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Absolute pressure - pressure above zero pressure as read on a barometer type

instrument, i.e. standard day 14.7 psia

Absolute pressure is zero referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge

pressure plus atmospheric pressure.

Differential pressure - the diff between two pressures. the measurement of airspeed is
an example of the use of differential pressure.

Gauge Pressure - pressure measured relative to the existing atmospheric pressure.

engine oil pressure and hydraulic pressure are normally measured as gauge pressure. if
gauge pressure is measured in PSI, it is refereed to as PSIG.

Gauge pressure is zero referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute
pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted.

Hysteresis - lagging of an effect behind its cause, as when the change in magnetism of a
body lags behind changes in the magnetic field.

Hysteresis error - The maximum separation due to hysteresis between upscale-going and
downscale-going indications of a variable.

Parallax error - Error in reading an instrument employing a scale and pointer because the
observer's eye and pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale.

Millibar - A unit of atmospheric pressure equal to one thousandth (10 -3) of a bar. Standard
atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1,013 millibars.

Describe the method of compensating instrument mechanisms for temperature

variations and the reason for hermetically sealing instruments?????

Explain the construction, operation and functions of the following:

Bellows type gauges are alot more sensitive the bourdon tube-type.

a.1. Bellows (absolute) The bellows-type aneriod wafer measures the difference
between the pressure inside the bellows and the pressure outside the bellows.

a.2. Bellows (Differential) Airframe 11-5 fig 11-9In a differential bellows type
instrument, the pressure differential creates a linear movement of the bellows
assembly. the indications are the result of pressure differential, but the mechanical
linkage allows the presentation of the pressure to be displayed on a round dial.

b. Bourdon tube-type used to measure high pressure. This instrument consists of

a hollow brass or bronze elliptical shaped tube formed into a semicircle. one end of
the tube is connected to the fluid to be measured; the opposite end is sealed.
When pressure is applied, the elliptical tube changes shape. which tends to
straighten the semi circular curve.

c. Capsules (absolute pressure gauge)

d. Diaphrams