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As per subject/theme Mythological Social, Folk, Fantasy, Mythological fantasy, Socio fantasy, Science fiction, Historical, Historical fantasy, Children, Animal, Animation As per Technique/Time/Purpose Feature films will be having story and includes all the commercial elements like Drama, emotions, fights, songs for entertainment. Add films are mainly for Publicity of different companies, Products, Organisations etc. Tele films are the films mainly shot for Television. Generally Video Cameras with magnetic tapes will be used for shot of these films.
Documentary films are for description about Places, Persons, Festivals and Occasions etc. Short films are also the feature films but only difference is, duration of the film will be short. Educational film is meant for educating the different people in various subjects. Online program is the program which telecasts online Teleplay is the Stage Play which is shot while running by using single camera or multi cameras. There is no need of any editing for these Teleplays. Tele episode is also a tele film but only difference is time duration. These are two types. First one is the Single episode shows the total subject/story in one episode. Second one is the Serial shows the story/Subject in number of parts/episode for long duration like number of days. News story is the story of real incidents occurred and will be shot with Artists not at all related to the news. Some times, Interviews o0f the real characters related to the news will be included in the News story. Docu drama includes the real incidents occurred in the past and will be shot in original locations where those incidents occurred. Children films will be having the concepts related to Children for entertainment or encouraging or for conveying messages. Animation Films will be made by using different drawings/Cartoons and motion will be created by arranging number of drawings in sequence. Cartoon Films are also animated films Departments in Film Making Direction Department, Cinematography, Set, Production, Acting, Make-Up, Costumes, Sound, Stunts/fights/Choreography Direction Department In ascending order 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Apprentice Assistant Directors Associate Directors Co-Director Director
Apprentice is only for learning with special interest, with no salary and no portfolio only for observation. Duties of Assistant Directors 1. script assistant
2. 3. 4. 5.
Clap Board operation Make-up & Artist co-ordination Make-up & costumes continuity Hand and set Properties continuity
Duties of Associate Directors 1. 2. 3. 4. Dialogues assistant Editing report Action & emotions continuity Set properties continuity
Co-Director is for co-operation to the Director in Co-ordination of all the departments and shooting Director is the whole and sole responsible person, captain of the film and directs film making CAMERA DEPARTMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. Camera assistant Assistant cameraman Operative cameraman Cameraman
PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 1) Production Manager a) Purchases & properties b) Production Observations to be done by each and every Film Director are two kinds. 1. 2. Casual or random observation Keen observation
Basic Observations: Animals, Age groups, Professions, Characters (Parent nature, Youth mentality/Matured, Children nature/dependent nature) Sequence of Orders by Film Director during Shooting: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. “Lights on” - “Burning sir” response by Gaffer “Sound” – “Running sir” response after 5 seconds because of pre-roll “Start camera” – “Rolling sir” “Clap in” – example : 2/3 take 1, ‘2’ is scene number, ‘3’ is shot number “Clap out” “Action” “Cut” “OK’ or “Retake”
Sustaining cut will be used in between scenes. After ordering “Cut” by Director, Artist will be in the same position up to some time then camera will be cut. Movement cut will be used generally at ending of the scene. This is the cut takes place while artist or object is moving. Stage Business is the activity/work is being done by Actor/Actress while performing action. Then action seems natural. Ex: cleaning vehicle, washing clothes, cooking etc. Basic Technical terms related to film making Frame is 1/24th second. For films, 24 frames per second and for Video, 25 to 29 frames per second
Shot is the duration from Camera switch on to the Camera Switch off. It is the combination of frames. Scene is combination of number of shots related to same location or time Sequence is the combination of scenes. Plot is the arrangement of scenes in an order Treatment is the arrangement of Sequences in an order Cut combines two shots Film Director is a person, who directs Film making. Total film will be in the control of Film Director from stage of Script to release of the film. At the time of Production, film director controls all the film crew like actors, technical crew etc .Film Director is also one of the film makers. Film Producer and Film Director are only two film makers. Some times, in some countries, Film Producer also controls the entire unit but direction of the film will depend on film director only. Director of Photography/Cameraman looks after only camera work. He will not look the Lighting. In this case, Gaffer will looks after Lighting. Cinematographer looks after camera work and Lighting. In this case, there is no need of Gaffer. Only different number of Assistants will be there to Cinematographer for different works like Lighting, camera operation etc. Choreographer will compose fights and songs by sitting along with the Director. Set may be natural or artificial and it may be at the place of Shooting/Shooting Spot/Location. Location is the Shooting place, where the shooting is going on. Call sheet is a statement containing the details of dates and working hours of the respective artist. Queue is the last word of dialogue of front artist to another artist Editing report is the report contains all the details of every shot taken during shooting TCR is the Tape counter reading will be taken for video shooting. It is the ending time of the shot in Tape. Cinematographer looks after Photography and Lighting Director of Photography looks after only photography Gaffer is a chief electrician or Unit electrician who handles the total lighting during shooting Cinematography Department handles Camera, Lighting and Unit Types of Video Cameras: VHS Camera, SVHS Camera, High Band Camera, Beeta Camera, Digi Beeta Camera, Digi Camera Types of Movie Cameras: Michel camera, AERY 1, AERY 2, AERY 3, AERY 4, Steady cam Different types of Lenses : Convex lens, concave lens, wide angle lens, Telephoto lens, Zoom Lens, 35mm Lens, 70mm Lens, 120mm Lens Types of Scenes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Note: Major Scenes Lead Scenes (to any situations, fights or songs etc.) Link Scenes Enlargement scenes Introduction Scenes Establishment Scenes
that is process of selection of artists for the different characters in all scenes. Costumes Designer and will decide or design the costumes as per the Costumes chart already prepared. there is no Pre Roll. Costumer. long. It is the stage before shooting part/production. Single line order preparation which is the order/sequence of different incidents takes place in the story Writing of Screen-Play consists of different number of Scenes. Sequence of different stages in Pre-Production Idea/Concept should be decided on which. The single line order of the story will be developed as Scenes for convenience of presenting on the screen. It is the main content or message which has to be conveyed to viewers. mid. There is a difference between Director of Photography and Cinematographer. It is better to maintain economy while writing Dialogues. recording will not start immediately. There will be Pre Roll of time about 5 seconds. Then only better screen-play will produce according to the convenience of locations. Make-up man. when record button pressed. Art Director. Created Characters must have the purpose 10. Should not kept same shot immediately. Preparing estimation of Rough Budget inline with Script Convincing and Confirming Producer Casting. OSV – Off Screen Voice ******************************************************************************************************************** Pre-Production Pre-Production is one of the stages of the film making. Film can called as Maxine 7. It is also called as Story. camera angles. Music Director Production Manager Writing of Lyrics by Lyrics writer Music composition to Lyrics by Music Director Songs recording Preparation of Scene wise Characters list and character wise scenes list Preparation of Costumes List of every character in every scene Details of Make-Up for each and every character in every scene Hand and set Properties List as per every scene Arranging of hand and set Properties Selection of Locations and designing of sets according to script Lighting Schemes to be decided/designed by Cinematographer/Director of Photography with co-ordination of Director and Gaffer/Chief Electrician Designing of Fighting Schemes Deciding of Song Schemes Costumer or Costumes Chief sits along with the Director. Selection of suitable Cameraman/Cinematographer/Director of Photography Selection of Action Director/Fight Master. Producer. Script is the Screen-Play with Dialogues. recording starts quickly 9. 6. action part and Dialogue part. Camera eye is the Director’s eye and spectator’s (viewer’s) eye also. Finally Screen Play is the conversion of Story for convenience of playing on screen. Lyrics Writer. In Video Cameras/Digital Cameras. . Screen-play includes shot division. It is better to write screen play after finalizing all the locations. camera movement.1. Short dialogues are better than lengthy Dialogues. Choreographer. art director. Camera man. Background should be decided on which story has to run. film has to be made. close this sequence is better 8. OBV – Outside Broadcasting voice 11. 3. For film. Each and every scene must have the purpose. Script will be consist of Action part left side and Dialogue part on the right side. 4. 2. 5. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Theme is the basic outline prepared by using already confirmed idea or concept Synopsis is the description of theme.
2. 3. It is the out line of the story. Completing FDC formalities Taking of call sheets from Artists Schedule planning as per the available dates of Locations.“middle” and “end”.• • • • Make-Up Chief sits along with Director and will do Make-Up designs according to the Make-Up chart already prepared. Duties of the Direction Department 1. Screen Play Screenplay is a written form which contains total play of frame to frame which is going to play on the movie screen. is an idea will be developed as concept/theme in the form of two or three lines. 4. told with some characters and incidents to entertain audience which contains“start”.e. Script fairing Duty of Clap Board Editing Report preparation Preparation of the different following charts in the stage of Pre-Production . It is also called as script Shooting Script Shooting Script is the final script which is perfectly ready for going to shoot which contains total technical details related to taking of every shot of the movie. Story Story is a sequence of events. Artists and all technicians Screen Writing Fundamentals • • Screen Writing Story Idea Screenplay Concept Shooting Script Screen Writing Screen Writing is an art and craft of writing of movie screenplay/script to entertain the audience Idea Idea is a thought or single point on which a movie is going to workout Concept The first thought i.
33. 13. 1. Character Combinations Scene Numbers Total number of Scenes 1 Main character and old man 4. Gist Set or Location Set properties 1 1 Main character attending Interview Files. Scene No.9 6 Characters Combination Chart: Useful for finalizing the Artists call sheets and Schedule Planning S.No. 14. 3.No. 10. 19. 15.No. Suresh ---------- Character wise Casting chart: Useful for finalization of Artists. 12. Ex : Breaking of articles and place changes of different articles Character and scene wise Hand properties chart S. 3. Gist of Scene Character name 1. 4.No. 20 4 4 --------------Scene wise Characters chart/Artists chart : Useful for finalizing the Artists Scene Number 1 S. 7. 8. * C-Continuity. News paper Remarks C/F F Character wise and scene wise Costumes chart: Useful for arranging Costumes before the shooting/production only. their call sheets and Schedule Planning S. 1 Main character’s House 13 28. 11 5 3 Club 1. Umbrella Pen.No. 16 7 Properties Charts: Useful for arranging all properties before the shooting/Production only. 2.No. Costumes Remarks C/F . Remarks Changes in set or se properties should be noted down.9. 8. 22. 3. 5.5. 2.12. 37 2 School 3. table paper weight etc. table Interviewing officer clath. 13.6. 4. 7. S. 3.8. Character Artist Scene no. F-Fresh S.7. Character name Scene Numbers Total number of Scenes 1 Raghu 2.2.Locations chart: Location wise all scenes list to be prepared as following.3.11.4. 25. This chart will be useful for finalizing of locations and schedule planning. Scene wise set properties chart S. -------Kishore Ramalinga raju babu Tulasi Sivaiah Ramani Yasin Artist name 1. 3. 9. 11. young lady and police 2. 17. 10. 2. 2. pens.No. Location Description Scene Numbers Total number of Scenes 2. 9. 13 6 2 Old man. pen stand. 19 10 2 Sri Jagan 1. 6. Character Artist Scene Number 3 1 Amani Sindhu 5 Properties Hand bag. Raja Subbarao Venkat Sangeetha Ramarao Pushpa 1 Main character attended for Interview 2 2 Discussion in between two families 3 --------- ------------ 4. 17. 12. 1. 26.
In Camera perception. 5. 8.1 2 Tulasi Sivaiah Sangeetha Rama rao 2 6 Blue plain sarry. Details of Emotions. exits of Artists to be noted for maintaining continuity. positions. 2. List of Hand and Set Properties/Props to be prepared used in every scene and shot for maintaining continuity of properties from Scene to Scene and shot to shot perfectly. S. Details like direction of light and time to be noted in every scene and shot for maintaining continuity of Light from Scene to Scene and shot to shot perfectly. Details of Set to be noted in every Scene and shot for maintaining continuity of Set from Scene to Scene and shot to shot perfectly.No. Character Artist Scene number Make-up Effects/Remarks (Changes in MakeUp or Effects) Burning effect on 1 Tulasi Sangeetha 4 C hands due to fire 2 Sivaiah Rama rao 3 A -----------3 Amani Sindhu 7 B ---------Preparation of the following continuity charts while on shooting 1. 5 w s’ to be remembered or considered during scenes development . 6. Details of Make-Up in every scene and shot for maintaining continuity of Make-Up from Scene to Scene and shot to shot perfectly. 7. C-1* Blue Jacket Yellow Shirt. Expressions and Behavior of all the artists in every shot and scene for maintaining continuity from Scene to Scene and shot to shot perfectly. Position and Body movements of all the artists in every shot to be noted for maintaining shot to shot Action continuity. Red F* pant Make-Up chart: Useful for designing special Make-Ups and arranging all the Make-up material before the shooting/production only. 4. entries. Details of Costumes in every scene and shot for maintaining continuity of costumes from Scene to Scene and shot to shot perfectly. 3. looks.
1. night etc. the scene will be occurred When the scene is going to be occur that is time Ex : Morning. 2. Points to remember while Blocking: 1. 3. 5. 4. 2. movement of actors for maintaining shot to shot continuity perfectly. Direction department should note the actors' positions. • • • Booking of Unit/Cine Services and confirmation of availability of all the equipment needed as per the script Production Production is one of the stages of Film Making. 5. According to the available dates of Artists and Locations. This Schedule planning depends upon the preparation of Scene wise Characters chart/Artists chart. 4. 2. Should not enter Dry area . different number of Schedules with Artists and Locations has to be planned. Characters Combination Chart and Locations chart. In the Blocking. After deciding number of Scenes to be shot for every day. 4. afternoon. Major Characters – main/lead role in the story Minor Characters – these are also roles includes in the story but are minor roles Supporting Characters – characters supports the main characters for running of story Atmosphere characters are for crating atmosphere in particular scene Characters for specific purpose FDC Formalities 1. Why Purpose or Reason of the scene Types Characters 1. background material and movement of the actors will be decided for the proper dramatic effect and to ensure sight lines for the audience. Character wise Casting chart. number of days to be taken for ever Artist and Location has to be calculated. It is the stage of shooting part. position of Actors. Banner registration Title registration Director membership Producer membership Story copy right from writers association Schedule Planning is the planning for shooting according to the available dates of Artists and locations. 3. 3. Who Scene with whom What will be the subject or topic or content has to be discussed in the scene Where that is location or place. Blocking 180 degree rule Continuities Clap Board Cinematography Shot Composition Rules Aesthetics The rule of thirds Editing Report and Call Sheet Production Picturisation/Blocking Blocking is the fixation of movement and positioning of actors/objects in the frame. The camera movement also needs to consider as part of the blocking process. properties. 5.
3. 6. it will be worse for audience. 2. 5. Once the line of action is established. middle ground and background. remaining shots should be taken from the sane side of Line of Action from which side first shot was taken. There is no any rule for shot composition. 7. In the same scene. If not. if there is any problem like burning. Shoot people in full or three-quarter profile to let viewers see both eyes By placing objects in foreground. Due to this. Avoid big spaces between people or objects. Line of action is the 1800 imaginary line in front of the camera where the action is going on. Place the eyes of subject one-third down from the top of the frame (In any type of shot). From this shot onwards. 9. Avoid the background by moving the camera or the object. Production Shot Composition Rules 1. line of action will be established in view of the viewer. remaining shots should be taken from that side only. . Production Crossing the Line / Reverse Cut / 180 Degree Rule: When ever taking of first shot completed. 4. But with a good reason.2. object movement is suddenly reversed in the second shot which has been done immediately after first shot. Entire screen should be filled with important subject matter. Crossing the line is also called as reverse cut. camera should not be placed on the other side of the line of action. Movement or bright lights in the background are distracting. Then view point of the viewer also changes. If shoots next shot from other side of the line of action. Ex: According to the following image. we can break any rule. view of the object movement will be from left to right. zoom in to full telephoto. 8. Crossing the line changes the viewer's perspective and there will be confusion like changing positions and reversing of actions. illusion of depth will be created To adjust focus. If it is essential to show the action from other side after establishing of 1800 line. Empty space is wasted space Avoid tilted horizontal and vertical lines. Don’t change Background suddenly . camera should travel to other side while taking shot only. view is like that the object is moving from right to left.
2. 3. 1. Horizontal line indicates strength or stability and it also establishes distance Vertical line establishes height Diagonal line indicates direction Curved line indicates or creates movement Zigzag line creates or indicates confusion Spiral line indicates continuity Mass: Area covered by one object or number of objects Colour: Colours of the actors that is costumes colours. 6. 4.Production Aesthetics Fundamentals to be known by Director: 1) Composition 2) Picturisation 3) Movement 4) Rhythm 5) Style Composition is the composing of actors. Internal elements of Composition Line: Joining two points called as line. Emphasis 2) Stability 3) Balance 4) Sequence . Joining two points in shortest distance is straight line. 5. Line creates an illusion. Different ways of positioning of the Artists and their resulting effects like creation of illusions are as follows. articles and Background material in an order/ respective position in the frame. Background colours in a frame and properties Texture: Outer surface of the object is called texture or feeling of touch shall be created by visualization External elements of Composition 1.
4. Emphasis will be created indirectly in different ways 1. then automatically strength will increase to main character.Emphasis: Highlighting of particular object/Artist or arrangement of artists or objects positions and places in a frame. 6. 2. Zoom creates emphasis (Either Zoom in or Zoom out) Close shots creates emphasis Lighting creates emphasis Internal Elements of Emphasis • Triangular emphasis • Emphasis by Position • By variation Stability: Creating extra strength to the main character in a particular frame and continuing emphasis for stable on any character. 3. Continuing importance to particular person even . 5. 2. 3. By place or position or superior and subordinate emphasis or triangular emphasis By height or level By contrast By attention By elimination Off Screen emphasis Technical emphasis: 1. Ex: if main character is lying on the ground in the frame and all other characters are sitting and looking after the main character.
though after came out side from group of people. Visual Beauty Visual illusion Visual effect Visual composition Purpose: with few people. . creating number of people Optical Illusion: creating illusion using line Looks like 3 dimensional picture Counter line: Line which creates 3 dimensions illusion Mass: Creating illusion of mass by placing same size material in the same area even though not having same mass. 2. 4. 3. Balance: Every frame should have visual balance • Symmetrical Balance – physically balancing the left and right side of the frame • Asymmetrical Balance – creating an illusion that both left & right side of the frame are balanced Sequence: Making an order to create 1.
And main object to be shown was positioned in the right side of the upper third part due to maximum interest of the viewer will be concentrated top and right side of the frame . hand or any body parts movement continuity should be maintained Emotion: Scene to scene and shot to shot should maintained. Then. • • • • • • • • • • Set : All articles should be in the same position in any shot Light : Angle of Light. Points or lines of interest of Viewers should occur at 1/3 or 2/3 of the way up (or across) the frame than centre. right look or any look of actors should have continuity in every shot Properties : Hand and set properties like spectacles. in which. In the following example. four reference points will be created which are useful for composing the image in the frame. Camera : even though camera position and shot changed. pens etc. within the scene (Shot to shot) Costume: Scene to scene and shot to shot Action : Physical or Body Continuity (will be in only shot to shot) like leg. objects position should not vary Matching the looks: Left look.Rhythm means order. If shot composes as per this rule. pace and timing of situation or scene or plot Style: way of presentation should be stylish • • • Real or Realistic Non realistic Mixed Continuities Direction department should take care for maintaining the following mentioned continuities while shooting. the eyes are placed approximately 1/3 of the way down the frame for best view instead of centering the eyes. Example (1): The main line of interest is the line going through the eyes in any shot related to people. more tension. Direction of Light should be same in every shot or scene Make-Up : Scene to Scene. energy and interest will be created better than when shot composes simply by centering the feature/subject. Example 1 Example (2): The intersection line of earth and sky is matched to the horizontal line dividing upper third part from middle and lower third parts. continuity The Rule of Thirds is a one of the compositional rules of photography. image in the frame can be divided into nine equal imaginary sections/parts by two equal spaced horizontal lines and two equally spaced vertical lines as shown in the following examples.
2. if insert shot 6/insert shot take 2) Clap Board operation is most useful for editing TLK–Talkie Shot. PLB–Play Back Shot/Song INS–Insert Shot End clap is the clap after shooting of shot and will be used in the following situations 1. At the time of emergency where the roll or can or film in the camera is about to complete or is about to exhausted At the end of Extreme long shot .Example 2 Another two examples of the Rule of Thirds Example 3 Example 4 Clap Board will be used at the beginning of the pasteurization of each and every shot. Scene no: 6. After clapping the board. take no: 3 (6/7 take 3. 2. If End clap used in the shot. should be mentioned in the script Editing Report is the clap after shooting of shot and will be used in the following situations 1. SIL–Silent Shot. Shot No: 7. At the time of emergency where the roll or can or film in the camera is about to complete or is about to exhausted At the end of Extreme long shot End clap should be clapped reversely. the following sequence of dialogues has to tell with loud voice by Clap Board assistant for recording.
end clap should be written in red mark. . Tape count recorder (TCR) shot ending time. Location Gist Character Artist Cinematography Types of shots | Camera angles | Camera Movements | Lighting Types of Shots Extreme close up/Big Close up (ECU) is for showing extreme details of the object. Editing Report Banner/Production : Title : Scene Number: Shot Number: Day/Night Int/Ext Can Number: Audio Number: * TLK – Talky. It is too close to show general reactions or emotion except in very dramatic scenes. should be mentioned in the script Editing Report: To be written for each and every shot during production. SIL – Silent. The following table is the format of Editing report. The following images are the examples of this close up. In the case of end clap. PLB – Play Back Remarks if any : Gist: TLK/SIL/PLB* OK Take: Location Date of Exposition If End Clap : Call sheet chart during production/shooting Date: Call sheet In time Out time S. below the production.No Scene no.End clap should be clapped reversely. banner. If End clap used in the shot. title. There must be a specific reason to use this close. For TV.
The following image is the example of this medium close up. The following images are the examples of this wide close up Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Close shot is for showing certain feature or part of the subject in most of the frame. without getting uncomfortably close. The following images are the examples of this close shot . A close of a person usually means a close up of their face.Example 1 Example 2 Medium Close up shows the face or main part of the object more clearly. Example 1 Full Close up will be from top of the head to end of the neck. Close-ups are obviously useful for showing detail and can also be used as a cut in. The following images are the examples of this full close up Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Wide Close up shows up to the shoulders. A close-up of a person emphasizes their emotional state.
The following images are the examples of this medium shot. Example 1 Categories of medium shot One Shot Example 2 Example 3 . In this shot. The following images are the examples of this medium close shot Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Medium shot shows some part of the subject in more detail. object will be having more importance than environment. whilst still showing enough for the audience to feel as if they were looking at the whole subject.Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Medium Close shot shows the face and body more clearly.
The following images are the examples of this medium full shot.Example 1 Two Shot Example 1 Three Shot Example 2 Example 3 Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Medium full shot/Mid Long Shot will be up to knees. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Full Shot/Long Shot shows the whole height of the person. It doesn't show as much background as the VLS but it does .
Cut-In Like a cutaway. A variation of this shot can be a bit wider and include the shoulder of the person facing the subject. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Aerial Shot usually will be done with a crane or from helicopter to view large landscapes or any large areas. It will be clear that the place where the people are. This shot gives equal importance to environment and object. The following images are the examples of this long shot. The following images are the examples of this extreme long shot. This type of shot would be restricted to exterior locations only. It could be a different subject. . The person facing the subject should occupy about 1/3 of the frame. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Extreme long shot shows "geography" to the viewer. This shot gives main importance to the environment only. cutting off the frame just behind the ear. The following images are the examples of this suggestion shot. This shot helps to establish the positions of each person. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Cut-away is a shot which shows something other than the current action. Suggestion Shot/Over the Shoulder Shot (OSS) is the view from behind a person at the subject. The cutaway is used as a "buffer" between shots or to add interest/information. but specifically refers to showing some part of the subject in detail.show enough to know the subject's location. and get the feel of looking at one person from the other's point of view. The following images are the examples of this aerial shot.
Counter action shot: It is the shot which takes reaction of actors for action of another actor . The following images are the examples of this POV. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Insert Shot with different facial expressions of the artists and with various camera angles will be taken sometimes if necessary for inserting in between any two shots.Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Point-of-View Shot (POV) is a view from the subject's perspective. Opening the window of the camera: Shot opens at back side of the object and object moves front Closing Window of Camera: camera moves close to the object & closes lens at chest .
Camera Angles / Camera View Point / Camera Perception Eye level: object shown as it is as the camera lense parallel to object eye. In drama it can be used to show the positions and motions of different characters and objects. Following are the four examples of Top angle. This view is very useful in sports. enabling the viewer to see things the characters can't. It shows the object and it’s surrounding details also. Following are the examples of Eye level Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Top angle/ Bird’s Eye (900): It is also called as aerial view or American Bird’s eye view (ABEV). This is a completely different and somewhat unnatural point of view which can be used for dramatic effect or for showing a different spatial perspective. The scene is shown from directly above. . documentaries etc.
Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Bottom angle (270 Degrees): View of the object/subject from bottom side. i. With this angle.Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Low angle (1800 +1 to 2700 -1 or 2700 +1 to 3600 -1) shows the subject from below. In this angle. object shows as inferior. the camera is angled down towards the subject. making them appear less powerful. This results the effect of diminishing the object. shows object as superior. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 . giving them the impression of being more powerful or dominant. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 High angle (+1 degree to 90 degrees -1 or 90 degrees +1 to 180 degrees -1) shows the object from above.e. less significant or even submissive.
frantic or desperate action. Object is the starting point of the Depth of the field Connective shot: Shot for connection of Back ground and other ground by using trolley Camera Movements Camera movement when fixed on Tripod Trucking Shot/Trucking is basically the same as tracking or dollying. not recognizable shots of actors in different angles. it generally refers to side-to-side camera movement with respect to the action. PAN right regarding camera and PAN left regarding camera are the two kinds in PAN. Follow pan – Camera follows the object by PAN when the object is moving . Although it means slightly different things to different people. In case of the close. in which camera slanted to one side. It is the distance in focus which is in front of the object and beyond the object.e.Dutch Tilt is also a camera angle. These shots will be useful for compensating editing/continuity problems. Dutch tilt. madness. relationship and for showing number of people and particular object movement. disorientation. etc. Viz Pan: Sudden panning between two objects is the Viz Pan Object pan left or right i. This angle uses for dramatic effect and helps portray unease.e. PAN of the Camera when object moves left or right. Depth of Field is the field which is in focus. Slanted. German angle. This PAN is for establishing distance between two objects. Example 1 Example 2 Pickup Shots are the special shots without actors i. oblique angle or canted angle. close ups of properties. Pickup shots will be taken after taking of main shots in the scene. PAN: Left or right Horizontal movement of the camera is called as PAN. The Dutch tilt is also known as a Dutch angle. intoxication.
Zooming is an easy-to-use but hard-to-get-right feature of most cameras. These two are for showing relationship between the object and the area. Zoom out is to establish the place of the object Zoom in feels like object moves close to camera and is to establish the place of object in between so many objects. climbing up & down of the object. This tilt will be used for showing height. It will be used for showing height and distance of the object.Without Tripod Movement of Camera when Object is fixed Pedestal shot: If camera fixed on pedestal and whole camera moves vertically i. Zoom: Creating illusion of moving closer or further away from the action by varying/changing the focal length. Zoom In and Zoom out are the two types in Zoom. Camera Movements . then that shot is called as pedestal shot.Cross pan is the panning of camera to follow the object movement when movement of both camera and object is reverse. . Tilt: Vertical movement (Up or Down) of the camera is called as Tilt. Camera moving horizontally and vertically at the same time results the diagonal movement. up down with regards to object. Tilt up regarding camera and Tilt down regarding camera are the two kinds in Tilt. Diagonal movement: It is the combination of PAN and Tilt.e.
Steadycam is the camera which can be fixed to the body of the cameraman. Steadycam shall be used to follow any movement of the object. Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Tracking Shot is a shot in which the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks. Steadicam also used for movement of the camera in case of follow shot. Following are the steadycams. The movement of camera can be achieved by tracking or dollying. In this tracking camera movement will be parallel to the action or at least at a constant distance Trolley in or Track in : Camera moves towards the object C Camera O Object Trolley out or Track out : Camera moves far from the object C Camera O Object Trolley right or Trolley left: It is also called as Parallel trolley. Camera moves parallel to the object when object moves left or right .Follow Shot: the camera follows the subject or action.
Somebody defines. Crane shot is for any movement like pan. While tracking. trolley. A dolly shot is also called as tracking shot or trucking shot. Crabe Trolley will be like wheel chair for any movement. . it is Dolly Zoom. If the camera is moving further away from the subject. Whenever camera moves “in and out” or “side to side at constant distance” regarding the subject. it is the crabbing shot. Dolly Zoom is a cinematic technique in which results effect is that the subject appears stationary and the size of the background will be changed. Generally Dollies are operated by a dolly grip.” and tracking as “side-to-side movement of the camera”. It is like Tracking shot. Dolly shot or Round trolley shot: Whenever camera travels along the track. Tracking or trucking and dollying all are the Crabbing shots. camera can move up and down that is the variation of the height of the camera. if the camera moves closer to the subject. Dolly Zoom: Whenever camera moves closer or further from the object while simultaneously adjusting the zoom angle to keep the subject the same size in the frame. The following image is the crane along with the trolley and weights fixed one side.Crabbing Shot: Crabe Trolley will be used for this shot. Arc Shot: An arc shot is a camera movement in arc shape around the subject. An arc is a segment of the circumference of a circle. dolly as “in and out movement of the camera (closer/further away from the object). Whenever crane is mounted on dolly and camera is tracking and moving vertically. An arc shot will be taken by using arc shape track or arc shot results when camera tracking and dollying at the same time. Trolley fixed to the crane is for front and back movement of the crane. Weights will be fixed as per the weight of the camera man and camera fixed on crane. Total camera will move. tilt. the background will grow and dominates. By using the crane. then that is a compound shot. Weights for easy “up and down” movement of the camera manually. This effect is emotional and it will be used to convey sudden realization and for reaction to a dramatic event. . the foreground of the subject will be dominated. This is called as perspective distortion. then that is the dolly shot. The effect results from Dolly zoom is an unnatural effect.
Crossing the object (in) Crossing or passing through the object (out) Combination of movements track out and parallel trolley results as curved or semicircle trolley Object movement When Camera fixed: Object moves towards the camera O Object C Camera Object far from the camera O Object Object parallel to the camera C Camera .
Both camera and object will move Both in O Object C Camera Both out O Object C Camera Both parallel in O Object C Camera Both parallel out .C Object Camera O Object rounds the camera Object crossing the camera (to back side of the camera) Object passing through camera (from behind the camera) Combination of movements far from camera and parallel to camera Combination Movement .
Dolly out – camera out and object in Follow movement – Camera follows the object Back movement : Object follows the camera Crossing each other Camera C O Object Lighting Fundamentals of Lighting Purpose of Lighting : To get a proper exposure in order to improve picture quality .O Object C Camera Both in round direction : Dolly in – camera in and object out.
Contrast Ratio is the brightness ratio between the brightest white and the darkest black within an image. Colour Temperature is a standard measurement of the characteristics of the light. traveling undisturbed onto the subject being lit. 7. 3. Incandescent lamps will produce heat until it glows as tungsten filament will be heated due to passing of current through it. 9. Camera Set Costume Location Make-up Natural lighting: Sun light Artificial lighting: Lighting with the help of lamps Direct light/Incident Light is the light directly from light sources like lamps. 4. Colour Temperature for Video.000K. If there is larger difference in brightness. 5. Illumination Mood creation – according to scene. It is effective than direct light. Its intensity is more than a spot. . a camera operator will select a "5600K filter" to use outside in the middle of a sunny day. Halogen is one type of lamp in which a tungsten filament is sealed in a clear capsule filled with a halogen gas. 11. Fresnel is a light having a lens with raised circular ridges on its outer surface.. 2. The glow is caused by the filament's resistance to the current and is called incandescence. Soft Light appears to "wrap around" the subject to some degree. A ratio of 300:1 means the brightest point in the image is 300 times as bright as the darkest point. Tungsten Light is also called as incandescent light. It describes the colours for use in a range of situations and with different equipment. sun etc Bounce light/Reflected Light is the Light after reflected/bounced off from a surface. Colour temperature of Tungsten is around 2800K to 3400K. It can be measured in kelvins. 5. The fresnel lens is used to focus the light beam. 6. colour lighting schemes Atmosphere creation Illusion Time & place establishment Emotions Effects Lighting Scheme will be changed according to the following 1. Ambient Light is the light already available in the atmosphere before additional lighting is added in a shot. It produces less shadows or softer shadows. range from around 2. 8. Spot is a narrowly focused beam of light which can be controlled 6. 10. 4. contrast ratio will be higher. 2. 3. romantic etc.1. 7.000K to 8. For example. Flood is a less directional broad beam of light. Hard Light directly from a source such as the sun. This is the light from an ordinary bulb having a thin coiled tungsten wire that emits light (becomes incandescent) when an electric current passed throw it.
as reflector for soft light max for close up shots Dimmer : can be connected to light. The following are the different type of filters. 5. Nicotine or white coating will be used on Board for enhancing source of light. for variation of intensity of light Ballast is a device used to control the electrical current in a light. Light meter is a tool used to measure light and indicate the ideal exposure setting. 1. Gels are the materials which are placed in front of a light source to change its characteristics. 4. Halogens (Flood lights). colour papers or gelatin sheets Mesh Glass Better paper Skimmer Skimmer – synthetic cloth. Iron protector : Surrounding part of the reflector Adjusting Lever : Adjusts the distance between light & lens Brandoor for varying the quantity of light by opening or closing the doors Lens is an optical device which transmits and refracts the light which may be concentrating or diverging beam.12. Three types of lenses . Mercury. as filter also used Thermo coal : very small. Cutter : Black sheet for stopping or cutting any light Filter: For decreasing intensity of the light or for getting soft light. The board is lightweight.5KV to 10KV). Spectrometer analyses the electromagnetic spectrum and measures the intensity of radiation as a function of wavelength. Spectrometer is an instrument which measures the spectrum of light. flexible and can be folded up for transport. 2. Bulb: Tungsten. Main source of light will reach the reflector board and reflects on to the subject to illuminate. This reflected light is also called as bounced light. Stands and Clamps are the systems used to support lights and hold them in the correct position. It is also known as an exposure meter. It will be used as a secondary light source. Voltage range of Bulbs is 500V to 10000V (0. Par light (for long distance lighting) are the different type of Bulbs. 3. Lighting Equipment Reflector is a specially designed reflective board/surface.
Convex lens or PC lens (plaino convex lens) – This lens gives sharp edged. Fill light shall be placed on the opposite side of the key light. location and time. Back Light adds a rim of light to the hair and shoulders and creates depth (provide three-dimensional look) by separating or isolating the subject from the background. 8. 4. Night/Exterior : Blue filters for lights shall be used for getting Night effect Night/Interior: For external light effect (Moon light effect). Fresnal lens gives soft edged light and spreads light like zigzag Lighting Procedure Lights may be arranged according to the Shot. Lighting should be done according to the following 1. Day/Exterior: Maximum only reflected sunlight shall be used as it can be controlled and it avoids shadows. 9. basic lighting technique shall be used. three lights shall be used the key light. Fill light is the secondary light balances the key light. It is placed to one side of the camera/subject so that one side is well lit and the other side shall have some shadow. which is strongest and provides most of the illumination and contrast on the subject. hard and bright light but light diverges/spills to wide area. 4. 3. fill light and back light. : In the Three Point Lighting Technique. hard & bright light and light will concentrate on object Concave lens also gives sharp edged. Key Light is the main light. Fill light is softer and less bright than key light. Day/Interior: External lighting (Sun light throw windows) effect shall be used for natural effect. 2. 6. for internal lighting effect. Reflectors for reflecting sunlight and skimmers for decreasing the intensity of the light will be used. lifts the light level and reduces the effects of shadows created by Key light. Light may be soft or hard depending on the effect . Distance between object and light Background Capacity and intensity of the light Type of light Type of lens/filter Angle of light Basic Lighting Technique / The Standard 3-Point Lighting Technique 7. Location & Time shall be segregated as follows 1. then that can be used to light the background of the entire shot. 5. Blue filters shall be used. 3. Too strong fill light creates double shadows. 2. If fourth light is available.
Fire Light: To light a person's face who is looking at a fire. any other lighting which should appear in shot. Rain effect: By using fan and light. Very blue means very cold. Lighting Effects / Effects with Artificial Lighting Cold/Warm: The feeling of coldness or warmth by using additional filters or doubling up on gels shall be created. point a redhead with orange gel away from the subject at a large reflector which reflects the light back at the subject. Strobe effect. Counter light: If possible/available more lights. Fire effect. rain effect out of window shall be created Silhouette effect/shadow outline effect: Back light to the subject shall be crated Silhouette effect Also Lighting shall create the Water effect. These counter lights shall vary the distance between the background and the object. It is the stage after shooting part/production. But. The Background light is to illuminate the area behind the subject but a lower level than the foreground 11. Smoke. Shake the reflector to simulate firelight. Watching TV : To light a person's who is watching TV.intended. 10. such as house or street lights. disco light effect. Daytime seems like night. strictly need to avoid birds flying in the sky. Post-Production Post-Production is one of the stages of Film Making. 14. very red/orange means very hot. thunder effect and Stars-moon/mirror ball effect. 12. 13. counter lights shall be placed behind the object reverse to the Background light. . Moon Light/Night time Light: By lowering the exposure slightly and adding a blue filter to the camera. shine a blue light at the subject and wave a piece of cloth or paper in front of the light to simulate flickering. This light shall be placed at the back side of the subject/object and may be above the subject to light from rear.
A cut happens instantaneously. There will be no relation between two shots. 90% shots combination. subject changes and object will be the same in two shots. . 3. 2. 1. It simply means one picture ends and another begins. There will be no relation between two shots Match cut will be used if there is relation between two shots. Mismatched camera height Changes in head room Action continuity Cut away: one of the easiest ways around mismatched action or dialogues mistakes. Deciding the type of transition between shots Editing Techniques Cutting from one shot to another or from one point in time to another is a perfectly acceptable transition. will be with “cut” Cut to: Cut is the most direct and frequently used method of getting from one shot to another. subject will be same in two shots. selecting the required shots Deciding on the order and duration of each shot Deciding on the cutting point (when one shot is to end and the next to begin) 4. Cutting between similar shots of the subject from slightly different view points can create a twist on the cut.Sequence of different stages in Post-Production: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Developing the film Rushes – screening of unedited version Patch work if need Rough editing Final editing Dubbing Music posting/Re recording Mixing (Mixing of all tracks) First copy Censor Formalities Distribution Publicity Screening Editing | Dubbing | Music | Songs | Sound | Censor Copy Editing Essentiality editing is selecting and coordinating one shot with the next to construct a sequence of shots which form a logical and impressive narrative. Jump cut occurs when two extremely similar shots are edited together. Match cut will be useful in the following situations. There are some important transition effects which are useful in joining of different shots resulting in to a good and effective out put. In the case of Object match cut. In the case of subject match cut. 3. the material you have shot will be blended together to form a convincing and good presentation Editing begins with sorting through the available material 1. 2. Through editing.
Track Dubbing or Computerized Dubbing: There will be separate Tracks for each and every artist. It was very hard and time consuming. Track dubbing is easier than loop dubbing. When this happens on screen. Fade out is a gradual reduction in the strength of the picture(Bright) to dark screen.e. It is meant to suggest a passage of time or a major change of location. . one picture is fading in while the other picture is fading out. The pattern reveals the new picture as the old one is wiped away. • • • Lip Sink and Emotional sink: The lip movement of the Dubbing Artist should be match to the lip movement of the acted artist. After dubbing process and lip sinks are completed by all the Artists. matching of two different shots ex : Horse movement in air Adding & deleting the frames in between the shot: It is the process of eliminating of some of the frames in the shot to increase the time duration there by giving the effective output. For fast motion or slow motion. all the tracks will be mixed according to the script. lips should be keeping wet to avoid lip sound. Blend: It is the process of conversion of one picture to another in the same frame. In this type of Dubbing all the artists involved in the shot (for which they are dubbing) were to be present at a time and continue the process of Dubbing one by one. If the mixing of those pictures is stopped half way. Super imposition is an effect produced by fading out one picture while fading in another. changing from one object to anther object ex: man changes to animal Crew involved in Editing: • • Editor and Assistant Editor during Rough Editing Director or Co-Director and Editor during final editing i. It will be used at the ending of the sequence or scene Wipe is a transition from one picture to another using a pattern. Microphone sound: By keeping himself aside from the micro phone. Precautions to be taken by the Dubbing Artist Air Bubble: maintaining some distance between mouth & microphone will avoid air bubbles Lip Sound: At starting of every dialogue. it causes an overlapping visual effect. Wipe comes in different shapes and sizes. If any one makes mistake then the total process of Dubbing must be repeated from the beginning. the result is a super imposition.Fade : Fade in is simply cutting from a dark screen to a full bright picture. such as a vertical bar that moves across the screen. It will be used at starting of the scene. an artist can avoid micro phone sound. for showing lapse of time. The emotions shown by the acted artists should match to the emotions while dubbing. for finishing with transition effects Dubbing Loop Dubbing was used for old movies. other screen will come on to the present screen by cleaning Dissolve to & Dissolve from: A dissolve is two fades. Loop is a closed circuit.
Music Because of “at points of high dramatic interests prose turns to lyric or song”. Director. Comment music : for establishing characteristics of character (used for comedy situations) Fill music : for filling up of gap between scenes Mood music : for creating mood to viewers Bridge music : for filling up of Gaps between any two scenes or situations or emotions. Recorded music Live music Recorded sound effects Live sound Human voice Silence BG Score used in films as • • • • • • • • • • • • Curtain riser music : for Particular banner or particular subject Character music : Music related to particular character Signature music : for identification purpose Caricature music : for establishing a particular character or character identification. Producer & Main character artist if popular Music has two parts 1. 5. 2. It will be fadeout after particular scene. 6. “Music is an element of Film Composition” Crew involved at the time of Music: Lyric Writer. Background Music Songs Six types of BG music 1. 4. Objective Music : Showing one place/any object with the help of music Subjective music : Human emotions showing with the help of music Songs . 3. Music Director. It will be repeated frequently throughout the film for establishing the message or story of the film. 2. Transition music : It is like Bridge music but it will translate to another scene according to it. Theme music : very important for any film.
2. 4. 2. 2. 3.a) solo single b) solo with group 2) Duet 3) Situation 4) Montague 5) Item songs Background song comes in background may be by characters or may not by characters BGM/Bridge music: Music between two charanalu Parts of song/sequence of song • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lead music (optional) Lead saki – only voice without meaning (optional) Pallavi – starting lead of the song – compulsory – repeated BGM1(Bridge music) – Optional Anu pallavi – Optional BGM2 – compulsory – in between charanam & pallavi Charanam – compulsory BGM Pallavi – repetition Charanam 2 Pallavi repeat BGM or end music Charanam optional Sound 1. 3.Four types of songs 1. 6. 4. Montage songs – montage means a series of action in small bits Situational songs Duet songs Solo songs Any song has its own rhythm and tune. On screen sound Off screen sound Above two types of sound again divided 1. Choreography : 1) Solo . effect sounds and music Sound Perception • • Objective music : Showing one place with the help of music Subjective music : human emotions showing with the help of music . Human speech Sound Effects/Effects sound Music silence Combination of human speech and effect sounds Combination of human speech and music Combination of effect sounds and music 7. 5. Combination of human speech.
total time duration. every film maker has to prepare a censor copy for censor certification and it is to be submitted to the censor authorities. total feet – 16500 feet . description of the shot. The censor copy includes each and every scene number and shot number in order from first to end and shot details. footage of can used for the shot and total scenes. time duration of the shot. A MODEL OF THE CENSOR COPY TO BE SUBMITTED Scene Number 1 Shot Number 1 2 2 Total -----seconds -------feet Shot details Hero introduction Close of old man Time duration 5 seconds 7 secnds Footage ----feet ---feet • * . They verify the copy submitted and after completion of all the formalities and satisfied censor certificate to the film will be given.Total scenes 85.Censor Copy After completion of the film. total footage of can used.
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