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EFFECT OF ONLINE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION ON LOCAL JOB MARKET

DECLARATION

This is my original work and has not been submitted for any other programme in any other

university.

……………………………………. Date……………………………………

MBURUGU HELLEN N.

REG NO: E55/10261/08

This report has been submitted with my approval as the university supervisor

…………………………………….. Date…………………………………….

PROF. GRACE BUNYI

Associate Professor

Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies,

Kenyatta University

………………………………………… Date………………………………………

Dr. ITOLONDO, W.

Lecturer

Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies,

Kenyatta University
DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to my father and my late mother who sacrificed a lot for my education

and my son Kelvin who has been a great source of encouragement. May this work be a great

aspiration to him in his studies.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

There are individuals and institutions that have in one way or another contributed and are still

contributing to the success of my academic work.

I acknowledge the guidance and advice of my supervisors Prof. Grace Bunyi and Dr. Fridah

Itolondo that has contributed a lot in knowing how to write a research proposal.

I also acknowledge the work/role of my lecturers who have taught and guided me in various

units.

I am most grateful to my Dad, my son, my husband, my brother Steve and his family that has

been a great support and source of encouragement.

Lastly thank the Teachers Service Commission for granting me leave which has enabled me to

undertake this study.


ABSTRACT

The use of the Internet and thus Internet technology is changing, transforming and

revolutionizing the way in which human resource departments recruit and select job candidates.

Nevertheless, very limited research has been carried out in this area to date. Reasons for this

might be the relative newness of the topic, the rapid pace of change which makes information

quickly out of date and the advancement of the practice worldwide.

This seminar paper seeks to examine the effect of online recruitment and selection on the local

job market. This seminar presentation draws its data from secondary data. The results provide

clear evidence that the majority of the effects identified in literature are also experienced by

Kenyan employers and employees.

Based on the findings the researcher recommends the following: the need to investigate the entire

e-Recruiting process; the importance of developing and testing hypothesis in regard to the e-

Recruiting processes, and thereby extend current knowledge especially on the effectiveness of e-

Recruiting services; the need to establish if there is a connection between employee satisfaction

and size of an organization, number of e-Recruitment practices, the extent of use and the

integration of e-Recruiting in the overall recruitment processes; the need to examine how tailored

feedback influences applicant attraction to an organization, self-selection and eventually

financial outcomes of an organization; and the need for more research on differences and

advantages of using web-based versus paper-based job postings, résumés and the selection

process.
Table of Contents
DECLARATION.............................................................................................................................2
DEDICATION.................................................................................................................................3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...............................................................................................................4
ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................5
Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................6
Definition of Key Terms..................................................................................................................7
CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................................8
INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................8
1.1 Background information .......................................................................................................8
1.2 Objectives............................................................................................................................10
1.3 Methods of Analysis............................................................................................................10
1.4 Target group ........................................................................................................................11
1.5 Scope....................................................................................................................................11
CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................................................12
THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL LITERATURE..................................................................12
2.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................................12
2.1 Recruitment and Selection...................................................................................................12
2.2 Online Recruitment and Selection.......................................................................................14
2.3 Strengths of Online Recruitment and Selection Approaches...............................................15
2.4 Drawbacks and Limitations of Online Approaches in Human Resources...........................17
2.5 The Online recruitment and selection system in Kenya......................................................18
2.6. Gaps Identified....................................................................................................................18
2.7 Theoretical Review..............................................................................................................19
2.8. Conceptual Framework.......................................................................................................21
CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................................22
OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................................22
3.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................................22
3.2 Effect of Online Recruitment and Selection on Cost, Efficiency and Convenience on the
Local Job Market.......................................................................................................................22
3.3 The Timelessness of Online Recruitment and Selection Services Offered on the Local Job
Market........................................................................................................................................23
3.4 The Level of Transparency and Accountability Offered By the Online Recruitment and
Selection System Adopted On the Local Job Market................................................................24
3.5 To Determine the Quality of Service Delivery Offered By the Online Recruitment and
Selection System On the Local Market.....................................................................................24
3.6 To Assess the Level of Satisfaction Generated By the Online Recruitment And Selection
System On the Local Job Market...............................................................................................26
CHAPTER FOUR..........................................................................................................................28
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION..........................................................................28
4.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................28
4.2 Conclusions .........................................................................................................................28
4.3 Recommendation.................................................................................................................29
References......................................................................................................................................31

Definition of Key Terms

Experience - Refers to the amount of time individual spent working, either in a general capacity
or in a particular field of study.
Job analysis – This is a systematic study of the tasks, knowledge, skills and abilities required of
the job.
Online recruitment – Refers to the use of the power of the internet to match people to jobs.
Organization – Formalized entities that involve a cluster of people who are brought together for
a common purpose. They include a wide spectrum of human activity and can be
categorized as private or public, for-profit or non-profit, governmental or
nongovernmental, and so forth.
Person-group fit- This is the match between the new hire and the immediate workgroup.
Person-job fit – This is a match between a person’s knowledge, technical skills and abilities,
and other requirements typically identified through job analysis.
Person-organization fit – This is the congruence of an individual’s personality, beliefs and
values with the culture and values of an organization.
Recruitment - Refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people to fill available
positions at an organization or firm
Selection – Refers to the method used to identify the best applicant for the job in terms of an
individual’s knowledge, skills and abilities as matched against job requirements.
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background information


Effective recruitment and selection are critical to organizational success. They enable companies
to have high-performing employees who are also satisfied with their jobs, thus contributing
positively to the firm’s bottom line. On the contrary, poor recruitment and selection often result
in mismatches which can have negative consequences for an organization (Piotrowski &
Amrstrong, 2009). Effective recruitment and selection are therefore not only the first step
towards organizational excellence, but are important cost control mechanisms as well.

The recruitment and selection practice in both the public and private sector was for many years
manual and paper-based in all respects the world over. The Internet has had a major impact on
the way in which recruitment and selection are carried out, which is increasingly being felt in
terms of changes in the recruitment and selection practice (Chan, 2005). The Internet as a
recruitment and selection medium has enabled the widespread adoption of computer-based
assessment and is predicted to replace pen and paper as the default medium before very long
(Anderson, Lievens & Ryan, 2004). The computerization of recruitment and selection processes
facilitate the processing of an overwhelming number of applications, address delays in service
delivery inherent in paper-based systems, reduce duplication of effort and trim down cases of
information not reaching the targeted audience on time and conveniently. This system also
drastically reduces the time taken between the requests by branches/departments to recruit and
the actual appointments to the vacant posts.

Online recruitment and selection despite its touted benefits has come to Kenya only recently
(Kamar & Ong’ondo, 2007; Katonga, 2008). A number of reputable private organizations in
Kenya such as Kenya Airways, Google (K) Ltd, Shell (K) Limited, Price WaterHouse and
Coopers list their vacancies online and some no longer accept paper applications (Gakiria, 2004;
Kandiri, 2006). E-recruitment and selection helps these organizations to attract, test, recruit,
employ and retain quality staff with a minimal amount of administration.

Most Kenyan colleges and universities are being blamed for not adequately preparing graduates
for the job market, coaching and mentoring are becoming increasingly crucial for job seekers.
Many Kenyans do not know how to market themselves, how to conduct themselves in the job
market nor even human resource trends, (Kagwe, 2009) Organizations have turned their focus
from skills acquisition and assessment to the competency modeling process for determining the
needs of business and employers. Competency refers to significant predictors of employee
performance and success. Competency based human resource management (CBHRM) utilizes
the concept of competency analysis to inform and improve the processes of recruitment and
selection as well as performance management (Armstrong, 2005)

Research (Rioux, and Bernthal, 1999; Gilley & Maycunich, 2000) shows that organizations with
effective online recruitment and selection systems can better identify and hire competent
employees with the right skills and motivations to succeed in their jobs and thus benefit their
organizations through increased productivity, higher quality products and services, as well as
lower employee turnover. Nevertheless, online recruitment and selection system raise a range of
issues. For example, military recruitment exercises in Kenya have often been marred by myriad
flaws including claims of bribery, political interference, and unequal distribution of slots across
districts and favouritism. They have also been marked with huge turnouts of many unemployed
Kenyan youths (Menya, 2010) These shortcomings could be easily alleviated by adoption of
online recruitment and selection. However some disadvantages of e-recruitment arise including
cost, security, confidentiality, authentication, control of assessment conditions, control over
practice and equality of access. It therefore emerges that online recruitment and selection is more
widely being adopted by private organizations in Kenya than by public institutions. This is
because e-recruitment overlooks political and social status and focuses on competency which is
preferred by private organizations.Further more online recruitment is not able to address the
casual and unskilled labour market that has no access nor ability to use Information technology
to a great extent.This paper, therefore, examines the effect of the adoption of online recruitment
and selection system to attract, test, recruit, employ and retain staff by local companies on the
local job market.

1.2 Objectives
The main objective of this seminar paper is to establish the effect of online recruitment and
selection on the local job market. The specific objectives of the paper are:
1. To establish the extent to which online recruitment and selection has impacted on cost,
efficiency and convenience to the local market.

2. To examine the timelessness of online recruitment and selection services offered on the
local job market.

3. To establish the level of transparency and accountability offered by the online


recruitment and selection system adopted on the local market.

4. To determine the quality of service delivery offered by the online recruitment and
selection system on the local market.

5. To assess the level of satisfaction generated by the online recruitment and selection
system on the local job market.

1.3 Methods of Analysis


Kerlinger (1986) defines data analysis as categorizing, manipulating and summarizing of data in
order to obtain answers to research questions. This seminar presentation draws its data from
secondary data. Before the actual data analysis, the secondary data collected for this seminar
paper was assembled and or reconstructed in a meaningful or comprehensible fashion. The
gathered data was then organized in themes and validated against the research objectives used in
the study to see if the data collected were relevant. Gradually the researcher established a small
set of generalizations that cover the consistencies discerned in the data and presented it as a
formalized body of knowledge.

1.4 Target group


The study reviewed secondary sources on the effect of online recruitment and selection on the
local job market in Kenya. These secondary sources include journals, articles in books, books,
newspapers, pamphlets and other materials.

1.5 Scope
This seminar paper limited itself to the reviewed secondary works on the effect of online
recruitment and selection on the local job market in Kenya and those outside the country but that
are relevant to the local situation.
CHAPTER TWO

THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction
This section reviews literature related to the study. The literature is reviewed based on the
following broad areas: recruitment and selection, online recruitment and selection, strengths of
online recruitment and selection approaches, drawbacks and limitations of online approaches in
human resources and the online recruitment and selection system in Kenya.
2.1 Recruitment and Selection
Gilley and Maycunich (2000) observes that recruitment and selection is at the heart of any
organization for it determines the quantity and quality of human resources needed to foster
organizational renewal and enhance competitive readiness.
Sims (2002) suggests that recruitment is concerned with communicating opportunities and
finding appropriate applicants to them. Recruitment is concerned with the process by which
organizations discover, develop, seek, and attract individuals to fill actual or anticipated job
vacancies. It includes interview, screening, and selection of the most qualified candidates, filling
of positions through transfer or promotion, and coordinating temporary employment.
The recruitment effort starts with a job analysis to document the actual or intended requirement
of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description. This is followed by
sourcing encompassing multiple media, such as the Internet, general newspapers, job ad
newspapers, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, and campus graduate
recruitment programs. Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for skills, e.g.
communication, typing, and computer skills. Qualifications may be shown through résumés, job
applications, interviews, educational or professional experience, the testimony of references, or
in-house testing, such as for software knowledge, typing skills, numeracy, and literacy, through
psychological tests or employment testing.
The recruitment process is different from the selection. Selection is the method used to identify
the best applicant for the job in terms of an individual’s knowledge, skills and abilities as
matched against job requirements. Sims (2002) contends that selection involves obtaining and
using information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired for short-or
long-term positions. Selection tools that assess variables directly related to the job draw
inferences about the candidate’s future performance. Therefore, to increase the predictability of a
candidate’s future job performance, selection tools must relate to the job, and test the coverage of
required knowledge, skills, and abilities. The selection criteria used by most organizations
require the following information:
i. Education – the educational attainments of the applicants are assessed in order to
identify the individuals that posses the right abilities and attitudes.

ii. Experience – experience is another criterion that organizations use in the selection
process. Experience refers to the amount of time individual spent working, either in a
general capacity or in a particular field of study. Experience is presumably an
indicator of an individual’s familiarity with work, his or her ability to work, and a
surrogate measure of a person’s competencies as an employee.

iii. Skills and Abilities – skills and abilities are another set of selection criteria. Skills and
abilities relate more precisely than do experience or education to the specific
qualifications and capabilities of an individual to perform a specific job.

iv. Personal Characteristics – personal characteristics reflect the individual’s personality


and may be in certain kinds of job.

A number of useful selection tools include work sample tests, cognitive tests,
structured/unstructured interviews, personality tests, referees, competency-based selection
(Rioux, Sheila and Bernthal Paul, 1999). The self presentation (self assessment) methods tend to
be used extensively in recruitment because they are relatively cheap to implement, requires little
training and reveals the person’s ability to do the job. These methods include handwriting
analysis, age, education level, scores in college, resume interviews, expert recommendations,
personality tests, candidate motivation. External reference methods include reference check,
biographical data, situational interviews and behavioral event interviews. The objective methods
include tests of mental ability and job content simulations.
Psychological tests and assessment instruments that tap prospective employees' personality,
interpersonal style, and response to stress situations have received increased attention from
scholars (Hough & Oswald, 2000; Roberts & Hogan, 2001; Thumin, 2002). Hogan (2001) has
also investigated the nexus between personality factors and personnel selection and placement.
A plethora of research studies has investigated and endorsed the utility of the 'person-fit'
paradigm (Anderson et al., 2004; Chan, 2005; Hollenbeck et al., 2002).
Organizations normally require the following when recruiting:
1. Application Forms - Application forms are widely used and serve four purposes:
i. It is a record of the applicant’s desire to obtain a position.

ii. It provides the interviewer with a profile of the applicant that can be used in the
interview.

iii. It is a basic employee record for applicants who are hired.

iv. It can be used for research on the effectiveness of the selection process.

2. Reference and Background Verification – Reference checking, which involves collecting


information from applicants’ previous employers (usually by phone), provides another
potentially useful means of assessment. Most employers check applicant references in the final
stages of the hiring process to evaluate candidates on their short list, the list of job finalists.
Reference checks serve two important purposes. One is to verify information provided by
applicants to ensure that they have not fabricated their qualifications and past work histories.
Reference checks also provide information about applicants that might predict job performance.
3. Employment or Ability Tests – Various employment or ability tests are another popular
selection method used by many organizations. An employment test is a device for measuring
characteristics of an individual to include factors such as personality, verbal and quantitative
skills, intelligence, or aptitude. Such tests are generally administered before the final stage of
interviewing. The testing of applicants offers two advantages: test results seem to be objective
and free from personal bias, and they are usually expressed numerically so that they lend
themselves to statistical analyses and thus can be validated.
2.2 Online Recruitment and Selection
(Anderson et al., 2004) notes that the world is witnessing a period of major technological change
brought about by the development and the widening application of information and
communication technologies (ICTs). Besides, we are living through the unprecedented
phenomenon of a global economy characterized by growing interdependence between all people
of this planet. People are linked together economically and socially by trade, investments and
governance. These links are spurred by market liberalization and the afore-mentioned ICT’s.
Globalization and the growth of ICT’s are the driving forces for fundamental organizational and
operational changes in employee recruitment and selection. Traditional recruitment and selection
methods such as advertisements in newspapers and related publications are now supplemented
by the company website, online job boards.
The Internet is having a major impact on the way in which recruitment and selection is carried
out, which is increasingly being felt in terms of changes in selection practice. The Internet as a
selection medium has enabled the widespread adoption of computer-based assessment and is
predicted to replace pen and paper as the default medium before very long. Web-enabled
assessments include:
i. Online job preview tool

ii. Online situational judgment questionnaire that allows candidates to assess their own
suitability for a role

iii. Online ability test item banks (covering both verbal and numerical reasoning)

iv. Online competency assessment exercises

Piotrowski and Armstrong (2009) contend that countries that use e-based technology in large-
scale recruitment and selection also use Computer Based Testing (CBT) that enable candidates to
contact a test centre, make an appointment and sit their pre-selection tests at a time of their
choosing. The test centers are purpose-designed and fully equipped with modern IT equipment.
Completed test results are immediately transmitted electronically. The system allows the
monitoring of the database on a continuous basis. CBT marks a major achievement in electronic
service delivery and offers enormous potential to streamline selection procedures, improve
service delivery, improve resource efficiency and reduce costs. CBT provides the opportunity for
a recruitment process, based on self service, which is more user-friendly to the applicant and
more responsive to the needs of the institutions.
2.3 Strengths of Online Recruitment and Selection Approaches
Kullik (2004) observes that the Internet offers an inexpensive way to let wider pool of potential
applicants know about the available position in the company. This is because the organization
advertises on sites that appeal to general or specialized audiences and anyone who visits the
global corporate web site has the ability to utilize this facility.
Lee (2006) contends that besides e-recruiting being cheaper than conventional recruiting
methods, it improves the recruiter’s ability to handle job applications and job postings by
minimizing paper-work and automating key recruiting activities. Indeed, in e-recruitment certain
predetermined parameters can be used to automatically sift through various CV applications and
narrow down to the desired candidates.
Advantages of using e-recruitment are:
i. E-recruitment has the potential to speed up the recruitment cycle and streamline
administration and allow organizations to make use of IT systems to manage vacancies
more effectively and co-ordinate recruitment processes

ii. Reduce recruitment costs

iii. Reach a wide pool of applicants

iv. Reach a niche pool of applicants

v. Make internal vacancies widely known across multiple sites and separate divisions

vi. Provide the image of an up-to-date organization, reinforcing employer branding and
giving an indication of organization culture

vii. Offer access to vacancies 24 hours a day, 7 days a week reaching a global audience

viii. Is a cost effective way to build a talent bank for future vacancies

ix. Help handle high volume job applications in a consistent way

x. Provide more tailored information to the post and organization e.g. case histories of the
‘day in the life’ or self-assessment questionnaire or quiz to assess fit with role

xi. Is spontaneous for candidates as ease of use means there is the ability for applications to
be instantaneous.
Where a recruitment interview is the sole selection mechanism it mainly covers a candidates’
professional experience and reasons for applying for the job. To assist in hiring, e-recruitment
offers an opportunity for online pre-employment tests, personality and cognitive tests besides the
type(s) of data are normally obtained on job applicants such as biodata, skills testing, resume,
application, reference checks and referral from current employees. Online pre-employment tests,
personality and cognitive tests measure a candidate’s potential in a certain area, such as math,
and is valid predictors of job performance when the abilities tested are based on a job analysis.
Cognitive or mental ability tests measure reasoning capabilities.

2.4 Drawbacks and Limitations of Online Approaches in Human Resources


Literature (e.g., Mooney, 2002) exhibits a high level of interest and actual implementation of
Internet-based hiring practices. Indeed, most firms rely on internet-based approaches for pre-
screening purposes or as a vehicle to narrow down a short list of final candidates. However, the
legal pitfalls (e.g., such as transparency, confidentiality, psychometric credibility, inappropriate
queries) of online hiring approaches may be the major factor deterring companies from using
data from online tests. There are also concerns about the legitimacy of clinical personality tests
on the internet especially the use of online testing for selection purposes or personally invasive
queries (Camara & Merenda, 2000; Vodanovich & Piotrowski, 2000; Wallace & Vodanovich,
2004; Anderson et al., 2004).
Piotrowski and Armstrong (2009) in a study on recruitment and selection methods used by
human resources departments in major companies in the USA based 151 firms revealed that the
majority of companies rely on traditional recruitment and personnel selection techniques over the
use of online assessment instruments. These firms preferred to deploy personality tests, screening
for honesty-integrity and violence potential over online pre-employment tests. It emerged that
while most of the companies use traditional recruitment and selection methods (e.g., resume
reference checks), very few rely on online pre-employment screening tests. Apparently, the use
of online testing by major companies, both private and public, is presently in a state of
metamorphosis.
Disadvantages of using e-recruitment include the potential to:
i. Limit the applicant audience as the Internet is not the first choice for all job seekers
ii. Cause applications overload or inappropriate applications if care isn’t taken drafting the
job profile/specification

iii. Exclude those who do not want to search for a new job online

iv. Limit the attraction of those unable to fully utilize technology e.g. certain disabled groups
thus give rise to allegations of discrimination, in particular the use of limited keywords in
CV search tools

v. Make the process impersonal, which may be off-putting for some candidates

vi. ‘Turn-off’ candidates, particularly if the website is badly designed or technical


difficulties are encountered

vii. Lose out on candidates, especially if the website is below the search engine ranking of
competitors

viii. Provide too little or inappropriate information, for example, corporate recruitment
guidelines might not be written in a web friendly style.

2.5 The Online recruitment and selection system in Kenya


Traditionally pubic and private organizations had placed a strong focus on pen-and-paper based
recruitment and selection. However, these systems have been a source of inefficiencies. To this
end, and in the awake of the reforms to enhance, efficiency, accountability and transparency in
service delivery to the people, most organizations have embraced information technology, as a
key enabler and a proven tool to catapult the desired outputs in the process of recruitment and
selection. The online recruitment and selection database system is designed to enable clients and
stakeholders to access job vacancies advertised by the organizations and apply online. The
system provides a central databank for all job applications and appointments thereby facilitating
the monitoring, analysis and tracking function of the recruitment and selection process.
2.6. Gaps Identified
The primary focus of this seminar paper is to assess the impact of online recruitment and
selection on the local job market. Whilst research has examined a broad range of themes on e-
recruitment much of the literature reported positive and negative impacts for the organization
with limited empirical research to support such claims. This warranted further investigation and
this was the focus of this study.
2.7 Theoretical Review
In the contemporary business environment, companies are faced with a critical challenge to
recruit and retain qualified employees (Langan, 2000). Factors that are considered when
developing recruitment and selection systems include cost, time, quality and satisfaction. These
areas when combined, link performance and contribution of the recruiting function to the firm’s
bottom line. Therefore, the aim of recruitment is to identify a suitable pool of applicants quickly,
cost efficiently, and legally.
The Person-Job Fit Model is the traditional approach to recruitment and selection. It is based on
the view that organizations should specify the requirements of the job as closely as possible and
then look for individuals whose personal attributes fit those requirements. It is based on the
belief that human behavior is determined by factors particular to the individual and the clear
implication is that selection techniques should be concerned with accessing and measuring these
personal factors. This approach contends that it is not always the case that hiring highly
intelligent persons with the highest level of skills and knowledge will result in maximum
contribution to performance. People perform best when they are fully engaged by the challenges
of a job. Unless highly intelligent individuals are provided with a steady source of intellectual
stimulation, they may not only become poor performers but may become counterproductive as
well (Hay Group Pte Ltd, 2004). Critics (Barbian, 2001; Bates, 2002) contend that most person
job-fit tests have not been standardized, lack norms, and developers have not presented
predictive validity data on their recruitment and selection measures.
Organizations select employees based mainly on candidates’ key attributes and job requirements.
The focus is on cognitive ability, specific knowledge and skills relevant for the job. For scholars
who subscribe to the Person-Group Fit paradigm, quality interactions between the new hire and
his/her workgroup are vital because the performance of other group members is somewhat
dependent on the newcomer’s ability to interact with them17/18 (Hay Group Pte Ltd, 2004).
Person-organization fit is the congruence of an individual’s personality, beliefs and values with
the culture and values of an organization. A cultural mismatch between new hires and the
organization has been demonstrated to be a significant contributor to potential job dissatisfaction
and reduced work group cohesion, thus leading to poor job performance and high attrition rates.
New hires who can identify with the culture of the organization are more likely to value the
incentives offered by the organization. As incentives are meant to motivate, new hires who attach
importance to such incentives are likely to improve in work attitudes and to remain in the
organization.
Largely based on the public's acceptance of the Internet and related technological applications,
both public and private companies, including governmental agencies, are re-thinking traditional
personnel selection processes and recruiting methods (Mooney, 2002). Nevertheless, concerns
about personnel online testing on have attracted the attention of rigorous research efforts by
scholars worldwide (Bartram, 2004; Ployhart, Weekley, Holtz, & Kemp, 2003). Indeed, recent
reviews of the literature (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998; Wilk & Cappelli, 2003) report that employers
continue to rely on traditional (i.e., general IQ, integrity, structured interviews, work-samples,
references, official transcripts) methods even after the adoption of e-recruitment and selection
methods. This seminar paper seeks to determine the impact of online recruitment and selection
on the local job market.
2.8. Conceptual Framework
Cost/Efficiency/Convenience
Time
Online Recruitment and Selection Quality Organization performance
Transparency/Accountability
Satisfaction

Fig. 1.1: Conceptual Framework

Recruitment and selection determines the quality of human resources and thus dictate
organizational performance (Gilley & Maycunich, 2000). The reliance on paper–based system in
executing the recruitment and selection function has proved to be laborious in nature, repetitive,
time consuming, bulky, and costly (Brooke, 1998; Piotrowski & Amrstrong, 2009). Such an
approach to managing the recruitment and selection process is un-economical and a source of
dissatisfaction to customers and stakeholders with regard to information timeliness, accuracy,
and quality of service delivery to the stakeholders and the general public. Fig. 1.1 indicates that
the adoption of an integrated offline and online system is an attempt to re-engineer the
recruitment and selection process and to enhance, efficiency, accountability and transparency in
service delivery to applicants and the overall organizational performance with reference to the
local job market.
CHAPTER THREE

OBJECTIVES

3.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses the objectives of the study on the effect of the adoption of online
recruitment and selection system to attract, test, recruit, employ and retain staff by local
companies on the local job market.
3.2 Effect of Online Recruitment and Selection on Cost, Efficiency and Convenience on the
Local Job Market.
The online recruitment and selection system marks a major achievement in electronic service
delivery and offers enormous potential to streamline selection procedures, improve service
delivery, improve resource efficiency and reduce costs (Kullik, 2004). The system is convenient
for the local job market because it allows a cross-section of candidates to participate in the
recruitment process (Lee, 2006). Indeed, the Internet offers an inexpensive way for local
employers to let wider pool of potential applicants know about the available position in the
company (Siambi, 2008). Besides e-recruiting being cheaper than conventional recruiting
methods, it improves the recruiter’s ability to handle job applications and job postings by
minimizing paper-work and automating key recruiting activities. Further, in e-recruitment certain
predetermined parameters can be used to automatically sift through various CV applications and
narrow down to the desired candidates. In fact it is possible for applications and results to be
instantaneous.

Traditionally pubic and private organizations in Kenya had placed a strong focus on pen-and-
paper based recruitment and selection (Siambi, 2008). However, these systems have been costly
and a source of inefficiencies (ibid.). To this end, and in the awake of the reforms to enhance,
efficiency, accountability and transparency in service delivery to the people, most organizations
have embraced information technology, as a key enabler and a proven tool to catapult the desired
outputs in the process of recruitment and selection. The online recruitment and selection system
has enabled clients and stakeholders to access job vacancies advertised by the organizations and
to apply online. The system provides a central databank for all job applications and appointments
thereby facilitating the monitoring, analysis and tracking function of the recruitment and
selection process. The Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) nowadays now provides
results online and using mobile telephony. The Higher Education and Loans Board has also gone
online. Other public organizations that have followed suit include the Kenya Police, the Kenya
Revenue Authority (KRA), the Meteorological Department (weather forecasts), among others
(Limo, 2007; Katonga, 2008).

Unfortunately the internet is not the first choice for all job seekers therefore online recruitment
and selection may limit the applicant audience to only those who are able to fully utilize
technology (Camara & Merenda, 2000; Vodanovich & Piotrowski, 2000). Also, the online
recruitment and selection process is impersonal and may be off-putting for some candidates
(Wallace & Vodanovich, 2004). Finally, a badly designed website my “turn-off” qualified
potential candidates (Anderson et al., 2004).
3.3 The Timelessness of Online Recruitment and Selection Services Offered on the Local
Job Market.
The online recruitment and selection system is appropriate for the local job market because it
allows a cross-section of candidates to participate in the recruitment process and the results are
immediately transmitted electronically (Siambi, 2008). In fact it is possible for applications and
results to be instantaneous. The online recruitment and selection system achieves this by
improving the recruiter’s ability to handle job applications and job postings by minimizing
paper-work and automating key recruiting activities. This is achieved through the use of
predetermined parameters that can be used to automatically sift through various CV applications
and narrow down to the desired candidates. Indeed, most local firms rely on internet-based
approaches for pre-screening purposes or as a vehicle to narrow down a short list of final
candidates (ibid.).

The Internet is having a major impact on the way in which recruitment and selection is carried
out, which is increasingly being felt in terms of changes in selection practice (Lee, 2006). The
Internet as a selection medium offers an online situational judgment questionnaire that allows
candidates to assess their own suitability for a role thereby saving on time that be otherwise used
to sieve through applications from unsuitable applicants. Besides, the online recruitment and
selection system offer access to vacancies 24 hours a day and 7 days a week (ibid.).

Nevertheless, if care isn’t taken to draft the job profile/specification e-recruitment may lead to
applications overload or inappropriate applications thereby contribute to time wastage and
unnecessary delays (Piotrowski & Armstrong, 2009).
3.4 The Level of Transparency and Accountability Offered By the Online Recruitment and
Selection System Adopted On the Local Job Market.
The local job market has tremendously adopted Internet-based hiring practices because the
system allows the monitoring of the process on a continuous basis (Mooney, 2002; Kamar &
Ong’ondo, 2007; Sambili, 2009). However, the widespread adoption and use of online
recruitment and selection is hindered due to pitfalls associated with confidentiality (Piotrowski &
Armstrong, 2009).
Asked who's setting the pace in e-recruiting, trends point out to computer and technology
companies and to financial service companies that are leading the race to e-banking. "The people
who helped create the Internet are using it to scour the world for outstanding job candidates,"
said one e-recruitment consultant. "They don't just tell candidates to send in resumes. They
question them interactively on the website about their experience and interests and then direct
them to the specific jobs for which they are best qualified. By pre-qualifying candidates in this
way, the companies, as well as candidates, save an enormous amount of time. Instead of reading
through stacks of resumes, recruiters can go directly to a short list of the most qualified
candidates."This impersonal interaction allows for recruitment and selection to be done in an
accountable and transparent manner but it does not offer confidentiality.
3.5 To Determine the Quality of Service Delivery Offered By the Online Recruitment and
Selection System On the Local Market.
Most organizations have embraced information technology, as a key enabler and a proven tool to
catapult the desired outputs in the process of recruitment and selection in the local job market in
the awake of the reforms to enhance, efficiency, accountability and transparency in service
delivery to the people (Kamar & Ong’ondo, 2007; Siambi, 2008: Sambili, 2009).
The online recruitment and selection system especially company websites and online job boards
now supplement the traditional recruitment and selection methods such as advertisements in
newspapers and related publications because they system provides the opportunity for a
recruitment process, based on self service, which is more user-friendly to the applicant and more
responsive to the needs of the institutions (Limo, 2007; Katonga, 2008). The system enables
wider pools of potential applicants know about the available position in the company. This is
because the organization advertises on sites that appeal to general or specialized audiences and
anyone who visits the global corporate web site has the ability to utilize this facility. The system
also provide the image of an up-to-date organization, reinforcing employer branding and giving
an indication of organization culture, help handle high volume job applications in a consistent
way, provide more tailored information to the post and organization e.g. case histories of the
‘day in the life’ or self-assessment questionnaire or quiz to assess fit with role and is spontaneous
for candidates as ease of use means there is the ability for applications to be instantaneous (ibid.).

One company in Kenya that has developed an e-recruitment portal is the Kenya Petroleum
Refineries Limited (KPRL). According to KPRL, the company has taken advantage of
widespread adoption of internet to build an e-recruitment tool which aims at providing an equal
opportunity to both local and international job seekers to access job openings at KPRL. Some of
the benefits of this e-recruitment portal include the following:-
a) Allow the submission of job applications online

b) Facilitate and enhance short-listing in the recruitment process

c) Lower advertisement costs i.e. posting jobs and time saved to carry out the recruitment
process manually

d) Generation of automatic regrets to unsuccessful candidates

Some companies have mastered e-recruiting; most haven't; and the gap between the best and the
worst e-recruiting websites is huge. It's surprising to find great companies that offer candidates
little more than a post office box to which to send their resumes. E-recruitment is therefore more
effectively and efficiently utilized by companies that have Information technology background.
The drawback with the internet-based recruitment and selection system is that it limits the
attraction of those unable to fully utilize technology e.g. certain disabled groups thus give rise to
allegations of discrimination, in particular the use of limited keywords in CV search tools. The
system may also provide too little or inappropriate information, for example, corporate
recruitment guidelines might not be written in a web friendly style (Camara & Merenda, 2000;
Vodanovich & Piotrowski, 2000; Wallace & Vodanovich, 2004; Anderson et al., 2004).
3.6 To Assess the Level of Satisfaction Generated By the Online Recruitment And Selection
System On the Local Job Market.
The use of the Internet and thus Internet technology is changing, transforming and
revolutionizing the way in which human resource departments recruit and select job candidates
(Anderson et al., 2004).

Using the Internet is faster and cheaper than many traditional methods of recruiting (Lee, 2006).
Jobs can be posted on Internet sites for a modest amount (less than in the print media), remain
there for periods of thirty or sixty days or more - at no additional cost - and are available twenty-
four hours a day. Candidates can view detailed information about the job and the organization
and then respond electronically. The Internet is rapidly becoming the method of choice for
accessing and sharing information. The prevalence of e-advertising has made it easier (ibid.).

The online recruitment and selection system is advantageous to both employers and employees
(Rioux & Bernthal, 1999; Gilley & Maycunich, 2000). The advantages that accrue to employers
include the fact that the system has the potential to speed up the recruitment cycle and streamline
administration and allow organizations to make use of IT systems to manage vacancies more
effectively and co-ordinate recruitment processes, reduce recruitment costs, reach a wide pool of
applicants, reach a niche pool of applicants, make internal vacancies widely known across
multiple sites and separate divisions, is a cost effective way to build a talent bank for future
vacancies and help handle high volume job applications in a consistent way. The system is
advantageous to jobseekers because it provides more tailored information to the post and
organization e.g. case histories of the ‘day in the life’ or self-assessment questionnaire or quiz to
assess fit with role. The disadvantage is that it excludes those who do not want to search for a
new job online and lose out on candidates, especially if the website is below the search engine
ranking of competitors (ibid.).
CHAPTER FOUR

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation on the effect of the adoption of online
recruitment and selection system to attract, test, recruit, employ and retain staff by local
companies on the local job market.

4.2 Conclusions
This paper reports on a study into the effect of the adoption of online recruitment and selection
system by local companies on the local job market in Kenya. It discussed the effect of the
adoption of online recruitment and selection system to attract, test, recruit, employ and retain
staff by local companies on the local job market as identified in literature and considers views for
and against by employers and employees.

The study’s findings indicate that the online recruitment and selection has greatly impacted on
cost, efficiency and convenience on the local job market. The online recruitment and selection
system has helped streamline selection procedures, resource efficiency and reduced costs. It
emerged from the study that the system is convenient for the local job market because it allows a
cross-section of candidates to participate in the recruitment process.

It emerged from the study that the online recruitment and selection services offered on the local
job market are appropriate and timely. The study’s findings indicate that the system improves the
recruiter’s ability to handle job applications and job postings by minimizing paperwork and
automating key recruiting activities. It emerged that it is possible for applications and results to
be instantaneous.

The study established that the online recruitment and selection system adopted on the local job
market is fair, open to everyone and allows the monitoring of the process on a continuous basis
thereby facilitating the highest degree of transparency and accountability.
The study’s findings indicate that the online recruitment and selection system on the local market
provides the opportunity for a recruitment process, based on self service, which is more user-
friendly to the applicant and more responsive to the needs of the institutions. Therefore, the
system enables wider pools of potential applicants know about the available position in the
company.

It emerged from the study that the online recruitment and selection system adopted on the local
job market is changing, transforming and revolutionizing the way in which human resource
departments recruit and select job candidates and the level of satisfaction generated is
commendable. The study’s findings indicate that using the Internet is faster and cheaper than
many traditional methods of recruiting and has advantages to both the applicant and the recruiter.

Generally the results provide clear evidence that the majority of the effects identified in literature
are also experienced by Kenyan employers and employees.

4.3 Recommendation
Based on the findings the researcher recommends the following:

It will be useful to investigate the entire e-Recruiting process particularly identification of hiring
needs, submission of job requisition and approval of job requisition, posting the job on the
internet, online job search by the applicant, submission of applications, searching the applicant
database, the evaluation of résumés and applications, pre-employment screening, job offers and
employment contracts since these have been hardly empirically addressed so far.

E-Recruiting researchers are also challenged to keep developing and testing hypothesis in regard
to the e-Recruiting processes, and thereby extend current knowledge especially on the
effectiveness of e-Recruiting services.

There is also need to establish if there is a connection between employee satisfaction and size of
an organization, number of e-Recruitment practices, the extent of use and the integration of e-
Recruiting in the overall recruitment processes. Such an endeavor may consider demographic
characteristics of individuals who were recruited online, determining yield ratios, retention and
developing turnover measures. Consequently, in future, outcome measures such as job
performance, job satisfaction and organizational commitment may be compared between
individuals who were recruited online with those who were recruited via traditional recruiting
means such as newspaper ads, career fairs or personal recommendations.

There is also need to examine how tailored feedback influences applicant attraction to an
organization, self-selection and eventually financial outcomes of an organization. It may also be
necessary to investigate whether providing more detailed and individually tailored feedback will
impact applicants’ organizational attraction.

Further, little published research is available on differences and advantages of using web-based
versus paper-based job postings, résumés and the selection process. In order to inform recruiting
professionals as well as literature, future studies are needed to extend this stream of research.
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