom on us with the . said by joining hands with the international community (read the US). He had listed out. Remember how candid he sounded on January 12. who would like to overthrow Musharraf and gain access to the nuclear weapons. Though the CIA officials who interrogated the Pak nuclear scientists could not extract much information. drawing support and strength from the likes of Mullah Mohammad Omar till he double-crossed them and sold them to the Americans. has been quietly setting up safe houses for the fleeing Al-Qaida and the Taliban terrorists and their leaders inside Pakistan. The church explosion and the Karachi bomb blast clearly showed the footprints of Al-Qaida. There are at least 1000 of the former T aliban members in various cities.2001. To what purpose are we using our mosques for? These people have made a state within a state and have challenged the writ of the government. they srumbled upon one hard fact: there were zealots in the Pak nuclear esrablishmenr who were not averse to joining hands with religious extremist elements.14 The General a/ld] ihad A Danger to the World 15 One has only to recall the detailed questioning of two former Pak Atomic Energy Commission scientists. Ir is amazing how President Musharraf has perfected the art of fabrication of facts. The officials had another real. It is another Great Musharraf Swindle. The General's roadmap for extricating his country from extremism and terrorism was praise-worthy. In Karachi. the Taliban chieftain M u11ahOmar has long been living somewhere in Pakistan. a fact that Musharraf tried hard to hide from the western world. who has so far refused to vacate the Army Headquarters. like a true soldier. 2002: "I would like to inform you that a number of terrorist rings have been apprehended. The Imam has confessed to murdering many people himself. the President. These terrorists have full material and moral support not only from the General but also the jihadi clique within the Army and the lSI that has been calling the shots. He is the one who let the Talihan become a fountainhead of terrorism. The General is merely playing his game again. ow the second point. Pakistan has ensured the safety and security of nuclear assets while keeping the Kashmir issue as alive as ever. This is the state of affairs. He knows the words and expressions the West would fall for. See how adroitly he has pinned the blame for all the recent terrorist incidents on Sheikh Omar. This fear was not unfounded. Pakistan'S intelligence organisation once termed by one of their own senior officers as a 'State within a State'. Musharraf is aware of this threat and moves around with several rings of security to protect himself from suspected renegades in the Army and intelligence agencies. Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood and Chaudry Abdul Majid. had inside knowledge of the weapons and their use and were also closely associated with the Tahban. He knows how to take the world for a ride by poker-faced pretences. Both were instrumental in setting up the Pak nuclear infrastructure. Pakistan is the most favoured nation for terrorists. despite September 11and Operation Enduring Freedom and countless speeches. There are elements within the 151. There is enough evidence that the General. informed that the leader of one of these groups is the -Pesh Imam (Prayer Leader) of a mosque in Malir." The world fell for such candour. In fact.

lawyers and other professionals in Karachi and nearby areas. He is assiduously followmg what his mentor. turned him from a warmonger to a peacenik? President Musharraf has only changed the packaging. people of Kashmir and for all those who hope of peace and stability in the region from President Musharraf. had envisaged as the final revenge against India for the creation of Bangladesh. CHAPTER 4 Sectarian Cauldron What is happening between two Islamic sects in Pakistan has quite a few lessons for the. Musharraf had.same: brea~ up Kashmir. retreat could at times be quite strategic. As a soldier he knows. making grandiose announcements and quietly looking the other way when anti-Shia groups run amok through the streets of Karachi and elsewhere. He is the one who called terrorists "freedom fighters". One doesn't have to go far in Pakistan to realize the bloodletting that exists between Sunnis and Shias. Take the case of Maulana Azam Tariq. break up India.16 The General and Jihad very tongue that relished delicacies specially prepared for hi~ in the Neharwali gali in the old city. His reported orders to crackdown on extremist elements ~re for the sale benefit of a friendly CNN and a doubtful White House. He is the leader of Sipah~e~Sahaba Pakistan. aka General Pervez Musharraf. however. Karachi is the hotbed of sectarian terrorism that is ripping apart the society in Pakistan and Musharraf. Are we to believe that events of 911have changed him. a rabid anti-Shia group responsible for a spate of killings of doctors. More than 450 people have died in sectarian violence in Karachi alone since Musharraf seized power in October 1999. pumped money and arms to them to kill civilians in Kashmir and ordered them to sabotage all peace initiatives. for all his bluster. Tariq has close links with Lashkar-e-jhangvi that was led by a terrorist named Riaz Basra (he was shot in a mock-up encounter pOst~September 11) and jaish-e-Muhammad led by Masood . jailed Tariq after he threatened to overthrow the martial dictator and impose the rule of shariat on the country. is a partisan observer. in 1971.. his agenda remains the . General Zia ul Haq.

it is only an image that he tries to portray in front of Pakistan TV or gullible television channels. There are reports about another disturbing aspect of the sectarian violence that has gripped a section of Pak islam society. Musharraf promised his people an end to sectarian violence. He was forced to pay Rs 200. He is at best a bully. three days later assassinated the chief of Sunni Tehreek. In return. Tariq. A telling example is that of Karachi Commissioner Shaifqur Rehman. Another aspect of Musharraf that needs to be exposed is propensity to go back on his promises soon after they are made. who stayed with Tariq at his house inJhang. to ingress into the administration. A French scholar. Masood Azhar's entry was banned in Sindh following the provincial government's decision to crackdown on terrorist and sectarian organisations. The Jaish leader requested the police authorities to let him make a phone call which they agreed to. This is one of Musharraf's devious links that need to be exposed. Polka had died during the shoot-out and was declared as a victim of terrorism. money was spent to free a terrorist from the custody of CIA. and more importantly. In fact. Indeed. The News. the ban on him was lifted and he was allowed entry to Sindh where he met the province Home Secretary and traveled throughout the province unshackled despite the restrictions on his movement. Masood wanted to name his organisation Lashkar~e~Muhammad but backtracked once Pak intelligence agencies. The Friday Times. Arashad Polka. is no less powerful than the General when it comes to running his writ. "These sectarian organisations. Recently. It is here essential to remember that the entire hijacking was planned and executed under the express orders of Musharraf.000 as compensation to the relatives of the prime suspect of Saleem Qadiri's murder. capitulating under pressure when someone like Tariq comes along and challenges his authority. He announced an immediate ban on some of the sectarian terrorist organisations but left out Sipah and Jhangvi and released Tariq. Musharraf's game plan is becoming clear as he prepares for the general elections. A year down the line. Saleen Qadiri. the founder of Sipah Sahaba. with enormous money in their pockets. according to media reports." There is another instance involving Masood Azgar that shows the clout Tariq enjoys.18 TIle GC11eral al1d Jihad Secrarian Cauldrml 19 Azhar." Respected English daily. It was Musharraf who forced the Indian authorities to release Masood in exchange for the freedom of Indians trapped in the hijacked IC~814 Indian Airlines flight. He knows he is sitting on an economically . The so-called "freedom fighters" of Musharraf are no better than criminals. wrote how Maulana's day began with directions to the city administration. Musharraf is no strong man. spend it without any limits to free terrorists or to bail them out. who. The local administration officials either remain terrorized by these elements or decide to side with them openly. The link between various sectarian groups is a person by the name of Maulana Haq Nawaz ]hangvi. the terrorist leader who was released by India in the Kandahar hijack case. which have a controlling lever on these organisations. Take for instance his 2001 Independence Day speech. Lashkar-e-jhangvi is dedicated to the Maulana. had this to say about Tariq and his sectarian organisations. Maulana Masood got a training ground near Balakot for training his terrorist groups for Kashmir. On his one phone call. Maulana's writ ran with equal ease from the jail also. in its opinion pages described Tariq as "the most powerful man from Karachi to Gilgit. the ban has lost whatever sting it had. one prominent newspaper. asked him to dissociate himself from Lashkare-Jhangvi. He w~s stopped at the Karachi airport and asked to go back. there are some cities where his writ runs stronger than that of the State.

an anti-Shia Sub-sect of Sunni. liberal leader. He has already started blaming political parties and the Indian establishment in the sectarian violence . especially after Musharraf's Interior Ministry banned collection of donations by terrorist organisations. It is therefore important to understand the link that exists between those who are perpetrating hatred among Muslims in Karachi to those aiding and abetting terrorism in Kashmir: they are the same people. Hurriyat and its geriatric leadership is only a pawn in this larger game of destabilisation being orchestrated by Musharraf with the help of Maulanas who have everything else on their mind but God and Religion. Both it is no less a sham than other PR gimmicks. Maulana Tariq's Sipah is busy doing an ethnic cleansing in Karachi and other Shia-dominated areas in Pakistan while letting Jaish train its men for Kashmir. a province like Sindh where he can put one of his crony Generals as the President. He could be hammering in his definition of terrorism wherever he gets a chance to open his mouth. he has no intention to ban terrorist organisations or their activities in Pakistan. propagating vitriolic anti-Shia messages. Two recent high-profile killings of Shias in . Karachi is a city of hate between two sects. Abu Saad." Not that Musharraf is unaware of such a development. a religions sect that incidentally fuels terrorism in Kashmir. Musharraf could prove to be the strong man to set them right. Masood Azhar's ]aish-e-Mohaimnad is both a sectarian outfit. As long as there is a divide.Musharraf has no love for Kashmir or Kashmiris as Hurriyat would want the naive people of the Valley to believe. In any case. For instance. no Kargil could ever be repeated to prove a point. terrorists owing allegiance to Deoband. chief of north-west frontier province chapter of Lashkar-e. Musharraf's crackdown is only for the consumption of the media and the public. Musharraf is undoubtedly a good PR man.Tayyeba was quoted in TItcFriday Times as saying: "There has been considerable increase in the donations since the minister called for a ban on placing our donation boxes in public places. Sindh is on a boil over other issues. Kashmir would be another mba. Divide them on sectarian lines that he is letting Tariq and Masood do with horrific efficiency.20 The Genera! and Jihad SWarian Cauldroll 21 ruined State. plunder the wealth as he is doing in Balochistan and keep the locals deprived and impoverished as in the Northern Areas and Pak Occupied Kashmir. There are only two ways he could control the minds of Pakistani people. whatever his orher qualities might be. In reality. but no civilized government or nation can ever accept his justification of killing of innocents of a different nation in the name of religious crusade. The fact is: Inter-sect killings have never been so rampant in Pakistan as in the regime of Musharraf. he is now busy selling the world his credentials as a civilized. He knows he has lost Kashmir. His latest catchword is crackdown on terrorists. Musharraf is also a Deobandi. For Musharraf.. He is more than a willing ally in the activities of these organisations as is evident from his insistence on calling terrorists as freedom fighters. killing and mayhem within the country. There would be no Agra Summit ever. where he put his foot in the mouth more often than anyone else around him. are carrying many of these killings out. After the Agra fiasco. no religion condones killings as a virtue. internal feud. His loud claims of making criminals and terrorists surrender weapons and enacting stricter anti-terrorist laws fall flat on facts. and a terrorist outfit killing peace and amity in Kashmir. This is clearly evident from the ever-rising level of finds these organisations have been drawing. Disturbingly enough. Balochistan is burning on the issue of rights to their land and resources.

Dr Adeebul Hasan Rizvi. both Shia and Sunni. the .' Though some of the doctors who were killed belonged to the Sunni sect. especially doctors and lawyers. a majority of the victims were Shias and were killed because of their religious denomination. despite. both were Shias). According to police records there have been 52 terrorist' related murders in the first six months of year (2002). Karachi. In the past [We' years. No one can sum up Musharrat's sincerity or lack of it than Allama Sajid Ali Naqvi. out of which 32 were doctors and 12 were lawyers. one of the most well-known doctors in Karachi.4 million people either suffered heavy losses in their business or were deprived of a livelihood altogether. for instance.General Moinuddiin Haider) has made a tall claim he is greeted by killings or bomb blasts. he claimed the government had recovered 86000 illicit arms. the number of people killed in sectarian violence crossed 170. in a report dated August 3. "Every time the minister (Interior Minister Lt. Next time. three doctors had already fallen victims to sectarian terrorists-Dr ]affery. (Shaukat Raza Mirza was the managing director of Pakistan State Oil and Syed Zalar Hussain was a senior defence ministry official. an influential Urdu newspaper. They have also started targeting bureaucrats and police officers.02).22 The GenfTal and] ihad Sectarian Cauldron 23 Karachi are a pointer to a factor chat is threatening to destabilise the Pakistan society in the near future. The survey said 14." The second most common group of professionals being targeted by sectaria~ terrorists is lawyers. a known Shia leader of Karachi. today lives under a constant shadow of death. "They were killed simply because they were Shia. To quote Allama Hasan Turabi. In the last seven years. chief of Tehrika-e-] afria Pakistan. the fact that Qadri'S disciples from the Sunni Tehreek were brandishing autcmatic weapons during Qadri's funeral." The Friday Time5. 68 doctors were killed in Karachi alone. This is happening in Karachi and also in Punjab. in fact. 2002. Among other outfits. During Salim Qadr's funeral. takes it further. The most disturbing element of these sectarian killings is the profile of the victims-most of them were professionals. sectarian terrorists gunned down a total of 3951 people. Pakistan lost Rs 59 billion due to sectarian violence in the past decade. A police officer was quoted in a local Karachi newspaper as saying: "Sectarian terrorists are increasingly targeting professionals. a Shia sectarian outfit: "What is the point of formulating new laws when you cannot ensure their enforcement. three doctors were gunned down and a fourth one escaped an attempt on his life. In June this year (2002). This. According to a survey carried out by lang. These are not figures culled out from any secret files but reported in the Pakistani media from time to time and hence it will not be difficult for Musharraf to see the hollowness of his claim of coming down heavily on sectarian and other types of terrorist activities in his country. At least 34 lawyers. mostly under the "benevolent regime" of Musharraf. In fact. Prior to this. Dr Sikhander Mehdi and Dr Raza Khoja. Deoband also promotes and supports terrorist organisations like Lashkar-e-jehangvi and Sipah-eSahaba Pakistan (SSP). The laws are stringent enough to deal with the situation but no government has ever dared to enforce them properly. he claimed that the government had banned display of weapons in public. He has already escaped one attempt after police stumbled upon the conspiracy by accident a few days before he was to be killed. In -rhe last two years (2001. Police officials later said the killers were given the photograph of the doctor and asked to gun him down. has been quite a few sectarian killings in the past. have been killed in sectarian violence in the past two years.

His actions belie his words. If it meant sending more terrorists to Jammu and Kashmir. In fact. Several lSI officers were involved in advisory capacities in the newly formed intelligence outfit of Taliban that replaced Najibullah's Khad. to man positions of responsibility in the Taliban administration. CHAPTER 5 An Unreliable Ally Pakistan is no ally of the United States of America. • . the American people and the establishment are still hovering on the horns of dilemma about Pakistan'S status as a terrorist state and its irrefutable links with the Taliban. it is Pakistan and there is ample evidence of it in the archives of the Central Intelligence Agency. armed and sheltered terrorists of all hues and intensity. even if it meant setting one Pakistani against another in the name of sectarian fundamentalism. it is the people of Pakistan who should be wary of this General who has quite adroitly put all his crony generals in civilian posts. To achieve his ambition. 1£ it meant unleashing sectarian violence within the country. he would not hesitate to do so. So when he talks of a crackdown on terrorists and illegal weapons. In case. anointed himself as the President and is now busy setting up a charade for a democratic election next year. Musharraf has only one ambition-to rule Pakistan as long as he can and as he wants.26 The General and Jihad is what the people of Pakistan and other parts of the world should know. consider the following: • Soon after the VVTC attack a large number of Pakistani officials had moved into Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. if there is any country which has trained. More than anyone else. As many as 9000 civil servants were sacked for their alleged links with former President Najibullah. Intelligence officials quote a recent report by the UN Secretary General's office to point out that Pakistanis had replaced Afghan officials working within the T aliban Administration. General Musharraf is set to became the President of Pakistan for life. he would not even hesitate to indulge in nuclear blackmail of the global community. allow terrorists to collect funds in public and pay them to carry out massacres like the recent Dada one. he would not mind He would open more training camps for terrorists. he is misleading. it can never be.


The General alldJihad • There was a close nexus between Taliban and Pakistan in drug trafficking. According to the UN Drug Control Program, Afghanistan produced 4600 metric tons of opium in 1999-three times more opium than what is produced elsewhere in the world. This opium was processed in refining factories in Pakistan before dispatched to Lagos en route to Europe and America. It is this drug money, running into several millions of dollars, that fuels terrorism; funds networks across the world and makes possible missions like the WTC Attack According to a 1999 World Bank report, the smuggling trade between the Taliban-conrrolled Afghanistan and Pakistan was worth more than $2.5 billion in 1997. If smuggling from other neighbouring nations is included in this network, the turnover could easily cross $5 billion. The US State Department's annual report on Patterns of Global Terrorism during 2000 released by Gen. Colin Powell, US Secretary of State, on April 30, 2001 clearly states that "the Government of Pakistan increased its support to the Taliban and continued its support to militant groups active in Indian-held Kashmir, such as the Harkat ul-Mujahideen (HuM), some of which engaged in terrorism ... The United States remains concerned about reports of continued Pakistani support for the T aliban's military operations in Afghanistan. Credible reporting indicates that Pakistan is providing the Taliban with materiel, fuel, funding, technical assistance, and military advisers. Pakistan has not prevented large numbers of Pakistani nationals from moving into Afghanistan to fight for the T aliban.

An Ul1reliable Ally


Islamabad also failed to take effective steps to curb the activities of certain madrdsGs, that serve as recruiting grounds for terrorism. Pakistan publicly and privately said it intends to comply fully with UNSCR 1333,which imposes an arms embargo on the Taliban." • Pakistan'S continued support to Osama bin Laden with medical assistance, material help, propaganda and military aid is established from various intelligence and news reports emanating from Pakistan. Intelligence officials report Laden's continued treatment at Peshawar Military Hospital for renal deficiency, Intelligence and news reports also reveal the hand of Pakistan's lSI in arranging a recorded television interview of bin Laden recently. A correspondent of the Middle East Broadcasting Corporation, Bake Atyani, had interviewed bin Laden and his associates Abu Hafas alMasri and Ayman al-Zawahiri at an undisclosed place near Kandahar. This was reportedly arranged with the help of the lSI that had even provided the camera and facilitated the correspondent's journey from Peshawar to Kandahar. Laden always makes its diabolic intentions clear through televised or media repons before carrying out pre-designated attacks. There were similar messages from him or his associates before the bombing of USS Cole and US missions in Kenya. Pakistan also allows Laden and his group, Al-Qaida, to use communication and transportation facilities from Peshawar. All his instructions and messages to his associates and contacts across the world are conveyed through telephone from Peshawar.


The Gelleral and Jihad

An UtrrdiableAlIy


What President Bush and his countrymen forget, in their zeal for retribution, is (he widespread extent of hatred that exists in Pakistan against the US and its citizens. Here are a sample of vitriol that emanated from various quarters of Pakistan when the US launched a few cruise missiles at bin laden's camps in Afghanistan last year. Maulana Abdul Gaffur. central secretary general of] amiat Ulerna- Islam was quoted in Khabrain, a prominent Urdu daily (Oct. 31. 2000) that "If US attacks Afghanistan, we will start a massacre of Americans. US is a global terrorist." Ulema of Pakistan held a conference in Rawalpindi (Oct. 24, 2000) where it unanimously declared "we will turn US into hell if any damage is done to Osama .." Students of Pakistani Madr..asas, an organisation of Islamic schools, held a meeting in Islamabad on October 20,2000, and said "if US dared to attack on Afghanistan and Osama, we'll teach them a lesson and will turn Afghanistan into graveyard of US forces. The US attack on Afghanistan will be considered an attack on Islam and its befitting reply will be given to European world and US also." As news reports from Pakistan show the situation has only worsened with terrorist, sectarian and religious groups, spawned and supported by Pak Army, Musharraf's regime and the lSI (at times all these three entities can work independently of each other), going on the offensive, holding protests and staging marches against what they see is Musharraf's supplicant posture towards the US which, they strongly believe, is the Satan of all empires, wreaking havoc on the Islamic world. There the extent within the of Pak air is already a growing dissent within the Army about of Pak's assistance to the US forces. A strong caucus top hierarchy of the Army is strongly against any use space or ground support systems for the US forces.

These Generals have strong, established links with various sectarian and religious leaders and are known to be more committed in their jihadi thinking than the mullahs. The lSI, which at best of times, works wholly independently of Islamabad, has similar opposition to helping the US in crushing what they have been proclaiming as the Holy War. Laden could be a terrorist for the rest of the world but not to a large section of the Islamic world that St es him as a messianic leader. The lSI has not only been helping the Taliban but also bin Laden with intelligence and material support. It cannot afford an exposure of its nefarious activities in establishing and aiding terrorist networks across the world, especially in India. President Musharraf is hostage to these elements that have a strong grudge against the US. He realizes his precarious position very well. So when he talks of help to the US forces, he is trying to find an escape route for himself. He wants the US to lift the economic sanctions on his country. give him unconditional support to claim Kashmir from India and the last option of a safe haven in case he finds himself overthrown and imprisoned by a strong internal sentiment against his policies. A graver premonition, if someone were to take note of, is that Pakistan is fast becoming a terrorist State. This is the point we all seem to be missing. A substantial number of terrorist incidents mentioned in theUS State Department report on The Patterns of Global Terrorism-200l are directly linked to terror networks spawned and supported by the State machinery in Pakistan. The American investigators have found irrefutable links in both the WTC case and the Shoe Bomber case to several cities in Pakistan, mainly Karachi and Peshawar. Ted Galen Carpenter, vice president for defense and foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute, a well-known research


The GellITal (1Jld Jihad

An Unrd iable Ally


institution in Washington, wrote a report in 2002. much before the world came to realise the re~grouping of Al-Qaida in Pakistan. "The reality is that," wrote Carpenter, "Al~Qaida will never be destroyed as long as it can enjoy a de facto sanctuary in Pakistan. One of the most serious mistakes in the otherwise successful U.S. military operation in Afghanistan was the decision to trust the Pakistaru goverrunent to seal the border and trap Taliban and AlQaida troops. It is now clear that Pakistan failed to fulfill that task. Indeed, there is evidence that elements in Pakistan's military, as well as the notorious Inter Services Intelligence directorate (lSI), actually helped evacuate T aliban and Al-Qaida fighters following the first U.S.~led offensive in October 2001. Although such treachery might seem shocking, it is consistent with Islamabad's track record. The Bush administration likes to tout Pakistan as a "staunch~ ally in the War on Terrorism, but the regime of military dictator Pervez Musharraf is a very recent convert in that struggle. Prior to the September 11 attacks. the Pakistani government, especially the lSI, was the chief patron of the terrorist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. And religious schools in Pakistan were renowned incubators for the terrorist recruits who joined Osama bin Laden." The Americans should do well to pay their allies have been warning them about French, for instance, have been worried connection to a network of terrorists that since mid~'90s. The French Department of Territorial Surveillance, investigating the 1995 bomb attack in Paris, in its report said "The yaung Islamic extremists, recruited and sent to military training camps, can be mobilized at any time on the orders of the war chiefs, an their proselytism alone allows for certain socially destabilizing risks." heed to what some of terror networks. The stiff about the Pak has been in operation

The French investigations revealed the existence of a network controlled by the Armed Islamic Group, better known by irs French initials, the GIA. The GIA, which operates mainly in Algeria, has allegedly killed more than 100,00 persons since 1992. The French police have found that the terrorists operating from their homeland were trained in Pakistan terrorist camps. The GIA's key point in Paris was a person called Boualem Bensaid; Investigators have established that it is Bensaid who takes young recruits to Pakistan and Afghanistan camps where they are trained by Saudi and Egyptian instructors in about 15 training camps. . According to a report in Paris Match, French counter-espionage unit had tracked down several persons living in various parts of France who were trained in Pakistan. For the Bush administration, there is, however, one simple method of testing their 'very stalwart ally' General Musharraf's commitment: Request him to shut down the Markaz Dawa Al Irshad (the Centre For Preaching) (now rechristened as Jamaat ud Dawa) headquartered at Muridke, 45 kms from Lahore. It is a huge campus, of over 190 acres, with a mosque that was constructed with contributions from Osama bin Laden. He had given Rs 10 million for the mosque. Zafar Iqbal and Hafiz Mohammad Saeed of the University of Engineering and Technology of Lahore and Abdullah Azzam of the International Islamic University founded the Markaz in 1987. The main inspiration, both moral and material, behind the Markaz was none ather than bin Laden. He used to attend the annual convocations of the Markaz before fleeing to Sudan. From Sudan, he used a conference phone to do the same. Since 1996, after he Was asked to leave Sudan, bin Laden has been sending his messages through phone to the annual gathering of Markaz at


What Secretary Powell should realise is that the Markaz and its military wing has a two-point agenda: Destroy US and destroy India. a crackdown on fundamentalist and terrorist elements in Pakistan was announced with much gusto and accompanying headlines across the world. ironically. there is nothing in the said ordinance to tty and punish the jihadis. Second is the surreptitious manner in which his regime had been letting of those rounded up as terrorists a few weeks back. One incident that is not well known is that Sheikh Omar was picked up for questioning a week after Pearl went missing but was released without any charges. the terrorist group mainly responsible for killings in Kashmir. One just has to read the speeches made at the Muridke annual conference to realise the extent of hatred these elements have towards the United States. Lashkar-e-Tayyeba. Four incidents expose Musharraf without a shred of cover. 2002. a preventive law instead of a penal legislation like the anti-terrorist Act that.s of all ilk.1960. It is not that the General is merely tolerating some sort of fringe elements. President Musharraf said he was now ready to fight the war against terrorism with the rest of the civilized world Every one believed him. Sheikh Omar and made him the main accused. except perhaps India. This is the danger with General MusharraE. It was only after Azhar refused to cooperate. Besides. As expected. once again. that has given him legitimacy. with their agenda. supposedly under house arrest. Before coming to India to talk peace with Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee at Agra this July (2000). both internally and at global level. he is deeply involved with them. and armed by the General and his army.34 TIleGenual arid Jlhad An UnrcliablcAlly 35 The General will not do it because it is the Markaz that has sustained him. when he made that high-sounding speech of his. Without the Markaz. his Kashmir terror campaign will come to a naught. First was the abduction and brutal death of American journalist Daniel Pearl in which his own intelligence agency's officials were deeply involved. Musharraf is known to be Janus faced. is the military wing of the Markaz. In the past week or so. the lahore High Court ordered the release of Maulvi Syed Nasir . for instance. Barring the _!nitialprecautionary arrest and custody of a maximum three months. Several key leaders were rounded up and housed in well appointed State guesthouses. He has proved us right. He is too much of a puppet in the hands of jihadi elements that he could be talking about war against terrorism with Secretary Colin Powell in the morning and in the evening he could well be ordering fresh ar:ns and supplies to terrorists in the Kashmir valley or the Al-Qaida members hiding somewhere in Pak Occupied Kashmir. The intelligence officials then approached J aish leader Masood Azhar. scores of jihadis have been released under various pretexts. to facilitate an early release of the American journalist. Last week. General Musharraf knows about it and has allowed them to operate freely from the soil of his country. that security agencies arrested his key aide. even after President Musharraf sent a word. Look what he did to the terrorists? BeginningJanuary 12. the courts in Pakistan are now ordering the release of jihadis on the same ground. the General first confabulated with leaders from the Markaz and other similar organisations and sought their blessings. General Musharraf is playing so many games. that it is natve to trust him. President Musharraf himself had pushed through in the early part of his martial rule. We had reasons to be sceptic. All of them were booked under the Maintenance of Public Order (MPO) Ordinance. funded. Inspired stories in the media talked of a thousand and more arrests of jihadi. It is his weapon of terror.

Sada-i-Mujahid.36 The General and Jihad Hussain Shah and Syed Sibtul Hussain Sajjid. the Maulana spewed venom on both Bush and Musharraf and threatened to launch a jihad against the United States if bombings were not stopped forthwith. Shahadat. Jihad-e-Kashmir. Mohafiz-e-Kashmir. Musharraf said the JUI chief would be charged with sedition for inCiting the armed forces to overthrow his government. In his address. Baidar Digest. j amalatul jihad. Mahaz-eKashmir. Third is the continuing fundamentalist venom spouted by various organisations through weeklies and websites that have left untouched by the Musharraf regime to spread hatred and venom against the United States and India. AI Masood. barely a few weeks after the world Was shaken by the attack on the World Trade Center in New York There was a wave of revulsion and anger against those who perpetrated the crime and those who supported them in any lUanner. When the US fighter jets began bombing the T aliban strongholds in Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. Al Khalid. jihad Times. Dawar. Zarab-e-Momin (a monthly bulletin about Taliban) and Shuhada-e-Kashmir. anti-Musharraf pro-Taliban rallies in different cities of Pakistan. They knew that the Maulana had enough clout and support to stoke the fire of hatred and violence against the anti-Taliban forces. In Pakistan. Dawat-e-Tanzeemulislam. These publications include Jaish Muhammad and Binaat-e-Ayesha published by banned Jaish Muhammad. Other magazines and weeklies in the category are: Al Dawah. He heads the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam. one of the most powerful and resourceful organisations in Pakistan working for a pure Islamic Pakistan. he is. AI Arshad and Voice of Islam. both members of a banned organisation on the ground that there was nothing in the intelligence reports to prove that they were members of any banned organisation after the ban order was imposed. There are at least 23 such weekly and monthly magazines run by jihadis that were ordered closed as per a decision taken by the Interior Ministry of Pakistan on January 26. That was in October 2001. AI Badar. J amiatul jihad. would be overthrown if he continued supporting the US in the war against the Taliban. Asia. Maulana Rehman led one of the biggest anti-US. Musharraf was left with no choice but to lock up the Maulana and his supporters. he warned. The Americans were not amused by these rabid rantings. Kashmir Action. Zarahe-Tayyaba. AI Rihat (published in Arabic). Maulana Rehman's JUI was one such organisation that . Kashmir Action. CHAPTER 6 The General's Jihadi Ally Maulana Fazl ur-Rehman may not be a household name in India. Musharraf. Sada-e-Kashmir. Shahadat.

timed to coincide with Muharram. Musharraf has paid back his dues. would have been a massive show of strength with the frustrated jlhadis and religious extremists raring to challenge the Musharraf regime. according to the Musharraf regime was that there were no charges mullahs. Lt. First was the huge public protest scheduled for March 22 to protest against the Maulana's detention. was to establish contacts with all religious organisations and seek their blessings. He was released with equal courtesy on Sunday (March 17. after all that noise and bluster about the war against terrorism. But there are two other factors that were equally responsible for Musharraf's sudden decision to grant amnesty to Rehman. Barring Lashkar-e-Tayyeba's Hafiz Mohammad Saeed and jaish-e-Mohammad's Masood Azhar. The Maulana had been of immense help to the General in consolidating his martial regime. He sought them out for every problem. Maulana Rehman was housed in Chashma Rest House. Aziz is known to harbour visions of becoming a Great Religious Warrior. though there is nothing wrong in a General being a devout. General Aziz promptly set up the channel and Musharraf began. In fact so brazen had these organisations become in the regime of Musharraf that they began seeking donations on streets for terrorist activities in Kashmir.2002). Aziz is the sort of General who keeps a beard and prays five times a day. the General has struck a deal with the mullahs. There is one thing you cannot fail to admire in Musharraf : He returns favours. By all accounts. so did madrasas. Intelligence agencies had warned Musharraf of serious law and order problem in the country besides additional trouble on the diplomatic front since the rallyists were certain to raise a banner of revolt against the US. So would it seem at the first instance. he first found well-appointed guest houses for them and literally requested them to remain under house arrest till the Americans went back to their business of making money. establish camps for training them and then lobby with Islamabad to let them carry out terror campaigns in Kashmir is therefore not a secret. One of the first things the General had asked his jihadi colleague in uniform. So have another 2000 and more people rounded up post-September II as terrorists and religious extremists. The second factor needs more elaboration. Musharraf turned a blind eye till the Americans came with their bombers and he had no choice but to keep dear of the mul1ahs. all other leaders of religious groups have been freed without any charges. The rally would have certainly spelt trouble for the Musharraf regime and dashed all his dreams of retaining the presidentship for another five years. he called them over to his presidential house and sought their blessings and advice. Just before he left for the Agra Summit. this time without Aziz. Maulana Rehman was one of the special guests.General Mohammad Aziz.38 The General and Jihad The General's J ihadi Ally 39 made no secret about supporting terrorist causes to establish an Islamic hegemony in the world. None of the mullahs were dragged out of their homes and thrown into police vans. JUI's involvement in setting up terror groups. When the Americans asked him to lock up the . it was not easy for him to do so. Rehman was one of the closest allies of the Taliban. Dera Ismail Khan. There are no charges against him. He was even accused of sheltering Osama bin Laden after the Taliban leaders fled Afghanistan. No trial awaits him. Musharraf let the mullahs run their fiefdom openly-recruitment centers for jihadis mushroomed overnight. The rally. In exchange for these favours.courting the muUahs with a religious fervour. To be fair. Sunday was a holiday and in normal circumstances be could not have been released. Yet Musharraf could not muster enough courage to throw this rabid provocateur behind bars. The reason for this general amnesty. They were all escorted to various guesthouses.

Now. In 1995. He worked in tandem with Bhutto's Interior Minister Naseerullah Babar in establishing the network of madmsas and training camps in these areas that later became the breeding ground for Islamic terrorists. It was during this period that he networked extensively in the Middle East to gather both moral and financial support for his cause. With most of its activists expected to be released shortly. He did not utter a word of calumny against MusharraI. Saudi Arabia was his favorite haunt where he courted the royal family. It was the new Harkat that organised the hijacking of Indian Airlines flight IC-SI4 on December 24. the post of Chief Election Commissioner was kept vacant for a month waiting for the judge to retire from his august office) as the Chief Election Commissioner and filling up key posts with military cronies and bureaucratic lackeys. But Maulana Rehman gave the game away when he was released with full honours. especially Prince Turki al-Faisal Saud. Alongside. especially seen in the context of another ominous development taking place elsewhere in Pakistan. There is a clear danger signal Ior India in Musharraf's decision to grant amnesty to terrorists. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was keen on raising a new cadre of mujahideens for lSI's Afghan operations in 1996. the council is expected to reactivate offices and training camps. After Islamabad decided to abandon militant groups like the Jammu and Kashmir liberation Front. Maulana Rehman was appointed as the Chairman of the. he organized hustard hunting trips for Arab princes in Kandahar and brought them closer to the Taliban that had by then grown out of his extensive network of madrasas. is back on the rails and has decided to renew their operations in India. to armrwist the Indian authorities to release a close associate and friend of Rehman. The council had gone into a hibernation following the temporary crackdown. It would seem to be a perfectly legitimate reason. despite appointing his favourite judge (former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court lrshad Hasan Khan who had ratified the Musharraf government and gave him the power to amend the Constitution. virtually the Foreign Minister of Pakistan. Harkat-ul Ansar. Masood Azhar. He was keen on talking about his strategy for the impending elections that the General had announced as part of his plan to anoint himself as the Great Democrat and not the Timid Dictator as viewed by the people of Pakistan and his friends in the West. Ansar became Harkat ul Mujahideen after the US State Department banned it.40 The GCllcral and Jihad The GCllcral's Jilwdi Ally 41 against these persons who were booked under the Maintenance of Public Order and hence it would have been illegal to hold them beyond three months which was the maximum punishment accorded under the law. One such powerful Mullah is Maulana Relunan. The coalition of Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and Rehman's JUI won the elections. He needs the mullahs. National Assembly's Standing Committee for Foreign Affairs. Maulana Rehman was working on another level too. The United Jihad Council. Musharraf knows that he cannot hope to win any election on his own. who patronized jl. Rehman was actively seeking out cooperation and material assistance from Pakistan Army and lSI to promote terrorist activists in Kashmir. After General Zia. 1999. an umbrella organisation of IS terrorist groups that has been coordinating most of the terrorist activities in Kashmir. Benazir Bhutto chose to ally with Maulana Rehman's JUI for contesting the elections.Il's rival Jamat Islarni headed by Mian Tufial Ahmed (Zia's relative). . Rehman's JUI became the hub for terrorist groups like. It was Maulana Rehman who supplied men and shelter to the Taliban in his areas of influence-North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Balchistan. the head of the Saudi General Intelligence Agency.

both military and diplomatic. . to rescue the people of Pakistan from the clutches of religious zealots. al-Barq. Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. The fact that the council could hold a meeting in Pakistan. Situation in Pakistan calls for the international community to force Musharraf to step down and call for general elections so that a democratically-elected government could decide the fate of a nation that is fast becoming a threat to the entire world. Musharraf is finding it extremely impossible to be in control. in any case. Today he is a failed General. al-Omar and Islamic Front from Kashmir. The council has already expelled Jaish-e. There should be no doubt that President Musharraf has failed to rein in extremist elements within his country. It was an admission of his failure.42 The General Gild Jihad The General's 1thad l A [/y 43 The council's fresh plan of offensive is already on the tablethe number of member groups have been cut down to achieve better coordination and maximum utilisation of resources. We need to understand that Pakistan is not a problem for India alone. Pakistan today poses a serious threat to the global peace. The council will now coordinate killing operations of Tehrik-ul-Mujahideen. He is a cornered man today with jiltadi elements within the Army and outside calling for his resignation. rake decisions that challenge Musharraf's public stance against terror groups in his country and remain free says lot about Musharraf and his great war on terrorism. It poses a pernicious threat to the civilized world and therefore the only effective remedy is an international action. A serious side-bar to the main story is that Jaish and Lashkar have been asked to remain anonymous and join the ranks of smaller groups like Tehrik-ul-Mujahideen and al-Omar and other terror groups in Kashmir. Tehrik-eJihad. Not surprisingly. With jihadi elements raising their heads within the lSI and the Army.Mohammad and Lashkar-eTayyeba from its membership which means only thing-India will have to now fight at least two major terrorist groups-the jaish-Lashkar conglomerate (the December 13 attack was a coordinated operation of both these powerful terror groups) and the UJc. he told the National Security Council four years ago about controlling terror groups operating from Pakistan. both in uniform and outside. The council. His propaganda has fallen fiat. It is a threat of a failed nation fast slipping into the hands of anarchic elements for whom only death and destruction is the only religion. has decided not to launch operations from Pakistan to save Musharraf from any blame.

He is a Mohajir from Azamgarh. they have so much at stake in Pakistan. Musharraf proved to be a right choice for both of them. . General Zia raised a Special Services Group headquartered at Khapalu in the Siachen area in 1987. an acolyte eager to please his master. Maybe the Americans would be willing to accept his actions as bona fide. made it known to the General that they too preferred Musharraf. Brigadier Musharraf attacked an Indian post in Siachen that was promptly repulsed.A Man with I110usand Faces 45 CHAPTER 7 A Man with Thousand Faces Uttar Pradesh but had settled down in Gujranwala in Punjab. decided to act tough and ordered freezing of bank accounts and assets of Lashkar-e. his close ties with General Zia ul Haq. The Chinese are his good friends. Leaders of jamaat-e-Islami. For his Siachen plan. The Central Intelligence Agency had brought this contractor to construct bunkers for mujahideens. The only reason for re-visiting the history of Musharraf is to understand the factors that shaped his psyche. He was sitting pretty in Beijing when his troops intruded into the Indian territory. After finding himself cornered within his country by jihadi Generals and militant mullahs and from outside by the rampaging forces of the Northern Alliance and the United States. It was during those days that Musharraf first met a Saudi civil engineer who was keen to help the cause of jihad with money and muscle. That's what he did when he engineered the Kargil W'ilI. Musharraf is too clever a General to go on his knees and even if he feigns to do so. This time around too. is today known as the most wanted man in the world. For instance. Let us not underestimate Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf. So when India and the United States began making loud noises about terror groups and involvement of his country. He made similar requests to jaish-e-Mohammad chief Masood Azhar. Musharraf was part of this plan.Musharraf was then a Brigadier and was asked to command the unit. It is important to understand Musharraf the man to make sense of his quicksilver swings. with the Chinese at his side. One of the elements of Operation T opac was to annex the Siachen area that remained' unmarked when the line of Control was being re-drawn after the 1971 war. The contractor. a fundamentalist political party.Tayyeba. we should not make that mistake. Musharraf. The same year. it is just another tactical retreat. shook hands with him. It was at this juncture that Musharraf developed two other key links that would stand him in good stead-the CIA and the narcotics syndicate operating in the North West Frontier Province. Osama bin Laden. put arms around his shoulders and told him not to worry. He got commissioned in the Pakistan Army in 1964 and was just one of rhe officers who waited for their promotion boards till General Zia-ul Haq spotted him. Musharraf ran to Beijing for shelter. the Chinese welcomed him. with whom Musharraf had close working relationship. a long-term plan to dismember india through both covert and overt operations. General Zia never hid his liking for devout officers and in Musharraf he found a pious Deobandi. heard him out. told Lashkar chief Hafiz Mohammad Sayeed to shut shop on his own. The first task he was assigned by General Zia was to train mujahidecns recruited by various religious organisations to fight Soviet troops in Afghanistan. It was General Zia who planned Operation Topac.

Musharraf. Lt. A few months down the line. Laden was by then known to be an effective leader of mujahideens. was his hatred for Muttahida Qaurni Movement (MQM). He is a man with a thousand faces. he is quite capable of bringing together the vanquished Al-Qaida. Brigadier MusharraI got another critical assignment from General Zia. letting them recruit men for terrorist training. began settling Punjabis and Pashtoons in Gilgit and Baltistan to reduce the Kashrniri Shias to a minority. The Shias. While in Gilgit and Baltistan. and Lt. . Till then. Gen. as the world by now must have realized. Nasir was an adviser on intelligence matters to Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Tarar was the President.46 The General and Jihad A Mall with Thousa1ld Faces 47 Within a year. Beware. The Kashmiris who swear by Musharraf today would do well to read about his exploits in Gilgit and Baltistan. Gen. who was then the Director General of the Inter Services Intelligence and Justice Mohmmad Ralique Tarar. the Quarter Master General. shift office and cooperate with him for achieving their common interest-inflict a thousand cuts on India. acting on the orders of Sharif. It is said several hundred Shias were massacred in the operation. Another factor that linked the three together was their religious belief-they were Deobandis and had a good standing with fundamentalist parries and terrorist groups like Harkat ul Mujahideen. It is not exactly easy to trust him when he makes a sound and fury about banning terror groups operating in his country. drawing support from them to stabilize his hold over Islamabad. One of the splinter groups of Harkat is today known as J aish-e. the Chief of General Staff. This anti-Shia operation helped Musharraf in more ways than one. on the orders of Zia. after he has lulled the Americans and the Western world into believing in his anti-terronsrn charade. This time. a majority community in the area. Shias by caste. had risen in revolt against their continued neglect at the hands of the rulers in Islamabad. a Mohajir rebel group.Islami. arming them with modem weapons to kill civilians and security men in Kashmir. Musharraf. earlier known as Harkat ul Ansar. Musharraf is turning once again. as terrorists. allowing them to open offices in respectable commercial and residential complexes. He is an officer and a politician. Within two years. He openly courted them. General Javed Nasir. a religious fundamentalist party that has immense clout across the country. After the revolt was brutally suppressed.Mohmmad. Khalid Nawaz. It was therefore no surprise that First thing Musharraf did on throwing Sharif out (incidentally he was once again out of the country. Musharraf became close to Lt. Musharraf sought out bin Laden for his mission. both of whom played a key role in his becoming the Chief of Army Staff. the Taliban and the terror groups that pull his strings and create. He is not the typical officer and a gentleman as the Britishers trained their officers to be. India needs to keep a close watch on this General who has a history of Switching sides and using religion for military goals. Ali Kuli Khan. Another reason for Sharif to choose Musharraf over two of his seniors. this time he was teeing in Colombo) was to let the fundamentalists have a free run of the country. One stellar quality in Musharraf. the most crucial being the wide appreciation and support he got from the rabidly anti-Shia terrorist groups that were funded by the lSI via J amaat-e. set up special courts to try MQM activists. another invisible network of terror. change nomenclature. his mission was to suppress a revolt in Gilgit. this time against the very forces that created him and made him the Emperor. he has already told J aish and Lashkar leaders to lie low. always looking for the first opportunity to network with those who can propel him further. is rank opportunism.

As per reports. The General has gone about filling up civilian and military posts with such vehemence that he has even managed to appoint a retired Army officer. Gujranwala. the bureau office of Daily jasarat was raided. Two others head W APDA and Railways while one retired Lt. foreign service and civil secretariat. always willing to give the benefit of doubt to Musharraf. He has rhus created a whole coterie of Yes Men who would stand by him in times of crisis.General. By bringing the civilian establishment under his direct control through his cronies. police and health departments. He has appointed serving and retired military officers to civilian posts. Intimidation of journalists has become as common as political Witch-hunting.A fanner Lt. as the Chief Securiryofftcer of PoK Hydro Electric Board. and on January 31. education. K-2 of Northern Areas on the ground that it was promoting antiPakistan feelings. the day he seized power. The. Since October 12. on October 26. is busy militarising the entire establishment in his country and spawning fundamentalist and terrorist organisations with such alacrity that Pakistan will soon be no different from a Talibanised Afghanistan. General is [he federal interior minister. offices of the Frontier Post were raided. H yderabad. Musharraf banned a weekly newspaper. An amputated civilian establishment would mean a direct control of the middle class which has often been the nemesis of many a military dictator in Pakistan and elsewhere.Military Bureaucracy 49 CHAPTER 8 Military Bureaucracy There are two developments in General Musharraf's Pakistan that should worry our peacenik Indian politicians a great deal. There is another major fallout which should not be ignored. the persons whom he can trust not to rebel. Six serving Brigadiets have been appointed as Managing Directors of power companies based in Quetta. Captain Naeem Feroz Chaudhry. 2000. 2001. The Indian authorities. military dictator. Islamabad and Peshawar.Generals have been appointed as Vice Chancellors of the University of Engineering and Technology. Mulran. Lahore. the National Accountability Bureau. intelligence agencies. . let us take his acts one by one. the General is ensuring a clear and safe passage to the presidentship which he so desperately needs to gain international acceptance. General Musharraf has been busy filling up both military as well as civilian posts with his cronies. On September 28. Lahore and University of Punjab. also a former lSI chief. should take these developments seriously. an Army unit raided the offices of Dawn in Karachi. Provincial offices of the Intelligence Bureau and the Anti -Narcotic Force are headed by serving Brigadiers. is serving as an Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. on January 29. military officers today hold 175 posts in [he civilian establishment. Link this with Musharraf's shackling of the popular press and it will not be difficult to understand either his mind or his ambition. 1999.Generals are Governors of Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. for all his diplomatic noises in the international arena. Two Lt. One act of the General that has gone largely unnoticed in this part of the world is the systematic militarisation of the civilian establishment. Two other It.

The militants already field an irregular force of one hundred and fifty thousand.. to neutralise both political and bureaucratic opposition to his illegal rule. jamaat-e-Islami Amir Qazi Hussain Ahmed and Hizbul Mujahidin supreme commander Syed Salahuddin were visiting a terrorist camp. The militant agenda is clear. Independent thinking is prohibited. Pakistani madrasas have a doctrinaire curriculum. He said he has seen the list of such organisations and many of them did not even exist. ." CHAPTER 9 Stoking Fundamentalist Fire Though Musharraf. Maskar-e-Rahil in Kotli. filled up. Salahuddin addressed a two-day meeting of Pakistan Islamic Medical Association (a facility for treating militants) at Multan.50 The Genera! and Jihad The latest weapon in Musharraf's hand is the National Accountability Bureau. And their number in Pakistan is growing. PoK. organisations and the Musharraf regime arrived at an understanding that security forces would neither raid nor use force against fundamentalist organisations. Former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto summed up the situation in a signed article for The News (Feb. they hope to have half a million men under arms. 2001). Their graduates are singularly focused on the sectarian nature of their studies. They addressed the militants undergoing training at the camp and talked to HM commanders in Poonch and Rajouri sectors through wireless. Ironically. 6. obviously. on the very day when the Musharraf regime was promising the global community of a crack down on terrorist organisations. the General is all set to create another Taliban regime next door. heads of various jehadi.2002. "The rise of intolerance in Pakistan is accentuated by the rise of intolerance in neighbouring Afghanistan .. Two months later. has been making noises about controlling the fundamentalist forces in Pakistan. one that can take on the regular armed forces should a showdown be called for. After Interior Minister Moinuddin Haider promised an end to all fundamentalist and terrorist activities on February 13. under pressure from the United States. the ground reality is diametrically opposite.. it plays into the hands of militants with poor education. With all voices of dissent either clamped down or pushed behind bars. to gain time and create a parallel armed force. by his henchmen. As the military regime clams down on political forces. Salahuddin told the gathering that the Musharraf regime was only taking action against fake jehadi organisation. In ten years.

said there was a well-evolvedstrategy to train youth to fight against the Indian forces. The speed at which fundamentalist and terrorist forces are growing in Pakistan (there are at present more than 80 such organisations) under his regime.Other fundamentalist and terrorist outfits like Lashkar-e-Tayyeba.India. seminars and meetings with as much ease. jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Islam organised a conference called Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband Conference at Taro Jabbah near Peshawar to mark the 150th birth anniversary of Deoband Madrasa. on its part. In April 2001. Amir LeT Invitation and Propaganda wing. Harkut-ul-Ansar are holding conferences. Security arrangements for the meeting were organised by hundreds of LeT militants with active administrative support from the Sheikhupura district administration. In mid-April 2002. addressed by several militant leaders. LeT organised a training camp at Muridke.52 The General and Jihad Stakirlg Fundamtmtalist Fire 53 Salahuddin is not the only militant leader who is allowed to address meetings freely. . It is time the world. Musharraf is inflicting immense damage to the global campaign against terrorism. al Bam. One of the speakers. Several thousand people attended the meeting. Hafiz Mohammad Idrees. Militant leaders openly hit out against India and the United States and called for teaching of Osama bin Laden's messages in madrasas. By unleashing the twin evils of fundamentalist forces and military control of civilian establishment in a nuclear state. realise the dangerous game plan of General Musharral in keeping the subcontinent perpetually on the brink of a nuclear war. it would not be a misplaced fear to believe that these terrorist organisations could alsopossibly control the nuclear arsenal. should not leave any opportunity to let the world know the truth about General Musharraf's Pakistan. He therefore must be stopped at all costs and the responsibility for initiating such an action depends largely on the United States which has so far been hesitant to come down heavily on him despite his direct links with Osama bin Laden and various terrorist groups. especially the US and India. for instance. It was spread over 300 acres.jammu Zone.

the lSI. kept in illegal confinement and kicked with military boots. Another correspondent. which was already finished after the arrest of the principle accused who is now facing trial. For instance. received a harsher punishment. To quote from one of his speeches Uanuary 16. immediately after Pearl was abducted. Shakil Sheikh. a mafia don living in a palatial house in Karachi. 2001):"1 can and will tolerate anything against my self and my government but not against the counrry. He focused on the special treatment given to Dawood Ibrahim by the authorities despite India's demand to extradite him for masterminding the 1993 Mumbai serial blasts. "I am surprised as to why Pearl worked on a shoe bomber story. a broken man who wouldn't say a word what had happened to him. who freelances for CNN and Time magazine. including Al-Qaida. is a sensitive subject for Musharraf Dawood tops the list of 20 terrorists wanted by India." The problem is what President Musharraf considers (and he is sale arbiter for defining national interest in Pakistan) as national interest might not be viewed as such by the general public. President Musharraf's most brazen attack on the freedom of the press was when he sent a team of military officials to the office of the respected and widely-read English daily. His scary in Newsline was one of the evidence India had attached to the list of terrorists. Beating up of journalists for telling the truth or asking disturbing questions has become a way of life under President Musharraf's regime. Dawn. The same day. He was picked up from his car inside Islamabad. just a day before Pearl went missing. His only crime was a series of stories he did on the connections between organized crime and the lSI. He returned home four days later.MedJa and Military 55 CHAPTER 10 Media and Military especially a vigilant media. That is what happened to a local journalist Ghulam Husnain. his newspaper owner not only reprimanded him but also demoted him. . Dawood Ibrahim. who also happened to embarrass the President at the same press conference. The Army officers ransacked the entire office."More telling is the remark made by Musharraf's Interior Minister Moinuddin Hyder. President Pervez Musharraf has often been ruthless in dealing with such nosey journalists. He was picked up from Karachi Press Club. Urdu newspaper Nawa-i-Waqt's Masood Malik had the temerity to ask an unpleasant question to President Musharraf during a televised press conference. he decided to go ahead) was Pakistan's intense suspicion of any journalist trying to probe the establishment's deep involvement with terror groups. So if a journalist tries to find out why a mafia king is being protected by authorities. questioned the staff and threatened to return if the newspaper refuse to change the tone Wall Street] ournal correspondent Daniel Pearl was abducted by terrorists not because he was an American but for being a journalist who was determined to dig out hidden links between a terrorist named Richard Reid alias Shoe Bomber and Pakistan's religious-terror network functioning with the active assistance of the notorious intelligence agency. What Pearl did not realise (or even if he did. He had to be hospitalised. he is punished ruthlessly.

CHAPTER 11 Impending Danger Pakistan's soldier-President Pervez Musharraf is undoubtedly a good PR man. which said. especially the United States that. Abu Saad. corrupt. Musharraf says he is going to come down heavily on terrorists and terrorist organisation. he has no intention to ban terrorist organisations or their activities in Pakistan.56 Tile General and Jihad and tenor of its political coverage. It is not hard to get evidence. His latest gimmick deweaponisarion. The move is obviously aimed at pleasing the western world. Musharraf's crackdown is only for the consumption of the media and the public." Less lucky has been the owner of the vocal English language daily The Frontier Post. 2000. In reality. chief of north. and not pursuing healthy journalism. he had written a story alleging links between drug runners and some top officials of the Pak antinarcotic task force. His latest catchword is crackdown on terrorists. whatever his other qualities might be. After the Agra fiasco. This is clearly evident from the ever-rising level of contributions these organisations have been drawing. who languishes in jail on cooked up charges of possessing narcotics. complaining that it was irresponsible. where he put his foot in the mouth more often than anyone else around him. he is now busy selling the world his credentials as a civilized." . liberal leader. incidentally. without mincing words. is pondering on how much credit should be extended to a nation ruled by a tin pot dictator in an executive suit. that General Musharraf had exhibited a "growing impatience with the Pakistani press. What had incensed the military ruler was an article "Free Press: Is Musharraf Having Second Thoughts?" on September 12. unpatriotic at times. west frontier province chapter of Lashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT) was recently quoted in The Friday Times as saying: "There has been considerable increase in the donations since the minister called for a ban on placing our donation boxes in public places. A few days before he was arrested. Both no less a sham. especially after Musharraf's Interior Ministry had banned collection of donations by terrorist organisations. Rahmat Shah Afridi.

Sectarian killings have never been so rampant in Pakistan as in the regime of M usharraf. a rabidly anti-Shia sub-sect of Sunni. Dr Adeebul Hasan Rizvi. most well-known doctors in Karachi. both Shia and Sunni. Disturbingly enough. Karachi. Shaukat Raza Mirza was managing director of Pakistan State Oil and Syed Zafar Hussain was a senior defence ministry official. three doctors were gunned down and a fourth one escaped an attempt on his life. He is no messiah for the Pakistanis. a religious sect that incidentally fuels terrorism in Kashmir. To quote Allama Hasan Turabi. has been quite a few sectarian killings in the pasco According to police records. In June 2001. of the. He is more than a willing ally in the activities of these organisations as is evident from his insistence on calling terrorists as freedom fighters. He is simply not sincere. there have been 52 terroristrelated murders in the first six months of 2002. At least 34 lawyers. Two recent high-profile killings of Shias in Karachi are a pointer to a factor that is threatening to destablise the Pakistan society in the near future. Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan and Shia Sipah-e-Mohammad. Deobandalso promotes and supports terrorist organisations like Lashkar-e-jehangvi. Prior to this. especially doctors and lawyers. He has already escaped one attempt after police stumbled upon the conspiracy by accident a few days before he was to be killed. mostly under the" benevolent regime" of Musharraf. the number of people killed in sectarian violence cross 170. one. In any case. 68 doctors were killed in Karachi alone. for instance. a . Dr Sikhander Mehdi and Dr Raza Khoja. These are not figures culled out from any secret files but reported in the Pakistani media from time to time and hence it will not be difficult for Musharraf to see the hollowness of his claim of coming down heavily on sectarian and other types of terrorist activities in his country. Musharraf is also a Deobandi. His loud claims of making criminals and terrorists surrender weapons and enacting stricter anti-terrorist laws fall flat on facts. today lives under the constant shadow of death. have been killed in sectarian violence in the past two years (1999.The most disturbing element of these sectarian killings is the profile of the victims-most of them are professionals. both were Shias. but no civilized government or nation can ever accept his justification of killing innocents in the name of religious crusade." The second most common group of professionals being targeted by sectarian terrorists is lawyers. ''Though some of the doctors who were killed belonged to the Sunni sect. are carrying many of these killings out. Police officials later said the killers were given the photograph of the doctor and asked to gun him down.58 The Genera. "They were killed simply because they were Shia. They have also started targeting bureaucrats and police officers. In fact. In the last seven years. A police officer was quoted in a local Karachi newspaper as saying: "Sectarian terrorists are increasingly targeting professionals. chief of Tehrika-e-jafria Pakistan.2001). This is happening in Karachi and also in Punjab. Among other outfits. He could be hammering in his definition of terrorism wherever he gets a chance to open his mouth. In the last two years (1999-2001). In the past two years. in fact. terrorists owing allegiance to Deoband. three doctors had already fallen victims to sectarian terrorists-Dr jaffery. Fact is he is encouraging sectarian killings within Pakistan.1 and Jihad Impending Danger 59 Not that Musharraf is unaware of such a development. a majority of the victims were Shias and were killed because of their religious denomination. a total of 3951 people were gunned down by sectarian terrorists. No one can sum up Musharraf's sincerity or lack of it than Allama Sajid Ali Naqvi. out of which 32 were doctors and 12 were lawyers. no religion condones killings as a virtue. a Shia leader of Karachi.

despite the fact that Qadris disciples from the Sunni Tehreek were brandishing automatic weapons during Qadri's funeral. See how adroitly he has pinned the blame for all the recent terrorist incidents on Sheikh Ornar. Bush pats him in Washington.It is another Great Musharraf Swindle. 2002: "I would like to inform you that a number of terrorist rings have been apprehended. he has been running around the world declaring himself. Every time the minister (Interior Minister it. as a savior of the world. the Inspector General of Police.January 2002). During Salim Qadr's funeral. This is . Give him time. while briefing me.General Moinuddin Haider) has made a tall claim he is greeted by killings or bomb blasts. The laws are stringent enough to deal with the situation but no government has ever dared to enforce them properly. This neatly sums up the Musharraf's regime's achievements. he claimed that the government had banned display of weapons in public. switching with alacrity between an underdog expression to injured innocence. the Americans teli the world The General is playing his game again. Next time. in a report dated August 3.60 The General and Jihad sectarian outfit: "What is the point of forumulating new laws when you cannot ensure their enforcement. Pakistan is the most favoured nation for terrorists. the same week saw the murders of three doctors. This. In Karachi. he claimed the government had recovered 86000 illicit arms. The Imam has confessed to murdering many people himself. Tower of Babel Lies have this wonderful propensity to come unstuck at the \vrong time. He is doing our bidding. He knows how to take the world for a ride by poker-faced pretences. informed that the leader of one of these groups is the Pesh Imam (Prayer Leader) of a Mosque in Malic.2002." CHAPTER 12 The Friday Times. This is what President Pervez Musharraf is finding out much to his discomfort. Powell tells Delhi to go slow on him. takes it further. For over a month now (December 2001. He is trying to side step the main issue: After Afghanistan and Sudan. He knows the words and expressions the West would fall for. Remember how candid he sounded on January 12.

head of an Islamic group called Tanzeem ul Fuqra or AI Faqra." The world fell for such candour. however. More specifically. a fundamentalist organisation that has been banned by the US State Department in 2000. It is very much alive and kicking in Musharrafs Pakistan. he flew to Amsterdam where he spent most of his time sending e-mails to certain addresses in Pakistan from internet cafes. Subsequent investigations found that Reid had spent considerable time in Pakistan from where he crossed over to a terrorist camp in Afghanistan. Ra'uff was Reid. French authorities have dug up similar e-mail exchanges between Reid and an anonymous person in Peshawar. including Muslims they regard as heretics and Hindus. There was a specific reason for Pearl to go after Reid. Both seemingly are incidents of diverse dimension. who were covering the US campaign in Afghanistan. Pearl was supposed to meet Gilani. a few days after President Musharraf spoke of coming clean on terrorism. India. had purchased a second-hand computer in Kabul. and crumble fast. Daniel Pearl was too keen to know who this interlocutor in Pakistan was. Several hours later. On January 22. on January 23. he had spoken to the cleric for about 10 minutes the day he was kidnapped. practice their faith. He had listed out. Just before he went missing. Al Faqra is a "Islamic sect that seeks to purify Islam through violence. Fuqra members in the United States have been convicted of crimes. Terror groups masterminded both the incidents from Karachi and Islamabad. with more than a nod from President Musharraf's intelligence agencies. Gilani is no ordinary mullah. It was this terror network that Daniel Pearl was investigating when he went to Pakistan. Pakistan. like a true soldier. in distant port towns with no connections whatsoever. In fact. A possible suspect is a Muslim cleric named Mubarak Ali Shah Gilani. " . directing Reid on the terrorist bombing mission. who flew from the Netherlands to Israel. Egypt. His colleagues at Wall Street Journal. all the points that would make Pakistan a terrorist-free State. Turkey and Pakistan scouting for targets. within ten days of his sermon on television.62 TIle General and Jihad Tower oJ Babd 63 the state of affairs. There is a strong connection. 2001. probably Khalden. Attacks during the 1980s included assassinations and firebombing across the United States. The General's roadmap for extricating his country from extremism and terrorism was praise-worthy. In December. To what purpose are we using our mosques for? These people have made a state within a state and have challenged the writ of the government. Fuqra members have attacked a variety of targets that they view as enemies of Islam. 1999. Members have purchased isolated rural compounds in North America to live communally. In August. but most cells are located in North America and the Caribbean. One file mentioned travels of a person named Abdul Ra'uff. and insulate themselves from Western culture. Daniel Pearl. The Kolkata attack and the Karachi kidnapping was a clear warning to the United States: the Taliban may be dead. According to the Department's annual Patterns of Global Terrorism. He TUns AI Faqra. went missing from Karachi. terrorism is not. including murder and fraud. Led by Pakistani cleric Shaikh Mubarik Ali Gilani. Gilani now resides in Pakistan. The hard drive of the computer contained a few thousand files written by Al-Qaida members. Pearl was interested in following the trail of Richard Reid alias the Shoe Bomber who tried to blow up an American Airlines Flight 63 in December last. who established die organisation in the early 1980s. 2002 a group of motorcycle-borne terrorists attacked the American Center in Kolkata. an unknown American journalist. Reid moved to Paris. Only that his Tower of Babel began to crumble.

is emerging as a key conduit for financing terror groups. What is. who fled US after the. Azhar is under house arrest in Pakistan. One of Azzam's associates was a Saudi billionaire called Osama bin Laden.3 million in missing government money. So did a host of others who executed the WTC attack of September 11. Omar funneled money to terrorists. a chain of schools. mainly as a fundraiser and an informer when he was in the US. Before Gilani escaped to Lahore. established in Peshawar by a Palestinian fundamentalist.64 The General and ]i/wd TowerofBabd 65 What President Musharraf would not like the world to know is that Gilani. That is why they burnt down their office in Rawalpindi a few weeks ago. GateWay Academy. Sheikh Abdullah Azzam. First is Gilani's own admission that he has been working for the lSI and other Pakistan intelligence agencies. Richard Reid the Shoe Bomber learned his ropes in Karachi. Dawood Ibrahim and countless others who escaped from Kandahar to safe houses in Karachi or Peshawar or right next to Musharraf's presidential house in Islamabad. 1993 attack on the World Trade Center to his hometown Lahore. And Gilani's AI Faqra was one of Azzam's network of front organisations. Gilani was freed a few days back. Second evidence corroborates his admission. irrefutable is Pakistan's continued protection of terrorists like Azhar. members of his group defrauded the State of Colorado of more than $355. Now see the link. Al Faqra has amassed enough money from donations and contributions. It was AI Kifah Center. The movement that began from a storefront in Peshawar activated networks across the world-thousands joined the ranks to fight the war against "enemies of Islam". One of Gilani's relatives is a former Pakistan Air Force officer. however. Azhar and Omar are class fellows. Daniel Pearl's grave mistake was to probe this nexus. Gilani's AI Faqra is not just another secretive Islamic group. And. Both got money from bin Laden.000 through false workers' compensation. His group. which gave birth to the concept of violent jihad. He is close to J aish leader Maulana Masood Azhar. run by his group is the focus of an investigation into $1. Faqra was the killer squad of a group called the AI Kifah Center. It is a tiny cog in the global terror network epitomized by bin Laden's Al-Qaida. .Musharraf's lSI knew all of them. American authorities suspect that the defrauded funds were sent to Pakistan and kept in a dozen Pakistani banks Gilani could be wanted for fraud and other offences in America but how is he connected to the terror networks and the lSI? There are two pieces of evidence. set up in the early 1980s. Musharraf says his country supports campaign against terrorism. Sheikh Ornar. He is one of the conduits between the lSI and terror organisations like AI Faqra. In the early '90s. Khalid Khawaja who was once Osama bin Laden's pilot. Gilani worked both for the jihadis and the lSI. In California. Khawaja is a middle ranking officer in the lSI and has close: links with many terror groups. despite all these tell-tale evidence to the contrary. So did Gilani. Omar surrendered in Karachi. The T aliban chief Mullah Omar had links with Gilani Sheikh Omar is a key member of Azhar's Jaish.

More than 2000 Afridis. Bannu and other locations on the Pak-Afghan border at night. the CNN and the works. a sizeable number of them from the Islami J ammat-e. Lakki. Miram Shah in the North West Frontier Province towards Narezi. hammering in the point that he was with the America's Global War on Terrorism. They are using abandoned chemical factories. A May 25. and Charsadda as staging posts for supplying arms and ammunition to the: Taliban. There are reports that these Pak cadres have also taken part in the May 3-5 offensive to recapture to Shibertu airbase anJakawlangfrom th Wadhat. The Americans would only be naive to believe otherwise. an outfit from Pak NVlFP. The entire operation has all the hallmarks of Pak Army. it is remote-controlled by Rawalpindi-based GHQs of his Army. There is more evidence. Nowshera. set up to monitor sanctions against the T aliban.HoodWinking the World 67 CHAPTER 13 Hoodwinking the World It is time to tell President Pervez Musharraf that his time is up. Musharraf is so enamoured by the Maulana that he calls him and his bunch of terrorists 'freedom fighters'. More than 250 members of Pak-based Sipah-e-Saheba (a rabid Sunni organization) have been deployed by the Taliban in Takhar. The suicidal attack on the Jammu and Kashmir Assembly (October 2001) has all the marks of his inspiration. But he is not. very clandestine routes are being used-one via Bnnu. The Sipah members also fought alongSide the T aliban when the Northern Alliance forces launched an attack against Cheghcheran in Ghar province on June 29. The Maulana has President Musharraf by his tail. Musharrafs perfidy should not be a secret either. He is all over the American media. are arms and ammunition. avoiding the easily detectable Peshawar-jalabad highway. Someone should have checked the relief supplies going to the Afghan refugee camps on Pak-Alghan border to find out the truth. daring him to stop him from preaching hatred against India and the US whom he calls infidels. In the packs and bags. inspired and instigated by one of the most vicious terror organisations called jaish-e-Mohammad led by a rabid provocateur by the name of Maulana Masood Azhar who was till 1999 languishing in an Indian jail. More than 30 of them were killed in the fighting.Tulba (student wing of the Pak-based jamrnat-e-Islarni) are fighting along with the T aliban soldiers in Takhar province. have been eployed In Zari and Sangcharak. The second is from Parachinar to Khost Gardez and the third is Qaleh Abdullah-Chaman route to Kandahar. . fertilizer depots and closed cotton textile mills located in Mansehra. north of Kabul.ernbers ~f Ilaqa-e-Ghair. Likewise. 2001. . marked as relief supplies. He has been trying to hoodwink the world by joining in the global war against terrorism while aiding and abetting terrorists to carry out acts of killing in Kashmir. If there was ever any doubt. the J &:K Assembly attack made it stark clear. The PakArmy is also using several feeder roads to send the supplies. Three. report prepared by the five-member UN expert group. Weapons and war supplies including aviation fuel are being transported in trucks driven by Afghans to Mardan. Terrorists who have carried out the attack on the Assembly are Pakistanis. Musharraf and Maulana are hand in glove. close: to Khost in Pakhtia province. Shu mali plains.

judges and bureaucrats. one of its leaders. He said the UN monitors in Pakistan would have an adverse impact on the country's nuclear capability. Several others served as Taliban governors in the provinces.000 day scholars and 12 affiliated smaller madrasas'. The Taliban movement was launched by students of the 9000~odd madrasas run by theJUI that was set up in 1947 for spreading the teachings of the Deobandi school of Islam. these groups met under the umbrella of the Defence of Pakistan and Afghanistan Council (erstwhile Afghan Defence Council) at Islamabad. Samiul Haq and Azhar are linked by their common religious grounding. which became the primary training ground for the Taliban leadership. judges and bureaucrats. Post-Soviet withdrawal saw the rise of Maulana Samiul Haq. who ran a madrasa. at least eight Taliban cabinet ministers in Kabul were graduates of Haq's madrasa and dozens more served as T aliban governors in the provinces. a high school for 1.n notes Rashid. Dar-ul Uloom Haqqania." he told the gathering. . is the same. The repon called for more severe restrictions on the supply of aviation fuel. about eight Taliban cabinet ministers were Haqqania's alumni.500. That is the kind of power this man holds in Islamabad. The JUI utilized the opportunity to establish a string of madrasas along the Pashtun belt in NVVFPand Baluchistan offering free education. it. A bit of history will pu t this link in perspective. shelter and martial training. Ir will not. Samiul Haq heads jamiat-eUlemaHslam OUl) which is the parent organisation of Maulana Azhar'sjaish and the Taliban. were important sources of recruitment for the T aliban. including Pakistan. General Hamid Gul said the UN recommendation was a plot against Pakistan and a bid to cut off supplies to jehadis. The report said Pakistan "could do more to help enforce an arms embargo and other sanctions" against the Taliban regime. 'Haqqania is in Akhora Khatak in NWFP and has a boarding school for 1. began using his cadres for the CIA~backed. On August 26. The JUI became a political party when Maulana Ghulam Ghaus Hazarvi. Pak-trained mUjahideens to fight the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. both in terms of money and material to fight its enemies. In 1999.T aliban military cooperation. One of the speakers at the above meeting was Jaish leader Maulana Masood Azhar who said he could tell President Musharraf not to allow the UN monitors. It said it would be naive to believe that the T aliban Army was surviving on old stocks. a suggestion which was met with vehement opposition in Pakistan. At the meeting. In 1999. the man who is the key point man for the Pak. The repon rughlighred Pakistan failure to regulate its madrasas which.Ulemai-Islam's Maulana Simiul Haq. military commanders. Samiul Haq said a three-member delegation would meet President Musharraf and seek his support for the Taliban. The report recommended deployment of UN monitors in countries surrounding Afghanistan. special fluids and lubricants for armoured vehicles. especially by the religious and fundamentalist forces which control the Musharraf regime by proxy. According to Rashid. In the chair was none else but jamiat-e. "the most important leader of JUI is Maulana Samiul Haq. it said. as far as India and the US are concerned. a former member of the National Assembly and Senate whose madrasa-Dar~ul~Uloom Haqqania-became a major training ground far the T aliban leadership. Now for the irrefutable link between] aish and Pakistan and the Taliban to prove that the enemy. military commanders.68 The General and Jihad HoodWinking the Wodd 69 further nails the lie Musharraf has been trying to spread. "U you gentleman decide that the UN team will not enter Pakistan. including India and the US. a former member of the National Assembly. food. former lSI chief.

The bombing was instigated by a wrong US intelligence. several young Balochis were picked up from their homes. The families of terrorists who had fled the Indian Kashmir to PoK fearing detention by Indian security forces are forced to live in tented camps and other encampments surrounded by deplorable conditions. Several of them were either liquidated or died in police custody. He ordered the killing of Baloch leader Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and tried to justify it by saying Bugti posed a serious threat to Pakistan's integrity. Bugti's hide-out was bombed by rockets and mortar shells and he was later executed. In PoK. And. Knowing the truth about the death of innocent young students. In Balochistan. no weapon was found in the precincts.Wc. never to return. It was a lie. spy cameras had caught only students doing calisthenics and other exercises. The Balochis want a share in the progress which the military regime led by Gen Musharraf is not willing to accept. successfully hiding from the world his regime's gross human rights Winks at Mllsharraf 71 CHAPTER 14 justifications only betrays his dictatorial tendencies. Early last week (October 30. Gen Musharraf has managed to keep Kashmiri refugees in virtual bondage. For all the bombings. During the year-long stand off between the tribals and the military. Gen Musharraf's record is far more grim. Some 80 persons were killed. While former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein has been sentenced to death for killing and torturing his own countrymen. These Balocbis had the gumption to criticise or protest the state's demonic oppression. A large number of Balochis were charged under false cases and jailed after brutal interrogations.2006) Gen Musharraf ordered bombing of a madarsa in Waziristan saying it was training AIQaida and T aliban jihadis. Musharraf insisted that they were all militants. as detailed by the official spokesman. children and women included. A majority of the dead were children. In any case. Amnesty International has cited gross human rights violations in the area by Pakistani authOrities. Though it is true that Al-Qaida and Taliban terrorists are regrouping in Waziristan. These deaths and disappearances could not have taken place without the consent of the establishment headed by Gen Musharraf. West Winks at Musharraf Will the allies of the Pakistani dictator scrutinise the role of Pervez Musharraf in ordering air raids on his own people? Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf has been a really clever dictator. Bugti's spectacles and wrist watch remained unharmed. Gen. Musharraf's . it cannot be anybody's argument that all the tribals. are terrorists. the international community seems blind to the atrocities committed by their "staunch ally" in the war on terrorism. thanks mainly to Musharraf's truce two months ago. why was Gen Musharral hell bent on keeping his coffin padlocked and buried without his family being present? Was it to conceal state execution? Bugti's killing is not the only instance of state killing dissenters in Balochistan.

In fact. threatened. Another investigative journalist Kamran Khan was made to tow the line after he wrote articles on the DanielPead murder case in The News. the Pakistani Governmen[ has systematically violated the fundamental rights of members of the political opposition and former Government officials. Elsewhere in Pakistan. Investigative journalist Ghulam Husnain was picked up by lSI and locked up in a secret cell for a few days after he reported Dawood Ibrahim living in Clifton..72 The GCllcral and Jihad Ww Winks at Musl1arraf 73 In the Northern Areas. Musharrafs despotic regime: "Since the coup. an English monthly. The regime is systematically widening the sectarian divide by provoking the Shias by inserting objectionable chapters and sentences in school textbooks and by encouraging Sunnis to settle down in otherwise Shia-dominated area.. the American correspondent for the Asian Wall Street Joumal. was killed forprobing lSI's links with Al-Qaida in the wake of the 9/ll attacks. Gen Musharraf's regime is playing another diabolical game. it was Gen Musharraf as Brigadier. Executive Director. Mr Brad Adams. Karachi. aptly summed up Gen. It has removed independent judges from the higher courts. In fact. the oppression is reflected in the way media is bridled Criticism is rewarded with deportation. journalists daring to criticise or investigate are browbeaten and intimidated physically. the last four yearshave also witnessed the rise of extremist political activity and an increase in sectarian killings. in Herald. in addition. His expose appeared when Pakistan had denied all knowledge about Dawood. Pakistan has no institutional mechanism to reward journalists for courageous or investigative reporting. an English daily. On the other hand." . Asia Division of the Human Rights Watch. banned antiGovernment public rallies and demonstrations . and arrested them.. Pearl. It has harassed. Several foreign journalists were intimidated and deported if they asked disturbing questions. The operation witnessed slaying of women and children. who led a mixed contingent of soldiers and tribal fighters to put down a Shia rebellion in the region. Gen Musharraf's dirty tricks department in the lSI has intimidated Indian and American scribes for reporting on jihadi and nuclear issues in particular. Two years ago. on the orders of President Zi~~ulHaq.

Instead. is a puppet in the hands of jihadis. now of course self-appointed President. when Musharraf anointed himself as the President. Not only that the Indian Prime Minister would then call the top Editors and intellectuals In the midst of ambiguities and deadlocks. mujahcedills or freedom fighters. even after strong disapproval from the host nation. India not only kept the invitation alive but also decided to accord all the honour and respect befitting a Head of State. shows more of the man's infirm character than any strength which his spin doctors have been trying hard to project. who dictated terms to him from madrasas and terrorist camps that he was not deviating from the agenda set by them. Not only that. The least he could have done was to cancel his meeting with the Hurriyat leaders. So when Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee sent him an invitation to find ways to achieve: peace in the subcontinent. It could have been a small but correct gesture. he chose to put the onus on India for solving the Kashmir issue. one thing which has clearly emerged from the failed Agra Summit Quly 2002) is that General Pervez Musharraf. and there are plenty of them around. for a meeting with the Indian Prime Minister. It is the Pak sponsored terrorism which has kept Kashmir on the boil. what he chose to do was this. Even in the run up to the Summit. The invitation was a de facto recognition of his regime. who in any case do not represent the people of Kashmir. it was quite clear which side General Musharraf leaned. He was so bent up on proving a point at every step that he chose to ignore niceties of a diplomatic visit. His insistence on meeting his paid subalterns in All Party Hurriyat Conference. Only a tinpot dictator If Musharraf had any intention . Now that Musharrafhas invited the Indian Prime Minister to pay a return visit to Islamabad. as he proved amply during the three days he spent on the Indian soil. Musharraf was a General who usurped the seat of power from a democratically elected Prime Minister. He called the leaders of various terrorist and jihadi groups for a meeting. He had to tell his controllers back in Islamabad. One sure way would be to invite leaders of secessionist parites and groups in Pakistan. to stop killing innocent people. it was more than a gesture of magnanimity. sought their blessings and told them about his agenda before flying to New Delhi. it is another thing to be sincere and courageous. He said he will have to seriously consider buying the Neharwali Gali haweli if he were to drop the issue of Kashmir. No head of a State of a civilised nation would chose to seek blessings from terrorist organisations before setting out to seck peace.A Prisoner of] lhadis 7S CHAPTER 15 A Prisoner of Jihad is would do that. what he calis. Musharraf is neither. Kashmir problem is a creation of Pakistan. Instead of reigning in terrorist and fundamentalist groups in Pakistan. But he chose not to. should the Indian delegation also pay him back in the same coin. It is all very well to be nattily dressed and make the right noises before the hungry television cameras. Mark what he said during the much-publicised meeting with Editors and intellectuals before he went into a huddle with the Indian Prime Minister on a possible breakthrough. he should have asked. There is enough evidence to nail Pakistan for actively encouraging terrorism in the valley. Consider this. to make the Summit a success.

economically and politically vital for Pakistan." he said. . not one word of which he meant. How would General Musharral react? The General. Musharraf had only one point agenda: strut around spitting fire on Kashmir and win approval back home. A few weeks ago (2002) it was the US government. Russia has categorically ruled out including Pakistan in the forum because of its military and political links with Taliban. Terrorist and fundamentalist groups. Far to the west. Read the statements issued by various jihadi outfits when Musharraf was planning his visit to India. It is now the tum of the Shanghai-S. Amir of ] amaat-e-Islami Qazi Hussain Ahmad asked Musharraf not to indulge in any give and take on Kashmir. A Canadian Security Intelligence Service report warned of dangerous fall-outs of letting fundamentalist and terrorist (more often than not indistinguishable) flourish. Canada too has woken up to the dangers of Pak exported strains of terrorism finding roots in its soil. It is an irony that Musharraf came dressed like a dove but behaved more like a hawk. in its Annual Report on Global Terrorism. as the Summit collapsed due to his belligerence on an issue which his country actually has no locus standi. One of the leaders of the conglomeration. The report issued by the State Department issued a stern warning to the Pak military regime to mend its ways or else be prepared to be dubbed as a terrorist state. which made no bones about what it thinks about Pak's continued support to terrorist organisations and its policy of export of terrorism to the neighbouring Kashmir. cannot survive a peaceful setternent of Kashmir. Peace was never on his agenda. made all attempts to mollify Prime Minister Vajpayee by heaping praises 011 him: he had only words of praise for the Indian premier. President Musharraf should make it clear to Mr Vajpayee that there is no solution to the Kashmir problem except for the withdrawal of Indian troops. a powerful body of central Asian nations. to castigate Pakistan for its active support to the insidious activities of Taliban and other terrorist organisations.76 The General and Jihad of Pakistan and tell them that Pakistan was a rogue State. Musharraf followed the jihadi script to the last word and squandered a rare chance to bring peace to the subcontinent and etch a place in the template of history. Harkat-ul-Mujahideen spokesman Amiruddin Mughal had this suggestion for Musharraf: "While attending grand receptions and sumptuous feasts the President should remember the Kashmiris who India has been subjecting co the worst atrocities because of their just demand. cautioning Islamabad on its links with T aliban and other fundamentalist and terrorist organisations. Several European nations have echoed similar sentiments in the past few weeks. CHAPTER 16 Cradle a/Terrorism The world is finally coming around to accept what India has been crying frOID the rooftop that Pakistan is the cradle of terrorism. the moment he stepped on the Indian soil. "General Musharraf must keep in mind vital interests of the country as Kashmir is strategically." As events in Agra showed. who have a strong hold over Islamabad.

CHAPTER 17 Political Chicanery Pakistan President Pervez Musharral's strategy to win the October elections (2002) is in place. these are post-it notes from a growing number of powerful nations to shun the path of terrorism to achieve political and diplomatic cuds. a majority in a nation that has been forced ro defend itself against allegations of being a terrorist nation. The General was not happy with a large section of the English media that was both skeptical and critical of his policies and announcements. stop arming them and stop training their members. After the WTC arrack. who misses no opportunity to present himself as a liberal. Musharraf should pay heed to tbe warnings of the global community that sees his alliance with Taliban and various other fountainheads of terrorism as a gross aberration in a civilised community. was anti-national. Mr Sehbai. There are a quite a few aims and objectives in this strategy but the most Significant is muzzling the Press. It would be in his and his nation's interest to shed this image of being a cradle of terrorism. Instead of making occasional noises against such elements. which he so adoringly calls as religious warriors. Musharraf owes it to the people of Pakistan to change his attitude towards terrorists. . he should come down heavily on their bases. The disruptive elements. till a few months ago. On several occasions. stop sending them to Kashmir and root out jihadis from the soil of his nation. who prides himself in posing as a liberal democrat in a fatigue. But Mr Sehbai was too well known a journalist to be punished. happily.jihadis are religious people who happen to kill innocents for money. the miffed General has publicly expressed his anger at the media. He was referring to a string of criticism he invited for running roughshod over the Constitution and inserting illegal and untenable amendments to keep himself in the presidential palace. he alleged. He is a fearless editor known for giving precedence to facts over everything else. his newspaper ran several stories revealing the activities of various jihadi elements in Pakistan and their support for the Taliban. magnanimous protector of the rights of the people of Pakistan. The Musharraf regime was not at all pleased with this coverage. For the General. It could be the change of history that he so arrogantly mentioned in his televised press conference on Friday last. The case of Mr Shaheen Sehbai is illustrative of the martial regime's intolerance for a free Press in Pakistan. Then only he can think of even talking about changing history. which. First step would be to change his attitude towards terrorist organisations that he so conveniently calls as jehadis. was the Group Editor of The NewsInternational. stop funding them. Work on this front had begun long back and was intensified after the WTC attack. pose a strong threat to the civilised sections of Pakistan society itself. an influential English daily published from Islamabad under the banner of] ang Group. And they are.78 The General and Jihad For Pak Chief Executive General Pervez Musharraf.

Nawa-I-Waqt. Mr Sehbai had to resign within a week. He worked as a Ireelancer for the American television channel. Since the General could not send his storm troopers to stitch up the recalcitrant Editor. Mr Husnain returned home four days later. His latest story in the Newsline. published a long list of Army officers who have been parceling out prime property to each other. and . There have been quite a few other revelations that must have made the General go red in the face. South Asia Tribune. Time magazine till he was picked up by the police from the Karachi Press Club less than 24 hours before the American journalist Daniel Pearl went missing. last month. brutally beaten up and terrified. a weekly magazine published by Dawn group of publications. He has not spoken about his experience till toelay. who ran a campaign against Pakistan'S anti-narcotic task force. Today. however. Early this year. should consider himself lucky that he is not in Pakistan or else he would have met a fate far worse than Mr Aziz Sanghur. was picked up from his car in Islamabad. He has led all his past weekly issues of the newspaper with hard-hitting stories against the Musharraf regime including some that personally embarrassed the General. an employee of the Army GHQ. by the Pak establishment. Mr Sanghur was kept in custody for more than an ho~r and beaten by a Colonel on the orders of his senior. CNN. Managing Director of the Karachi Electticiry Supply Corporation (KESC) in August this year. revealed special favours bestowed on the gangster. for continuing to prick the General where It hurts. The editor of another newspaper. In all likelihood. kept in illegal confinement and kicked with military boots. he rook shelter in the good old cop revenge: file a false case. But despite all these atrocities. Mr Sehbai fled to the United States from where he launched an investigative web newspaper. Not the one to be cowed down. a Karachi correspondent for The Nation. Mr Rahmar Shah Afridi. The same day. Another correspondent. if The case of Mr Ghulam Husnain is more shocking. One of the stories (February 17. He had to be hospitalized. the Pakistani media like Mr Sehbai and Mr Najam Sethi.80 The General and Jihad Political Chicanery 81 The matters came to a head when The Newsbegan publishing stories exposing the role of terrorists like Omar Sheikh in the murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl. credit must be gi ven to those In. a journalist with a wellknown Urdu newspaper. Mr Shakil Sheikh. one of them was none other than the General. The reporter's fault was to report on a demonstration outside the KESC office.2002) that infuriated the General linked Sheikh with the December 13 attack on the Indian Parliament. Labelled as an ally of the United States. President M usharraf has also realized that it is not in his interest to be seen behaving like an intolerant military dictator. had the gumption to stand up and ask an unpleasant question to President Pervez Musharraf during a press conference. for instance. He remained behind bars for several days and was released only after he promised never to write against the military regime. Mr Sehbai is booked for a robbery that allegedly took place a year and a half ago. a few months ago. The accused happens to be a former husband of Mr Sehbai's sister-in-law and more Significantly. accused of planning and executing the 1993 Mumbai serial blasts. The Tribune. his newspaper owner demoted him. Rawalpindi. Mr Masood Malik. Brigadier Tariq Saddozai. . ~ditor of The Friday Times. who also happened to embarrass the President at the same press conference. His crime was in Writing about Karachi's underworld don Dawood Ibrahim's connection with the Inter Services Intelligence (lSI). was arrested on trumped up charges of possessing narcotics. The Frontier Post. Mr Sehbai.

portray his true colours as a military dictator. even after President Musharraf request. Four incidents expose Musharraf without a shred of cover. 2002 when he made that hlgh-sounding speech of his.82 Tl!e Grneral and Jihad his regime's persecution of the media were to continue beyond a tolerable limit. Daniel Pearl in which his intelligence agency's officials were deeply involved. One incident that is not will known is that Sheikh Omar was picked up for questioning a week after Pearl went tnissing but was released without any charges. for using the ~ection. for rigging the referendum. 'vVe had reasons to be sceptic. 50. He ~as already invited severe criticism from a small but influ~tlal.Press . First is the abduction and brutal killing of American journalist. Every one believed him. Beginning January 12. which he manipulates to project himself as a saviour of Asia. except perhaps India.000 for those who dare to question him and his policies. Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif besides playing third fiddle to Washington. could tum against him and. With elections around the comer. It has taken a little more than a month to lay bare the lies Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf has been telling [he world.sectlOn of the media for wantonly manipulating the Constitution. So now he has come out with a new set ~f. the western media. Several key leaders were rounded up and housed in well-appointed State guesthouses. supposedly under house arrest. It was only after Azhar refused to cooperate.o neutralize his opponents like former Prune Ministers. free and fair Press is CHAPTER 18 Free for All Jihad something that President Musharraf can do withou~. President Musharr~ terms such writings as "anti-national" and has proposed a purushment of three months and a fine of Rs. for once. a crackdown on fundamentalist and terrorist elements in Pakistan was announced with much gusto and accompanying headlines across the world. ~ommiSSion t.~ws that effectively bars journalists and writers from wmmg critical articles against the military regime. The intelligence offiCials then approached Jaish leader Maulana Masood Azhar. that security agencies . Inspired stories in the media talked of a thousand and more arrests of jihadis of all ilks. President Musharraf said he was now ready to fight the war against terrorism with the rest of the civilized world. to facilitate an early release of the American journalist.

especially in the context of another ominous development taking place elsewhere in Pakistan. at worst. All of them were booked under the Maintenance of Public Order (MPO) Ordinance 1960. President Musharraf and his advisers have found a clever way of releasing the jihadi. Second is the surreptitious manner in which his regime had been letting of those rounded up as terrorists a few weeks back. the council is expected to reactivate offices and training camps. is back on the rails and has decided to renew theiroperations in India. Sheikh Omar and made him tbe main accused. He argued that his. Now this gentleman who happens to be Musbarraf's man for keeping law and order in his country and responsible for letring the jihadis free could be called a funny man but for the deliberate. ironically. 2002:~Tbe government will not take any further action against those activists of the banned groups who were arrested but bad no criminal charges or having no FlR registered against them." What he conveniently forgets to mention is that none of the terrorists and fundamentalists locked up under pressure frorothe United States were charged under the anti-terrorism law. a preventive law instead of a penal legislation like the anti-terrorist Act that.~. Haider thundered: "we will continue our Jihad against such elements. even before he paused after announcing a general amnesty for terrorist elements. There is a clear danger Signal for India in Musharrafs decision to grant amnesty to terrorists. would be released once they were to give a written undertaking that they would not return to their nefarious activities. Barring the initial precautionary arrest and custody of a maximum three months. The council's fresh plan of offensive is already on the table+the number of member groups have been cutdown to achieve better coordination and maximum utilization of resources. For instance. The Council has already expelled Jaish~e-Mohammad and Lashkar-e~Tayycba from its membership which means only one thing-India will have to now fight at least two major terrorist . They now say that terrorists and sectarian killers. The Lahore Higb Court has already started released the arrested jihadis precisely because of this reason alone. mostly aimed at appeasing the jihadi elements in Pakistan. the court seems to be inclined to release a large number of them at [he earliest. Altbough Haider's Interior Ministry has taken a stand before the court that intelligence reports against the jihad is could not be produced for verification as they were classified as Secret. there is nothing in the said ordinance to try and punish the jihadis. numbering more than 2000. They were booked under a toothless provision called the Maintenance of Public Order tbat. In fact. keeps the accused behind bars for three months. The United Jihad Council an umbrella organisation of 15 terrorist groups that has been coordinating most of the terrorist activities in Kashmir. President Musharraf himself had pushed through in the early part of his martial rule. Read what Musharral's Interior Minister Lt-Gen (retd) Moinuddin Haider said on March 7." One such jihad he mentioned concerned the killers of the American journalist. police could not prevent the killing because they bad no experts in cyber crirnesl One had no inkling that a brutal murder in Pakistan fell under the category of a cyber crime. pre-meditated manner in which he makes the have been released under various pretexts. not without the nod from his master. The council had gone into a hibernation following the temporary crackdown. With most of its activists expected to be released shortly. scores of jihad.84 The Genual and J j had Free for AllJihad 85 arrested his key aide. Daniel Pearl. In the past week or so.

Sadae-Kashmir. it is widely suspected that members of sectarian audits were behind the killings. Zamb-e.~Jihad. Kashmir Action. Shahadat. in any and Islamic Front from Koishmir. that have taken a vow to do an ethnic cleansing in Pakistan These are bad rimes. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the killings. Hizb'ul. across global television channels. These publications include Jaish Muhammad and Binaat-e~Aycsha published by banned Jaish Muhammad Other magazines and weeklies in the category are: Al Dawah. In the recent past. A serious side-bar to the main story is that Jaish and Lashkar have been asked to remain anonymous and join the ranks of smaller groups like Te:hrik-u!~Mujahideen and al-Omar and other terror groups in Kashmir. rabidly anti-Shta groups. Tehrik~ r. mostly carried out by organisations like Sipah-e-Saheba.A.rabic). Shahadat.jamalatul Jihad. Dawat. The sight of ascetics and mendicants running or ruining the nation's future. The Council. Third incident involves a US Air Force transport plane (C~17 Hercules) being shot at on February 26 at Pakistan Air Force's Shahbaz airbase near Jacobabad (home to US 238th Expeditionary . Zarab~e~Momin (a monthly bulletin about Taliban) and Shuhada-e-Kashmir.. al~Barq.86 Tile GenITal alld Jihad Free jor All] thad 87 groups~the Jaish~Lashkar conglomerate (the December 13attack was a coordina ted operation of both these powerful terror groups) and the UJc. (This was an early sign of regrouping of Al-Qaida and Taliban in Waziristan and other tribal arcas in Pakistan) .Mujahidern.jamiarul Jihad. Third is the continuing fundamentalist venom spouted by various organisations through weeklies and websites that have been left untouched by the Musharraf regime to spread hatred and venom against the United States and India. The Council will now coordinate killing operations of Tehrik-ul-Mujahidecr!. Khalid.Jihad-e~Kashmir.Jihad Times. for us. AlBadar. Anonymous armed men fired at the plane from automatic rilles. has decided not to launch operations from Pakistan to save MusharraI from any blame. Asia. There ate at least 23 such weekly and monthly magazines run by jihad is that were ordered closed as per a decision taken by the Interior Ministry of Pakistan on January 26. has hardly been of any help. Al Arshad and Voice of Is/am. Mohafiz-c-Kashmir. Mahaz-e~Kashmir. Al Rihat (published in . Fourth incident is the gunning down of devout at a Rawalpindi mosque the same day. Baidar Digest. Al Masood. The fact that the council could hold a meeting in Pakistan. take decisions that challenge Musharraf's public stance ag~t terror groups in his country and remain free says lot about Musharraf and his great war on terrorism .Tayyaba. AI Group and other US security elementsin their campaign in Afghanistan). Kashmir Acrion. At least 10 persons were reportedly killed when a group of terrorists opened fire on people offering prayers at a mosque. Sada+Mujahid. Pakistan has witnessed a phenomenal rise in sectarian killings.. Dawat-eTanzeemul Is/am. a clear pointer to the fact that scores of terrorists continue to take shelter in Pakistan. We seem to be slipping in our war against Pakistan '8 jihad against India.

Musharraf left one man to roam free-Syed Salahuddin of the United] ihadi Council. He was asked to lie low after the September 11 attack on the \iVTC towers in New York. But. Though Mr Armitage remained ambiguous about the exact cause of the socalled decline in numbers. lnjanuary. in March 257 and in April 258. [or instance. in fact. The number is certainly low because of the heavy snowfall in the upper reaches of Pir Panjal this year but when compared to last year's figures. Perhaps if Mr Armitage would have cared to read the intelligence briefs that his men pass on to him every morning. Another crucial parameter of assessing the rising terrorist activity in Kashmir is the number of attacks on security forces this year (2002). InJanuary. The infiltration has been on the rise. in February 169. set up and monitored by the 151 and Pak Army with the active assistance of jihadi groups. very deviously. there were as many as 142 attacks in February it was 92. it is another attempt by Washington to lend a supporting hand to Pakistan'S military dictator-rumed-Presidenr Pervez Musharraf who recently went through the farcical exercise of holding a referendum to retain his services to the nation as President for five years. that rose to 60 in February and 132 in March. the General had loudly proclaimed his support for the war on terrorism. that is another matter they were kept in state guesthouses. In the first three months of last year (2001). in March 137 and in April the number rose to 140. This Salahuddin is the figurehead of all terror groups aided and abetted by Pak Army-lSI network and parrots the Islamabad The recent statement by US Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage (2002) on the alleged decline in the number of terrorists being pushed into Kashmir by Pakistan deserves to be rubbished as a manufactured fact. there were 236 attacks. he made two rousing speeches. he would have known that at least 3000 terrorists were undergoing training at various camps in Pakistan. his statement betrayed a desperate attempt to lend legitimacy to Musharraf's claim of cracking down on terrorist groups that have been operating from Pakistan for years. Hafiz Sayeed of Lashkar-eTayyeba and Masood Azhar of jaish-e-Moharnmad were kept under house arrest. the umbrella organisation of terror groups operating from Pakistan. Immediately thereafter. At best. [f only Mr Armitage had bothered to check with his security analysts back in Washington and he would have bitten his tongue before making such a public statement that falls flat on facts. . Facts clearly reveal that terrorists sent by Pakistan are making a desperate attempt to stage a comeback in Kashmir and are launching random attacks on security forces and civilians alike. the number of infiltrators was 119. the number of infiltrators caught was 33. sometime in January 2002. A tiny fact will reveal the General's game plan in Kashmir. In 1 anuary this year (2002).Proxy Wari!l Kashmir 89 CHAPTER 19 Proxy war in Kashmir infiltration has increased considerably. The total number of attacks too has shown a rising trend in the past three months. It will not be difficult to recall that soon after the United States came down heavily on Musharraf to lend his country's airspace and the intelligence wherewithal to ferret out the Taliban terrorists from Afghanistan. gathering kudos an:d backslaps from the west and followed up with a pretense of locking up leaders of terrorist groups.

it was AI Umar chief Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar who persuaded three mid-level commanders of Lashkar-e-Tayyeba andJaish-e-Mohammed to meet the Mirwaiz. training and the infiltration of terrorists into Kashmir. and the military and its intelligence wing. Islamabad's front man in Kashmir with a secure base in J alalabad. this man is free and flourishing despite Musharraf's claim of clamping down on terror networks. Zargar. Salahuddin is also the man who masterminds the recruitment. And today. clearly points out to one simple fact: Pakistan still shelters terrorist groups which are clearly inimical to India in particular. after his release. He is known as the Pandit killer with at least 15 murder cases registered against him. Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. he has left instructions with all the terror groups enjoying his patronage to either align themselves with the Hizb or work through them. the terror group that is the face of terror in Kashmir. after Musharral's public stance against terrorism. He now works for the lSI helping the] ammu &: Kashmir unit to run its jihadi operations. Salahuddin is the man who controls the Hizb-ul Mujahideen. has maintained a low profile and was last spotted in Islamabad a couple of years ago. The recent meeting (2006) of the All Party Hurriyat Conference Chairman Mirwaiz Umar Farooq with terrorist leaders in Pakistan. has considerable clout with them. Mr Armitage. besides raising several questions. .90 The General and Jihad line whenever something happens in Kashmir. He is. the lSI. Zargar. In fact. Besides. one of the three terrorists released as part of the swap during the Kandahar hijacking (1999) along with] eM leaders Masood Azhar and Saeed Omar Sheikh. according to news reports. works closely with the lSI and has been quite close to the Mirwaiz family when he was in Srinagar. in fact. CHAPTER 20 Jihadi Coalition Pakistan is cleverly playing the jihadi card. bringing in the likes of Hafiz Saeed and Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar as participants in the broader debate on ] ammu & Kashmir .

Talking to LeT. None of these terrorist groups have shown any change in their attitude towards india. who has always maintained that jihad was the only option to 'liberate' Jammu &: Kashmir. North West Frontier Province and it was not possible for Gen Pervez Musharraf to stop them.92 Till: GCllcml and Jihad Jihadi Coalitioll charade being played out by friends. "Kashmir will be liberated through jihad only. they have only hardened their stand on] ammu &: Kashmir. channel diplomacy between India and Pakistan" and said it was just a "figment of their imagination and. like open borders and preferential trade.@alam. in reality. Azhar said." OUt 93 The Mirwaiz meeting was obviously facilitated by the lSI. In fact." Maulana Azhar has been equally vitriolic in his stance against India." He said. In this context. bringing in likes of Hafiz Saeed and Zargar as participants in the broader debate on Jammu &: Kashmir and irs future while agreeing." Hafiz Saeed told the gathering about the "tumour going around among certain circles that the] ammu &: Kashmir issue is about to be resolved as a result of the ongoing negotiations and back." He said. Hafiz Saeed. to work on setting up a joint terror mechanism with India. ]eM and AI Umar is like requesting the rapist to marry the victim. a publication of JeM (December 2006). which will only result in guaranteed slavery to India. Besides being obnoxious. Their courage deserves to be saluted." Addressing the Friday prayers at Lahore a week earlier. addressing a congregation before ]umma' (Friday) prayers at]amia Masjid AI Qadsiah in Chowburji. on the other hand. strengthened their association with Al-Qaida and Taliban and worked towards their avowed mission of creating a panIslamic umbrella over Asia.000 Kashmiris and suffering a loss of thousands of its soldiers. Three days after the Mirwaiz met Lashkar leaders. In his weekly column in Al . at least for the time being. Muslims will earn respect through jihad only." . He said india "just wants to gain more time to crush the freedom movement and using dialogue process for its bad intentions. India has gained nothing despite killing more than 100. "Kashmiris are keeping the fire of jihad burning through their sacrifices. India has suffered immensely because of terrorist acts masterminded by the three terrorists whom the Mirwaiz talked peace with. Lahore. it is fair to assume that Pakistan is cleverly playing the jihadi card on the table. He said. said "Kashmiris and their Pakistani brethren will not be fooled into believing that the 60 year-old] amruu &: Kashmir issue can be resolved within three months on the negotiating table. Saeed in his Friday sermon said. Saeed said. "Mujahideens inJammu &: Kashmir were coming from Dir. "Our rulers are taking steps. it is counterproductive for both India and Pakistan." On December 221ast. is just a rulers to please their foreign Saeed. Mujhahideens are carrying Out attacks on the Indian soldiers. it is important to document what LeT and JeM. think about Jammu &: Kashmir. and without guessing whether the Indian Government tacitly agreed to such an interaction. two of the notorious terrorist groups involved in terrorism in India. said the issue will not be resolved through negotiations nor through any of the ~preposterous and absurd suggestions offered by various entities from rime to time". "The strengthening of the] ammu &: Kashmir struggle is imperative to the strengthening of Kalima Tayyibah (declaration of Muslim faith) in the region. "The Kashmiris had already been cheated before" and were disheartened and unhappy with Pakistan's continuing unproductive and negative negotiations with India. LeT and]eM are working actively in J arnmu &: Kashmir and they are giving Hindus a tough time. the group's chief.

are increasingly coming under their focus. it is clear that the fires of jihad are far from extinguished. the North-East. Another visible change has been the conscious attempt on part of the jihadis to expand the theatre of operation beyond Jammu 1St Kashmir. According to an Afghan National Television report of October 5. CHAPTER 21 New Phase of Proxy UJar In 2006. The most Significant indication is the growing alliance between jihadi groups operating from Pakistan and BangladeshLashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT) and Harkar-ul jihadi-al-Islami (HuJI) -with ideologically extreme groups in India like the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). J eM is sending its recruits to terrorist training camps in Dir (NWFP). In all Iikelihood.94 The General GIld j [had In Pakistan. A large number of these new trainees will return to Jammu 1St Kashmir in the ncar future. the report said. LeT is . turned into a special terrorist zone for Al-Qaida and Taliban. . New terror bases have been discovered in Madhya Pradesh. democratic society's plural character and tradition. LeT recruits went to the Ahl-eHadith mosque in the Jalozai refugee camp in Peshawar where they were promised training and money if they were to join jihad. known to be forming suicide-bombing squads to help the T aliban fight the NATO forces. Pakistan-sponsored jihadJ terrorism in India underwent several significant changes that is bound to define the terror strategies of different groups inimical to India and its national interests. Karnataka and Kerala. Different parts of the country. after Gen Musharraf's handshake with Mullah Omar in September 2006. the group has been recruiting Afghan refugees [0 take up arms against the Afghanistan Government and NATO forces. particularly in Waziristan which has. particularly in the west and the south. In fact. The northern and North-Eastern States are already afflicted by different shades of terrorism. there is growing evidence of re-alignments and re-Iormations of various terrorist and sectarian groups taking place. Citing a known instance. especially Assam. will increasingly come under threat from Islamist terrorists operating out of Bangladesh. This development signals a new phase of terrorism within India where groups like LeT are tying up with smaller and diffused groups of extremists with the primary objective of hitting at the foundation of our open.

dissent and thus breakdown the walls of perception and communication among different groups within the community. When groups like LeT carry our attacks. creating the first group of home grown jihadis who wanted to avenge the demolition of the mosque by inflicting death and pain on the. the least articulated and understood is the cycle of terror and hare. this incident raised the spectre of being totally subjugated in a nation of their choice. Another added dimension to the growing threat is the increasing ability of Muslims to voice. Several Indian Muslim organisations are now using cyber space to articulate views on issues that had hitherto remained confined to mosques and drawing rooms. A clear indication of this development is the large number of CDs. Terrorist groups like LeT (and in the near future. magazines and pamphlets highlighting the Gujarat riots and other incidents that portray "victimisation of Muslims at the hands of the Indian state". madarsa-educated jihadis. For the Muslim community as a whole. a large number of local recruits are influenced not-by any ideology as such but by what they perceive as communal hatred and injustice inflicted by certain sections of society. bringing to the fore. bringing all the faithful together on a single cyber platform. They are no longer necessarily bearded. Although India has witnessed communal riots since Independence. harassment and torture of perfectly ordinary citizens and demonising the community by parading bearded accused before mediapersons even before investigations l~avebeen completed (most often even before they have begun in nght ernest).e. This brings us to the fourth point. They use computer-aided tools like e-mail (processing data through draft folders in e-mail accounts) with equal felicity to plot and execute terrorist acts. Of the multiple objectives a terrorist attack has. A sizeable number of them are well educated-doctors and engineers-and adept in exploiting latest communication technologies like Internet. and often broadcast Widely. they expect and know that there will be a harvest of hate that inevitably follows in the wake of mass (and mindless) arrests of people from the Muslim community.96 The General and Jihad New Pha5e of Proxy \Var 97 The third point of concern is the changing profile of terrorists. . their ability and ingenuity is reflected in the use of locally available material like pressure cookers to cause mayhem. These men are also trained in explosives by experts in Pakistan. The lSI has been playing on the fears of the common Indian Muslim (Which is no different for members of other religion in an impoverished country srruggling to make progress) to create dissensions within society. it was the demolition of the disputed mosque in Ayodhya which drove a deep division between the two communities. supported in no less measure by the lSI and different groups in West Asia. perhaps for the first time since Partition. This is the sixth point.. groups like SIMI stoked the fire. Their skill sets in IT enable them to tap into the World Wide Web of terror which has not only become a virtual university of jihad but also an overarching umbrella of faith. recently the ISI~backed LeT has begun aggressively floating the idea of a separate Muslim State carved out of Uttar Pradesh. the dash between the majority community and the minority community on a pan-India scale. For instance. Riding on this communal frenzy and hatred. i. majority community and on what they perceived to be a "Hindu state". which will then become the critical bridge between Islam in the West and its proponents in the East. e-mail and satellite phones. Al-Qaida) are beginning to exploit this to destabilise India and carve out an exclusive Muslim conclave within. books.

needs to be studied in the context of political events and processes. Harkat-ul jihad-al-Islami (HuJI). economic and religious levels. especially in a country like India which has a sizeable share of the world's Muslim population. we are likely to witness a renewed cycle of violence and communal disharmony in the coming months. Varanasi bomb blast (March 2006). Ahmedabad railway station blast (February 2006). whether in India or elsewhere. ammonium nitrate was used in the Mumbai serial train blasts (july 2006). jaish-e-Mohammed GeM). are prone to get radicalised and take up arms against the state in the name of religion. at least some sections of it. changes at the social. The radicalisation of the community. In fact. the Shramjeevi Express explOSion (july 2005). The blast in the Delhi-Attari special train near Panipat. The banned organisation was behind the Sabarmati Express explOSion. These blasts have revealed the hand of SIMI's underground network of associates and syrnpathisers in executing the blasts. and the Sabarmati Express explosion (August 2000).98 The Gcncral andjinad Last bur not the least is the oft-repeated argument that Muslims. This terror~coalition has been using local recruits and locally available material like ammonium nitrate in explosions. in this case Muslims. are radicalised by reading Quranic verses on jihad or listening to speeches on the theme. CHAPTER 22 Big Picture of Terrorism It will be fairly prudent to estimate that given Pakistan's own internal security and political situation. on February 19. Analysing religious beliefs in isolation is not enough to understand why and how some sections of a particular community. the Shramjeevi blast and the Mumbai train serial blasts . This is fallacious. AI Badr and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) have been networking as a team to carry out attacks at different locations in India. the Mulund blast (March 2003). Groups like Lashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT). Gen Pervez Musharraf's failure to extract a "solution" onJammu & Kashmir out of India and the growing clamour tram the jihad15 to "liberate" Jammu &.conforms to the pattern of terrorist attacks carried out by Paldsran-based terrorist groups in the past three years both in terms of objective and modus operandi. The Delhi-Attari blasts (February 2007) reveal the failure of intelligence agencies to keep a tab on the expanding network of terrorist groups within the country. Kashmir.

In fact it "vas a SIMI leader. Time and again. an area increasingly being used by the lSI-backed group as a transit and meeting point between Nepal and Bangladesh. Alam had come from Bihar (Patna). Passengers selected by the lSI are . detonators and a timer near a Metro station in east Delhi. the explosives were planted in the train. During the same period. The most Significant pointer to the activities of the group was exposed with the arrest of four JeM operatives early this month. Iftikhar Alam. Alam. Tunda is today an operation commander of LeT based in Pakistan who also travels often to Bangladesh where he had set up an operational outpost for the group with the help of Hu]l and jamaat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh OMB). had received the explosives from his contact in Nepal. by all accounts. in the Delhi-Artari train explosion. it was Tunda and his associate Azzam Ghauri who were responsible [or setting up the initial network of LeT modules across India. two groups which are closely aligned with Al-Qaida. One of them. Shahid Gafoor had flown from Pakistan to Bangladesh last year and crossed over into India after meeting the group's Dhaka commander. The terrorist coalition has training camps in Bangladesh and uses its contacts in Nepal for weapons and explosives. In the Delhi-Atrari train blast. Gafoor was trained in manufacturing improvised explosive devices. In January this year. the most Significant are the group's persistent opposition to any peace with India and insistence on carrying out jihad against India besides the use of local networks and locally available materials to carry out terrorist attacks. the police arrested one Mohammed Hussain Sheikh from the Old Delhi railway station with a live smoke grenade. In Varanasi and Mumbai blasts.100 The Gencral and Jihad Big Picture of Terrorism 101 vf July 2006. Another pointer to coalition's hand is the plan to cause mass casualties. In fact. another region used by the group as a meeting and transit point. Mohammed] amil. weapons and explosives besides terrorists like Faisal Sheikh. These operatives were arrested a day after the Station House Officer of Old Delhi railway station received an anonymous letter warning of terror strikes in India. Of the several reasons to suspect LeT or the terror coalition it leads. in the past two years. Sheikh is from West Bengal. Abdul Karim Tunda. the group used LPG cylinders to spread the destruction caused by explosives. Sheikh had travelled to lahore by Samjhauta Express to meet his LeT commanders. lSI has been using 'sawaris' (couriers) to transport weapons and explosives quite effectively. intelligence and security agencies have been warning of Samjhauta Express being used by the lSI and its terror outfits to smuggle counterfeit currency. SIMI has a sizeable support base in Delhi from where. one of the Prime accused in the July Mumbai blasts. pressure cookers were used to increase the intensity of the explosions. was caught with explosives. There are other crucial pointers to the group's increased a Ctivities in north India after the Mumbai and Malegaon blasts. drugs. In Delhi explosions. Investigations into the Mumbai serial blasts dearly unravelled the 'widening network of SIMI not only in the north but also in west and south India. has been expanding and strengthening its networks in Pakistan while agreeing to be part of the terror coalition patched together by the lSI within India. a LeT operative. who carried out 'a series of attacks on trains in December 1993 as a revenge for the demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya. whose name had cropped up during the investigations of six terrorists arrested in 2005. LeT. the use of kerosene to fuel the flames caused by explosions is dearly evident.

on an expanding list of targets. for Pakistan to gain the advantage of denial. The failure on the part of the intelligence and security agencies in India is to miss the large picture of terrorist outfits grouping together and expanding beyond Jammu Cst Kashmir as never before. Those who hail the Havana agreement and the subsequent decision to set up a joint terror mechanism with Pakistan suffer acutely from this fatal myopia. Pakistan is today banking on the least articulated and understood objective of a terrorist attack. support and launch smaller groups of terrorists. to carry out attacks.102 The General and Jihad given free tickets and token money to exchangebags from contacts both in Pakistan and India. These units draw moral and material support from established and known groups like AI Badr. Lashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT) and Hizbul Mujahideen (HuM) but operate with certain autonomy to create the necessary distance. both physical and psychological. . the cycle of terror and hate. India's counter-terrorism strategies are skewed. They are either purblind or half-wits if they don't understand that Pakistan has not only changed the rules of the game but the game itself. CHAPTER 23 Jihad with Added Teeth Disclosures made by National Security Advisor M K Narayanan early 2007 about the possibility of LeT cadre infiltrating into the IAF is indicative of the terror outfit's new strategy. mostly young and new to the game. to create. thanks to policy-makers who refuse to look beyond the secured confines of Raisina Hill.

Today. Mohammed Muzammil to plan several pan-India terrorist attacks. Since then. The argument that Muslims. boycott Government functions and similar other directions to 'safeguard' Islamic traditions. needs to be studied in the context of political events and processes. Many of them Were innocent and happened to be poor Muslims. quite often misleading and therefore counterproductive. threatening the identity of a community of religious believers.104 The GCllcral a1ld Jihad Jihad with Added Teeth 105 In Mumbai blasts. often aided by the state. beginning with the September 2002 attack on the Akshardham Temple in Gandhinagar. making it difficult for the security forces to operate. as some might like to believe. by the state's failure to address these fears politically and socially.Analysing religious beliefs in isolation is not enough to understand why some sections of a community are prone to radicalisation. to . changes at social. economic and religious level. Radical Muslim groups like SIMI or LeT activists like J alees Ansari. The group has also been organising a variety of civilian protests in the valley. a member of the State Youth Congress. facilitated LeT terrorists to smuggle weapons and communication equipment through high security zones by providing them with party l-cards. Abdul Karim Tunda and Azzam Ghauri chose extremism in response to the growing Hindu Right wing. There are also reports of protests against the killing of militants in encounters. Le'T's growth in Kashmir has been steadily gtO\ving. This is what groups like LeT expect to happen.To illustrate. is currently being replaced with a new strategy to integrate into civil society. a cycle of hate and terror that will fuel their jihad while keeping India trapped in a communal inferno of its own making. Likewise. which witnessed a closing of ranks among different terrorist groups in Kashmir and elsewhere in India. This is being carried out by religious decrees to observe purdah. This phase of consolidation.. Several among them in fact had rushed to the blast site to help the injured. and revolt against the state in the name of religion. in large measure. a Srinagar lawyer and a political activist Shabbir Ahmad Bukhari was caught providing fake National Conference youth wing l-cards to three LeT terrorists. The mindless detention of such people may not have created new jihadis. in a short span of three years. The. bureaucratic and security establishment in J&:K with only occasional SUCCEsses. including bandhs. Shakeel Ahmad Shafi. There are other equally important strands to this strategy that merit attention. groups like LeT are playing on these fears and failures extend their ideology of conflict. are radicalised by reading Quranic verses on jihad or hearing speeches on the theme is fallacious. It was also instigated. it has established a network of training camps and shelter houses across Kashmir that enabled one of its operational commanders. at least some sections of it. The radlcalisation of the community. Another critical dimension to this challenge is the naive interpretation of religious beliefs and perceptions in arriving at has been systematically trying to infiltrate the political. but the experience has certainly left hundreds of young and middle-aged Muslims embittered. more than 300 persons were picked up and interrogated for days before being freed. whether in India or elsewhere. It was a reactionary to address a situation emerging from certain groups. Although the group found it extremely difficult to find recruits and support fromJ&:K in the initial days. Frequent protests against custodial deaths have helped the LeT cause in striking a chord with the populace.

CHAPTER 24 Swamp o/Terrorism There is enough evidence to indicate that Pakistan is. West Asia and India. . the Islamic Movement of Tajikistan. Hyderabad and Junagarh and affirming the validity of the twonation theory and sow the seeds of another Pakistan) The developments indicate Pakistan'S new jihadi game in India. reported that terrorists belonging to Harkat ul-Mujahideen. The Daily Times report said that LeJ. Lashkar-e-jhangvi (LeJ) and Khudamul Islam a breakaway group of jaish-e-Mohammed have been training new set of suicide bombers for the past several months in Bajaur and nearby Waziristan. This strategy falls neatly into Le'Ts overall aim of liberating Kashmir. the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and the Islamic Movement of East Turkistan in Xinjiang. Security officials believe Bajaur to be a command and control hub for AIQaida and the T aliban. becoming a swamp of terrorism with Waziristan turning into a special terrorism zone where new groups of recruits are being rrained in suicide missions across the world. has since 2001 acted as a safe haven for Al-Qaida and the Taliban leaders fleeing the US military . On December 18. 2006 a widely respected English newspaper published from Pakistan. particularly the United States. a rabid Sunni organisation which was set up by the lSI and religious extremist groups to terrorise Shias in Pakistan. Daily Times. It is today becoming a platform for pro-Taliban Tehreeke-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM). once again.106 The Gelleral and Ii/lad The recent disclosure by National Security Advisor M K Narayanan about the possibility of LeT attempting to infiltrate into the Indian Air Force is indicative of this new strategy. Bajaur has been a sanctuary [or various terrorist groups since 2001.

Syria and Afghanistan. the Director General'of the British security service Ml5 disclosed that British security and intelligence agencies were monitoring 200 networks and 1600 individuals. the key AlQaida ally in Pakistan. had at one point of time come close to being nominated as the Prime Minister of Pakistan by Gen Musharraf. Matiur Rehman is a resident of Bahawalpur. Khudmul Islam is one of the pseudonyms for jaish-eMohammed led by Maulana Azhar Masood. one of the three terrorists freed by India during the rC~814 hijacking in December 1999. Khudmul Islam has been gaining strength in the past several months after being cut down to size by the Pakistan Army [or being involved in the suicide attacks on President Pervez Musharraf in 2004. MIS has periodically prepared reports about a group of Pak-orlgin Britishers visiting terrorist training camps in Pakistan via Saudi Arabia. Recently. While they wait. the Frontier Post reported the reorganisation of different terrorist groups operating from Waziristan. looking for strong religious conviction ahd steady nerves. As part of the pact between terrorist groups. Rehman. In the initial stages. In a simultaneous development. In another revealing report the same day. has been appointed to reorganise Le]. they are under strict orders to shun beards and traditional clothes to maintain a neat and inconspicuous appearance as well as to have their documents (real ones issued under fake names) in order and to carry them at all times and to do nothing illegal or out of the ordinary. lashkar is primarily responsible for recruitment and training of suicide bombers. A lashkar cell is usually made up of two or three young men-and up to seven in exceptional cases. According to Omar Farooqui. a rabid Sunni organisation that was created by Gen Zia's Army to counter the growing power of Shias." return to their homes and jobs to live normally until summoned. These groups will now be led by Mullah Nazir. The squad includes two Norwegian Muslims.108 The Gcn era I andJihad Swamp of Terrorism 109 action in Afghanistan and elsewhere. works through small cells spread across the country. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Maulana Fazlur Rehman. Le] was created by splintering Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan. the Taliban's chief liaison man for Al-Qaida said he has been training a 12-member squad in Waziristan. According to Pakistan media reports. . On December 1. Rehman was the chairman of Senate committee on foreign relations under Ms Benazir Bhutto. the group recruited car j ackers. dose to the lSI and the Army. real esta te musclemen and robbers. would be to act as underground organisers and operatives for AlQaida in their home countries. A large number of their recruits are drawn from the: criminal syndicates involved in drug smuggling. a 32~year old explosive expert. The cell disbands after an operation and regroups at another location. Their mission. a close ally of Mullah Omar. Farooqui told Newsweek. the home of J eM leader Masood Azhar and is wanted for the trans-Atlantic bombing plot. Daily Times said that a 12~member team of westerners was being trained for a special mission at a town called Mit Ali in Waziristan. an Australian along with nine Britishers. lashkar. a substantial fraction of them have links to Pakistan. Matiur Rehman. called the "armoured corps of jihad. The cells are drawn from a pool of young men trained in Afghanistan who are scattered all over Pakistan. a group closely aligned with Al-Qaida and the Taliban since 2001. lashkar recruits hit men and operatives with care. The trained martyrs. leader of the Jamiat ul Ulerna of Pakistan and widely known as one of the founding father of the T aliban.

CHAPTER 25 Same Old Charade President Pervez Musharraf's strategy to position Pakistan as a victim of terrorism is dangerously misleading. brought in mUjahidecn from all over the Muslim world. This is well documented by Pakistani analysts." After the Western nations achieved their objective of ousting the Soviet troops. who decided to Opt for truce with the Taliban and AlQaida in Waziristan early this year. should be held accountable for the re-emergence of Al-Qaida. Pakistan has been a fulcrum of terrorist violence for over two decades now." Over the years. we did it together. trained and armed bands of terrorists (under the guise of a religious war) for the US to help drive out the Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Pakistan sheltered. we armed the Taliban and sent them in.110 TIle Grne:m! and] ihad The fall-out of these developments will be visible across the globe in the corning months. Kashmir is at the care of terrorism launched by Pakistan against India. Even Gen Musharraf himself admitted on September 12 (2006) in Brussels: "We launched a jihad. the Army exploited these fears to turn Kashmir into a question of identity. Gen Musharraf's claims should be tested on this anvil. Is there a change in Pakistan's Kashmir policy? Since it is the Chief of the Army Staff or the President who dictates policies on "vital national interests" like Kashmir in . an "unfinished task of Partition". In the Army's perception. "Kashmir is so strategically situated that it can be used to Cripple Pakistan economically and militarily. Despite his public stance. Gen 1\~ usharral. Pakistan quietly moved the so-called 'soldiers of jihad' towards Jammu &: Kashmir.

this should be clear to all" His clarification that without the "snuggle of Pakistan forces". By Gen Musharraf's own admission on July 21. especially the dialogue on Kashmir. has not altered its historical stand on Kashmir. security forces have only been targeting either Al-Qaida leaders (on the US list) or sectarian outfits. whether in letter or spirit. Till recently. the establishment in Pakistan. 2002. Pakistan refused to proscribe the group's parent organisation. it is entirely possible to assess changes in the policy by analysing the recent statements of President Musharraf himself who is both the Chief of Army Staff and the President." This is an unequivocal affirmation of the past policy. Balochisran and the North-West Frontier Province and the huge amount of donations and contributions garnered from various national and international sources. jamaat-ud Dawa and instead allowed it to set up new infrastructure in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Punjab and Sindh.112 The General and Jihad Same Old Charade 113 Pakistan. What he did not say was that it could be a conscious decision on the part of his Government to keep the jilwdi infrastructure alive as an insurance policy on Kashmir in case the peace process. gets mired in bickering and protests. Although Gen Musharraf has been claiming action against terrorist groups. The past is further affirmed by Gen Musharraf's consistent reference to the "Indian Held Kashmir" as the "nation fighting for their freedom". There is clear evidence of LeT's hand in the July 2007. train them. and fails to yield any tangible results for Pakistan within a visible time. the Army. 11 in Sindh and one in Quetta. His reiteration that "Kashmir runs in Pakistan's veins and my veins" is no different either. confirming that despite talks of reconciliation and solution. 2005. Balochi stan. during his regime. Another point that betrays Gen Musharraf's manufactured truth is the rise of terrorist groups like Lashkar-e-Tayyehn (LeT) despite the multiple bans across the world. more to protect him from being interrogated by the British and US intelligence agencies for the London plot. Mumbai bombings. His address in Muzaffarabad on Kashmir Solidarity Dayan February 5 befits such an analysis. a view consistent with what he said in February 2005: ". The group has recently set up 54 al Dawa schools in Punjab. The General will have to show courage in acting against terrorist groups spawned and sheltered by the Pakistan Army before pretending to be the victim of terrorism.. from his address to the nation on January 12. his organisation has been masterminding terror attacks in India. .. There are credible reports in the Pakistan media about large-scale recruitment carried out by the group from rural areas in Punjab. Kashmir would not have been in the limelight only strengthens his subsequent view that "our original agenda is the same as it was before". a freedom struggle is not terrorism . Although LeTs Chief Hafiz Saeed has been put under house arrest. terrorist groups. collect donations and publish and distribute jihadi literature. He made it clear by stating: "1 want to repeat it in this gathering that our agenda is the same as beforethe right of self-determination and plebiscite for the Kashrniri people. have "mushroomed in cities which recruit people openly...

The transactions were facilitated through the accounts of Wani inJammu &: Kashmir Bank and Vijaya Bank. Laxmi Nagar (a l~w-midclle class. Lama paid Rs 4. He was an lSI agent networking with Maoists as well as terrorist groups like LeT establishing not only a conduit for weapons but also for training. rocket launchers and pistols which he delivered to Tsering in a fruit rruck. involved in the attacks. a resident of Humla district near Kathmandu. terrorist groups like LeT in Nepal. involved in the planning of the attack carried out by LeT. has been trying to cobble together a coalition of terror groups targeting India. Lama.7 per cent live in the terai region. which fits in neatly with the overall plan to raise the level of terrorist threat to India without getting Pakistan into the dock. The difference is in the strategy. Evidence has been gathering for quite sometime about the re-grouping of ISI~ backed Muslim outfits. Vikas Marg.Tayyeba (LeT) and the lSI. Two days after the Mumbai blasts. Delhi blast of October 2005.77. for three months in a year. Lama's interrogation revealed that he had more than weapons on his agenda. Varanasi attack of March 2006 and the Mumbai train serial blasts of July 2006have Nepal links. The arrest of a Nepalese gun runner in Baramullah early this month (February 2007) confirms the expanding network of terror in and around India. Lama and Tsering have been in the business of gun running for the past Jour years. Pasang Lama. two Pakistanis. have either used Nepal as a transit point between Pakistan and Bangladesh or masterminded terrorist operations in India from Kathmandu and other towns. in Srinagar. who rented out a room in G~49. aided by Pakistan based terrorist organisations like Lashkar-e. crowded locality in east Delhi). funded by West Asian entities. The lSI's game plan in Nepal is not new. Lama's disclosures are not really surprising. worked under the camoullage of a shawl and carpet dealer.000 to buy AK~47 rilles. Abdul Latif Wani while in Delhi. Moiddin Siddiqui tst: New Strategy The terror network in South Asia has expanded with lSI establishing contacts with Maoists and lslamist NGOs in Nepal to plan and execute anti-India operations. Almost all the recent terrorist attacks in India-Ayodhya attack of July 2005. orchestrated by the lSI which. Lama made his money by buying weapons from Kashmiri terrorist groups at cheaper rates and selling it at a higher price to Tsering. Lama is a tiny cog in this wheel. 4. Lama. Last December. His main contact person in Srinagar was a High COUrt lawyer. Muslims constitute. specially in the terai region which has been a traditional recruitment and training ground for terrorist groups. since the peace process between India and Pakistan began in 2004. LeT operatives. He was liaisoning with LeT members to set up joint training camps for making IEDs. He was a frequent visitor to Jammu &: Kashmir and lived.2 per cent of the Nepalese population and of which 96. hand grenades. has been acting as a conduit between Maoists in Nepal and LeT in J ammu &: Kashmir.lSI's New Strategy 115 orders from Kunjup T sering who happened to be the gun runner CHAPTER 26 for Maoists. rook .

in its weekly Ghazwc a few weeks after Lama's disclosures. In the huge arms cache caught in Maharashtra early 2006. according to a recent intelligence report prepared by Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB). include Kashmir Jama Masjid Democratic Muslim Association. Lashkar's parent body. including the use of NGOs and madarsas in anti-India operations. two months before the Mumbai blast. a LeT commander who has planned the operations in Nepal early 2005. The report detailed the involvement of 151 (and Pakistani High Commission officials) in using these organisations for anti-India operations. HuJl. known as the Bangladeshi Taliban. is an Al-Qaida clone and has been recruiting terrorists in Bangladesh and India JMB is known as the operational arm of HuJl. which are known to be sheltering terrorist groups like LeT in Nepal.ul Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI). as it was doing in the past. in facilitating the transfer of funds for anti-India activities. one of the key operatives caught in the aftermath was Akif Biyabani. which has a partner stake in Nepal's Himalayan Bank. Investigations IT [he terrorist attacks in the last two years in India have shown thai both Hu]l andJMB have aligned with LeT and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) [0 establish terror networks acres. there has been a significant shift in the strategy after 9/1L Instead of operating own units. There is evidence of the involvement of the Islamic Development Bank (jeddah) and Habib Bank of Pakistan. the lSI has been keen on establishing networks with Maoists and Muslim NGOs to plan and execute anti-India operations. which gave details of lSI's modus operandi. One of the districts where jihadis are grouping rapidly is Sun sari where a large number of illegal Bangladeshis have settled in the recent times. 'Pakistan's Anti-India Activities in Nepal' (2000). Lama's arrest in Srinagar this month confirms this wideniru network. Last November. India. Millet-eIslami and Jam Seraj-ul Alam. Nepal Maoist chief Prachanda revealed that the lSI had offered to help his group through "direct or indirect" means. could be as high as 73. The latest report only confirms an earlier report. The NGO which is active in the area is Nepali Islamic Sangh which is working in tandem with the Bangladeshbased Jamarul Mujahideen Bangladesh OMB). These organisations are largely funded by charity organisations and banks based in West Asia and Pakistan. jamaat-ud-Dawa. Nepal World Islamic Council and Nepal Islamic Yuva Sangh. an associate of Zahibuddin Ansari alias Zaby. Some of the NGOs. Although Nepal has been known to play host to lSI and its various front organisations. said that the group wa indeed networking with Maoists.116 The General and] ihad lSI's New Strategy II7 and Ghulam Hasan Cheema. were caught from a five-star hotel in Kathmandu. The number of such institutions. . an associate of Harkat. jamat-e-Ahle-Hadis.

quite a few officers who view Pakistan Army's alliance with the US forces in the so-called war on terror has dilution of its position in the sub-continent. could be the biggest military blunder after the assassination of former Premier Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. is determined. General Pervez Musharraf has fired the first shot in a conflict between the military and civilians in a land whose history is pockmarked with rebellions. the Balochistan conllict can become the undoing of the dream of a federal state. it would b~ facetious to believe that such an eventuality cannot happen given the extremely high tempers in the besieged community and the brutality of the Pakistan Army. he told his Corps Commanders and Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz that he will not let go other 'miscreants'. Two misconceptions should be set right before understanding why the people of Balochistan are willing to sacrifice themselves. 2006. He has pitted combat helicopters and heavy artillery against tribal communities which have been fighting [or a share in the country's progress. This. the conflict is neither started nor fuelled by India. The decision to jettison peaceful dialogue for military action against own population betrays a sense of desperation on the part . By killing Bugti. The General could be "wong on all these counts. There is no evidence of either India funding or arming the protesting communities in Balochistan. Gen Musharraf has tried to show the world that he is in control of the situation. After the killing of Bugti. it is not a secessionist movement. displayed wantonly in East Pakistan eventually leading to its break-up. There are equally sour notes on Kashmir. as Daily Times said in its editorial on August 28. The allegation had no substance. Although there have been no large-scale casualties. It is clear that it is a fight-to-fmish so far as Gen Musharraf is concerned. but just a share hom their resources. which has been the clarion call of the Army for decades. Musharraf may have erred gravely in using brute force against Balochis who were not asking for freedom. With the brutal killing of Baloch leader Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti on August make it difficult for Gen Musharraf to return to power for the second time. There are. Within the Army. Let us take up first Pakistan's allegation against India of fomenting the trouble. A destabilised Pakistan will be a great stumbling block in such a historical process.Beginnin. there is growing disquiet about the Chief of Army Staff's handling of Kashmir and relationship with the US.g of the Elld 119 CHAPTER 27 Beginning of the End of Gen Musharraf The killing is an act of bravado not courage. particularly the religious alliance of Muttahida Majhs~e~Amal (MMA) which. Although a short-term victory for the Army and a major setback for insurgency. Second. First. India has no interest in a disturbed Pakistan especially when the two countries are engaged in exploring ways to peaceful co-existence. double-crossed two years ago into believing that the Gen Musharraf will resign from the chief's post. The President is faced with an unprecedented protest from the opposition parties.

120 The General and] thad Begin nillg oj the End 121 It is also not in doubt that Baloch leaders. Contracts for developing the port have been awarded to Chinese and West Asian countries. So is a rail which will connect the western most extreme of Pakistan with its southern port. Though the area is witnessing a plethora of mega infrastructure projects. According to Baloch leaders. A modern airfield is in the making. . there are convincing reasons. Gen Musharraf is bent on denying the tribals this. The death of Bugti is not the end of revolt against Islamabad's policy of ruling by force. The Army has occupied prime propetty for its officers. An extensive road network connecting Central Asia with other parts of Asia via the Indus or Karakoram Highway is in progress. on their parr. Fewer jobs go to Balochis. They have adequate weapons and resources to keep the Army engaged long enough to create an international outcry. The tribal leaders. All they have asked for is that Pakistan should give them their share of the revenue generated by the exploitation of natural resources in the region. There are credible reports that the General and his commanders are bent on clearing up the tribal areas which have remained out of the purview of Islamabad. The Balochis should have been jubilant about the future. despite the historical fact that the region was forcibly annexed by the Army in 1947. Several of these countries have also invested millions in the region. are determined not to be cowed down. Land around the port is being grabbed by real estate mafia from Karachi. with assurances of massive returns. He wants the area deared of tribals who have been demanding their pound of flesh for every inch of land that went under development. If they are not. Gwadar seaport and the adjacent region is energy hub. the benefits are going to outsiders. thus denying the people of the land their future. Areas like Balochistan are integral to Pakistan'S economic future. Gen Musharrafs gameplan is dear.000 people from other provinces in Balochistan. Much of the labour comes from Sind and Punjab. have not demanded freedom from Islamabad. the Army plans to settle 300.

The L011don Plot 123 continue protecting and arranging these resources for jihad against CHAPTER 28 Hindus. they are fighting under this kalma. hierarchy and reach." the Daily Times quoted Saeed. He said only jihad could guarantee the security of Pakistan and the whole Islamic world. a strong army and voluntary mujahideen are obligat?ry for jihad and the J amaat-ud. Daily Times. Another key nuclear scientist who had been a regular visitor to LeT rallies was Abdul Majid. 2004. in the London Plot. including Sultan Bashiruddin Mehmood. but the infidel world doesn't like it and describes it as terrorism. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Both Bashiruddin and Majid believed that Pakistan should generously help other Muslim nations with nuclear technology and materials. December 30. The terrorist group. Not surprisingly. the establishment of Islamic supremacy in the world. came in for special praise from LeT chief. Kabul to Baghdad. He said: Muslims throughout the world have a bond of kalma. The connection between Lashkar and AQ Khan is more substantial. is said to be deeply involved in the latest Al-Qaida's plot to do a repeat of 9/1L There is therefore a renewed interest in the group's ideology. It is slowly dawning on those who control and run the 'War on Terror' that JuD can threaten the western world with as much ferocity. The London Plot Pakistan-sponsored jamaat-ud-Dawa's GuD) armed wing. quoted LeT supreme and ideologue Hafiz Mohammad Saeed as saying that "Atomic weapons. the Pakistani rogue nuclear physicist who has made the world more unsafe by freely indulging in the sale and purchase of nuclear materials. camouflaged with generous help from the lSI directorate of Pakistan. what should be kept in mind is Le'T's interest in using nuclear or radioacti ve weapons for achieving their stated objectives of jihad. once again. as the group has been targeting India for the past decade. On February 6. will remain our hero. under global scrutiny following the uncovering of the diabolical plot in London. and the Government can't undermine his honour under American pressure.Dawa will . respected English daily of Pakistan. a close associate of AQ Khan. In the frantic rush for investigating linkages of various terrorist groups. Highly respected Pakistani columnist. Saeed said: "He shared the technology for the supremacy of Islam and he acted on the Allah's command. 2003). as a charity organisation working supposedly for the victims of the October 2005 earthquake in PoK. and ease. Lashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT)." What Saeed says is worth repeating for reasons other than the nuclear threat. He is our hero. AQ Khan attended these meetings not alone but along with his other colleagues in the nuclear establishment. including LeT. Khaled Ahmed has referred to Khan's presence in massive rallies and annual congregations organised by LeT at Muridke. FroIU Lahore to Srinagar. traditional weapons. former director of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and the man who enriched uranium at Khushab (Washington Times. is. Basra to Chechnya.

2002) reported that the then CIA Chief George Tenet had rushed to Pakistan to investigate the matter. but no less significant.L24 The General Q/ld Jihad The London P!ot 125 But what the US feared the most were their linkages With Osarna bin Laden. Investigations revealed that Brigitte and his associate. The second. Osama bin Laden. Two other pieces of evidence strengthen the suspicion that LeT in future might use nuclear or radioactive materials or resort to attacking nuclear installations. the investigators also found letters exchanged between UTN and LeT. Zubaida was arrested in 2002 from a LeT safe house in Faisalabad. Umma Tameer-e-Nau (UTN) in Kabul disclosed documents relating to the construction of nuclear weapons. A piece of evidence which Brigittee disclosed to the investigators was that he had seen a Chechen terrorist Abu Salah experimenting with chemical weapons in a LeT camp. which indicated that Majid and Bashiruddin had met. A French-born terrorist named Willie Brigitte arrested in Australia. three years ago. Padilla had trained how to wire explosive devices and researching radiological dispersion devices at LeT safe houses in Pakistan. he was planning to detonate a radioactive bomb in US on the orders of Al-Qaida. After the bombing of Kabul in Octoberovember 2001. His handler was Abu Zubaida. were funded and controlled by a LeT commander by the name Sheikh Sajid. According to Khaled. was an ideal source for such knowledge transfer. link in the chain of evidence against LcT's interest and involvement in procuring and using nuclear or radio-active materials. Bashiruddin. is J De Padilla alias Abdullah AI Muhajir. CIA's search of his charity organisation. who spent 20 years of his career at Kahuta enriching uranium. Faheem Lodhi. . Although Bashiruddin denied discussing nuclear matter with Osama bin Laden. The US fear was that Osama bin Laden might have procured the technology and materials to build nuclear or radiation weapons. admitted being a member of LeT and disclosed that his targets were the electrical grid. Pakistan. This is a real fear in India. a key Al-Qaida operative. the US troops discovered documents in a safe: house. Lucas Heights nuclear research centre outside Sydney and other military facilities and natural-gas pipelines. Washington Post (March 3.

India must understand that LeT is a highly ambitious organisation of Sunni (Able Hadis) extremist id~ology. It was also aimed to act as a disclaimer to the growing public perception that the Government was incapable of reacting strongly.6 crore). most of these groups are based in Pakistan and enjoy financial support of charity and religious organisations in Kuwait. Third. and even a taciturn Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. for instance. Lashkar's relief. Europe and US besides religious organisations in Riyadh. First. The group has expanded its base in PoK and Sindh. and led the establishment. apart from an Urdu weekly and an Englishrnonthly. Therefore. It has already banned the group and locked away the files. these groups are transnational. rescue and rehabilitation activities during the October 2Q05 earthquake in PoK won it public acclaim from Gen Musharraf's regime. Five immediate conclusions can be drawn from the attack. Pakistan supported terrorist group Lashkar-eTayyeba (LeT) carried out synchronised attacks in Mumbai.ldia's AI'~aidQ 127 CHAPTER 29 India's Al. the group recently constructed a new mosque in Markaz Qadsiya (cost: Rs 4. It brings out magazines. It would be equally foolhardy to point fingers at Al-Qaida. LeT is one of the better-known charity organisations in Pakistan with more than 2. India is high on the list of terrorist groups. It has also attracted zenerous contributions from the Pakistani diaspora in UK. and rnadarsas (29) in several parts of Pakistan. and Nepal besides India. Bangladesh. Indian state's response has been grossly inept. we need to look at how terrorist groups like LeT have grmvn in the past two years. It would be fatally naive to under estimate the . Punjab. including engineering. an anonymous conglo~er~tion of terrorist elements with different objectives and rnonvanons. It also runs two websites. In July 2006. a network of terronst groupS and individuals. West Asia. to denounce it in strong terms. called Nanha Mujahid. In Lahore. where it has its headquarters. it runs one of the biggest chain of schools (140 on the last count) and colleges. belying its claims of emerging as a global power. in the shadow of the US led global war on terrorism and the composite dialogue between India and Pakistan. ?~nerously funded by powerful Islamist forces and the Pakistan military. It would be more appropriate . including those for children. killing 201 and maiming hundreds more. Fourth. Two Ministers visited LeT camps and praised the relief work. and women.[. Kuwait and Dubai. for attacks like the Mumbai blasts. besides its original home. Second. It was the most brazen and devastating assault since the one on Parliament on December 13. and LeT Chief Hafiz Saeed leads prayers every Friday. Dubai and Saudi Arabia. 2001.200 understand that LeT is India's Al-Qaida. Today. in Pakistan. groups like LeT have managed to get a toe-hold in the mindscape of a small section of Muslims incensed by events like Babri Masjid's demolition and the Gujarat riots.Qaida strength and scope of LeT. India must not wait for the State Department's action. The US is certainly not concerned about the growth of Lashkar till another attack takes place on its soil. Fifth.

known as the lSI. not so visible. Former Premiers.however. The lSI. It is the other way around. These are visible signs. Our opinion makers singing 'Give peace a chance' should realise the immense potential of groups like LeT. is the role played by [he Army and the intelligence agencies in shaping and running the political process in Pakistan. Jamia mosque Namra. are making noises from the safety of London and Dubai. It states. The religious parties like the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal are busy jockeying for a centrist position. The Markaz is at Al Qadsia Mosque.128 The General alld J thad Besides the schools where young students are taught that "jihad is tourism". Mulran. liaisoning with the military as well as other political parties to retain their hold on [he political scene. All [he Muslims are urged to resort to the following courts for speedy justice: Jamia Mosque Quba. the Intelligence Bureau and the Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate. there will be no peace to talk about. a la Harnas. We must get out of this perverse argument [hat by taking a srand we are playing into the hands of terrorism. If we don't stop groups like LeT. What is. which has played a key role in the political life of Pakistan. He has already declared his intention to be re-elected by the present set of elected representatives. Professor Hafiz Saeed. A recent advertisement in their jihadi weekly is revealing. Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto. we have appointed four judges who would work under the supervision of Markaz-eDarul Qaza al Sharai J arnat-ud Dawa. "On the orders of the honourable Amir of jarnat-ud Dawa. the group is now setting up parallel courts in these towns. He has also set the political process in motion. He has left no one in doubt that he will remain the Chief of Army Staff. Islamabad. A Charter of Democracy is out. often called the state within a state. It is the [bird agency. Gujranwala. supporters and alliances. This is a threat which we can ignore only at our peril. Parties are now busy searching for funds. By attacking select targets like Ayodhya. CHAPTER 30 Puppets on a String Army and the intelligence agencies have always shaped the political process in Pakistan and things won't be any different after the 2007 general election-President Pervez Musharraf is all set for his re-election in 2007. is staffed by officers . The three intelligence agencies in Pakistan are: Military Intelligence." In essence. Markaz Umm-ul Qura. and will not be. LeT's expansion into civil society is pointer to irs political ambitions. Akshardham and trains. like the Israelis.LeT has metamorphed from a band of mercenaries carrying out sporadic attacks in Kashmir into a network which has expanded across India and beyond. Thanks to India's consistent obfuscation in dealing with acts of tCITOt. The reason for documeming Lashkar's activities is to point out that it is not a terrorist group that operates our of tents as many of our policy makers seem to think. Lahore. Faislabad and Jamia mosque Sheikh-ul Islam. Paki stan. This misconceived notion has spawned a legion of enthusiasts who waste no time in advocating bombing LeT missions in Pakistan. LeT has shown its capability.

however. substantially radicalised because of its close alliance with religious fundamentalist groups in Pakistan. both within and outside the country. linguistic. ethnic. through money and muscle. In fact. No less significant was the dinner hosted by the agency for politicians on the eve of the election of the Chairman of the Senate. the lSI ensured that a young and upcoming leader of Pakistan Muslim League. be elected as the Chief Minister of Punjab. The lSI was working on the orders of General Yahya Khan to creare a religious opposition to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's political ·arions But it was Zia-ul Haq who used the lSI to manipulate asp'U . in fact. Almost all the terrorist groups targeting India have the patronage of the ISI. purged of radical elements to some extent. During President Zia-ul Haq's tenure. An early and telling instance of the lSI's manipulation of political situated in Pakistan was documented in the late 1960s when violent religious demonstrations were orchestrated through out the country on the issue of a book written by a Jewish author of Indian descent which reportedly denigrated the Prophet. created by the lSI. To neutralise her influence. the political system effectively in 1976 coaxing Bhutto. the agency saw a rapid rise in its influence. Although this reversal of roles is not reflected in its activities when it comes to jihadi groups operating in Kashmir and other parts of India. the lSI patched together a coalition-Islatni Jamhoori Irtehad (I]I) or Islamic Democratic Alliance against Ms Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP). from Mr Sharif's PML There were allegations (mainly from the Opposition parties) that intelligence personnel kidnapped and tortured political leaders to browbeat them into joining the King's party. the lSI cobbled together the King's Parry-Pakistan Muslim League-Qaid-e. In 2002. source of radicalism in the agency. Today. sectarian and religious dissent. to call for an early election. The lower staff. Afghanistan and West Asia. and in the process. Bhutto succumbed to the temptation and was thrown out after the election by the military charging him with widespread poll violations and murder. according to Lt General Assad Durrani (the lSI chief in an affidavit in response to a petition filed in the Supreme Court). Mr Nawaz Sharif came to power with the help of the lSI and the Army.Azam-mainly by engineering defections. Set up in 1948 with the primary objective of gathering external intelligence. . Mr Nawaz Sharif. Besides becoming a covert arm of the state to subjugate political. is drawn from the police and independent recruitment. In 1990. the lSI not only patched together another grand coalition against Ms Bhutto but also distributed. The agency also armtwisted Jamaat -e-Islami's newly elected chief Qazi Hussain Ahmed to join the IJl. through lSI reports. a number of lSI officers were drawn from madarsa alumni. Not surprisingly. finally let Ms Bhutto become the Prime Minister after her party won more seats than the IJI. Rs 60 million to 20 anti-Bhutto politicians. the agency is working closely with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the CIA in hunting down Al-Qaida and Taliban terrorists. the agency became an effective weapon for the US in the Cold War's final climax in Afghanistan. In 1988. during the Zia regime when it was roped in to orchestrate the Afghan jihad along with the CIA and other Western intelligence agencies by the US. The Army. the amount used in the antiBhutto campaign was Rs 150 million. Several of these groups were. the biggest province of Pakistan.130 The GCIH:ral and Jihad Puppets 011 a String 131 selected from the Pakistan Army. What is more relevant to look here is the ISI's involvement in Pakistan's politics and its possible role in the 2007 election.

paid the salaries . without posing any serious threat to the world in general. is likely to witpess changes in power Structures.2006: uWe can clearly see. the lSI's role in working out different coalitions. in fact. for instance. the officer heading French forces providing support to coalition forces.132 The General and Jihad In the recent past. southern Afghanistan. well armed and trained. Army.. in collaboration with Al-Qaida and other terrorist elements. both In the Opposition and in the King's Party." There have been similar warnings from other commanders in the recent past about the emergence of a far more dangerous version of the erstwhile T aliban. CHAPTER 31 Return of the Taliban By all accounts. What. to begin with. Pakistan.. a large number of Pakistani officials moved into T aliban-controlled areas to man positions of responsibility in the Taliban administration. the new T aliban is more aggressive. A confidential report prepared by the UN Secretary General's office pointed out that Pakistani officials had replaced Afghan civilian officials in key positions. like many other factions of warlords who rule different pockets of influence. Soon after the Taliban took over Kabul and Kandahar. the lSI has been quite active in whittlin down terrorist groups targeting President Musharraf and th. The testimony to the strength and ferocity of the Taliban is clearly reflected in the statement made by French Rear Admiral Xavier Margne. on May 21. despite the presence of coalition forces. will become clearer in the coming months. Since it is obvious that military will not allow a single~arty rule. The MMA. no one is willing to point out is that without Pakistan's tacit support the Taliban would have remained a small group of terrorists. now that we're in the area . so is the PML-QA. however. determined to take over. that they are a lor more aggressive.

Several middle-rung officers from the Pakistan Army were deployed to help the Tali ban in formulating and execu ting their war plans. Happymon Jacob. 2000. A little known but no less frightening development was the Taliban's active interest in procuring nuclear weapons. Moharn-rnad jan Naziri. revealed that Pakistan aircraft assisted the troop rotation of the Taliban forces . So deep was the association that Pakistan helped the T aliban in processing opium harvested in Afghanistan in make-shift refineries set up in border areas and transported the drug to lagos en route to Europe and South Amer-ica. who was questioned by the US and Pakistani authorities. At least. The new Taliban is not working alone. The report said. a professor of applied nuclear physics and Jora Mohammad Korbani. senior lSI and Army officials were involved in planning Taliban military operations. apan from supplying men. The Human Rights Watch Report. Investigations revealed that Mahmoud was experimenting with a helium balloon filled with anthrax that could be flown across the US. It is hand-in-glove with Al-Qaida that has shifted some of its operations to the Afghanistan -Pakistan border and in the tribal areas of Waziristan. wheat and diesel.134 The General and Jihad sum of $300 million was paid Return of the Taliban 135 of the Talihan administration-a in June 1996_ during combat operations. Several lSI officers were appointed in advisory roles in the Taliban intelligence set-up. a nuclear physics professor. The Multi Group wanted Korbani and his team to construct a nuclear bomb. Pakistan rep ai-red roads.000 to 80. repaired Kandahar airport. Pakistan also gave direct military support to the T aliban. without doubt. offered technical support [0 the T aliban radio service.5 billion. the recent history of PakistanTaliban nexus points to such an ominous possibility. a charity run by Pakistani nuclear scientist Sultan Basbiruddin Mahm-oud. a mysterious cha.000 Klashnikovs.000) in the area without much success. which operated out of a house in Kabul's Wazir Akbar Khan district. Several thousands activists from various extremist groups like the Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan and Islami jamar-e-Tulba OuI student wing) were recruited. According to tWOAfghan scientists. The charity was closely associated with the Ummah Tarneer-e-Nau. besides large quantities of kerosene. So entrenched are the terrorist groups that the Pakistan Army has been forced to deploy a large number of troops (50. Besides. Plane. who studied the re-emergence of the Taliban (in 2004). trained and sent to fight with the Taliban. Pakistan helped the Taliban capture large arms dumps in Spin Boldak which contained some 18. set up telephone and wireless network. The CIA officials dubbed him as "bin Laden's nuclear secretary". approached them to help make nuclear weapons for the cause of Islam. The growing Taliban-Al-Qaida partnership in Afghanistan and in the border areas of Pakistan. loads of them were secretly airlifted when the US began bombing the T aliban strongholds following the September 11 attack According to an Observer Research Foundation scholar.ritable organisation called t~e Chand Group or Multi Group. provided electricity. Radio Shariat. dozens of artillery pieces. The first operation to flush out Al-Qaida and other terrorists began in March 2004 and is Continuing even today without any significant success. has grave consequences for peace. large quantities of ammunition and vehicles. A World Bank report in 1999 pointed our the smuggling trade between the Talibancontrolled and Pakis-tan was worth $2.

a religious scholar. despite a worldwide ban. Though both Saeed and President Musharraf have been vocal in denying their relationship with LeT. its changing strategy and tactics for all to see. on its website. As recent as March 12. operating in Pakistan almost freely with the blessings of the Pakistan state." There is a visible change in Saeed's plans today. Lashkar-e. Hyderabad and Junagarh. recruiting its first set of terror soldiers. . while imparting in them the spirit and content of modern. exploiting the widespread rage among Muslims in the wake of the demolition. This is amply proven by the new facilities which Le'I has set Up in Lahore and Hyderabad (Sindh). etc.New Terror Matrix 137 CHAPTER 32 scientific education. The group exploits two sets of local support to execute its operations-the lSI assets and its ideological association with Ahl-e-Hadis. Politicisation of acts of terrorism. Azzam Ghauri and Abdul Karim Tunda. Delhi and Hyderabad. along with Hafiz Saeed. like the twin blasts in Varanasi. Saeed's group. its parent organisation. would only fan the flames. Saeed has more than once stated his group's objectives-to ~liberate" Kashmir. LeTs first forays into India began after the Babrf Masjid demolition in December 1992. set up by Osama bin Laden's henchman Abu Azzam (one of the inspirations for Hamas). said "Freedom movement in the occupied Kashmir is a holy war. recruit and gather funds. Ignorance or indifference to the clear signs of such an alliance-visible from Bangalore to Delhi. Saeed has been leading Friday prayers in Lahore and hosting political leadership with impunity. via Ayodhya. has been re-activated at several locations in India. which claims to be a charitable and educational organisation committed to bring about an Islamic revolution by teaching and training students in the Islamic way of life. which emerged in India following the downfall of the Mughal empire with the objective of restoring Islam to its prior glory and power. It works under the cover of J amaat-udDawa. an Islamic school of thought. and how. New Terror Matrix The stage is set for a new terrorist confederation with the sole agenda of wreaking havoc across the heartland of India in the years to come. prompted by the lSI with whom his gtoup is closely aligned. especially the Army and the Inter-Services Intelligence directorate. The issue is not which party rules where. The unstated objective of the organisation. Operational bases were set up in Mumbai. Mulund and Varanasi-wouJd prove suicidal£or India. 2006. The tacit understanding between the Army and Saeed's group in managing rescue and relief operations in PoK after the October 200S earthquake is well known. is to act as a catalyst for reclaiming Asia for Islam. LeT is the only terrorist organisation in Pakistan that has been allowed to expand its network. but who is planning to destabilise India. Nalgonda. it is no secret that terrorist groups in Pakistan function with the help of the establishment: The Army and the lSI. One of the most dangerous terrorist groups in the world. Jalees Ansari. There are enough signs of this terror alliance.T ayyeba (LeT).


Th~ Gc"~ral and Jihad



Hadis advocated return to the scriptures and called for purifying the religion of its external influences, like Hinduism and even Sufism. It was the followers of Hadis founding father, Shah Walilullah of Delhi, who launched their first jihad against Sikhs, and subsequently against the British, before being crushed by the British in 185? Hadis has an ideological affinity with Wahabis of Saudi Arabia and a close proximity to Deobandis. This historical perspective is important to understand LeT's potential in expanding its base. and strength in India. LeT is a Ahl-e-Hadis group and. therefore, has been the beneficiary of Saudi Arabian largesse from its inception. Hadis, which runs several madarsas in India, funded largely by Saudi Arabian charities. have been actively helping, particularly after the Gujarat riots in February 2002, LeT to recruit and expand its network in Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Another Hadis (in India Hadis and Deobandi work closely) group is Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI), an organisation of Muslim students funded largely by foreign charities, which LeT has been using to carry out its operations outside jammu &: Kashmir. Thus a loose confederation of LeT, Hadis, SIMI and few other smaller organisations like al Umma in Coimbatore has been active in India to various degrees since 1993. This alliance is now being reactivated with renewed vigour, but with a new structure. This new structure has some additional new elements like Harkatul jihad al Islami (Hujl) and jamaatul Mujahideen Bangladesh QMB). Hujl is one of the Afghan jihad groups, with bases in Pakistan and Bangladesh. HujI-B (Bangladesh) had sent some 3r500 terrorists co Afghanistan and a large number of them sum ved the battle and returned to set up bases in Korangi district of Karachi and Chittagong Hill Tracts and surrounding areas in

Bangladesh. HuJL like LeT, has farnihallinks Laden's Al-Qaida,

with Osama bin

The group subsequently despatched several teams to Kashmir and Bosnia. Hujl works closely with ]MB in Bangladesh and has been unleashing a wave of terror in Bangladesh for the past two years. Some experts believe that JMB is the operational wing of Al~Qaida in Bangladesh, while Hu] t. is the training unit. There is enough evidence to link up Hujl with JMB and AlQaida. This HuJljMB alliance has now joined hands with LeT~ Hadis~SIMI team to form a new terror confederation in India, with the primary objective of destabilising the country. Recent terror strikes point to this new confederation. It is obvious that neither LeT nOT Hujl, independently or jointly, are capable of planning such a confederation, or enabling an extraordinarily muln-layered logistical network to support its mission objectives. This terror matrix-three major terrorist groups, at least half-a-dozen big and small front organisations with extremist ideology, spanning three countries; several layers of support bases; an extensive network of hawala channels running from West Asia to Indonesia; a weapons route, a communications network linking hideouts in j&:K, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal-needs to be closely analysed to understand the underlying game plan. There are other aspects to this changing strategy. The recent terrorist incidents establish the intention of terror masterminds to expand [he scope of terrorism beyond Kashmir, a strategic move considering the international limelight and pressure on the issue. Another integral part of this strategy is the use of local recruits and explosives to create bombs, as seen in Varanasi and Delhi blasts. Both these factors give LeT and Pakistan the benefit of deniability,


The General and Jihad

Of greater concern is the agenda behind this new strategic alliance: Destabilisation of India. Both the Delhi and Varanasi blasts were triggered to create a communal backlash. The Varanasi explosions were timed to exploit the seething anger in the Muslim community over the cartoons and the visit of President George Bush. Going by the terrorist linkages unravelled during the investigations of the recent attacks in India, this could only be the beginning.



Pakistan's Dialogue Strategy

The composite dialogue between India and Pakistan has reached a critical juncture. In the past months, there have been countless discussions on a variety of issues that have been plaguing the relationship between the two neighbours. These discussions have been 'fruitful' but are yet to yield any 'fruit' in terms of resolu tion. It is in this context that a cautionary note must be struck, particularly since Prime Minister Manmohan Singh is meeting President Pervez Musharraf over dinner at New York in the coming days.
A candid assessment of the situation

will reveal that (a) there

is growing impatience in Pakistan about the lack of progress in the talks, especially on Kashmir; (b) there is a visible move, not only among the religious extremist groups but also within the political and military establishment about bringing the focus of the dialogue back to Kashmir; and (c) there is no sign of any executive action to destroy the terrorist infrastructure in Pakistan. The growing disenchantment with the progress made so far in the composite dialogue is reflected amply in the media, seminar circuits, speeches made by religious and political leaders including President Musharraf and his Cabinet colleagues, and the return of terrorist leaders like Syed Salahuddin to the front pages of


The Gel1eral and Jihad

Pakistan's Dialogue Strategy


Urdu newspapers and magazines and during private conversations with Pakistani diplomats, journalists and academics in India, The difference in perspectives between January 2005 and September 2005 is glaring, Although the issue of Kashmir has been treated as part of the dialogue, there has been an increased attempt on the part of Pakistan to bring it back on top of the agenda, Today the common refrain in Pakistan is that without a resolution ill Kashmir, there cannot be any progress in the peace process. The argument is that a majority of the Pakistanis are getting impatient about India's (what they perceive as) deliberate attempts to sideline Kashmir and resolve other issues which benefit the latter. A senior Pakistani diplomat told a gathering recently in New Delhi that India must move ahead on Kashmir before taking up other issues, These are important pointers to Pakistan's strategy on the peace process in the near future, An important strand of this strategy is to stall a prolonged dialogue on Kashmir. It is clear that Pakistan is not inclined to keep the dialogue going till there is a semblance of a resolution in its favour. It is also clear that it will not accept any suggestions that might benefit India, This posturing should be read in the context of India'S categorical statement that there would not be any redrawing of the boundaries, This neutralises any possibility of the much-talked-about Musharraf plan to divide Kashmir into five zones being considered. It is equally unpalatable for Pakistan to accept the Inman option for soft borders as it would mean de Iacto acceptance of the LoC as the International Border. Pakistan is therefore left with limited options on Kashmir and is hence making some desperate manoeuvres to extract some concessions. First was the insistence on co-opting the All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the talks on Kashmir. Although it was against all

norms for a government to lobby for a group of secessionists to be included in a dialogue between the governments, the Inman Government accepted the demand and allowed the Hurriyat leaders to visit Pakistan. Subsequently, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh invited them for talks that could be fairly termed a breakthrough. There are clear indications that Pakistan is not really pleased with this tum of events. The presumption was that the talks with the Hurriyat would break down, creating domestic dissent in the valley, making it easier for Pakistan to gain the upper hand in the diplomatic shadow boxing over Kashmir. There is move afoot now to include secessionist leader Syed Shah Geelani in the dialogue. Geelani, who heads a breakaway faction of the Hurriyat, Tehri-e- Hurriyat, has been closely aligned with Pakistan and has been demanding independence for Kashmir. In 2005, Geelani was allowed to organise a seminar on the unwieldy sounding 'Possibilities of success of Kashmir liberation movement and threats and fears' in Islamabad. The government's blessings for the seminar could he judged from the participation of Federal Minister of Information and Broadcasting Sheikh Rashid Ahmed. Other speakers included jamaat-e-Islami leaders like Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Muttahida Jihad Council leader Syed Salahuddin and other heads of terrorist groups, One. of the two common threads of the arguments itt the seminar was the insistence on calling terrorism in Kashmir as a 'liberation movement', a traditional stand taken by Pakistan, both at the popular and political level. The second conunon point was the 'yeoman's service' rendered by Syed Shah Geelani in the liberation movement in Kashmir. Federal Minister Sheikh Rashid praised the role of Geelani in the 'liberation movement' and said there could not be peace in the world without resolving the

imperative both for continuing the peace process and keeping peace that Mr Manmohan Singh should raise the issue of terrorism with Mr Musharraf. he can whip up passions in hostile situations created at regular intervals by accidental or deliberate cases of encounter deaths and human rights violations by the securiry forces. Pakistan's Dialogue:Strategy 145 Palestine and Kashmir issues. where young students are first indoctrinated in jihad before being sent for threephase guerrilla warfare training. from making overtures of peace like calling for soft borders. is located close to Lahore. There are credible reports in Pakistan media about the largescale recruitment by LeT from rural areas in Punjab. a group of terrorists operating from Muzaffarabad. LeT leader Hafiz Sayeed is free and conducts prayers at a Lahore mosque every Friday. security forces have only been targeting either Al-Qaida leaders (on the US list) or sectarian and religious extremist groups like Lsshkar-e-jhangvi (whose target is Mr Musharraf himself). Geelani is certainly an effectively tool for spreading dissent and dissuading the public. who heads the Muttahida Jihad Council. Although he has been claiming action against terrorist groups. A possible side remark should be to ignore people like Gee1ani who have no locus standi in Kashmir. . Syed Salahuddin. He has quietly allowed Lashkar. one of the world's most notorious terrorist groups. He pointed out that it was the jihadis who have forced the Indian Government to come to the negotiating table on Kashmir. His headquarters. Significantly. an indication of convergence of views between the government and the jihadis on Kashmir. He should also persuade General Musharraf to abjure the policy of using terrorists to run his country's foreign policy.144 The General and Jihad . at least in the Valley. therefore. This was a sentiment expressed by several other speakers. It is. Interestingly. and clarify that unless terrorist killings stop in Kashmir. he called upon the international community to differentiate between terrorism and 'liberation movement'. Sayeed has also been openly entertaining opposition leaders in his new house in Lahore. had similar sentiments to express. to regroup as a frontline ally of Osama bin Laden's terror factory in Asia. Geelani might be considered a close associate of Islamabad but he has enormous nuisance value in the Valley. This possibility should be read with President Musharraf's consistent refusal to deal sternly with terrorist groups like Lashkare-Tayyeba and jaish-e-Moharnmad. According to the Urdu media. there cannot be any hope for the people of the region. Balochistan and North West Frontier Province and the huge amount of donations and contributions garnered from various national and international sources. and next only [0 Al-Qaida in its networking and strength. It would be perilous to dismiss this seminar as an attempt by a disgruntled organisation of no consequence to earn its keep. Federal Minister Sheikh Rashid's acknowledgement of Geelani's "contributions to the liberation movement in Kashmir" is an indication of Islamabad's eagerness to utilise his services to create roadblocks in the peace process. PoK. Salahuddin said his group was not prepared to give up terrorism at any cost.

There is too much of a coincidence in the timing of such arrests and killings. Farooqi had a prize of Rs 20 million on his head after he masterminded two abortive attempts on President Musharrafs life in December 2003 and January this year. At least. maps and a few CDs. could have the capability of taking out. Abu Feraj al Libbi. infiltrate criminal gangs and terrorist groups and produce results. He had links with the Al-Qaida and was a known member of Lashkar-e. The first is to expose Pakistan leadership's attempts to draw international sympathy and funds . Perhaps. Farooqi was wanted in two assassination attempts on President Musharraf. Two of his associates were arrested along with arms. track down witnesses. 30. X Corps. after a Iive-hour gun battle on September 26. There are two reasons for dwelling at such length on the killing of a terrorist mastermind who has been on the run for the past two years. Omar Sheikh. systematically.~ked 147 CHAPTER 34 reveal the regularity with which Pakistan has been successfully producing key Al-Qaida terrorists at every turn. quoting anonymous sources. in Geneva. The Army had launched an exclusive investigation of the attempts under Corps Commander.2005. Investigations also revealed that Farooqi had friends in the Pakistan Army and was in the know of the presidential security arrangements. Investigations quickly established Farooqi as one of the masterminds of the operation and his links with libyan Al-Qaida operative. Maulana Masood Azhar and Lashkar-e-jhangvi. Pakistan. It requires enormous invesnnent of human resources and money to develop leads. It is difficult to believe that an impoverished is increasingly portraying itself as a lone. which became. valiant fighter against terrorists w~o have taken shelter in Pakistan. where police and intelligence agencies have for long been involved with criminal and terrorist groups. either killed or arrested since September II. He was wanted for the murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl and several others. as the days went by. Not even the best of the intelligence agencies in the world can make such claims.]hangvi.Terror Unma. The orders were to capture hint alive to unravel the conspiracy behind the assassination attempts. apart from extortion cases and sectarian killings. It leaves only one conclusion to draw: Pakistan'S intelligence agencies are aware of the whereabouts and movements of most of the terrorists and terrorist groups active inside Pakistan. a computer. Even a cursory reading of the list of terrorists. world's most wanted terrorists. He was also one of the hijackers of the IC~814 flight in December 1999. President Pervez Musharraf. There is an intriguing sidebar to the story of Farooqi's killing which needs to be explored to understand the nature of terrorist coalitions within Pakistan. was shot dead in a township in Sindh. a rabid group of Sunni terrorists who were spawned by the Pakistani Army and the lSI to counter the growing strength of the Shias in Sind in the early 1990s. calculated leaks? Terror Unmasked Amjad Farooqi. one of the biggest manhunts in recent history. this is what the media reported. will . said it was just another victory in his war on terror.

there would be stories in the Pakistan newspapers and magazines about Farooqi's involvement with the Al-Qaida and various other sectarian and terrorist groups. they captured two intermediate posts which were later reclaimed by the Indian troops. Though Gilani was detained and questioned -at length. But it is the first conspiracy theory which President Musharraf and his spokesmen would like the world to believe. The statement may not be too far fetched. If such an attempt was even planned. It is also possible that Farooqi could have been killed after his caprure. In the days [0 come. Sheikh and Farooqi were involved in the Daniel Pearl case. There is every possibility that both were also involved in the September 11conspiracy. the main hijacker while Farooqi's involvement is yet to be disclosed. Akbar was wanted in the assassination of Prime Minister Iiaqat Ali Khan. There is ample evidence of this. along with Sheikh. This cannot be entirely ruled aut. President Musharraf has been supporting and sheltering terrorists since September 11. One of the first suspects was Sheikh Mubarak Ali Shah Gilani. a radical preacher whom Pearl wanted to interview. a ploy to keep . Sheikh was caught and sentenced to death (the sentence is yet to be confirmed two years later). Members of the unit were used in 1985~1987 to attack the Indian position at Bilafond Pass. Farooqi was one of them. Azhar. Second is the possibility of a cover. the security forces should have launched a commando operation in the night or early morning hours (ideal time) to capture Farooqi and his associates who were living in a rented house.up by the establishment to put an end to speculation about the veracity of the assassination attempts. A senior police official was quoted in a news report saying that the killing of Farooqi was similar to the killing of Said Akbar in Rawalpindi in the early 1950s. The reason could be General Musharraf's proximity to Gilani. The first should be the December 1999 hijacking of the flight from Kathmandu. had the support of intelligence agencies. set up Jaish~e-Mohammad within days of his release while Zargar went underground. there were no attempts to capture Farooqi alive. However.both conspiracy theories-can be drawn from this incident. reference point Indian Airlines various terrorist by intelligence The three terrorists who were released in exchange of hostages. the reality is quite different. This fits well with the present effort of the Musharraf regime to portray the President as a lone crusader in the war on terror. Masood Azhar and Mushtaq Zargar. The Pakistani President had patronised Gilani in 1966 and the latter was encouraged to set up the 'Climbers Club of Pakistan'. Omar Sheikh. Sheikh is known to have helped wire a certain amount to Mohammad Atta. 2001.148 The General and Jihad Terror Unmasked l49 As is clear from the news reports. But what happened was a pre-planned shoot-out. a front for training the Special Services Group (SSG) commandos in mountain climbing. The long line of accused involved in the murder case reveals a pattern. First is the possibility of a cover-up by certain persons or groups within the military-intelligence set up in Pakistan who were planning to eliminate General Musharraf. Two immediate inferences. The hijackers belonged to groupS which w~re either created or supported agencies. Daniel Pearl's murder is another critical reference point to analyse the new coalition of terror that evolved in the aftermath of September 11in Pakistan. While GUani was let off. There were quite a few news reports early this year pointing to the possibility of the assassination attempts being stagemanaged. he was let off without being charged.

both known and anonymous. a fact which became clear with the arrest of a Lashkar foot soldier Fazl Karim who revealed the existence of Al-Qaida in Karachi and the evolution of new terror groups in Pakistan. have to turn to the second problem. The US President could not have coopted Pakistan to fight his war on terrorism while imposing punitive sanctions on it for running the nuclear black market. There is no evidence to show that he was unaware of the Al-Qaida's growing presence. on the other hand. There is a reason why Mr Bush chose to put terrorism on his agenda and ignored nuclear proliferation.150 The Gmeral and Jihad him off the US intelligence agencies. But the next one will. Pakistan is the only nuclear state which has a large and ominous gathering of active terrorist groups. First. two mar top the list are terrorism and nuclear proliferation. President Musharraf could not have been unaware of these developments. Hence. it is easy to unravel the web with the help of available evidence. he might have unmasked the lies. hence. necessarily. Second. Third. If Farooqi was caught alive and handed over to the US authorities. sizeable proof to show that he knew. CHAPTER 35 Nuclear Underground Of all the problems confronting the global community. The common denominator in both equations is Pakistan. which includes radical . Several others were caught and interrogated but none have been charged or tried. the Pakistani Army. why is Pakistan's involvement in nuclear proliferation so critical for a safe world when other nations are equally involved in the sale and purchase of nuclear materials? There are four reasons. The current White House incumbent is preoccupied with terrorism. There is. The next President would have no such baggage to carry and. Pakistan's involvement has been exposed by the recent episode involving AQ Khan and his network. They were active in helping the fleeing Al-Qaida and Taliban terrorists to regroup in Pakistan. The question is. One common point is that all the accused either belonged to terrorist groups or Sunni sectarian organisations like Lashkare-jhangvi and Sipah-e-Sahaba. would be able to concentrate on the more serious but containable problem: Nuclear proliferation by Pakistan.

chief of Staff at 5 Corps Headquarters in Querta. The evidence? While researching for a paper on 'Pakistan's Nuclear Underworld' for the Observer Research Foundation. Rawalpindi. especially his trips to Iran in 1991 and 1992. it General Shamsur Rebman Kallue. Among them were Brigadier Sajawal Khan. controls the country's nuclear assets. a senior scientist from the KRL had even personally met General Gul to register his complaint. a military intelligence officer. But. Investigations have since revealed that the scientists maintained secret bank accounts in Dubai where millions of dollars were deposited Noman Shah. it General Asad Durrani. the lSI Chief.2 billion to finance Pakistan'S nuclear weapons development programme in exchange for transfer of nuclear technology. such cooperation was specifically limited to non-military spheres. if nothing else. In 1976. to provide a helicopter to a group of scientists from the PAEe. Administration. many believe that not only General Durrani but his superior. was also deeply involved in clandestine nuclear deals.. Chief of Army Staff. T ajwar.the nuclear field in 1987. The army had its officers working closely with Khan in various capacities since the 1970s. The department worked under AQ Khan but reported to the Chief of Army Staff. the Pakistani Army had enough Information-including that in its confidential files-to easily prosecute Khan for corruption. who had approved an unpublicised cooperation between the two nations i. which considered him to be former Prime Minister Benazir Bhurro's confidante. was a Lt Colonel. was-for long years-responsible for KRL's security before becoming the laboratory's administrative head. It had. Baluchistan. KRL Sajawal Khan had been associated with AQ Khan since September 1976. had specific reports of Khan having access to enormous sums of money.. The Iran connection had existed since the time of General Zia ul Haq. the army is directly involved in nuclear proliferation through AQ Khan and his network. when US and Pakistani intelligence officials debriefed him in November 2003.a fact that does not preclude the future possibility of jihadis exploiting this route to procure nuclear materials. when A Q Khan's network of suppliers was wellestablished across Europe and the. where it was dutifully shelved. Director General. J found the following chain of evidence that firmly establishes the Pakistani Army's involvement in the nuclear programme and subsequent proliferation activities. Iran was by then quite keen to pay heavily for a nuclear gateway with Pakistan. operated . General Aslam Beg. offered $3. was equally in the know with regard to Khan's activities. the Pakistani Army Headquarters (GHQ).152 The General and Jihad Nuclear Underground 153 elements and syrnpathisers of terrorist groups like the Al-Qaida. He pointed to Khan's Teheran deal. the Director General of Maintenance and Construction at Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) till 2001. It General Hamid Gul. wrote the fust report on Khan's activities and forwarded it to the Prime Minister and the Chief of Army Staff. By 1988. Four. and Brigadier Iqbal Tajwar. US. when he . Officially. General Kallue's successor.n. General Gul's successor. General Kallue was not exactly in the good books of the army. Khan's estranged son-in-law. asked Brigadier Muhammad Sarfraz. The first piece of evidence is the establishment of a Special Works Organisation (SWO) headed by Brigadier Zahid Ali Akbar in 1975. A startling disclosure was made by Muhammad Farooq a centrifuge expert who travelled to Iran and libya on behalf of AQ Khan. The latter were on a reconnaissance mission to identify a suitable location for an underground nuclear test.. in fact.

and the nuclear establishment. Moreover. ." The question is. one of the major arms contractors for the army. the investigation should probe links between criminal syndicates and terr orist groups. Prime Minister Bhutto agreed not to interfere with Pakistan'S nuclear policies as one of several conditions levied by the Army on her in exchange for military support for her becoming Prime Minister. For instance. Khan has been involved in buying hi-tech equipment for the Pakistani military. was also probed by Pakistani intelligence agencies for possible links with the nuclear racket. In Near-East and South Asia Review. dated May 5. Although Bhutro's access and leverage on nuclear issues have increased since she assumed office last December. was the contract for the purchase of titanium aluminium from Shah's firm. But findings remain secret. Abdul Qayum Khan. the International Atomic Energy Agency must set up an independent commission to investigate the global nuclear underworld. allegedly at an inflated price. and worked closely with the network till he divorced the latter's daughter Dina after four years of marriage in 1994. given the evidence. Several nuclear and missiles deals signed by the KRL were routed through Shah.. There are strongly suspected linkages. she is unlikely to gain control over nuclear decision-making anytime soon. what must be done to contain Pakistan? First.. the CIA said: "Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's influence on nuclear issues is sharply circumscribed by the military's firm control over nuclear decisionmaking and strong commitment to a nuclear weapons programme. including the proliferation activities of AQ Khan. Humayun Khan. The US too was aware of the Pakistani Army's firm control over the nuclear weapons programme. was found to be involved in the smuggling of electronic triggers from a US firm early this year. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan gives full support to the military's dominance and direction of nuclear policy. Third. mainly because of the controversy it kicked up. none of which have been conclusively proved. Second. Khan's elder brother. One of the deals that came to public notice. a retired banker. 1989. Pakistan must be coopted as part of the investigating team to probe the various links that emanate from within the country.154 The General and Jihad Nuclear Underground 155 one of the main Dubai-based front companies used by the Khan network It was Shah who set up a supplier firm for Khan in Dubai.

Most of the funds were parked with two lessknown entities-the Ghulam lshaq Khan Institute of Science and Technology.. besides the cement unit. reveals how the CIA was aware of the fact that "Pakistan was diverting a large portion of its foreign aid to nuclear development programme". a Saudi billionaire who owns. and ship them to Pakistan through various cut-outs and routes to avoid detection.testifying before the Senate Committee on Government Affairs. It does not take into account the missile-to-nuke barter Pakistan had entered into with North Korea. a New Delhi-based public policy think tank. The Institute was set up with a grant of $10 million from the Bank. Even if these figures are to be taken as real.85 billion (1993) was only the official figure. This is highly unlikely. considering no less a crucial fact that $19. the agency said out of $19 billion. Add to all this. and raised the spectre of terrorists tapping into the nuclear blackmarket chain. especially in water resource management. a factory off Dera Ghazi Khan owned by Ghaith Pharaon. two oil refineries and a software firm in Pakistan. the US. Germany.AQ Khan Nc:twork 157 explain the total amount spent by Pakistan on its nuclear ~:velopment programme between 1974 and 1993-$19. A report prepared by Observer Research Foundation. Malaysia. The Institute's first director was AQ Khan. US. Dubai and Britain. Tehran. on the A Q Khan's network. thus enabling Pakistan to spend it on its nuclear programme. pay agents to procure nuclear materials and know-how illegally. a burgeoning defence budget and a perpetual and desperate need to find money to initiate development programmes. a close ally of President Khan from AQ Khan Network In 2003. Baghdad and Pyongyang. Nor the money routed through the network to set up front companies in Europe. The question is. they fail .7 billion was not designated for any specific purpose. What the US agencies and the media failed to focus on was that the American taxpayer bankrolled the nuclear underworld. 1111993. CHAPTER 36 There could only be two explanations for this accounting difference. and thereby more expensively. UK. the money came from a more anonymous source. had set up a global chain of illegal nuclear trade with branch offices in Dubai. The investigations carried out by the US intelligence agencies and officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) revealed the involvement of several people dispersed across the globe. the scourge of corruption. the agency said Pakistan had received $19 billion in aid from foreign countries and donor agencies like the International Monetary Fund.85 billion. how did the money reach the Khan Research Laboratory. Pakistan spent the aid it received from various donor agencies and countries-about $19 billion according to CIA /almost entirely on the programme. Tripoli. First. In a written response. startling revelations were tumbling forth from Washington about how a Pakistani Tague nuclear scientist. Second. $2. given Pakistan's critical foreign exchange reserves. set up in Islamabad to honour President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Attock Cement Private Ltd CAPCL). the nuclear facility set up by the Pakistan and run by Mr AQ Khan. Both these organisations had a common link: Bank of Credit and Commerce International. Mr AQ Khan.

Agha Hassan Abedi. was a close friend of Abedi who helped BCCI to secretly buy an American bank. President Jimmy Carter. Senator John F Kerry headed the Senate Committee. An independent investigation carried out by a US Senate Committee in 1992 would pin down the Institute and the cement factory as the conduits for the BeCI to fund Pakistan'S secret programme for nuclear deals through the Black Network. ." Years later. details on BCel's involvement remain unavailable. operating from 146 branches (including 45 in the United Kingdom) in 43 countries including Africa. the ruling families of Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Its rise was phenomenal and of the several reasons. the most crucial was Abedi's friendship with some of the most powerful personalities-President Zia. a few as key finanCiers of Osama bin laden's nenvork of terror. high-profile bankers and traders. former British Prime Minister James Callaghan. Khalid bin Mahfouz and Saudi intelligence chief Kamal Adharn. A 70-page intelligence report prepared by French authorities in October 2001 said Laden's network of investments Was quite similar to the one set up by the Bcel "'often with the S<Une people (former directors and staff of the bank and its affiliates. anonymous financial underworld that stretched from the lanes of Karachi to the White House. billionaires like Ghaith The General and Jihad the days of Bhutro. President Ghulam lshaq Khan. In its exhaustive report (available at www'£as. First American. perhaps for the first time. would write (Gulf News.hinted at the possibility of BCC! funding the nuclear smuggling network. which unravelled the web of a powerful. Antiguan Prime Minister lester Byrd. and introduce Abedi to the power brokers in Washington DC. Among those who allegedly benefited from the BS:S:I were US Ambassador to the United Nations Andrew Young.Bert Lance. Major Ikram Sehgal. Further investigation is needed to understand the extent to which Bcer and Pakistan were able to evade US and international nuclear non-proliferation regimes to acquire nuclear technologies. . then United Nations Secretary General Javier Perez de Cueller. With the collapse of the bank following the Senate investigations and death of Abedi in 1998. November 24. the committee quoted a CIA memorandum which stated that "the Agency did have some reporting (as of 1987) on BCCI being used by Third World regimes to acquire weap9ns and transfer technology". 2001) about the mystetlous. the BCCI was the world's fastest growing bank. by the mid1980s. It was the John Kerry Committee that. Pharaon. and many Third World central bank officials. daily remittances of $100. the bank. donated $500.000 made by BeCI in Karachi to bank accounts in Canada till mid-1988. From assets worth $200 million. a large number of African heads of state.Abedi's influence AQ Khan Network 159 ------------------------------~~----------~ could gauged from the fact that he lent his corporate jet to Carter after his retirement. By 1977. In its conclusion. An example of. Nor was its owner. a key liaison man between the CIA and Saudi Arabia. was operating from 73 countries with assets over $22 billion.000 to help establish the Carter Centre at Emory University in Atlanta and donated heavily to Career's Global 2000 Foundation. Jesse Jackson. The BCCr was not an ordinary bank. the Senate report said there was "good reason to conclude that BCCr did finance Pakistan'S nuclear programme through the BCCI Foundation in Pakistan. as well as through BCCJ-Canada in the Parvez case. declared a fugitive by the us authorities. Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga. However. an Inter Services Intelligence (lSI) officer. many of those who ran the BCCI escaped prosecution and vanished from rhe headlines but only to emerge later as honourable businessmen. the East Asia and the Americas.

At the core of India's worries.d estme ealers like Dr Khan. is the threat of proliferation of nuclear technology and material. India's September 24 vote against Iran should be seen in this COntext. shared by a large number of Other countries. CHAPTER 37 Pakistan-Iran Nexus India's concerns about Pakistan's rogue nuclear scientist. This link has not been probed indepth and needs to be investigated thoroughly. . countries like Iran and North Korea could not have progressed much on the nuclear front without the assistance of eland . . Dr AQ Khan. and the increasing possibility of highly resourceful terrorist groups like Al-Qaida getting access to nuclear materials. This issue has assumed particular significance and urgency in view of the board meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scheduled on November 24 to decide on Iran. known as the key architect of Pakistan's illegitimate nuclear weapons programme. given the recent disclosure by a former Al-Qaida senior leader about Osarna bin Laden getting access to nuclear material. and now Wants to pursue.160 The General and Jihad arms merchants. The report identified dozens of companies and individuals who were involved with the Beer and were found to be dealing with the bin Laden network after the bank collapsed. What India chose not to press on that date. and his network of associates supplying nuclear technology and material to Iran should be taken note of by the international community. which is spearheading a move to cap Iran's nuclear weapons programme arguing an imminent threat to global pe~ce and order if it is allowed to continue. Saudi investors)". particularly the United States. Such networks pose a greater threat to global peace and stability than Iran. BeSides. is the existence of nuclear smuggling networks like the one set up by Dr AQ Khan.

He led the investigators to several secret bank accounts in Dubai where millions of dollars were deposited. outsmarted Dr Khan and used his proposal as a shopping list to procure equipment at lower prices from European. Investigations carried out by Pakistan and US officials quickly found out that large sums of unaccounted money were deposited in the personal account of Mr Farooq and others. The news report. including with Iran. Such spheres are needed for the Hiroshima type of atomic bombs. however. In December 2003. revealed that Dr Khan had offered technical as well as material help. operated one of the main Dubai-based from companies used by the Khan network. be perfectly in order if the IAEA board takes up the issue of nuclear proliferation and the role played by smuggling networks like the one led by Dr Khan while discussing Iran. Mr jaffri reponedIy flew to Iran after three employees of the KRL were detained for questioning fallowing the disclosures on Mr Khan.II followed by the supply of 2. This only corroborates earlier evidence of associates of Dr Khan meeting with Iranian officials in November 1987 in Dubai. Farouq is the uncle of BS Tahir. one of the key conduits for Dr Khan in Malaysia with a base in DubaL Tahir is today under arrest. It was Mr Shah who set up a supplier firm for Dr Khan in Dubai and worked closely with his father-in-law till be divorced his daughter Dina after four years of marriage in 1994. including engineering drawings. quoting diplomatic sources.162 The Gmeral andJihad Pakistan-lran Nexus 163 It would. Another key to unlock this mystery is a scientist named Mohammad Farooq. the agreement Signed in 1987 was a multi-million dollar deal and outlined a five-point. Russian and Chinese sources in the early 1990s. Mr Farooq admitted to work for the Khan network A centrifuge expert. who was one of Dr Khan's original suppliers.000 centrifuges for enriching bomb-grade uranium. the drawings include diagrams about how to form uranium metal into 'hemispherical spheres'. The report. a description that would suggest the basic steps toward creating bomb cares. to Iran in 1987. This would give added legitimacy to the debate on nuclear proliferation. were routed through Mr Shah. 2004). The Dubai meeting was attended by as many as three Iranian officials. Dr Khan's estranged son-inlaw. Significantly. First and foremost is the five-page report prepared by the IAEA for the Thursday meeting which stated that Iran received detailed instructions on how to set up the complicated process of enriching uranium from the black-market run by Dr AQ Khan. He was in charge of dealing with foreign suppliers at the Kahuta laboratory run by Dr Khan until 200L Farooq is one of the several Pakistan nuclear scientists who were questioned by the American intelligence and nuclear officials after CIA stumbled upon the Khan network. said. Iran. based on documents (including a one~page handwritten nate) received from Iran recently. Mr Noman Shah. The fourth phase would be the delivery of auxiliary items for the centrifuges and enrichment along with re-conversion and casting equipment for building the core of a bomb. Mr Farooq made startling disclosures about Dr Khan and his nuclear marketing. therefore. There are enough reasons to take this course. According to Washington Post (February 27. Several nuclear and missiles deals signed by the Khan Research Laboratory (KRL) . OffiCials suspect that Mr jaffri's brief on the Iran trip was to find OUt how much the Iranians had told the IAEA officials about . Another evidence of Mr Khan's Iran link is an Islamabad bUSinessman named Aizaz Jaffri. phased plan in which Dr Khan offered to supply Iran with drawings for Pakistani centrifuges and a starter kit of one or two centrifuges as part of Phase. a Sri Lankan businessman named Mohamed Farouqand a German named Heinz Mebus.

General Beg.1994. $6 billion. especially its external intelligence agency. before he joined Dr Khan's network and began acting as a front man for dozens of busines. Although the proliferation activities were clandestine. Iran had offered $3.2 billion to finance Pakistan's nuclear weapons development programme in exchange for transfer of nuclear technology. a state enterprise. The Pakistan. without tabling the IAEA investigation into the AQ Khan network. .:. there is substantial evidence that the Pakistan establishment. "Iran is willing to give whatever it takes. was also deeply involved in the clandestine nuclear deals with Iran. 2004). the Inter Services Intelligence (lSI). We can sell the bomb to Iran at any price. It is quite clear that no meaningful discussion can be held on nuclear proliferation. as reported in a widely circulated Pakistan English daily. The News (january 24. according to a former Pakistan Cabinet Minister. Iran was quite keen to pay heavily for a nuclear gateway with Pakistan.164 The General and] thad Pakistan-Iran Nexus 165 J aff:ri was an intermediary between Dr Khan and his network Mt J affri used to work for Pakistan'S National Development Corporation. The cooperation was specifically limited to non-military spheres. Mr ny believe that not only General Durrani but his superior. ~eneral Aslam Beg." In fact. What India and other countries need to add during the deliberations is the substantial evidence already available in the public domain about Dr Khan's active involvement in transferring nuclear technology and material to Iran since the early '90s. the lSI chief in the early '90s. A respected Pakistani English daily published from Islamabad. Dawn. quoted a retired nuclear scientist 'Just before his death in 1988 when I told Zia about Iran's growing interest in non-peaceful nuclear matters. the then Chief of Army Staff. $10 billion.Iran nuclear connection existed since the rime of General Zia-ul Haq who had approved an unpublicised cooperation between the two nations in the nuclear field in 19B7. on December 20. was aware of Dr Khan's travels to Iran in 1991and 1992. he asked me to play around but not to yield anything substantial at any cost. It General Asad established by Dr Khan-he was the Managing Director of the Best Western Hotel in Islamabad and runs dozens of restaurants and hotels either partially or fully owned by Dr Khan. General Beg' bragged. Pakistan's involvement in their nuclear weapons programme. of which Iran is only a part. was nor only in the know of the activities but was actually assisting in the smuggling." Former US Ambassador to Pakistan Robert Oakley has also referred to a conversation with General Beg during which the latter said he was discussing nuclear cooperation with Iran's Revolutionary Guards. Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan. had negotiated with Iran for a nuclear deal.

besides the chiefs of Army staff and lSI. Third. A RomanianIsraeli citizen.the capital of Romania. bright. it is misleading to presume that the nuclear proliferation activity orchestrated by Khan was a private venture. US intelligence agencies were clearly aware of these activities. They are equally comfortable in temples of worship as in the cyberway. There are reports that Na'or's ring procured nuclear material for Pakistan He has since been tried and sentenced for seven years. In June 2004. if not nuclear weapons. and within Pakistan. I have been writing that the investigating agencies should look beyond Khan and identify his collaborators and associates who might actually help in tracking down the network's anchors in other states. the investigating agencies are reportedly discovering missing links in Khan's network Beginning March 2004. a German. Former Prime Minister. technically-savvy and highly motivated men and women. According to recent news leaks appearing in some major US newspapers. was arrested in Bremen (northern Germany) Shadows in Khan's Network It is amazing how the US investigating agencies have taken more than a year to figure out that Dr AQ Khan could not have set up his network of nuclear smugglers without the help of a whole lot of people than thought earlier. To take the last point first. Second. The report mentions names and places on record what only a select few in the intelligence community knew. prominent financial institutions and legitimate military and intelligence officers-a factor which makes it impossible for any attempt to unmask tbe real faces behind the network Fourth. Before attemptingto understand the Khan's network. taking advantage of such networks to procure nuclear materials quite capable of making. politicians and businessmen. There are other references to the Russian involvement in smugghng nuclear material for Pakistan. I completed a special report for the Observer Research Foundation titled Pakistan's Nuclear Underworld which attempted to piece together Khan's network. his collaborators. Na'or Was one of the links. one of the least investigated links of the Khan's network is the ever-expanding smugghng network which extends from south-east Asia to northern Europe.Shadows in Khan's Network 167 CHAPTER 38 nUnisters and presidents. It was a state-sponsored enterprise for which prime . the network was made up of criminal syndicates. It is therefore important to cite a few instances of the Khan network using some of the smugghng networks in Europe. First. operated one such network through a respectable firm in Bucharest. the strong possibility of terrorist networks. starting from Zulfiqar All Bhutto have been guilty of. in an interview disclosed that Russian scientists Who wanted to sell enriched uranium approached her. In 1994. Benam Bhutto. Adolf Jaekle. radioactive bombs which are no less threatening. Shi'mon Na'or. Investigations by intelligence and security officials of several nations revealed the existence of a smuggling network IUn by former KGB agents that dealt in ex-Soviet nuclear material. financiers and supporters. there are quite a few caveats four of which are worth flagging for the purposes of this analysis. not peopled by bearded and turbaned fundamentalists of the past but by young.

Successful routes established over recent years by Ibrahim's syndicate have been subsequently utilised by Osama. Sultan Bashir-ud. . "Dawood. was available for sale in Peshawar. the Al-Qaida was persuading Pakistani nuclear scientists to share their knowledge and expertise in making radiation bombs. Russian police officials caught seven residents of Altay region for trying to sellS. it is time to turn to other actors in the drama who have so far remained in the shadows.2000 could be a pointer. stolen from Kazakhstan'S Ust. One such person is Aizaz jaffri.Kamenogorsk province. are actually owned by AQ Khan. according to the newspaper J ang.. A Significant clue to this possibility could be found in the US State Department designation of Dawood Ibrahim as a global terrorist. met with Al-Qaida leaderships. News reports in Pakistan quoted officials as saying. in Afghanistan and discussed the possibility of producing radiological dispersal devices. Middle East and Africa are shared with Osama bin-Laden and his terrorist networks. Ibrahim's syndicate is involved in large-scale shipments of narcotics in the UK and western Europe. located in Quetta. In 1997.000. Ahmadjan Haji Mohammad.. probably Strontium 90 (which can be used to make radioactive bombs) at a remote border in Kazakhstan in early. before he joined the Khan network and began acting as a front man for dozens of businesses . Kazakhstan has long been suspected to be a key staging post for nuclear smuggling networks. besides scores of business establishments which. one of Khan's key associates in Dubai and Malaysia.Din Mahmood and Chaudhry Abdul Majeed. a bowling alley and a mall complex. ] aekle had a $100 million contract with an unknown country to buy fissile material. Pakistan. terrorist groups and the Khan network which is yet to be investigated.2 kg of U~23S from the Ulba Metallurgy Plant in Ust-Kamenogorsk. According to a German parliamentary control commission. sharing his smuggling routes with the terror syndicate and funding attacks by Islamic extremists . One of the serious fallouts of the transnational smuggling networks being used by the Black Network is the real possibility of terror networks like the Al-Qaida following the same trail for acquiring nuclear or radioactive material. A Pakistani newspaper reported in 1996 that U ~235 (enriched uranium). . The material was marked to a firm. Humayun Khan. a state enterprise.168 The Genera! and] ihad Shadows in Khan's Network 169 with a sample of Russian plutonium which he had offered to an undercover policeman. "We believe Jaffri was an intermediary between Khan and the larger illicit nerwork" jaffn used to work for Pakistan'S National Development COrporation. Asher Karni. has found common cause with the Al-Qaeda. There is another possible linkage between smuggling rings. Dawood is wanted by the Indian government for several acts of terrorist crimes." Now that US investigating agencies are on to an Israeli businessman settled in South Africa. The arrest led to extensive searches in Berlin and those arrested during the raids pointed the finger at Pakistan as possible destination for the plutonium. The syndicate'S smuggling routes from South Asia. It cannot be a coincidence that at about the same time when the Strontium 90 consignment was seized. At least two of the scientists. including Osama binLaden. had one of the offices of 5MB Computers. Kazakhstan. for $100. The material was being bought for either Pakistan or China. The seizure of 10 leadlined containers filled with radioactive material. a prominent businessman based in Islamabad. It was suspected that the material could have been smuggled om of Kazakhstan for the Al-Qaida. It was one of the outposts of the Black Network where BSA Tahir." says the State Department notification ". He owns "Hot Shots". and his Islamabad contact.

An intriguing fact is that jaffri's reported association with China North Industries Corporation or Norinco. reports said. He serves as the managing director of the Best Western Hotel in Islamabad and runs dozens of restaurants and hotels owned by Khan. First. but also the people who operated it across the world should be identified.170 The General and] ilwd established by Khan. to possess nuclear or radioactive weapons. Qayuum. One link that emerged is the Chinese restaurant in Islamabad. it is one of the most serious crimes committed against humanity. which have sufficient quantity of nuclear materials to develop several radioactive-capable explosive devices. when Khan was being questioned and his associates detained. This would. a state-owned Chinese corporation which is collaborating with Pakistan on missile and weapons development and production. For this reason alone. possibly. especially those aligned with the Al-Qaida. the AQ Khan episode has returned to haunt the world. nuclear scientists. There are a number of reasons why it will do so in the corning days. might have had laundered the proceeds of Khan's Black Network. J affri and Humayun Khan could tell quite a few tales about AQ Khan and his network. Once these two facts are placed along with the strong desire expressed by various terrorist groups. solely on the willingness of the Bush Administration. also have a stake. military officials and businessmen freely trading in nuclear technology and materials will be felt for generations. the network should not only be destroyed. as investigators suspect. The repercussions of statesponsored networks of smugglers. of course. ] affri made three trips to Dubai. CHAPTER 39 Why shouldAQK be Punished? Jaffri is also tied to Khan's activities in Dubai where he. it is not very difficult to assess the transnational threat created by the AQ Khan network that poses a danger to the world. partly owned by jaffri two years ago and in which Norinco and Khan's brother. President George . to shut down the financial structure that he ran for Khan. Between November and December 2003. There are credible reports of smuggling networks. Wang Fu. like a bad dream. depend. hunted down and trialled for committing crirne against humanity. especially in east Europe. There is equally strong evidence that Pakistani nuclear scientists have had close links with the T aliban and Al-Qaida leaders in the past.

The Tehran deal. a centrifuge expert. . an investigative journalist. One of the startling disclosures made by Dr Farooq was about Dr Khan's financial skullduggery. South Africa and Russia. There are quite a few others who have not been identified and there are many more who will not be identified. wrote in a prominent Pakistani newspaper that "foreign accounts used to deposit the proceeds from the transfer of some nuclear technology to Iran have been traced back to at least two senior nuclear scientists." He further wrote that Iranian authorities had confirmed the information about the bank accounts.172 Tilt:General and Jihad Why should AQK be Punished? 173 W Bush. And. Malaysia. Me Karman Khan. Identifying the accused in the Khan episode is not really difficult. intelligence and military officials from Pakistan. can reveal the military's nuclear smuggling network. Similarly. Although there is no evidence in public domain linking Humayun with Dr Khan. by independent agencies. there is SUbstantial proof that he had links with the Pakistan Army and Was involved in smuggling nuclear materials. France. Humayun's involvement in the nuclear trade was exposed with the arrest of an Israeli businessman settled in South Africa. Dr Farooq's interrogation. This coalition should comprise members of law enforcement. customs. should set an example for the world to follow by setting up a special tribunal to prosecute those accused of aiding and abetting the Khan network. The names are available in public domain. maintained secret bank accounts in Dubai where millions of dollars were deposited. Asher Karni. Karni. The most feasible way to find out is to interrogate those who are known and available. US. a trader in electric equipment and computer hardware in Islamabad. More specifically. India. travelled to Iran and libya on behalf of Dr Khan. Germany. Since the Pakistan government has made it an issue of national honour not to let Dr Khan to be questioned by any intelligence agencies. four others in Pakistan could be easily called for questioning. marked the beginning of Khan'S clandestine nuclear sales. He acted as a conduit between Dr Khan. Pakistan army and Iran. including Dr Farooq. One of the scientists was Dr Farooq. the Royal Malaysian Police had issued a press statement in 2004 listing out names of those associated with Dr Khan. and was the key source of information against the Khan Network when the US and Pakistan intelligence officials debriefed him in November 2003. an operation of this magnitude cannot be carried out without the existence of a specific department or task force-most likely clandestine-within the Army. He could reveal the officers who were dealing with him on a regular basis. The first task of the tribunal should be to identify the accused and call for their interrogation by a neutral team of intelligence and security officials and nuclear experts. in his second term. was arrested at Denver International Airport in January 2004 following an investigation by the US Department of Commerce into the sale of 66 spark gaps (a dual use equipment used in breaking kidney stones as well as triggering nuclear weapons) to Pakistan. One is Dr Muhammad Farooq. It is not conceivable that the Army that runs a three-tier security cordon around Khan Research Laboratory at Kahuta was unaware of the transfer of materials and equipment to foreign destinations. It is quite clear that an operation like the one run by Dr Khan cannot be possible without the active support of a large organisation like the Pakistan Army. a close associate and confidante of Dr Khan. Investigations have revealed that the scientists. The tribunal should seek the assistance of international organisations like the United Nations and International Atomic Energy Agency besides intelligence and security agencies from an international coalition. will reveal the most important key to the entire network. UK. an ex-soldier in the Israeli Army. There is evidence that Dr Farooq. Humayun Khan. the role of Pakistan Army. in fact.

He could reveal the identity of Pak military officials who dealt with him and the channels through which he smuggled dual-use equipment from different parts of the world. Humayun has neither been arrested nor questioned. General Beg could prove to be a goldmine. reports say. telemetry systems. He has publicly maintained that Pakistan should trade in nuclear technology and equipment. of information. Former US Ambassador to Pakistan Robert Oakley has also referred to a conversation with General Beg during which the latter had said he was discussing nuclear cooperation with Iran's Revolutionary Guards. are actually owned by Dr Khan. a prominent businessman based in Islamabad. and airplane guidance systems from US companies during 2002 and 2003. which continue to flourish and expand. More than one year after these disclosures. possibly (as investigators suspect) to shut down the financial structure which he ran for Dr Khan. He owns Hot Shots. He was deeply involved in the nuclear trade with Iran. jaffri made three trips to Dubai. and a mall complex besides scores of business establishments which. Between November and December 2003 when Dr Khan was being questioned and his associates detained. . Humayun could lead investigators to other networks. much like Dr Khan's. The third person who can be questioned in detail is former Army Chief General Aslam Beg. a clear evidence of his links with the Pakistani military establishment. Jaffri used to work for Pakistan'S National Development Corporation before he joined Khan's network and began acting as a front man for dozens of businesses established by Dr Khan.174 The General and Jihad Why should AQK be Punished? 175 E~mail records recovered from Karni's computers revealed the existence of Humayun and his attempts to buy sophisticated oscilloscopes. according to former Pakistan Cabinet Minister Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan had negotiated with Iran for a nuclear deal. General Beg had such stronghold over the nuclear programme that he even refused Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto a briefing on Pakistan'S nuclear development programme when she had visited the Joint Staff Headquarters a few months after taking over as Prime Minister in 1989. General Beg. General Beg was also involved in other clandestine nuclear deals. a bowling alley in Islamabad. Humayun also sought Sidewinder missiles and infra-red sensors for the missiles from Lockheed Martin Naval Systems. The fourth man who should be interrogated is Aizaz J affri. magnetometers. In fact.

. . and Pakistan. In our view. Barely a year after the note. and they have dearly decided to have the capability to build one. In fact. by the 19705. the US Administration had also begun receiving information about Dr AQ Khan.. three Pakistani nationals were indicted in Houston for attempting [0 buy a shipment of highspeed switch designed to trigger nuclear weapons. Agba Hassan Abedi. Dr AQ Khan. said though "Pakistan'S scientists had investigated the possibilities of uranium enrichment . Through his extensive network of European contacts." The note was prepared barely three years after Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto had called a meeting of Pakistan'S top nuclear scientists at Multan. One of the factors which helped US President George Bush to regain the White House for the second time was the seemingly decisive manner in which his Administration intercepted. only confirmed the earlier intelligence estimates.. A research paper prepared by the CIA Directorate of Intelligence during that time titled 'Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Programme: Personnel and Organisations'. particularly in Iran and Malaysia.What US Knew About AQK 177 CHAPTER 40 What US Knew About AQK [0 detect nuclear trafficking with Pakistan. They bad offered to pay in gold supplied by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). 1983. Although the US Administration and the media traced the network's footprints in several countries.. Exactly three decades ago. 'Pakistan: A Safeguards Exemption As a Backdoor to Reprocessing?' on May 20.. Pakistan Finance Minister . In fact.. who counted among his close friends men like President Zia ul.Haq. the US State Department circulated a confidential note to its top policy-makers titled Pakistan and the Non Proliferation Issue which stated that Pakistan "may well have decided to have the capability to produce a weapon. but efforts did not begin in earnest until AQ returned to the country in 1975. . six weeks after the 1971 war ended in surrender at Dhaka.. both have conveniently avoided looking at own backyard. responsible for technical intelligence. as early as 1968. So let us take a look at what the US knew and didn't tell. Another report prepared by the CIA Directorate of Intelligence. ". the CIA had so successfully infiltrated the Pakistani nuclear establishment that it was able to smuggle out the entire floor plans for the Kahuta Research Laboratory. we have detected continuation of longstanding efforts to acquire components for nuclear devices and to bring into successful operation the only t\V'0 facilities capable of producing fissile material for nuclear weapons. had already drawn up a list of hi-tech companies in Germany and Switzerland whose communication links were constantly monitored and intercepted By the mid 1980s. exposed and crippled a global nuclear smuggling network led by Pakistani nuclear scientist. he began to covertly procure the components that would ultimately enable the then clandestine facility to manufacture highly enriched uranium. Zia and his advisers continue to believe that they must acquire nuclear weapons . The report said: ". an infamous bank set up by a Pakistani bUSinessman. the National Security Agency (NSA).

his Administration came with a desire to send arms to the Afghan Mujahideen. he joined the Government as a proliferation analyst' in the office of the Under Secretary of Defence Policy where too he found a similar attitude towards Pakistan. The CIA could be faulted for its intelligence on Iraq but it has been doing credible work on Pakistan's efforts to procure nuclear technology and materials clandestinely. The reason is not far to seek. One of the reports he prepared for the Secretary of Defence was about Dr Khan's initial attempts to sell nuclear technology and spare materials to countries which the US considered were sponsoring terrorism. Needless to say no effort was made. young AQ Khan. forcing him. Further investigation is needed to understand the extent to which BCCl and Pakistan were able to evade US and international nuclear non-proliferation regimes to acquire nuclear technologies". Richard Barlow. However.. The Senate Report throws enough light on this nexus: "Former CIA officials. said. They could only be delivered through Pakistan. the bank had the top hierarchy of the intelligence establishment on its side. important figures with extensive Contact with BCCI included former British Prime Minister James Callaghan. Defence. and many Third World centrafbank officials. Antiguan Prime Minister Lester Byrd. Abroad. and non-proliferation took a back seat to Cold War politics . Mr Cheney dismissed the Barlowe report and told a Pentagon official testifying before the US Congress to underplay the threat posed by Pakistan'S nuclear proliferation . a US Senate Report in 1992. to resign from the agency. In 1993. thus enabling Pakistan to spend it on its nuclear programme. However. whose brief was to track Pakistan's proliferation activities. including 'I&mal Adham and Abdul Raouf Khalil. including former CIA Director Richard Hebus and the lace William Casey.jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga. as well as through BeCI-Canada in the Parvez case. "When Ronald Reagan arrived in the White House in 1981. Another issue on which the Bush Administration has maintained an intriguing silence is the involvement of Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) which. To quote the Senate report: "Among the Americans who BCCI provided with financial assistance in addition to Carter (President Jimmy Carter). Mr Cheney wanted to protect the $1. wherher then or now.. In 1989. $2. The Secretary. financed "Pakistan's nuclear programme through the Bcel Foundation in Pakistan. subsequently. and participate simultaneously in Ghulam Ishaq Khan (later President). details on BCCI's involvement remain unavailable. then United Nations Secretary General j avier Perez de Cueller. compiled evidence about Pakistan'S clandestine nuclear purchases. a large number of African heads of state. and Jesse Jackson. such as Adrian khashoggi and Manucher Ghorbanifar.4 billion sale of F~ 16 fighrer Jets to Islamabad. and principal foreign agents of the US.178 The General (wd Jihad What US Knew Abollt AQK 179 President Carter and a activities. float in and out of BeCI at Critical times in its history. a counter-proliferation expert and a staff director on the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs between 1977 and 1999. were US Ambassador to the United Nations Andrew Young. to take the investigation forward. According to Leonard Weiss. the agency said. was Mr Dick Cheney.7 billion was nor designated for any specific purpose. his reports were shelved. This pattern continued for several years " with no one protesting till a junior CIA intelligence officer." Not only were the top US leadership bankrolled. Of $19 billion. the agency said Pakistan had received $19billion in aid from foreign Countries and donor agencies like the International Monetary Fund. testifying before the Senate Committee on Government Affairs. former and current foreign intelligence officials. Bert Lance.

He could not fathom the extent of damage and when be did. Third is the coalition of various religious. Only then. could not measure up to the challenge posed by the devastation caused by the earthquake. in the form of emails exchanged between Dr Khan and a Jewish businessman Asher Karni. arrest a little-knowj. he lost his nerves and called up anyone and everyone for help. It was an utter failure of command. He is a small fry.even for the staunchest of supporters of President Pervez Musbarraf. Mr Musharraf. . Second is the emergence ofjamaat-ud Dawa GuD). as an effective NGO capable and willing to step in where the powerful Army has failed. - CHAPTER 41 The General's Losing Battle There are developments taking place in the quake affected pakistan occupied Kashmir that need to be closely watched by both the Indian authorities and the Western world. projecting himself as the architect of modern Pakistan. a serious attempt could be made to prevent rogue nations and terrorist entities from threatening the global order. the parent organisation of terrorist group Lashkar-e-Tayyeba (LeT). but a key link between the smuggling network and the Pakistan Army. businessman named Humayun Khan who owns a computer hardware firm in Islamabad. The question is whether the Bush Administration will come clean on these counts. Pakland PME. The firut is the failure of the Pakistan army and its associated institutions (0 provide relief to the millions of quake affected people in Kashmir under its occupation. ranging from the Camp David peace talks to the arming of Iran as part of the Iran! Contra affair." As for Pakistan. the Bush Administration should urgently take the following two actions: Interrogate Dr AQ Khan in detail about the smuggling network Second. the Pakistani establishment failed in its hour of crisis. perhaps.180 The General and Jihad the making of key episodes in US foreign policy. There is' evidence. secessionist and terrorist groups coming together in the aftermath of the earthquake. There is hardly any doubt. His reputation has suffered grave damage and his invincible image-of a shrewd and pragmatic leader-has crumbled with the Margola Towers. that the former had been acting on behalf of the Pakistan Army to buy Sidewinder missiles and infrared sensors from Lockheed Martin Naval Systems and nuclear triggers from two US firms.

the major component of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA). as part of the army plan. the six-party alliance of religious parties integral to the ruling coalition in Islamabad. the Pakistan army took several weeks to even reach these areas. Federal Minister Zubaidajalal accompanied UNICEF officials to the ]uD hospital on October 17. JeI Chief Qazi Hussain Ahmed visited JuD camps and . Not only did he fail to provide immediate succour to the people. he announced. Long before the earthquake.JuD activists are also providing security escorts to various other NGOs involved in relief and rehabilitation. Mr Musharraf didn't help himself by calling for help from the NATO. Anyone familiar with the Pakistan press would realise soon enough that he would not be able to emerge out of this crisis unscratched. There are clear indications of JuD getting closer to jamaat-e-Islami. was promptly despatched. particularly for the Pakistan Army which has been living for the past hall a century and more with the dream of annexing it.6 crore for the field surgical and medical centre established at Shanwai Nullahin Muzaffarabad.000 troops to Kashmir. Hayat praised JuD and its leader Hafiz Saeed profusely for the relief and rehabilitation WOrk What should be of more concern is the coming together of groups detrimental to peace in the region. Another clear indicator of his failure is the emergence of JuD as the alternative source of rescue. mobilised teams of doctors from different countries and ensured immediate relief like tents. It is certainly a clever move. 2005. relief and rehabilitation for Kashmiris. while the JuD activities betray the failure of the Pakistan Army. 2005. the]uD hospital was visited by Federal Minister for Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas Syed Faisal Saleh Hayat. has mortgaged Pakistani part of Kashmir. LeT Chief Hafiz Saeed. Where does JuD gets its contributions? Dr Amir Aziz. claiming.c:ult to live with it for long. as expected. with several helicopters and a contingent of 1. Recently. since the earthquake. that JuD was a civilian. runs the hospital. non-governmental organisation committed to the welfare of the people of Kashmir and others in Pakistan. Ironically. Since JuD has been systematically dissociating itself from Le T and other terrorist activities. would now operate from the Indian side of Kashmir. ]uD has. The extent of JuD's influence can be gauged from the fact that it recently bought a mobile operation theatre from Karachi at a cost of Rs 1. on October 24. the group provided security cover to NGOs from UK Ironically. It was a colossal failure on the part of the army and the generals would find it dilli. food materials and medicines to far-flung areas. Mr Musharraf. separating the group which. which. he failed the army by his confusion and display of helplessness. the group's relief and rescue efforts have the blessings of the political leaders. in the name of rescue and relief. had officially resigned from the position of amir of LeT. set up several mobile dispensaries.182 The Genual and Jihad The General's Losing Battle 183 It was uncharacteristic of a soldier who posed in his uniform and fired blanks in the air in machismo displays. while JuD was able to set up relief camps in remotest of areas in PoK. famous for treating Osama bin Laden. who had hosted Kashmiri terrorists in the early 1990s. including some of the ministers in the ruling coalition. Several doctors from Turkey and Indonesia too have joined him at the hospital. who calls himself a professor (he was a religious teacher in an engineering college). both on its website and in interviews its leaders have been freely giving to the Western media. More. A week later. She held meetings with Hafiz Saeed and was informed that the Pakistan Government should provide the group with helicopters to ferry relief materials and the injured. This has far-reaching consequences for Kashmir.

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