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Publilshed by the THIRD WORLD Sn.mIES Copyright © 1997


A II r i{1Iii ts reserve d. No part ·Qf th i s book riiray bereproduced or utilized it} any form 01' whatever means ~Icctronlc or. m (H;'hanical, Inel u('n n9 photocopyl r~~L recordll":lg N by any i nforman on retrh;!valsyst(!:lfI! WiiHlOlil permission from the- pub] isher; Inquiries $ho:uld bt:l-addressed to; Third World S~~ldB;n;Cente.r. Pahlla rial! Basement. Univ~rsi~y- uf the Phjl;PiJines, Dil lman 110 i Quezon City. reI,s 920- 530 I. to 5399 loc.64S 1/6733 fax' 9'2:~)-S428 e·mail twsC;:@Cs,sp,tlpd_edu,pb

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I\.G~NC( FOR 1~~NAT'I;H-lt!;L tJ~VEl6~ME~Jr, under the. term s of Crant No, 4-92·043-:2-A-OO·6026,Cl"l). Opininns expressed ~h'er@'it1 are tll,;s-e of the authors and do not l1ecMsarjly reflect dHl vj'ElWS of 'tl1e u.s, AGENCY r0R INHRN .... TIONAL DEVELOPM[NT_


fundin-g was ~J$O provlded
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Dllltcro'R.~ INO~

Stete-Civi I Society Re ~ations, in Po~ icy-Me ki ng

The plli Ij'pph~e tran sfLion fro rn aurhorltarian to democ ratlc ru le was- ilH.e FI ded by continu ltles and dlscenti rHJ ltles that Wert. often as intractable as the u phe·cl\l[i.I~ that pre.ce.ded [to For nne, thee Iite-derrri nated ~r:Jd Inefficie nrsrate did net tlJ;i;;e.:)serrlv go away I n the n~:vplll.ti() rfs .<J,ftethl<lth. FQr aneth ell'~ a new ethos that WG.ll,ld overhaul the vestiges of the overthrown order was not i 11 r!:virabl Y !:ram. This IS wlW spcial and pnlil!ita,1 mevements, which, in the ·rnQment of revCl"lulio'n ort r~Jl~fC! rmd.ti.ol'1,·we-r~ able no,aq as powerful caialvsrs or·.c:haflge-~ger1tfi ,bft:e n fouild themselves fosr in the prrxer,·$ of the C';:JlS uinq tra·tt~ition .• Armed wtUI :&kftl;5 d~si:g ned

rno reo to oppos,e. Q r confront - than' crea-t1E!or negotia,ie - ponc:y and gOVt:Hl1U1GC. these dWlnge'a:dvocates, who wert also potenHaJ partlcspants in the- new snHHS,
.q uo, di-s.roV:@I"f:!d thernse lves ·:a·t·J di s·advantag.e. VjS·~·V!S comeback: r~g technocrats and polltlcians more adeptln the so-called "rules of,th~ $lmii'le_"

The 'Col~sl~ulltliot'lal and le·ga~ 'forrrm:t 'of _the post-Marcos 5.t'<'!.tehas been ,F€ronlIHr~d_ The I'I!;lW dlspensatto n has ope n-ed u.p n,e:w avenues th rou.9.h wh kh ctvll 50cf;~ty can m~ 'd,n impact directly on how the stare 'g,ov"ern~ a~d what. prog ram of .govNn.a·nre lit will ado pt. TO P'l"qt-€tt initial democratic .g"i nS and move beyond the tr~nsitjol'l t9warQ s con s6lid.aHCin. lt the r'efor~ becomes Imp~faHve to 100k mOr\:! dO'-5;lE:IV at 'the state and its undeniable r,oh~ in soclal' rr~ltn5f9rmaHo.n ilnd de rnocrane ccnsclldanon. C ivil 10ciT±1"y must cor:lti nut". to test H1~ Urn in and potenttals of the present Pbmppine Hate and ensueethat the state, indeed. plays a posfHve role i n ,achi~vun9 UIC:l's'etwin goajls.
For civil society to pe rform this; iall a.nd advocate role, i[ must lea.~TIto

permeate, aC('e55' and engage-the stare, Not that civil socl~ty has not learned to·do thi~ intne past but rh~t ~Hlgagement of the state: i tl the current democratic consqli· darien - fa.s! be,c.omiYlg not 9 n.lva .. hoice butalso c .;J, m:(e~\S'HY -,"s _grecattt
polltfcal a.d@p.trless and maturltvl n p'emmati rig state pol icv-rnakl rt9 :i ns~~~ution~, This, w"il I r~q wire equ i pping civil SQde~y wid; tll€ necessarv u tid¢rstall1dirtg.,of state dynami~satnd procsssesand the tools for 't.a.rryir'lg 0 Lit its rn u rO~·le· TUri,aJo!1s as crtttaue, consctencn, partner, or opponent, as the. C<lS~ rrray be, of the state ir! 'iN hal effectively- i$ a, ·s~t)w, evo Iuttcnarv process of consolidating dernocracv,

PHI LI:PP IN E OEM OCII;A C:V .AG END·A Sl"'t~Ci.\li I ~oci!l!t-¥ 1it.-cla.tioM iiii p.oli"cy..Ma.kil'l 9 1

In a national conference on Philippine 5t<W~-G\lil Socie·:ry Re/:atians in PoHcy.M~k;ng ofsome SO d~IE!9'ltf:!S from no II-govern rnent 0 rgan lzanons (NCO!»), people'5 o rqanizatlons (POs), govemment and the academe" the areas where civi I :~ociety ha~s been e rI:gagil1g the S,1tare u nder t~~@ CU rreru constitutlonal/legal and pohcv envrronment w@'reid@rUified'and assessed. In addnto n, rhe factors thar afien statedv)11 society mteractton in pollcv-maklnp wem iden.tifh~d. l'Iii'tFlh synthesis, W~ have gro uped these factors i rita- th re'e g.e~:leal cateqo rres: '~1) modal itres of thi nkr iI'1g of both th Ii': state and civ~~ society: (2). extent of the state's .and ctvl I socletvs logistical resources .tec fin leal capabf ltlas an'd organ izatton: and (3} strateqtes emploved by civi I societv i FI engag i ng 'the state. These cateporlas are not lntended as: ,aiD'tight antdyUca,1 corn partmerus bUI

serve a-s frames of reference for ge(J~,,-atj"rig plau 5 ible hypotheses fa r assess i ng state-clvl I socletv relauons in pollcv-rnakl ng ..A further caveat wi II be to state before hand that in ~he process of int,egratl n'g a.~1 the data gathered du rin9 the co nfer-

ence, 'it was necessarv to abstract the trends and patterns rather than the fi 11 {"I po i nts of dis:ti nr tion. These general'9ri~s, he refo reo (~O not preclude or ext c I ude the speclfk itv ofeach and every Q.~ peer of srate-clvil society i I'm ractlo n. Finally, rete rences to the state incl ude ·tbe "national" and the' "local," exceptin particuiar cases pointed 0 ut by confs renee: partie: pants. wile re local mstltu cion s

and arocesses are specifically



i.xingStt1lfe ..Civil Relations 'in ,Policy-Makin.g

Q Us oppcsltlbn 9 roups. inc Iud i n g armed revolutloaary fo(ces', lead i ng to the .~ 986 u pri-sil19 cannot hfstorically b.e disce unted, Nor can the infl ue nee of transnational factors and power relations (.~.g., market forces ,lhee.m:ll of the Cold Wa,r and the emerqe nee of 9 lohaltzattonas the fulcru m Qffond.g n and national PQ I ltv.) in the

S'{ate·civi I soclety irrteractlon if! policv-maktnq doe'S not eccu r ina vacuu m. I n the Ph i I lppl nes, the current state 3!nd q ualitv of the lnteractlon GHI prope rly be unde rstood and appreciated if viewed from the' pol.itbca.i and hi stortcal context of r.he post-Marcos translti on, I r'I setti n g th i s period as the lee LIS of cu mHlt stare-clvl I scctetv re lations, no atte mpt to disre9ald pol ttico-er;o nomlc events and fo rces wece"ding the.'EDSA revclunon if> made or-intended. III particular; the role of VMi-

ensul n 9 trans ltlon be de n led, (hilt for the purpose of LWi ng the context of prase I1t state-c ivi lsecietv relatlens, the EDSA revo I~ltDOI'1 bern nne:; pivotal j 1"1 that 'i111,986-

e.:rme the ouste r:of a dictator who not only concentrated
but also effectively

powe r In the exec utlve ellrn i nated alii oppo rtun ltles for gen ulrre partktpatlon in goverth

The: EDSA revotetlon marked the begin nil"lg of a' demerranc trans ttlon in

the (0 untrv, a majorfeature of whic h is the 0 pen i t1g_' of aven ues for d i rect partlctpailon 'of dvil sOci"e-"ty. notably th rou9.h 'NCOs and POs, in varia us' levels of gQ.\;'ernmant (Bn!LLAt-HI'.S). It can be sald than ivfl sotiety partie! pationin .governar!oe is 0 ne of the most $.ignlftcant hallmarks of the p-qst-EPSA period" Thata redef nltto n of 'govemanc.~ ~s occu rri i1gi r'I ~t!e Phln p-phie context, BRILLANn;s. added, is evidenced by the lncre ... l5.00 civil society pa:h'tk i pation, dnd even leadership, In 'the delivery of bas it services. W,),ry of how the past Constlturlon was used to legitimize autho ritartan rule! framers of the 1987'Coll~tiwtion fltled its pages with "constltutlo nallaed"

righi?,aild val ues which clvl I ~otEety cart invoke to protect or assert Its sovereign'! wHi {PMl!;. . .
With this. democratic blas built lnto the ornstttutronal framework, 'a, momentum for tangible ref a rms in poHtko-admi t1isfrati"vep"raHsse.$i s fecit redefining PQHcy,makilng venues and processes where the .SUle and ~ivi'l socletv intersect. The backdrop of th is lntersectlo n, therefore, 1$ <3! reformed legaVpo IitV environmentthat offers greater oosstbl Iities for clvl I socletv Intervention in polrcv-makl n9 but whose openneas and hospitality to actual clvll society oartlclpatton remains to'

be tested, The Upside: A Reformed Constitlcl·tional/Legal emd Policy Mil ieu

Of immense significance to advancing the democratic aqenda the recogni· '~ion by the conference partlcl pants of arb 0 r e:xpandilll9 space for demoGrdt~candcons u ltatlve ex.ercj;ses where. Mate and .cjvl I society i nte ractlorr, whe'the r lt be: ln the national or local level, can take place. This democratic framework is, operatlonalized tn venues .and mechanisms provided for by the Constitution and ·the"" laws, whkh mandate ccnsulranve processes and @v~11 active: participation of (:ivll society in g.av@rnance and 100 I icy"making. Th rouqh these the: state, 011 tile one h~.3:nd, abl@ to initiate. and respond to popu lar pre.S5:ur.e far~ refo rms, Civi I Sociij,s .efy, on the other hand, is able to remain v~.gilat1t and ttl ameli late its. tnrerests a.nd agenda. There is thus an cpportunltv for a convergence. vlslon and action between the Slil,te and civil society,



We' have ·th~ Ph i Iipp~ne Co nstltutic 11 itself wbich has. elsvated, in SQ: many provision 5, the participation of NGO$ and pt)$ in afti Si0JI-maklng processes of the state to' the stature of a ccnstitutlcnal policy; I The State :.;hall encouraae

sectoral orqanlzations that promote i3! 1981 CQnsrftutimn,
to enable th~ people

non-qcvernrnental, communltv-bascd, or the welfare· of the nation {Art. lt, Sec

The St<1J,te hall respect the role of independent peop~e"s or9~iriizatio-m s t"IJ pursue and protect, within th~ democratic framework, their legitirn,He and c:oli'I!,(ti-v~ i nterests and as.piratJons through peaceful and lawfill means tld., Ar~; XIII, ~e.c. 1~)The right of the p:,~wple;and therr org.a.11fzatietlS W eff·ecllve: and reasortable p<a:tticipaUml at all levels of s oclal, poli'tlcaJ ,!3-nd €;COMotl" decistonmaking shall riot be. abridged, The State. sh"H, by law, f,ilcilitate. tile nstabltshmenr of adequate consultation mcchanlsms Uri., Art. XIII. Sec, 16).
Tt1 is, pol icy, in to rn, fi·nds tone rete expresslo ns in the Local Govern merit Code of 1991 which not 0 n,ly provides for sectoral representatinnl n jhe local sangg~mian but abo empowers local qovernment lJ 11 to jolntlv undertake proJe<;ts Wit,h NCOs its and PQs as partnersin developme nt and the promoncn of the welfale 'Of the cornrnunltles:

Secti~n. 34.
LocaJI govefl:lment

Rofe, of PeQple.'s a.rid Non·Go~/~mmetlr Orgalliz~lUOI15. units shall promotethe e_stab;H5hm.~FIIt and ,gpeF1I.tioii'iot

people's and non'9'oVeI'1nm-entalol'ga!lizatiorl,s the pursuit of local autonomy,

to become

active partners


4 • MARlmli

A.• WUIAP!llJ MA. G'bEN[)A S.• lOPEZ

S'ection 35, Unka'ges With Peuple?s and!;!nbJ Otg;.li1iZ.l· tions. - Local gQvemrll€nlt units mav anter into joint ventures andl .such other cooperative arranaements wlth people'sand ilQn-governi'l'Hlntall orqani2atr9h~ to' ellg;;lig~ lnthe daltverv of certain basic services, c;ap~hmty-l1]jild· lnq ~rld Hv.eli l100d pn;Jjec~~, (.IrJd 10 develop local enterprises d,e:.sjgned to j~PF'Cf\iC productivity and income. diversUY agriculture, spur ru~O!I il1,tjlls,tri·
aH;':!;a.Uon,projnote acoloplca] balance, artd enhance the .economic and soclal

well-hekl9 of the peQph~.
Section 3.6, Assistance ro Peapf..e'5 4nd' Non·Covemm~m<lJ Organiza·

tion.5. - A local govermnent unit may throuqh tts local chief eYecLitive and wi ttl the concurrence of the :sanggunJan concerned, pro·vide assi stance, fln<l:~lc~;)'1rotherwtse, to ~uch peop~e's and FlOn-!l.OVHFI ill en tal o'!·;;;·atiDn:s e
fa r ec onom ic, 50 ciall v-or] ell d. e:il VPro nme ntal " 0'1' eLJ Irural p raj ects trnplemented withit'! lts terrtronal jl1rls:dic:tioll.




An ex-em p~~l,![y case ope rational izh'1g th is mandate is the treatip"n of a "Peoples (:d,tmci I" clted by AU\lC~LES her case study 0 n Naga City where .ctvl I SQC!P.tY. reprein sentatlves are able to perform the foLloWil1g; (]) vote and paructpare in the dellberaucn, conceptualtaarlo n, i mplernensatlon and eval uation of projects, activities and proqrams of the local government ILmH; (2) propose legislation and parttclpate

and vote at the com mittee level of the. local si1nggunian; and Cl) act as the people's
re presentatlves In the exercise of thelr consututlonal rig hts to information matters of publ lc concern and of access to offlrlal records and docu rnents. . ;, on

Tfle Local Cov~rnrne:l1t Cod€! abo co ncrsnzad the revctunonarv process .cf recall wherethe electo rats intts sqvere.~gn- capac itv dJirectN rEHl"I'OVes erring local officials from office. FQr national offrcsrs Wh9 have.breac hed the: public trust, we have theco h stitutlo nal puoVE;.jOtH (Art XI, Se:C 2. 1987 CO:f1S~iWtiOi'I) onim peachme nt for thelr re mo v 01, I from offlce. Mon:6v~.Y, for-the prcsscutso n of other officials, th-e Ombudsman and Sandtqanbayan laws were enac'(~d p'v Co n·gress W e nS LI

re the acco I.IntabiliW of govern me nt officials to the pllbliir:.

In 19.95 r Cong ress passed Republic Act (RA} No, 7941 provtd I ng fa r proportlonal representation of partv-list representatives ln the law-maklnq body, the rebv heraldinq the prornl se of election of representatives of hitherto marg mal lzed S8~' to rs and grtllLlpsto the eltte-domtnered leg lslature, Earlier still! die Inruatlve and Re:f-erfrF1dim Act WtlJS enacted" perp;dol'1?1liZi '[he co nstltutlo nallv e'nsh ri tled ri(;,lh:t L n~ of ctttzens 'W dl rectly Pr'OP'M~, enact or-approve, or reject any act 0 r la w part thereof passed ~y (ong ress Of any lo·ra.l.le.gis latlve ~ody tto., Art VI i 3, 2, 1987 CO{J5tituti6.n) .. To restore the cn;::dibiliW {if 'election s. Co ngres.s likewise enacted several measures (RA NQls, 6646, 667.9 and 7166). while the Ccmmlss iOI1 'on Ele.ctlnns I'ss,ued a number of circulars to. reform and protect the Integrity of natlonai



and (0-(;;,\1 lectoral exercises. e

lnaddrtlo n 'to 'these measures, there are bui lt-ln venues and m~( han lsrn; in the th res branches of govern rnent where state-clvl I soc letv inte racuon ought, at least in theory, to take place. Thus, clvll 'society tnteracrs with Congress. i n the enactment taws; wtth the e.x:e.c.ulttVe, in thei r i mplementanon aridlenfon:emefrt, and the fa rmulatlon 'Of ether'am$ arrd policies; and with [he J LJdk iary, for th~ir i tit:€rpr~tat~ol1 and 'the redress of ·grievan.ce5. .


FTnally. sumrnns (e.g •• ,iilrL~~'PQveI1.Y. (Time, food sec urtt 'I) , dialogues and other forums, as w~lIa.s tripartite and multbectoral co undls. and botH~.5 (e.g., locii'lliregicmal development councils. Iraer-.lgerlcy eomrnmees. W<l9~ boards and the I i ke), wh~re gove:rnm~nlf:l,Hidii;l1ls and rlvll society acre r~ can s~t togetl1er and tal k, are fHICQu raged and reg'Jdar~y 'nIeld, [In eFlfec:t, rhese CQIl stltute a formal pol'icy of so rts or iii condition precedent [0 statepo~icy or program lorrnu lane rt. Local/reqlonal :deveJopmern coundts are bre']kmg n~w ground, pa,nlr.tJliI_rlv In int~l1$lfying local' governnwfll and CI'\I'I~soclerv mteract~ol1l in development planmng and in srre ngtheniny 110rallautonomy. Thc:~r creauon find S" rrs bas is i ri Article X',
consuttatlve Sectlon l~· of ~Ile Constltuno

which pIQv~d~,~.

n!! Pfi,ahj~rn


~Jmll.\I· b(ldk~$ 'ompo!l.~d

tOt r~r:jiofl.<ll d{!v(lklpm!'!nt councils or otbcr.r ·~f IO(;i1,~ govc'~nmli!nt offJc~.:II.~., .rcf.J:lorld~ hIlJ,d~ of

d~pO'lfUrlC!li'Its nd ethel govenUWIII!f'i'l of11t.c!;, and repr('s(!m.ul\'c~ I[ rom 11011' ~ govenl!TH!nl'll on;;J;''ilnl;l:<I't'1o[rn w,i~hirl!'ill' r~gion~ fm 1[ill.Jrl'OSf~ of i1.drnlnhtr,~.t ~Iv~ dro.c!ill1tf.ilIh:1'I1'lonto ~lft"ng'lhen [h~' al.ltonomy or t~~eunits ~hel'einl!f1~J to

the eccnomlc

.md sod!)]



dC'I.I'i!IQpmeut of [hi!



the reg'lon,

Sectoral desks

grc'Jljps, pan

estabhshed by lcca] goyernmen~ Uf1iIIS d~SO serve as ccn coord: l'IaUOI~and Jloirn acuons b!WN€!en the tatter arid civil icuhl.rly on "1,.'l!.1 rers ,al~fect nglh~ mteresrs 0 f tl1~ varia us secto f

rers rs.



TI1C preserrcs a.lild aVtlilabilily

tion, however, leave much


uti lI,zatioll. The iimh;aJI·ons and preblerns encountered by civil societv grow ps can be (a:tegor~z~d 1rna those pert.unin~1 to (I) policy 'fCi rmulatlon and pol ilcy im piementation .

of th'f!~e venuesand muhan lsrns 'for I nteracbe: destred, for problems HWI pe-rslst regard iny then


.Pblicy fo'rm~ICI'tia.n ~nd Q\fh'~r 5tr,t.lldi!.lfol Obstac.le.s

Slate proced ures and processes. jtilvo~lvjng 'J:';el1:ainvenues Dfter~ h lnder and irneranion,] nstead o£ f.Il:::mt;ating Lt. rUases .3o.g;aJnst tivlJ :$m:Eety intervention .somernnes tnhere in the PCQUcy'-m;:llo;ing: :5HuC:UJres· and ve nues the mselves Thereby produ(if1g. 'to borrow at;j, oft'Qluot~d phrase, a ;'chmlf1lg~ effeu" on stateclvl I soc iew i nteractton. The 5nails pace and h~ghi price of j udlclal IHig.Jlion. and the '.$~Ow gr.ind of the ~'egisiative mill, ~Iref<lmi~iinexamples pornted cut by the partkipants. Another would be the elitist composrno nof the ~~gls laru re ami the s,L1sc.~ptl.bilitv of the leglslnLve process 00 n8LHOW <lnd flEeting interests. One can recall, for instance, the political maneuvers of the ~<lnd lord bloc I r1 Congress to throw lnto I[imbo the agrarian retormmeasure proposed by the (ong ress r,'H a P~QP~~'SA9r<lJ~am Reform {CPAR).


U kewlse, the .substance of laws are, ~n re Flail"! cases! t~ought of <ASD'lHrig Inly workl FIg agaif!5,t the: interests of certam secrers and g:rou ps. ~n (Lvi I ~ociety'. To iIIusnate, W~ h,av~ the df!cree c.timtll'1,alizUlgl squauing (E.LAGo}. amendatorv starutes and j ud lclal declshms whic h <lillt.ged~y further emascu late 'the Ccmpre he nslve Ag radar! RQ;h:lim Law {CARLl', a ned'gling treaty seeking to o pen ~J D 'the. econo my ro the vagaries of the wodd marker (CA,lllAl and RE(.I,lJ\[x;d • and 'not the least. penal





I~W$ tl1<;11 dlscrirnlnate on the basis of gender, sud, as orovtsions Pe:n al Code (in adu IttIY,· (one ubi naqe arid rape ~ (REYES).

Of the Revised

Trar'l5pane rlcy, ratiol1allty and actual consultarlo n III the po Ilcv-nrakl n 9 proces.s remain el uslve; as ce ntral iz<t.holl of dec is lon-makrnq, b,l(of i nfo rmatiorr d issemtnation and non-optl mtzatlon of e:')(i$t~r'lg ve nues and rnechanlsrns to ntlnue 'W prevai L P~dicl pants partlc ularlv df~d that tran spare nc y re rnatns to be a rni.5..,~ng

Ing red lent ill the formulatlon m i9 rant wo rkers.

of ou r trade, fiscal and monetary

po Iieres, and 1 hose

Lack of access to, or awareness of, these venues due to the state's failure to dis semi nate po I icy i nformano n and g IJ ida nee fa r th e sectors concern ed has. Iikew is!"! been 'Cited bv the delega.te.s as an Irrttant In state-civil 50rie:ty rel auo ns, In the. case, for ,j n stance, of migrant worke rs' i'S5IJes, NGOs are not even aware of rhe existence efthe Ove'rs'eas Workers We lfare Ad mi ntsrratlon (O"NVVA)and Ph i'illDpi ne Ove rseas 'Employmeht Ad n1urnis,tratimi (POEA) boards w here thev c.ati·be rep re sf:"['Ited"
PDecemealllE'gisl~tion,alidshorH~ght@d ;\'Pld no n-proact ive approaches to po, formulatlon hava note nly 9 lven way' to palliative and ephs rneral solutions to problems requ iring structu ral orradtcal reform. They have also wasted a way the 'state's alreadv limited reso urcas: Migr<:u1t workers' issu es and trade, fi seal and monetary pelldes have been partlcularlv cited by the deleqates as 11avlng noclear and defir~ttive pollcv directions 01' g.oals, For instance, ass.essing the pohcy-rnak-

i ng envlro nm€!:rBt at 'the Depa.rI rnent 'Of Labor and Emp lovrnent
:0 rate





tl rrre of the ca~e 'until today, there have been three department secrerarles. The Dlilpartmt1.!'1t Isseen mafl1~y as adoptil"lg il. w;l,it-'<J.r!d-se9 aultude, 'dealll1g with sltuatlons <IS they ;rri$e and ~n.stltutDl"Ig remedied measures, rather than takitl'fl a .sob'ilr; lonn-tcrrn perspective of ~he whol ~ issue .

mhe p{)iii;'y"milld!"!L9. -artd a{)enti<l. Sf!tti ng <It the DOUi s .pt dU,119!:!, Wi t'h i rr an I a·m Q nt h pad od froril' th~

in i.I constaot

.Po/icy Implementation
Exemplary I,egi slation, pol lcl es, programs. ru les and; requ latio n s often lose their I ustet for lac k of sustal n,ed enforcement and Irnple mentatlo n, Ii. case i 11 pornt i nvotves the pO'1ici,~s and prog rams adopted by the gov~rmtu~ru. for the protectlon of Overseas Filipi no Wo rkers (QFWs.). [)@spite esrabl i~'he'd OWVi/fJ.: teres em the Pbl protecnon of OFWs abroad, probterns ~tiII persist, as evidenced by th~. rep.o rt thar abo ut two d-ead OFWs arrive in 0 ur CPU ntry everyday W1LLALB.,~).

of coordination among government agellcie~·. Wea!.:: irnplernentauon and enforcement of our tax. trade ,. e nvl ron mental and p@t1C1J IdW~, fQ r i nstance, have muted t:h:ei r intended benefice nt res\ults. Speaki ng of the cou nuy's aiminal J ustlce svste m, OJ. cas.c€: tudy write r (ANG SEE) lamented, ''Ttl€: five ptllars of the crirnl nal s justice SY.5teHl - law enforcement, prosec utlon, courts, co traction andcornrn udearth
nity - s uffer frosn poor .credtbi Iltv and poor efficiency. T~H!~Y work in iselation fro m, ii~st~adOf tn harmony with, ·ea.ctl other." Also, thiiS lack of (,00 rdi!h1atiQrI amo 11'9 government age nclas :(0 nnnues to slow down the delivery of baslc s@r~ vices like ho'Y sing, health and 1nfrastrnctu reo



lmplementauon suffers

from theabsence

Of svnerqv Or the

Th,£!lack of follow-'li1l'OlIq h mechanisms ilIIso hampers poucv lmplernentalion. An anu-crlme NGO, for example. cned I he fallu re of gave.rnmern: to I mplarnent or rn stltutlonallze a.greli!ments reached In previous, sumrntts as the reason fa r its boycott of succeed lOy antt-cnme summits (AJ.IG SEE) ,I\:lso, ~ case sa udv wrtte r

(TIC:NL')) 0111 rhe relations

between ,r.mlv(!.te re( agem:lE~s and the POEA stated that goverllrnent-respo,ns'e 10 s1JI.glfj@.stioli'ls of the p'r~vate secto r has been c h aracterlized

"the usual red tape where: the Ol..ou~1 fe'Srmnse

is so much de:l.tty,@d."

To recapitulate, while venues and mec ~an ~!jm::;for state-ctvtl soc lery 1fUer'l • tten in£! cnncsdedlv avatl hie, 'the>llf~)iiiS[i~n(e does not necessarily lead to an ef

fectlve Intervemion
whal the foregoing



disCU5S~0I1has shown is an evld nt gap between bet ween lheory and ro lity,

by lvil society In ' he s ate's,


process. At best,
policy and

On the q uesuc n of whle(i1er or not civil S.OCH!ty carl e II pion rhese ven ues am:J mechanlsms to p,em~nale srate pohc:y·makmg ~nStlllHia ns and processes, varlc: ~~ expe.rlenct"':!)of civil society groups show lhd~(hbi' wi II depend. ln 0 !'1~ parr, on I'IH~ panlcular i SSlJe, advocacy, 0 r S~'CWI Involved Mid. 111 another. on the th re@factors to be e)('P~aif1ed be low.




fnf·ormcd Venuies Cl,f lntercction

Civil sccletv aCton. ne d ,iI road map oFI.abyrll'lfhlrle state precesses. This map consists of the formal and il1ro:rma,l venues by whucl1 civil socletv GlJ1 engage in and lrrfluence decrsto n making by the state. (S'ee Matrix ,)
Clvll s,odety's knowle-dg.e of the dynamics and processes tnvolved ~n policyrnakl ng veri Lies .1Ii.nd actual utilization of means of intervention 'the serve as a gauge ofthelr mterartlon wlth the state. H-fe(tUv,e:ly-pe.l'leH.atlng and accessing state pollcvrnakl 1151will depend, tel a. larg~ extent, on it ~'IIorkirlg kncwlsdqe not only of the venues for intervenrlon but also the procedures invo lved. PAil's prescnptlon regar'dll1g the legLsl.ative are-ria is eorooos:

lilt takes mom than conviction and U'ua justfless of one's Gms€! to previii I in tnl1! [I~gl slartve] front,'oreoYl!o. oll:thllugh the ConsUtut!of1 cOntaim Ironclad provisioiU that gu",r~n~e dvH ;ood,ely'!,,; rfgl1t:s to le'!li~ l'aJ~! th<:Y were not a,c(ompani~d by a: m<l:l"us] of il1st[Uchons
It takes a master strateg.isf an astute tactL<lan wah Ion of political 5.avvy'. a public r€lIBitions expert. a d,jploma~ and a wHY' negotiator with the patience or Job - alii rolledlnte one - lao ~... rn the' day 11'1 Conqress Ovil society ITlIlIH understand how that comptex labyrinth works .md wh .. t motivates the play.efs, wlthil j't if It W;;lI'1lI;~te succeed in pursull1g Its legIs1ative agenda ... and for tts \loir>! to De heard among a cacopnenv of etnar voices

Accardi 09 to

the canfe_rem:~ participants.


means (] f Ime rYe ntlon rhat


so far been succes·sfu I In 9.::1M1ifil9 rury for cdl.lil sodew e are th@ following:
~ Membe.r!)hlp!ptlrtldpiiiUOI1

into stars poHcy~rn<Lking
councils of postrlon s



In c;;Qn$,uI\<!Jtl\leor tedmlta.1 bod~e~ilnd In ~lec-th;H1!i, rfca_]j, hl~tjatlv'! and rt'hm:mdllm
Pl!tiUOIIN~'{lI1'fl,D, sl:gnatuiic


campa~g,n and submtssten htl mdlvidlloll


dialogue S

nd consuaanens


a '. MMI.,«lN
M~b'ix o. Formal and InfortTIal
(1) Indi"'ldl,JEil.s8nators{r9prese.lita!iv~S, (2) Political eoalftici'i8 -, l1d alignments: ~

A.. WU I

11ND iM",. GU!NDA S,. L (l'PEZ




~m::luding SQcloral and party-li:;;'l represlilnt,atNe;~: of s.enator.sif~pre8~ntallves:

Session.:;; and hear-in g's; (5) Bic4rrre ral co i~f'e ten !he CeHif,icati on arid' Council E»ecuti\'ie fll'ojllnch



(8} ThE!

(3)CommHees; (4) o;,;Qmmitll:l9; (6) Thf Presi d ant '1M rO{igll powers; (7) Th@ l€og+Sl1ilti:ve- wcuti \"'13' D~'i"®fopm8J'jt .Ad v[;:;[,)ty E Judic1<iJ'/ ~hrough Judjcial Review Clusler~: (3) D~partn-rei'l.ts, blllre~i~~

(1) 1"11£1· Chtef Exel:;iJtjiIe;( 2) The CabineVCabjnef

.an doff.ic:e5- [lUlC'll clin'Qllina ',age ndes, tschn 10-211worki ng groLi ps with


do&!i ~[ld' NOO

desks]; (4) Specitliized

;rolr!inistr, ..tive· ag(lncies t.hrough Illlp,sa,chJ'r'!<lnt.

and executivE'! bodie~,

(5) Th8 CommisaHd PO'''''!Cir.


F.!nd the: COI1C)~1 rrsn 08 power~ (6.) The JUG lclary throuq h JUI.:I Ici·~1,j,shti.'l!illlw8stigatfons

Aevie\'!r. ('1) ThE;)Congres~ . 01 thfil 1"\.1 rse

(1) The Su preme CQ.urt: (2} The COli rt of ~plJ.oal$; (3) Th El Reg lena I Tri al COllrts:{ 4) Th~ MUI~i.Cllp~ Trlell~Cbt.lrtsand CjrcUcirTr~t'l1 eoun~: (5) Other spacial courts: (~} The, JUdlcl;5lJ and Bar Counc~l; (7) Tb,~ PU,lsidennhrough thl2 Appointplent Po~'er; (5) C{)l1gr8sstll~ough




Pu b] ie hearings

(1) Il.t:rcal omoiE!lIS [the local Chi~f EX€;t~u.tiverltIe Scrnggunfan anti ether local offic-e.r~J: (2) and consultatlona an d other nl':!illdated a:et!'Jlties i (3) Local sp~cfl!ll QOlJnthe Control Power: (5) Th9 EXE!cl1Ii\.lp-1;hrough lile PC~"'~r of GieusfalSu pervi's[on


c,ils an.d ib~dlE'!£: (4) CGngr'€lBS througll


dial;ogul~:;;, ~llJimmi!~ and las.kjoroQs:

(1) Media: {2} Publi9 'rt)rums, dia.logues and .$ymp(J~I.;I; (3) Multis.e.mor2J con::lultatioM, (4) Tfjpa,l1i~e pr rnultlsectoral bodies <lfld oounchs

• •

BlII draW ng 9:nd SP(}.ii5Qr_~hlp . filing. prcsecutlon arrd m onltorlnq of cornplalnts and casas ln rerlres s of ances before appropriate bodies


Pre sid-entlal' cartfflcatlcn of bill :;;/Jini~cti\jes Coordination and partnership .wi~h state ag,el1ciesin pa,rticul;u projects!a.ctivit~e$
Ralll es , strikas , demonstratlcns ailld other IWUS acUoM Networkl,rtg wllh tI;Q stars ,md other civi!< society actors Artlculaticn .throuch FrILJlt~i'11c-{;fia sources Er'll;loi["s.emenlof or support for ~*.\:l;llve and appointive ofncial:s

Ovi I,societv g rou ps oft~n ;;~rnuttaneouslv utillze several means of rrrterventlon i n'thelr advocac les < It. is lnstructlve to look at the case of SIBOL when- it adopted a three-pronaed interventlon strategy - which involved advocacy in the legislative arena (and, to some extent, the executive), til e rned la and the co mrnurrltv - in its carnpalqn fo r 'the passage of a new anti- rapt'! law. [111 'the legi stauve front.] s,mOL drafted 'the proposed alt1~i·r.ap,ehi II and Ind~vidual legi::;lators and their chief of staff, and the rhai rperscns and members of the working cornmltrses {dl!i:i Committee on Women and Family R~latlons and the Committee on the. Revision of Laws ln tlhe Hg·yse arid the Setlia~eJ.". SIBOl mlOlmbe,n also diH(.1.ently tollcwed up corum fttee deHbeta.Urbn::; o-n th~ bill In both r~oLls~S. terstHiled ln corn ill Ii rtee h,~airlngs", prcvided committees With r~~eal'd~-based lnformanon and analvs is. .and

fr~I!!!'Idly rG!l<Jtion~ witll (;~·mmiueesect'L:!tatie$" .. 51BOL also rnet with the le<!def1:(hlp ·oJ lM:Hh the House and the Senate, a~I'dl:!g therr ~!Jpport forthe r.<I~sa:ge. of th~ hill, Wome!1!'s, lobbying rea,;:hed the execurive . .<ma the P\r~sidellt included th.€! enectment of the n.iI;pe bHI fjI,S one of the pdOII'ity items

in the


Reforrn Agenda,

S!II!JO 01.1 ook its aclvocw;:y to th e mcedia: p ri I'It, ra.dio. arlell tt ~·Ie·vl si on _ L sot [The ra:t~O.n<J,I(;l· behitld this ls that] use of the madra is the best way. to reach as many p!\!Qpieas PQ$~rbh'l over a short p!lllod of time. The mae.liia pcputsriZ~ .tnt;: ~~:;I~e. [01lnd rernaln] all effe:.cOv~ n'HHU1~ to ~airl public s~jpport. for prDpos@'d PQli~y solutions.

[For ~t~ c,ommunity

a.d\!o,::;:at~yJ SIi30l mobllii2:;~d sJ~pPQnfor the ..,nti~
6rg;anlzat:kil1 s. As.

Us member

res ulr, peasant,


.andurban poor women h9m diffenmt paH.s of the countrv endorsed the leght:ttlon; Plrogressive students 'from \j;:lJlat)l,~ schocls and ~t1'ivil;!r!<jtie·s. outside Metro Mat1ila launched sfgna:tu~'e campaigns exhortinq ,legl~la1:or$" perti(:u~arly tihC?ir e:kcfe.d r""~·H(;!$~I]rfa.tive'$ o wot'l fo, til@! euacrrnent -of the bill ~
irtto iaw( R~y~d_

TwO other potnrs must be stressed

at th

is: j IJrlctu


Relatlve Unevenness in the· UtHizqtjon of Venues and Means
Fi rsr, th'ereis relative u 11 evenness I n the ~ti lizatiQr1 and effe.ctfVe.r1e"Ss of th~s~ venues anq rtreJ!'!s,. Vtinz~t16r1~f!d df6ctivf:M5S will depend Uri, t11€ pi3rti'cu~ant~es·, H rIO! p~tu Ilarltles, 0f the time rram.e, sector, BB<ue, 'MJVo.cacy; bran ch of gQv'ern" msnt, or levelof the. state (i d~" natlonal-lacal) lnvo lved. This Is t rue fa r both tile


veu tul':5. and

the !ll~an~ thWHgh wi'! i ch these .a_re accessed by C[vfl

To mU$trat"~! partlclpatton Irnh-e eleeto I-f.\~ process as -a means of'i nrervenue n will appear to be 1(1"51 used du rirrtg non-elactlon ye,a-f$ than d wring veal's whe n electlons are held. If c~viI so~i.ety fa rQuP:s are seHi ng n;!'!dr~'1s griev~mc~:s th ef the. lnsfru mi~ nt,alhy of the. CO U rts, this partie u lar means nlav even prov~ tel be imq:wmwiate, as J4.dges alld- Jus:tic~s are, nor ~I,~ctri!d by the ·p>e6·pte but t1Je- ;:qJpoime.d byrhe Pn~s ~dent frtl'm; a list of riommees 1 u brnittfd by the Judicial <'Ill d Bar COIJ n ti I. .
In tlwadvotacy for n~:.fQrm~ requi r~nglegi;;la·tjon.,,::ollgi-~~s becomes the prImary ban~egfO und fa r c;iv~ll.soctetv rnterventlon. Th ersfore, tile means a%QC lated with the: I:~gisla.Hve process like artendancein cornrnlttee h e:artrlgs., submlssio n of position p·a,pe-rs and other form$ .of lobbyrng, become the primary roo Is-fm @ngagin~ th"E stars. Fa r i nstance, O:AR and SIBOL effenive Iy ~J"'ed th~s venue, {Ogeth@[ wi[h the a_pp~~cab~e eili1S of inre rvention, ill ~obbying for the. pas·sage Qf"3_i1 agrarm ian reform Iav.' and a new antl-rape measure. res pectivehr. In 'rno n,~tartng the. lmpleme ruario n o'f e:xf'5Nng laws and policies. th~ arena wou Id have 1\:0 be ttl@ .ex(t(utiiv@ hrarlch and, so 'far as their lnterprerattonts concerned, the jud]chl.lY The workshop nn agrari(lJ1 refo rrn, fori nstance, noted after tl'~ Pdssag~ of 'the CAR:L c lvll socletvqro LIpS lnvo Iv!;d i nthe iss UE: tr<lirh~d their lcbbjes more 'on H~@: De:p'a1't.r'ne nl~ o'f Agrarian ~efprnl <l.t'hdles,'i: 0"1"1 the: leg isla" ture ...(i'Vi I $oct~fty groups also :Iobbied 'the'exeo~tb,i~ branch to persuade the Pr:e$lJ


1~O-' _~~LO!'!!






dent ro tssueexecunve orders which' wereqeneficial to tAem, as illustrated, flO r instance. by t'heex perten ce. oLCPAR prior to the. pas$a9c~ of the CARL N~LLAr~Uy.'A}, tivi I socletv imervenrlon [n the ju.9i,cJ_~JY witlely.evident i~ when .grQl,Jp~ in" volved In crl nne prt;:vent~on {~,g, ,-,:i~tiz¢ns Action Agai nst Crime, Crusade _Agai nst t Via len:ce) he Ip f~Hn:i'1 of viniTYI~ of he! nous crlmes me, prosecute and me nli tor les cases in courts.
More.o.vel; witl~ the Local Goverrl ment Code in place, dvi I '50d(:1ty groups \il;t the local Ieve I can now l nfluence Iloca.l government po I lcv-makl ng through "Iloeaf

venues arid processes as .sect oral repre:senta·tim~· in


law·makh£lg bod ies! memo

bers hilP in ItJ(al/reg~O!1al dev!;,!lopme nt cpu ncIls and thCi:. II~ke, i ns:te-ad ofgojirlg
thr(t!,lgh the clreu lteus route of national a"9.e.nties and offices, Not€': should beTaken, however, of the corv.:;~·rn aired' hi sevsral 'oj'/orksih()ps th~t d,ecisiorl-n'lakin.g Sitil'lll~'Il.d·s
to be '(ol1c~'ntrdted iirl Mariila, .

F"i"n?llv, aCf\fOG1~yatth'~ Iota! J~vell wh'h respeLl ito "national" i-S~I,Je.sllke Cfi me, the pr'(lp'oseda't1ti·r~rroriMrl pins, tax r·~forl':f1and trade and fi5.tal poHc:~e-s Me.d to beaccompan led by a correspondlnq earnpalqn .3i1; th-e narlcnal level in order be effective- Natiot1a.1 (amp~~gn s, in tu rn, r~:q.I;.J.isupport frorrr the gril!.5,~oots, This is re r wh(en~,F1etwQrkirHJplays a crucial role ;J.S®c, parttcular tool re r pollrcy lnterventlon.


In sum, the' time: e'lem~lrlt and the approprtare n-ess.factor should. 'always' be ton~i:d~'(ed i t'I..accessing and uti Iizi n.g parttcu lar venues 'and mechan isms fo r irltNventlon,
Sec,qfld" there.' Is a

Formal ¥en[:l~s'and Mea..ns
n of exi ~fi.n'9 (orrn:aj vem]e,stl.nd

general w~den.ll:Wizatio

merhan isms whkt~, tntu rn, has h~a[.othe il1ueas'iilg lJ!se::of ~nformjjll ve i1u¢,s and means for [nterverrtlon by civi'l 5-od~h-(The und:en.!Uiiliz;a:tio no offormal vern.. ~;S., iYJ H
fact, has somewhat been offset by the i ncr~~~i ng L1~e- 9{ i nformal V~ nues and means, Writing on .ths ex~c,uticve branc h, Elrillan:te.3 lJiurfbuted the u nderutl I lzatlon, and therefore to a certain extent, the ineffectiveness of formal mechanisms tothe "slow momentu tll of the formal pnJCeS5eS (agr;ee.mel1ts made ~hroug.h formal venues usual'~'Yta~e 8. IO·.I1g"time to get irnplemente,d) and the lack {)F p.repara.wry stan wctrk:. from NGOs/POs i,n proposing: ·PQih::~e-s. programs." or
It must be emphasized t~.OL!9h that.formal structures for civil £;QciHy' lntervenHort are not 'bei ngca&l ;as~'deor abandoned. IhJ.nhe inrqrm,oJiproces!;; andfrank artd above-board co nsultatiorrs aro@s6cmetlm':e_s more effective d? ~ 'step6ingnon~, to' f6rma:liz~rig consensu 5 p.Qi"nts reached I;le·twe.~nthe ~tate'arrd clvl I so.det"l. Th u,s, whi Ie the. US~ of lnfcrmal vsn IJ~$ and processes serve to suppl~.r1rrllnt or buttress i nterventlon efforts i 11 th.e formal chan ne 15., care shou Id be 'take n that these do not. underml ne or negate formal structures and tnstltutlons, The deliegates.agreedrhat

"Such formal rnechanlsrns areneeded and are actually critical to the: u Iti mate objec~ive of" institutiortalizinq transparancj, ilHQuntabid'HW, rationalliry and civil ~oci:ely


i n g"ov~ma<n(@.(BkIUAJ.ftbc),


PanldI,gms and From ewerks
i he- stare

itr~~/ be acco unted fo r bv ttie 0 iffe'nng mnd aJlrles cf thin kl ng that dlvid'e t herrr, Thfsd:<l,s~ (If W(') rldvfews ma,y be m us!rate"d by 'drt:hqto mres th.ll tOO'l,12 ~nro pl~y wf}~t1re.vrnthe stateand ci'vH ~oci~ty i rite racr with p,¥h other, To u n~1e rstanCi ~taH~'~ and civil ~och!ty.'$ respectlve vanlag.e points, we may, fQ r liristanos ..expl 0 re the termers c IJ ltura of g'ov~TrlatilCe vls-a-vls: the kltt~r'S, OJ lture of resj stance. Another WQ uI d be Hre -state actors' p€: rceived passio n fo r pel ittcs and civ~1 soc iely's pen::e.i'!;1l"d pass iOr:! for activism, Sti II. we can 100k at s-kIrt'b~ishe~ between the stare and civil '~ociety in terms of the 'formel··!s p:enc,hant for stabl IkW and til e latter, fa r tll~ng@; the termers concern for rete ntlo n o r cQnc~nHat~o 11of power and the riat~(!:r,for ,a~'lw·isltton 0 r <'J lstrtburlon 'of ppwe-r; UH1:5tat€'~ CQnctr~ fOr "II"'I iun " <lnd At civil sQc:lety's t.ocus on "co l'hm u n itl~s"; bthVtt-'rl the need 5 ofg rowth and t hese of devalopmant; or~'h~ .dernands Q f i mmecl~.a~v and tbcse ~f su'~taj nabi I ity,

Tile tli(:lg<lt~veaspects of the~ relat torrs hip berween

and c iVII

~O( i ety


Tolllustrate, if. rh"b GATf-Un,l9uay RQund: (GATHJ.R) d~bat~, rll~ differences i" upi nion ran.g·ed fromthe Sei who faYQ![ed an £Ip~ n mflr'~~t)~I~() nornv and t1105G: w-rm ax:lv@f..atedthE! mal nh~tl'V~C~of So me Io rm pf trade reg L.! lanon, tnthe matter Q f a i I ~rilce i nu~ases, there we re differences between 'thosE:. who favored Q.ereg ulatlon and those who were ~gai nst it In add ltlon, so me fJ I'DUpS considered women's CO ncerns as- "soft i 55 1.1 es " will i I@ oth en: ·treated t~~~ as rnalnstrearn rr( lssues, W"ithl respect to the envi ronrnent, tfle. advocates 0 f susta: i'l(itbiIHy and ratio nal U §e of natu ral re~0,tHce:~were opposed to thO:s'e who d i:S~'~garded ~hes.e lss ues i n deve~o pmerit [)fan'n trig I ~i terms of miqrartt wQr~ers,' I ssu P.'S,:·'~QnH~·[ larnored for proactlve; Inn.g"[e.rrn p.o~kie:s W 11I@othe r~ w~Je f9f the lirYrpie l'I\entation of reactive P91lc ies. i

N"~gative prf:cqIK~'ptio

fJe·rcelv~ rh'at the decis..i.on -rnakl ng pmc·, of 'the state I ac k trans paren,y andthat the. gove.rll rne nfs: "5 i nt@rity" or "motive' i r~~ts. acne i1S J:.r~d n ~ti() is suspect. Til is pe rceptl Q n Q r preconceived notion of the state. gives rise to' ellsrrustand reILInan C@ Gil ·~tl~ part of c~viI society' to PIIltic i pate fn 'sMte-j nifiat.ed prO"c\i!.~s.1e$.. SeveTai deh:g>ates, fo r Instance, 'e>::pre::,;~ed that a nu mber civil s'riclety 9 rou os refuse to take part i 111 these pfOte.%eS (e.9., [ommittee hearl ngs ~rI Co 119 f'e.S·S) because of the. vi ew th<i.t rlwy will gai 11 Mthi n'9 from the m and that thei r ta.~i n 9 pM! wl II merelvresu It In "rubber stamp partir. lpation ,." dy acton

POSiILOIl born



n.s,ana rni£u.n.d~Crsta.nd!lI\{~ of th€s[;ate. arid (iivi'! s.oCiet:y'~ f d iverg~ra rnodalittes :t/'WII' extsr, For e'xample, dvi I soci-

In arrN; i patrng the lack of wnergy,

rat+yt'ilal ity and susral n < ity i 11 state pol i-

des and jjr'o.c~9 u n;s, [ivil $Gtiety acton; i rnpres s outr'~tfh( upon the'stale the stamp
of .dlsapproval, ff r~tJt i nee mpete ri ce. For exam pie, it was Vi( rltten I n a case 5tmly that the 9.@nerallfee ll n9 among tn~grant workers NGb.s toward gov(~,rnm~11t' i q;l1aX of 'frustration." This atrltude arise~ m", i nlly fro m the lac k of gov~rr] me I1t pe rson nel and fi nanc 1a:1 resou rCE:$ to res pond tQ m~g rant works rs i ssues. A$ a r~'s,uIt. there b very IjtHe that gcoveornment can do about the. pernlclcus problems encountersd by migrarn workers. For exam p l;e, '10 rl'e.govern ment are reticent to assrst OFWj, 'IN he af€. "urrdoc umented" and, vmrsec, these ":C l1arge.d wirI1Lr'imtr:Jal trt'fe:h5"eS in the. t~OiSt.C:O:UMry (VII.I}.k8,,.,,)" The gene.ral v~e:w, sa:id V!~lAH.9.. ls that the gO''viern rnent tnntude toward~' NCO~alld P(,lS h.olS been p,a.trot"liz!F!g. viewing them sknply as be neflclarles, cl h~nts; or recipients of90;v~,dnmenr'sel"vice:s,

111tu rn, the


apprecratie n of

renukes dvHsod~'ty gm1J~'s forthe:rr i mpatie rice and scant nmental venues and processes. Su:te acta rs h kewrse corn-

plain about tile often (onfroru.i!ltiona.1 stance and knee-jerk reaction of clv~l.s:o,iety to govern me I'll acuonsaoo Inatililives"and the mlw ~II~ngness of some c:ivi:~soc iety acrcrs to arrtve 'H a .r:;Ofill5enSIJS r.~'ith the M~te. VLll.alba, for in stance, wrote that 9 overnrnent offkJals are par1!:~(llJla.dy susprrraus of some mi gfant worke rs NGOs whic.11 areknown tO~XP"ESS rnemsetves ii'll mass actions. because nle.y l1eiiiL?ve these drill pol ~ticiillily' mQHv.1Ited and harmful to the govern merit's creel ibi I ft'Y dl1n
rlJm::titH'IS. .

The arnblvale I~te em the p'atl of cl,v!l socte ty 0 nhcw It ~ho LIId pMl lc i ptHe I tl !)Ino in teraanv~nes,s rn .l'espo,ndhlg to ~'Ov~Fnrnenr po I it.y br~<lb thro LJ,ghS SHUllS from ;} ccncern rhat It would ~()t(! rnii'lily lose lts iderrtltv elf be coo Ptt.!d bv t h~ state. Ttu5 fear of (0 OIOIJ.tiOrl by, o~ I,cg,!'tl rm:t.;H!O n ot, the state IS,

state processes

iii tu rn, bro ugh! about

by .. negauv~






B IJ t {I'! ls arnbiva-

rmoo ass urnptlons abo IJI t11~ state, On tn~ wrllfmy, L'I(an .1~~O be explatnad by llrLe actual exp~fi~fl({~~ oj clvll societv tn deil~ll"Ig With lh~ H.1lI'('. (JvII sonet¥'~ cy,ucal view ,ln5e~ frcrrl tl!~ ~t,ltec~ ("On uptlon. i !''H.~mcJ{'ocy and 1:.(10;. of pOhlif.l1.1 will PJ ~mI I tLH:ion il,lil!:~ rhoro ~I,y11gl.l 111~' reforms. Civl150ciety's expenence with thf' M;'HCOS drcrarurshlp Cl!1~Y Iw,rgl'iteri0C1 ~III~ rvnic i"f!1i['v~!'1 rno re,
01 ciYl1 SOCltlY not ari Sr'




OUt 0 f J


b p.tul, to be b~<llfled Fen ~hl~ prnom,elved mll1d~et or [IS Ile~ng ac •. lH.t"'d I nelhnfrl,( If III ~11e iJNFo r'rl"lanc;e 01 it~ functlc ns, '111e ~rate hOI) demonstrated .d n t.m~<I~1rlUS .<lb~HH chili So( i ~ty'~ ernerge~r.e as a COlJ f)t~ r-pnwer or .. threat r(l ~l~ hegemony. The state, acco rd Ing to the

~nd~ed, the state I"! , In ",ddlftion to


hOl;.lsmg and b3SlC se rvices workshcn H1 the co nr~fem:e, has h Isto resisted reforms, so that Its sll1ce.rilY In resolv m9 urban poor problems Ins been SLJ ~ pen .. The we rks hcp 0 n trade and h~c.!\Tpolkres cited, the. way. ~he. govern me nf hil..~£'eemi r'g Iy effect ively sideuJ.ckeclea{il and eve ry ~Hort of crvi I socIety to I !'IfI~J~F1ce: stare pc I ir.y-makJolg. It pointed out that {he U rrhnlv ~lIIal'l ce. of political and eCQnomic power. as shown 0.", the tandem 0 r (he state .drl'd big DJ,Jsine51 In the CATT


Is th eo biggest hindrance 10 demnc ratl2:;uiqr1 {t~l!i I;" Oi.JI d R[C~lP'DO). H!1l lhb nrne t('!ckllllg l!le rssue or tax refor rns, eChoed IIH: same. it reported lh(l'l ~he network of r;J<u r(Jrlag~ OI.nd.qu~d prQ quo ments b~t\,1"l1!en busi ness -Clnd indr, idual p.o lit lc tans has effectivel y ~h,J[kl~d the leg i ~ lative process on taxes to ~ht: il.dv:anlc1£je a m:l be rrefit 0 f bus Iness lobbies

same workshop, serntmenrs when


f"waUy. the lack of cultu re-sensmvrty

(e" .q ..

ge il der; e nvi

ron me nt,

erhn lc ny,

or awareness

on ~h~ part or pollcv-rnakers

and the rr eWP. fSlon to C ivi I §oci


partlo patio n 111dec ISio~'-nla.l-:lI1g Ila S made fTi~'n.dl¥. no n-adversanal camp.ugM s by c ivi~ society ,KtUI!> ~I'l alma ~t luttle means for an lc L.I iil.t~ nq rh E!i r lnrerests anclgril2v> antes beforE the stilile. Advarsa ria! methods of enqaqernen r, tfl f L! rn, h ave 0;, Iy rl1i eel tht' ~flDn!> of erherwlse "ope'n-l'n~nd'ed cr neutral ~iJliL v-rnakers Eo rear 11(I lit to (IV II sor 11;'ty-"wd i ncluds its \l'1~WS ~n t h~ polirv-rnakmq pm-cess. p,~,. For e)l~)mp~e r:IH!d the fllihm~ of '~iv II soc lerv gr(,lup1> '10 look It leg'!io'ativ~ dvnamtr.s OI~ part of rhe pull~tIC:~ of COns,e' F1S LJ~ and n~gDfJauOuJ, The ltt'ifJdllt'lO(.C (J f dvrl sec 1!i![V 9 F(Hl p~ W if hthe ~eg Isi



PilE? ~xpji.u!1ed.









In sum, dFffEn'illg mcdahrtes of tl'lin~lng of the ::Hat>e rrd ~ivil societv account a for the negative rn i(Jdsel:s or preroneeptlcns ·of orreabout the other, Ttl ~~.dOf1!~ nor mean, however, that tl1e nat~ and civil 50(i'l!ty w~ILI alwavs have ro be vj~wed as two disparate, distinct and (ontenC"~n9 blocs. As pctnted (HIt above. tt~ese rnodahUe:ll are net mutuallv excluswe but {OOSNun a wdng!!! of rmndsers and purspectlves: thus, overlaos or CO~1V:f:'!rgerKe~ of the~e perspecnves OCCIIJ r, And wh~ FI they do, In terms of a parm:1)~ar Issue for iJ1lUiI<lFlcEl,lhe dividing line be rween state and

dv II soc i (lty acto rs b I L.I rs. how sver f1I1o e ntar i1'1'. m TI1at ,i.ndhtldual nau: and Cn.tiISDC!Jely elements or actors no Id d'i tlere!l r v le w·~ ,;;tnd ~':I(JsitiOlH on 1ss,1.H;:.s! as sncwn by fhe j!a.;.peril:!lrl(,es reccu nted by t Iw con fe I'· ence parncipanu, fu'nl1el s!rengthefl!!O ~he view thar the s [me arid civil ~o(iety iW2 mH rnonclh hie ~11f lues. Thl'Y are not seuarate, ~10rnoge-nCi blocs rhoi!.tnever conLJ':> verge 011 1Ji! rt:lc ular pO'Hc:yi~SUl~5, In ~p~uf ..; ~~ frames, l~~lr5trarrve of 'I hi ~ poten1TIt: nal (0 I'1V~ fgelu:.e a! the ioc.,al level is the "EmpOW,efrllf!rn On1hlarrce 0[' NuyJ. (' ltV" that Imrtl'tuU(lIlalized an INGO·PO·GO ,p.anne:f1.tup;
COVerntlflC~ lis

bi!~,t ,~ff~d!Hif !~ rUr)(]n30lfJm~le::;. i ~

~rQ s~l;:n_r~d



P'~QI}Ji! A !.Iystf::!m of P;;Itl rle{shh~' bctw'I1cn Hie OOIJ~rnor andthe gOl/l!rw:d ~h(lll guara.ntc{l thatH.n,rom~gnty ,~ff<i!!W\'dy re~!dE:~ [I:'! ~h~ P{!OP~(! (Sec ,2 (c:), Ortjlnll'lcc No, 95-092, Naga C~t¥)

The City Cov{!rnml!nl of N'H]il: 1'I!;!f(!.b'll d~d~s It~~lt olJ~n w .J. pil.rlll~r· Stl~p wUh du,ly .ac·c.redU€ld f\4agil.-b<!sed f!Mpl~'!;organ.r;;raUt')f15 and ncn-jjcvernrnent orgarl.lzaHons

all 9ove III mil!FIt

~ ctiv~t~ sand e

I!Mth~ amc(!pUo,r.. ~mplementatkm and ~"'<Lh~<ltiol!' of functtens (Jd. 31


111 $orsogon, the Ta~k Forte Banyullay sa Q.1Igal served as the Forum for local governme:m-civil SOlci~ty (on\i'~rge.m:C' ~1fI th.e,r-Dmifluiatio~ .00Jld tmplementetton of 01. ceastal resource rnanilg.erneru P~anJD~u~Lf.lJl i:lmd 1.0F'U). lnth ls foru rn local peopJe's ( organizilitlons.., tile mayof,th'e municipal couoejl.rhe Deptlrtmerlt of Envi ronment and Na:turod ReSOl1JfCe.s {DENR) regIOnal offic'e, bM~mgay counc i Is and church groups

eng,aged,. debated and <li.~fe:€dwith each other on the enforcernerrt m un lc ~ I 6 rd irl anc es p@rtailll!flg to coastal rna nageme n L pi!

and review of

logi:\>t leel Re.s O'lLl rces Tech nh::a ~ CG j:N:J1b ill'~t'ies ell, nd 0 rg

CI niz,atiot1

The extent of logis.!ic~1 resources (~r1c1udi g tm..H1 pCP11@r', tschnrcal capabi.l i· n t ties and organiz'atiorl also affect. to a tElrg~ ex~el1rt,.stafe·dvil soc tety true ractlcn [n the Po~~cY"n!ak'lng proces-s. The limlted iogiStiCsand technical' knm ....edge and tix r pertlse on partlcu lar iss L1~S constratn l;obbV and policy mterve Filion eHort5_ In a case study (G\lRiAlal1dR:Ec.:"lAD(}) rc:yf ·il:i3tle·cuvi] SOClelY relations In trade, fiscal and 5 mcnerarv policy-maiking. in g~n~ral, and! th!? CATl-Urug UilIYRound debates. if'! parUcu,lilr, the writers hillve [h~s LO saYi3Jbo.ut H'I1.!debiUtat~ng !2Ff~ct of limited re ~QUrces and tech mcalexperuse Oil lobbyirag vls-a"vl s· rhe state-and or her stakenold!;rs:
Civil ~odety ;;:!.(:tor~arc h~f;!dkapped by limj'ted r'!~o~rr{e~ and cdp<ililll· tJe~ In malkll1g and art.k:lJldlth~'gl ~h~lr po:s.llb~ns, Th15, 15 furth"lf il,gg.PJ.Vi'ltIH~ the 'JOlietrh,'1l pol i~y I~S.lH!:;'a end mforma~iol1 do not rE:!' them On n me, If ever tlwy do, On lh~ (flher hand. Ihe QO\Il!rnm~wu supperts thOH! who ar ti(Lilale us pCI'~Hlol1i. p.,.rticu~arlv In IOQhUc,af ~(! rrn s. Gove.rnm ant u!tf. ~IP l;lrop;3,garu"lt! m",chinll!~II!!;. Including n ,1U0.., <!II''[ilmpalgJ'll~ <lnd ildvertl:r.tlfrHHH~




llnllke the gov~rllm(!nt and busmess sector, rlvll society grOl,lr:'ls. {1<H;kthe re sources to ensure that technical axpertlse "ll'ld preparation £10125 Into the packagi 119 at tts posltion],

The. lack- of techn leal expertise on the part of c!vii societv can dl yo affeGt to a considerable extent thel F capability to access. '~he e xlstl rng ven lie s an (~othe r state processes. Civil soctetv's lack of k~owiedge of venues and thelr-correspcndlnp processes hampers irs po Iicy interve ntlcn efforts. To i llustrate, d LI e 'to urrtarn tllarnv ...... the policy- maklnq terrain, civil society actors WI2Y'e, not able to use the !lUI· apprr..:i:priate means to access parttcular venues .. TlI~Y thereforeended tip employ' ing hn'twoper or inappropriate means of intervention. According to 'he partkipants-th i s led to ineffective canlPi3Jg n~ end lobby effo rts. Unfamillarltv '.'V ith tile venue lnvolved also breeds a -getlHal feeling of ind.ifferem:e· and dfJ.;tthy that preempts par~icipat1ot1 and involvement In pol lcv-rnaklnq .. Fo r e xarnple, 'i 11 'I he del ibe rat loris on the revislnns lntrod u ced in the CARL only a. few Farme rs' flfC'II)PS or NGO:s kept watch ever [ong ress ..The reason was that they found the le9' proce~5 all u nfarn i I iarterrai n.
Sustal 11abl fi nancial resource 5 has also been a serious concern. Ir) [XU'tic ular; th e workshop o-n housing and baste servl ces ex p~ctin ed that the fai Iu reo of lotal'org~nization s/federanons to devl se. 'an d develop ftrrl<:haisi Ilg pro] ects "CaU sed sario LIS f nanetal diftlcu ltles v, .. tch, in Hi rn, slowed d own .dav-m-dav ~1 .h rassroors work. Fina.ncial lnstabllirv also made reliance donors and flJndin9 J-gencies a. necess ltv. As a CO"F\:H~q ue nee, several worksho os noted NCO programs; have beCD me donor-d rive FI and f.u nd: ng-mierrted.n ish a~ led 'tEl cocptauo n by fund rng ag en cl es 'and resource-rich pollticlans and to th e pro llferatl on of flv-bv-n i9ht NCO~ arid 'POs, These developments mean whi I~ im pede, the develepmant of a. co III prehen 5 ive agi2"11 for po I icy advocacv da :



The ne.ed for furthe r cevelo pi Flg clvl I soci et y'~ ran ks and network i ng with other groups is also all i mporrant factor in effeC1;il1g" a MJCC::€:S sful i nte rvenuon campatqn, partlcufarlv at the. local level. One case 'stud'Y Writer (I\NGELF.5)- noted in her assessrnerit of the! 0 ['gar! izatio nal s k;i 115 of the Naga 'City Urban Poo r Fede.ratiNI {NC UPF) that as iE5··0ffic€:r.s rnatu Fed to do C~ rtai n I eve I. the ad m in IStrauve capabl'ttles of local D.-gat; lzatlo 11S at the b~rarig ay level we re: not devel o-ped :~:KCQ rd i ngiy. The ldent lflcatlcn and tral nif19 of potent 1011o mm u tl,ity' l-eade rs was neg Iectad. c TI1 us, the su pposed pool of second-l lners was actually non-existent.
Mo reover, partie: pants


0 rganizing

by ruinous Cornpe:ti;tio fl. potmcal dHfe rences and bkl<l!:ri n£!, and dis un itv arn,ong I he ranks of the 'Iocal g.rtH1 P5, These d i fficL!hies 'i n organ [Zi ng a nd estah 1I:s1l I')g Ilinkaqeswtrh i oth a I gr"b L1P~ have seve rely hampe red ca rnpaiqns and advocac les n 0 L0r\ly < t the local, but th e nan D'nal,l~vel as well.
AJ10th'@r (C) n seq ue nee of log tsucal arid orgo1r1iz2I.tional proLIC:l rns i 5 the f<ii lure to follow through 011 pol,ky gains arid lnitlatlves of the state, Tile W'Qik.sihnp on housing and bask servl cas noted the fal Iure of so f'l1e com rnu nlnes to rnai ntal n comrnun ity 5~IHl(~ IP projects, fac i I tries and mfrastructure obtained fro III the local qove rn ment.

sources and the gl?neral.<.tpathv and unawareness of local communities lar Issues. That weakness, arcordlnq W them, \,... further aggravated . as

ill the works ho p 0 n trad e and fl seal po I ici es co needed arid nerwo rkinq at the local L@v~1 was weak due ro llrnlted reo of parrlcu-

Finally, the lack of Qxrranittd comrnuntties, tblt· fa:i lure to ge.f1e.rate social COt1stltu~J],\tb~s on which "$ peclflc polk:y advi:!:caciE!5!'mav be fa unded: and .theIack of awareness of Oitv;tH,dble' venues and mech<Jioiisms ·for ini:e.rVe m!Orl, were cited bV several w6rbhops a~ theculprus, ne hlnd ineffective lob,t,,1 es ain::! carnpalqns,
fr sheu Id be noted, however;

have bee:n,-abl'emeffea~vely

theexpertenees (JUS local organizatimlj resulted in the ~LJr.[~SS of thei" earn paign to rnoblllze >:t. ~tlbgtantial tdFl~trhH=ncy lb'eIl,~nd thel r re-speuive pro pcsed bllls, AI sQ.~he tech rrtcal expe rtise ofthe ir m~mbel'''o rgan tzattcns and ind~vidual suppertet's si~SllTifi(a.t~ rly ccntributed to the s:ucc~~s. of the ir i ntervention in the le~~$!aiive areha,

that, 1:0 .acertaln exterrt, c ivi I soclerv g.rO~..p"..'i r addres sthe above-mentioned problems, Fm i'r:Js.:tance,. Q{ 51 BOt am] CPA,iR, 'show (hat their effective netwerkinq witll varl-

On th~e' an: of the'state, the lac lc of tee" n:rccil knu~vledge and (apal1;r~Hies 0 n p particular policy Is:';.ueshampe rs not 'only the fonrw lanon P.((/("~clive.a:nd lo·njl~· term so!uUc/n·· pre55~ng proble ms b-ut" JJso th e effective Jmp~e rnentatfonof ~~i&t:irfg t<\7WS ~11d. polidcs. Ttl i~ factor has oeem cited a~ an r rIlped I mem to the efficiEi1:CV HJ""iE state by rtl e works hops 011 the environ me nr tpr"1J$~G utto n of illegal Iog,g.e(s), mig ram workers (prosecution of ili€ rsc ruiters and provld i rig for the needs of mig ran! workers. abroad, e ,g., lega.1assistance. process i n9 o.f Have ldoc U· menrs, work contractauthentlcatle n, etr..j, trad e and flscal po Iie les (forrnulatlon of a comprebe f1"S iv:e pol ~[y:OJ'I safety nets to cautie nthe j rnpact of' GATT 0 n so rne 5e.CtD'rt), e lectoral proc~~~ la:[:t~t1g on electora! cornota: Fl~SJ,tind CJi me and h urnan riqhts. III !Jstra:t~ve of til is' situatro n ls tille a~'~[:lMment marie bV 'a, case study write r (A~G :5 EE}: . .



Thill laW \i!llfQh:l1':r~· .-9.{e b)lnI~p~re:d by I.(l.:;:k pf f!J11d~, erVJipme:nt Md rralnIng In i ntelllgr:mc!J! work,' tu ~9Iv(;!crlrrras, 'Whir~ (rim iilals U~e c:dl phcltles. and 50phistit~te:d radio tr,ans,clE![.ven., our police pr~cinq~ semen rnes do not even have tele:t=!,lwMes. WtlTI~ the kl.drWp'pen' ·~J~t·Ltwa.y Cars .,;:rcr;: PajQ.rQs. and Ni 85'~m Ptltrols, our ope Fid've s Lise ~he:ir own 1,g8n~ l()yota~ and lancers- for pur'

suit. Wors£:


that .of~en, whenthev

rlon eanrret be assured.
invQstfg~.~i'm~ ciD.f.itdIJcted

suo:;e,.ed fn (l'rrestinI.t erlrnlnals. G.OI·wi<> y If the crim inill~ are infIlH):r'lti@di\!l'~ U~e beh).wp<'J.f,. either by d'~si~rJ or ~;lrnply bcc':\LlSe.

e U r 0 \I.e. r w erke d a II d Li nd rpaid fisc<1IB ~.mde,rnlOti\la~£ld 'to do, ~he-ir jobs 'ii/eli,




po-a rly

n.d tled <lml

In another case, VILlA:L~~'j;dPpr~is~1 of the D..epi'irtme nt.ef Fon::iq n Affairs' oJ drD~Qm:a'tiC: force. abroad, i.s. @quaJly ttlRpres.s1 ng: ~ • " • ~ Ii..


of rh~ DfA who haJ~{H'es thi) a11'<:~i-r:~ o:Fmi.'grOl,ntw.ork~rs DVQ[~,eas is rero~ted to h:;ilV'e made the 5.~,[ltem0r!t that.the PFA workfu:rcJ;: of 2-50 is \.jnlZl,bl~to handl('l the protectlon of four rntll ion [:11 iplno mi'gram workers overseas. If25~O re:pre..serlts the t.otaJ dl plernatlc force of gOV(lrtlmIH"It owrseas, this wm~ld mean that the' r<tUo of DFA personnel percountrv wllere a. Fi IIi11ina. tni 9 rant we rke I' Is rutate d 1:5 11.8 persormel p@r ,nl U~1ry. Tf~ ism (~~ 5 tt n
IB.~~ than twogio ve rrrrne nt re:pn:is e fitaotLve sin each ryf til e 1 3"? ~'Q:LIV~tri~r IHlHl OFW~-are lecated. Put another way, there are 16.0QO FiHpJW n6.s~o~~~akerl care 9f by eaeh dipl9m.;uk re:pre"~i\mta~iVft QVeHeaS_ . . that. thereare

A staff person


Lade of hi nd ing ang th~ I nefTJc.ient use 1.1 nitad logj.s,uc;iJ,1 r.e~.o.url\:-e:~(errla~1n r pro blerns in the tmplemenratron of $tdJt~· pci licles and pro.grams. d~hers arethe i na.deq.)~cYQf mooitoring c·apa.bmUe:s and the lac j(, of fo~io.w"th roug h mechan is rns.



• MA!lI!,.ON






on POlicy tnttlatives n;~'nectron~ 'perh{\p_~. ot the negati.\f~ a,ttribLJ~e of ningascoqon, ~tat:e ven ues artd pmcfJ;$:S@.s lso (0 nttnue to be unutilized or U nde rut iIi~ed a d ue .to tile lac k of ~.~ i FIformatlon carnpzd[F110 make 'them more access ibllt, LaMly, ow~n:g to the state's Umited capab lllties and often-co mpro mtsed pas i!ioti! 0 n pofky tssues, the mobilizalinn of a pollucal or scclal bilS'e to s uppo 11 and pus h for critical yet unpopular refo-rms. becomes d ifFic UI~t II"! the case of t<,,-,: retQ

fo rm, for exarnple, 11 case study writer (ClJTleHf,f.t~ noted tne state's apparent f{ LIre' build a rnasstve, acttve a'-rid i nformed CQthtul,IJencvtorally beh i nd theccrnpre-

hensivetax refo fin 'pack;;lge, The ~~S'ultwas. that th~ stronq buslne ss lobbies ag~l.n5t the. pro PQ.s~d ta;;::·measures p(~Vcti I~'tl

Stmteg ies of Engugem,ent
The tln I'd facto r thro L1g h which srate-clvl I .'Socll2'ty re i.JJ.tio In PQlicy-maki ng 11~ may be und,e.:(stClod .and asseased is the nature and qualuv of eFfig·~g.e:m!1!.rutrates g.r~s employed by eivll ~m:le,ty vi~"J'vis the st.1!U!,The (m.nk lpants are of [he view that wh ~~.@ the: 109.lgtiC;,s and rescu rcas of clvi I .$'m;.i~t¥ groups are. Ii mitad I n quantlt'y, th ey are" able.' to more 1han make UP for this try u ~In·g_q ual it<~ti\ie~y ~ff~criv_~

bm8", the writer ,dttrib~ utad tile 5 uccess of thl! oppo's ition to the bllls to l~l~ vigi lance and dS'~bil'ity of Civil sQ(iety 9 r'Ou ps, i ncludl ng ~he strong' networkl ng fo rged among til e chu reh, rell§J.iQUSa·no professlonal grQ ups, and cause-« riented org~F1 izatr):)~s {OIIJI'<NQL An u rban poor fedem.tio.n in the wcrksho p 'em housl ng attrlbuted the passaqe of propoo Ford i rrances and poHdes. to ttu' elecho'n (}f pn:;)!~Fe:ssive local oHtc tars the C u Itfvati·nn ;of an open, a iliJOg leal and cQop'@:rativt:.··nda1!~o 11sh lp between the local government and tts co n stttuents an d II.! rban poor 9 roups: [tn-d tJh~ active Invo Iveernent DfHH~ local to III rnun ity (ANGELES), .. po~ky-makil1g

means M ihte!'ve nHQ n

in arucu

venues, In. a·'q.'i.'f',~m~dv J the arrtl-terrortsrrr o

I.Jit~n'gn1eJr pc.isinr.m~


fo rrnal


'i nfc rrnal

Thetwo case studlesen wo men's issues bQa¢:.tlQr succe ss fu I campaig n sf,o r p.n.s~age ora new anti-rape la,w·3,nd fmpJ~f1'Le ntarto n ofthe f~rn ilv plai1 nhl9 poog ram at thelecal i@ve I. Oru~'ci~~d the S\fstB:tTjcllir: way by w'h tc h women's ~fO ups cond ucredthetr .advocacv effar1S· in the: le9~s~ature, the media and the comm IJ n.ity til re ugh mn~.dou sness-ralsl rlg,.co rnmUFlHy o,rganliingand empewe rrnent prog rams for women (RHl!~). The other noted the p0sitiv,~' im pact made Iby i nVQlving men as fami~y plan ning tral riel'S after they went tth rough gender-SeJl s-lrfvhy workshops and serrunars- WNWJN) ..


rnan~ge~rrerH prQ9 ram hf~~ged on the partnersh I~ betWeef~ Civil :wc: lety an d the local gave rrrrnent, TheTnedialion of the mayor and the me rnhers of the ..).:wggIJniqrl mad,e possIble aseries cf betwee n NGOs and b,afing operators (lha$~ Who use fi ne. mesh rl~~S to catch j Ln7en'iiflmtnes~ tllat rsuadedthe ·Ianer tC'! use more .approprj~t~ns,hirr.g methods (DEICA C!l,uzand LopEZ),

II, another

case studv, the s uccess of a eomrn u rilly-based

CO i\$.t.;l

I resnurre


The pidwl1;. will not be complete thouqh wHhout cifin~ the dowrts'rde p.f Livi~ SQciery's engagement of the state, First, b~LaU5@-of rni tlU,S(U le or fracttous Ilobby: efforts, ciyUi w'c,i,t!ty did not make J d~IH on important lSHH~s W,;';e tax reform and trade and f~sca.I' po I ides, In the case of tax reform progress lve gfQ ups were underrepresented vls-a-vrsthe bustness gmlU ps in the leg lslatlveferum. Trhe'ir absence or i nsigF! lfic·ant partlctparlon ~" the debate'S we re furrhe r aggr<lva~ed by the lackluste r lnvelvernear of the. sectoral representanves in .rhe discusstons on the


local level, divlslon arno rig the r:Mlks of dvl I socterv Of! the Issue was a sertous ccnstral n:t to the; fa rmatrcn of an effective lobbv 8.9-;3.i the J:g reements: nst

refo rm mE!9.~U res {Gv:rIERR[Z}, The S;ime G1/1 bee ?aid of the 'Ldmp<i\tg n of civil socletv groups .agai nst th€: C,'-I.n~U rug:uay ROL!fld ;tgte',emen:ts, parttcu I.arly at th e


wb Ire actors (if ciivi! '~'od~~y !,>harcd in primipl e rna.ny M 'the: is sues r);J,i ~~d, tillG!Y di ~"playQd difFen~I1Cfr~ In. org.O!.!r1izaUonal ¢tntl pohtical prOjetHon, It carne to a pdnt [where] 'three m.~jQr ~Qil'l~tidm held a mass arttcn in front
slv, and speakers of each group 1:l·l1!:ta·me t~ddle.d up lJi this theater m hi9hH:gh~fid th~ ve'rbal e);:.~fl~.r(g~sr·.(n"erth<inth~ i~,me~.'
each oth!!!:I'. The lssues

of the S-ernOl-teimultaneou s


attackl ng of" war, Mltdla . . .

.Add ltlonal consrraints to ~n.g.lgln9 the stare aretheg~t'H;r~1 undsrurl Ii;;lafiQf) et ex lstl n 9 fo rmal ve nues for i ntervenn on and'corollarlly, the. rel~ance. 0 n confronsatlo nal methods ·.lr'ld informal charlinel.s wh lch usually lac k pred i~tabiiity, Lim @.bilitt and trdI1SP.JJ12 n,cy for example i tli,e_ worksho p 011 agrarian refo rm mentlerred that a n LImbe r of rarme r gro ups did F10t i r1te"tvene~n 5'0 me agencies i F1volved i:tl lhei rnplemenratlo n of agrarian reform (e.q., Dsparrms nll at Public Wo rks and rl Ig hwavs), because they we:r'e riot aware of the procedu res ijTwo~vie·din th ~}e' Ll:~i,entie:~, Writil1g en stare-ctvll society relattens ln po Iicy·ma·klo.g 1rr t he leg tsl a{ive are na PA~~cited the Jack trf II nderstand ing 'Of the. pr'pc(tS" and dvnamlrs Involved Iii the. le.gfslOlxive terrain as one of ·ttle factors that a.c.cQ.u·rrrM tor the underutlllzatl enof 'Co nq res s as a venue for 1 nie rvenrlon. . ......,. . ..
i~ th i rd facto r is. H'le I'~I:: cf coo rtI inati ();r1 and' network.i k f~g among:c.ivi I SQci"(:~W actor'S in the i r advQc<l.cits·. This la-tk of (00 rdinatron is partly bro)u}Jht abo I:J:t by the fda· that (ivil s.od@ty is not a 1110no lithic enmy but consists of actors with dive rse mmdsets and Intel'~'StS'~ For i nstance, after r-ejecti tlc9.fhe CARL, members of (PAR· had d~ffering views onhowto implement their aite rnatlve ag rarlan reform program or PARCODE., Or') the Gille hand, tharnillrant rnernbe rs : rrs i ned that it was 1116'p.~ tei ntervene in t he ~e·§ns less lanve arena, I rrstead , rhev 5wong lvsu poorted grau rocts l n rtlauves Uk,E:land eceu patton, 'On th e nthe F hand, the more. moderate merntie rs :5otiil wanl~d[Q brlnqthelr (<J,mpajgn to Cong ressas tneyw~ re: wary of ,ef'lgag i ng. qevern rnenr in a d i ret! ahd (:9 nfrcrrtatlonal man.ner (V ILUM'II UE\,IA) ,

Two. 9 ray areas ~merged from the disc LI;S5 lon of strateg ies fOf inte rvenrlon, One was the ado plio n of tll~striJ:t~gy 0 f buslness lobbies and the: ether \..... the as employment of perso nal Istlc approaches at the local level, ln the ease stud res Or'! trade at:ld 'Fiscal policies, examples of how husilless tobbies ... \/ere Ol.II~·gedly conclurt~d (e.g", "win !rlg and di ning ciffic tals and kev acto rs, pii.raHng key (0 ngressronal slaffe rs thrQljg h the off€r of I <I;V1Si e rnplovrnertt h pack<lg,e's) showed how formal veri ues and othe rwlse ratlcnal pollcv-makl 11'9 S uccu m.b .or become 2>IJstep· tlble to backrocm deals (GUTIERREZ). ''Will c:iv'll soc iety be: tempted or cornpe lied rasort to such !\tr,tl~9re's?" WOl$ the quesnon that wasoften raised. Thesecond g"r.;lV area.dtsrussed was the IOr1g-term impact of cu lttvati nQ "warm' re l.l·tions with the IOGa'l ch refexecunve and other 'IQca.i official s. ~nst-eJ;d 6f bri ng'i rng about rnr;:an1nQfu I grassroots' ernpowerme nr, wW thls noten IV rei nforcethe patro and personallstlc pol ~ti[5 that am so entrerrc hed in local 9 ov ern a I"IH 7


ness ot strate~ie:s or cl1gngemelilt differ accord ing to the le.vf!1 of ~w~e (n.ation'<3llocal) and rhe j'slwe .("natio nal"·"libcal") h~vo lved, EngJ;.g-ernel'lt of local offlclals; for In-s-t(lnce, has umd~.d to be r1T10n~dtire:ct and perso rial manthat of national officials,.

I t'I co nctuslo n, co nferen[e


ag reed that the n<ttv re and effec:ti\f@-

1 B • MARl,ON Po _ WU I ANO MA.



perhaps because local. structures find orocessesare perceived to be. more "r<:·ach· able" arid intelligibl~ than national insntuttons and procedures. The same is true fo I" "local" vi,s·;;i,·vi,5"national' issue's _Mobil tzatlon for nattonal Issues (e.g:., trade, fiscal .1J1d1l1011~tary po I icies-J at the 9 ra$5 roots level has been PArtiwl<lrfy diffic.lIlt because forlocal (om mun ~ti@.s, d'le reasons for g~ltj ng i nvolved in these issues are

CQmpelllii'l,g (CA.IIU,~T and


Action Agend


Given the @xistiln'gt,ol1 stltutio rlal/I~g:'lland (sql i.ey mi Iieu and the thrf!e factors exptai ned above as frames of reference an action agenda co ntai nIrig recommendations on how to add ress the problems andi ssues that have been ide ntif ~d

Carl IlOW

be drawn


In d rafUn,g .an anion agend.a for su-ength€iriing c'iviil societv interventlon in state po Ikv-makl nfj I the.task is not 50 much to deflne the pO~'I(V Issues thatshould be addre ssed to co nsolldare Ph iii ppi Fie democracy. Various docu me nts the products Df nsultatto 11 s and coautto n-biJ~iding with i n and between state .and no ngo\.:ernrr1eri1 gr'mJps - have been written, el<:l:boratirlg on a range of Stich policy options, Rather, the task is to bulld or harness rha institutlcns, processes and political cultu re that We? U td best 'Ield to a. harmonic us, 011.1 and democratlco rra] dsr; ex plo ring contend i ng po I icy cottons ~nd ,arrijving anile best pone ies _To do so an action <:i.gend,a ph iii p pi ne democracy rnusr in evltablv entail cemmltrnenrs a 11 for the part of both the state ~H1d civil snciety,. inasmuch as s'~,;Ue·dvil secietv lnrerat-


rio n, ·.;IS the fo rego Ing has .shovvn, is both J ial o£1i(;;I1 and d 1~1:e-ctlc<;ll. dynarn ic ctut invo lves both partnershi p and Ie 11,5 len,
The state accessihle should make 'formal anel lnstiturlonat and recep(ivl;! ·to crvil ~sodety~







The state can conduct informanon d rives or Cam paig ns to address t heidentlof lack of awareness of the venues as a constraint on lobby efforts,
\(1;1'1' <\1<0' (Conduct truirl~ng




011 hWN



elY 'gro ups can obtai n access


the~e. ve n ues.


, f,.e state shou Id <11 imple mint confid ence-bulld i 11 meas LU'e~ toencourage So 9 the partie; i pationcf clvl I 'Spt:"iety in gOVQrri me nt proces ses. These maas II ras s huuld include the Institutio nal lzatlon of transpare ney, accou ntabmty and rational ltv I ti

pol icy-making

venues and processes;

the strict enfo rcernent of I~l\l!;'sagai nsr thei r

violators: tile esrabl i shrnent of follcw-th roug h mechan isms \0 effectivo1'!Jy im pie' rnent .Olgn:.t;mel)ts reac ned du I-Ing consu ltatlons: bette r d,eHve ry of services: and the extension of more 5 upport ro NCO In iti anves.

M-on~o),le.r,govel'mnern 5 hew Id <qjpo~nt rna re competent officla:1 s to s~Ds~'~lve g.Qvemm@rU posts becau se 'the 'ex perlences of varia U 5 civi I society groups show ttr~n thevare more. wi Iii ng ro work \'<Iith 9Qve rnrnerrt if thev pe r[eiv~ the-v are dealinq with compete Flit offtcials, In act"ditiOl1 stricter peualttes. shou Id be meted out to -erring govern me nt offlc lals. .

The. stiI!t@ and 1;...... 1's~dtlt;vsholilld I:on'~tnue athlreuinrg wEfak ·aFe,IIiS regarding the'·r logLuica,1 resou rcas, technica,l c"'pabilitire.s .. nd OI1'9.ali\'liiation.

On the part of civ~1sec iety, coal mon-bu Iiding amorig thetr' ranks ls necessajv lin orrte rto: (1) enable th.€rn to map OJ,lt th-e~(territory and avo id w;arHefLlldl,J P1iC;.a" non and ove(~a.pplrlg un their flunctlons, therebve I r mina;ting un neces'?ary cornpetldon (BP.J!.H-;t·ms);. (2) e.nable ~Illal~ NGOs and POs to st.,ft:n9~hun th€~r capa!)il [titS and rretwo rk: n.} he Ip clvi I 5'0ddy groups. put up mechanisms for pol icing and (:eO utating thel r ran ks: and (4) pool h uman and ~ogisticRI reso urces, Ci'A~ soclstv s he uid fu rther U ridertake capac itv-bu i Iding i 11 areas th-at need strenqthen i n9, Thesel nclude better appreciati(H1 of govt:rrlmerll rules and procedu res, i mprove rnent .Qfneg.otiaHon s kllls, arrd effeQiv@·;y by tapping people who haveexpertise in lobbyh'lg govem rnent, Ov·il society gr9ups farntltar with 'the govl?:r'nment terrain can alsoceuduet their owntral ninq workshops and Sceminan on ..go\(emment ve nues and proce5~:es and share thei rexperlencss. 10 increasE their cred'~billay oll1d CO.lTIllpeb!~:H(e:" ch.ri~sQdflty shew ld corrd wet thorough po ILey researches on Issues th'eY deal wh.h. Moretlver, (rvil :,;;ociely groups. should find n'eW way~ to ge nerate funds to· sustal n thelr projects. This wi II free them from censtrelntsfmposed by fund~l]g agenc~es, therebv gfvingr them g,reate r leverage on how to marllU9~e' r projects, thei On the part of tl~'e state, co nstarrt di.:alqg ue. OLrnong govr~ rrrrnent-aqenc les ·wm help avold cerrfllets ~n thei r pol [tiM and itch leve g(emer too relination ~n their imptsmentanon _ Logr,sW:;al resources ofthe state GiP he made 010Hl v,iable bvl rnplernernting' so IJ rid pQ.~icie;$ as to how f{ ~hci~UI~d, ne.r;ate, m.,Lln<"l;geand allocate its, f~5_CiU rces. Acccurrtabi litv lsal so imp:er.a;tiVe., .The state sho:l.l~d also qrtve to be h~chfl~cally competent i 11 its 'area of work. C:overnm'e:FH offic;:j:a~s.5 hcu Id be .senst. uzed tGl suchlss ues as wo merrs.ccrrcems and those .of other sectors. Final~y',pol icymakers .shou ld beed ucated abo LIt the: .i.ndigenou s kfIo-wledge and practices of ~n d ~ge n 0 LIS C u Itu ralc orn m lHl J tie s to' better · govern ment Pi) (e, g." on envl ron ment andelecroral reforms) to the b~1lef synerr'Fs of these gro ~qjS.Alii theseentail institution-building on the' part of the nate toward strengthenil:'lg formal strucru res and proce·$5e~·_


Civil sode.ty s,hou'ld continu@ ha,rnes-sitl,g its s1;rat!!yifls, off !o'!nga.gern,li!llt. c.Q!)'nizantof till!! fil!ctll'I'S tl:iat tom~ i1i-!to su I:h decisions as when to, d.i.. IDguf!~"d whl!!n to conf'rorU. The I.!tili:Z,IIotion of botih formal :and itl'fOirmaI' vernUeS and !11t!:ch~nEsrn.:5 should .be optimi.z:ed.

One way of ach I evingtl11sis fa r dvi I sodety to the proeesses involved in the: bureaucracy ~O as to menr (nor necessarily a monolith) th~.nk; and actsgovernment is CO'o.pt3tion. C ritkis,m of gove.rnment

ha:ljea b,~U~r apureriatkm of ~wdent"H'Hjl the way govemNot all. cooperation with the n~ed 11at alwavs be co Lllched· lin an adversarlal tash ion i though sometimes such methods are effective. Civl I ~,ocl~t'/ shou ld be in search of, and .~r:l contact with, preactlve and con' c:emeq bureaucrats who could iJe pot~nbdld..lll~~'S and ~vHI advocates of eivi I soc i-

e ty \ .... hi n [M b u ~ea!,l.(.ra(y. 1 t
The foll~Qwing measures may be.' 1,1 ndertaksn to advance this ag;erida: .SU5tained .and ~l~xim lzed use of exL~ting rnechanisrns: strengHLu=ning o,f mass-based support: support for gov~m ment offlcials and bu reaucrars whQ are. sympathetic to the [au SQ: of dvill ·soci~ty: working fo r a responslble tne.oI la: r1erwo rking with



ch urches; and extenrdl ng lobbvlnq efforts beforeinternano rral fa rums .. Civjl'society acto rs shou Id also co ns lder; when approprlare, being appotrited 0 r elected to govel'il; menr positions,
Mo (e: ave ~, c; iV:iI and toattract The more


5 ho uld

include more creative measuresthat'

'expand the msans of e.ngag i ngthe state to advance the causes ,civil SOc iely advocates
U nderstand

members of socletv to
and Judicial venues,

and S upport

these causes,

(i.e., entry points for i nte rventlon shou ld be lderrtlfleti, cornpre hended ar~d tested), Lobby effo ITS in the legislative arena; on the other hand, should be fu rther i mensified, The use of local ven ues and precesses must bl~'.optl mized by clvtl sortetv, Toward this: end. there sho Lddi be co ntln ued advocacy for' the n'!~ular conventrrq of locat/reqlonal devetcpment counctls and other trlpartlteor multisectoral bodies at the local level.' . self, is by no means $ufficle t'\'[ to eff@c'tive intervention. As po i ntsd out by participants fro I'll eivi I s·ocie.ty themse lves, they need tocomprehend further the i ntncactes of state pol icy-making. i n order to 0 pttmize -the i r infl U~ 11ce and par-: tlclpatlon, Facto rs that limit 0 r obstruct the lnrerve ntlon process m ust be addressed. and those that facilitate or elrco~tag@ it, fu rthe r harnessed. The challe t1ge, there' fore, ls to raise the leve I of political, adeptness of prese ntly mm:g i nal ized gw IJ ps in C~vii socJ@ty',This req u i res developlriq the.capabl I.ihe~ cfclvl I soclerv to e;ff@{lrv~ly adjUst to and overcome tile. idiosyncra,sies of the pnlkv-maklnq process, and penetrate the. state's policy-mak.lng structu res, 011 thjs tas,k wi II largely depend ~he' advancement (,'Ihl dernccratlc pol i:ccya;genda and the fortific~tio n and expansion of formal .dernocratic processes.
I EL"'GO'~ paper was writren pricrto tnt! hlPll<11 ~)r Ulr~: dec-ree by Repul::illc A.e! No·. 83M!. Alt!,Qugh repQ,a!HI
r~c(mtly, the: th~II' pnvartv,


the one hand" should be de:rIlystined

A,lthmigh a necessarv

too I for en'gag i l1ij the state. rh is actio n ag01lda, In lt-

de~r8-e:S ef~twhil~ exlsterice



tME'l lI~b~r;

peer arid


pll.nJJi~.ed .

rhem lor

i! Tha rape provisions

Revised FenCl.! Co de had rnci?nth b.e~i'IamenQf.<:d by R@ptlblic f\ct, N[l, B53. Rape:is tlnw .. ( lime "'g.ainst persons and net rn~r...Iv ;l.(ji,j.il1s! chastitv, af1 amendment l't~r' which 'NOIYlQ41'S . WOi~f.l"~ hi>~~ successfully lobb+ad, f.lHf.S' pajJl',r W~~ ,v.'ril~en prror to th~ paSS4W Q'fthe amendarorv la'.... ,



L 'I;. X


18 I'll ~ L LAIN

-- -









Stcte-Clvl ~$'Qlciiety IR'e!I'Cl'lHons ~n, Po~ ky-Ma king

Civil Society and the Exec:utiv'e

Thl! fDI~

d~c(llJ~. In lh~ Phillpp,l,irles., the lnu~rpkay between governl1lent and c~\J11~O( letv CUrl be crepe r~y L1llderstoodand appr,G'c.;ned (mly rf placed m pollncal ~nd hls,toric;,a~(0 nt~l!(t. Tile year 1986 ~ilW {he ous-ter of a dk.t.uo r who had bean entrenched in power tOI' close 10 ~Wro delcaces. Ferd~'I1afld E. Marcos not o nly con selldatsd powe.t I n the pr,esldMr.y" ~1ealso efhuHvely el i min.Hoed all 0 pportun itiestcr gen L1~lIlepil,r1iCipa:UOI1l in govemanCf"


c lvll sccretvtn


has ~mncd r,~cog mrio

Ii Inthe


Hi~ fall marked the beg~rI ning

of (he democrilJ!~r. tran mlon in the Phihp,~me,~, of wh~,[h a major feaw re Is U~e oprwi 199 ofaven ues for d,ilfof'!ClPdiflicipatiml ~1Ilgove.rnil.rlc~ 0 fCivl1 socIety, parUC1u!arJyof no n·govem mer'l'l and people:'s organ i,zahons. I rl ra(L.a fundarnental prtl'lcl ple ens IUil1ea in the 19S1 PluUp]lane Con sHHJt~O., crevices

m he s~ate shall e
D?J.Sffd Of

rnuility natlon


I1C our age !'100-gO'i,l'l!:rI1 ":l,erual or-ganJ2::ari n s , tomo !<1Hor<ll CJrgll'n12B'tions ~h~~ promote the: welfare of the U. Section i]:)

The Con


llkewlse dsvetes

.an enure .• trc le to the ro les and rig hts u
ih~ rolu of lndapendcnr pB1JpLe.ts'

of people's crqanlzattons: SJ2cXlon1 ~_ The shall respect to 1~l1ab~iZ the p,t!opl,e: '~O pursue and pfO~.eLt w]tl1in

democr,atJc framework, ~h~n lellHi:maue< ;md ·mUeo:!ve TfI'teresb arid aspi rat i 6ns t hre ug I, p eacefL.!1 anid lawful me<l/n 5 Stlctlon 16. 'The: rtgh~ of the p~(]ple <lind ~!heif arganJ:z:attions [0 cffec:Uve:and. reascnable paHldp,aUDn <lit a~i lew'ls or social. polili(a~ and eccnomlc de(i~io!'1-rrHlkhlg ;.haJ~ r1a[ he :lltlJridg€l:d. The: ~t<J'rl1' h:aH, hV s law. facHilate the e'5tilJbll~hrnetH .of ade'(JuOi,tIi': (~i1~td~aUon m~chatllsms,

Wilho.lJt doubt. 'the Consttrunon defines cltrzen partklpattcn 111 go .... re nance as a l'I1aJ(H state policy. Bur the b'l.l'll in it~~lf ~5.r1lot enoug Eq u ally lrnportaut are the opel1lnes~ and ho.splt.all~ty of ~~e pelltirc-admtrustrative envircnment to rrvl] ~()oclety pawdpauon in Ip.ollty-makjnQ. Thls pape F explores thts tl,eme and exami I1re~how civil s'O(~,eIV has llf1nUlln,~d t hre r:rl,aking 0 f po IiCy <It ~'hQlevG!!1 ofll1~uecurlv.e: and the Cabiner

n ..

!)itlll LI P PI HE IDI(MCJ Cllitl\ C:'Y AGIE.NDA :5toi!J\C"CivU 5 odc:l:'t' Sl'!II' ~'5' m'im' P'gl~~,i;}" . M






This paper add


the 'following

co ncerns:

WhOlr .. rea:;. of tnrervention

C!f'e far-maUy atl(.'J informally aval labla to civi'l sod-

acton ill the. executive branch of gw,tc.WOlent? ~. Whitnbf th#~e ~r~a~ have been utilrzed I llnd(:!r·lJti~i7,:e.di by- bus ine~~, th~ d' rnedta, at:acl~mj~il1Stit'utitlm, NGCii. PO::;,;liid otherarror s? WIW
or What factors would account for such utltlzauon or under-utlllz atten? What have been the strenqrhs ana weaknesses of these actor s In t~le process of Intervention? Whal factors account for these srrenqths aDd weaknesses> How can c:ivil society maximize c:xls~i,ng venues of lnterventton? What other

venues need or can be developed? For purrposes of ga'lher]l1g data far -th is p<lper, interviews were conducted among leade rs qf clvll societv gro u ps and the qcvemment, both <J.~ the national and local levels, A survev was ll kewtse conducted among local leaders fro m both local g9\t~rrl ments and c lvl I society.

Govern onCe and Ci,vU Sod ety In this paper; qovernance i.s operatlonattzed rnalnlv in terms of the tie 1iverv of basic sen .zices to the people. It must be noted, however t hat 'the notron of governance- may be defined in various ways. For Instance, a 199-2 World Bank report
chose 10 deflneqovernance broadlv as "th eman ne r in wh lch power ts exercl sed in

the mana.geniNU
It added:

of '~he.;OuU1tn,/seco nom lc and social re s 0'1.1 f.ces·lor deve 10pment." {

op,en, and t!nli.ghte"etl pollcv-makinq (that is, transparent prcces ses): (.I bureaucracy imbued wrth a prof'esstcnal ethos; an executive arm of qovernrneru accountable for its actions i ;:t,nd a s,twng ciliil socletv par~icl pating ~i ti pubhc affJit's; :and ill I bchavi ng unde r the rule of law'.
Gqo~d govern<lllcc 1s e.pitomi:z.eJIby nredijctabk,



TI'H?:V\.torld Ban ks work 0 n 9 overnan ce has bee n classtfied u nder four tnaj or sub-head i ng.s: (]) publ ic sector manage rnent: (2} accou ntabl I ity; C~) legal framework for deve!o pment: and

(M ~ranspa.renq' and informa!io


5i m i 121.,1 a re POI'!: prO!p are:d fa r the' A s ian De ve'~0 prn e nt 8M k ern phay; stzed the relaticnshlp bctwe:t!1l {1oven'lfiie~'~ a.nd rlttzens bv d<ifinin9 [l-overnance ()5 "the capa.dty of .the institutional env{ronm~nr in whic.h dtizens .'. . ~ Interact with eacli NJ'ierand with go vermrient ttgr.l1cies. Il'.add~d tJi<!l "goo.d
. .



is requireQ

to emwe-

rllat gO~(e'rfimeIHs· .actually 'riefiVe'l orom-

to rheir citizens;'

One d i rnerrsjo n of governance tberefore pe rtalns W the tllanag@ rnent of the de I ivery of basic services to th-e pu bltc. The other d i rfl€: nslon i-s i n the area of transparencv, Olflsw@rabHhy arid acco urHab~Uty, Th ls paper narrows the de.ii nltlo n

of "go v ernance'
left mostlv

em me 11ts have been
se rvices due to,


i 11 te rms of the dellve ry of services. Tradition aHy. thts has been


formal strut tures and precesses of govern rnent, However, govLI nable to cppe. with the rapidly i ncreasi tlt1 de mand for baste among other th i rigs, the lack of both h;umill \3Inq tlnarH:ia Iresystems and precede res inCI uding re.d tape,

SO urces. cu mberso me bureaucratic

'and graft anQ corruption. Thus, cntics say that 'gQV~ rnrnents have "SlJCCE3Sh.J.I.Iy milrlaged to farl" i 11 governance. Such a -5 ituarlon has led to thelnvolvernerrtcf non'gov,em rnent i ristltuttons, the prrvate sects r, and c ivil society In .ge~·Nal i In eJe!iv.e,fi!19 services. Su:ch involvement h~s meant tllll:t'these: grQ ups have them··sehJ'~5 betQrl1@. p:a,rtieip:J,rHS ii n gove-m-ancem't both rhe national .and toeall l~veI5,

hlfluenc~ng the Ex;ecutive arid Polic'Y ..Making: The Formal ,and Informa,' Channels
CivHso(i@'ty'sirrfliuence 011 theexecutive branch of governl11.e.m! inc Iudl ng the policy makl ng precess; can be·exert.en enhe r. thmugh formall or lnforrnal rnec hanlsms,

There are fo rmal i nsntunonal mechanisms for {lirect i ruluenceet the [JO liey II@vef. h'~ most co rinnon of thesels partic'i patian hi natlo r1·a~ T councl Is b.r [rtteragency, cross-sectoral to rnmlttaes, ~.lb1I"1et c'lusters, 'etc, r res-pqn s ib~e for the for" rnulationM policies addressingt bro'a9 nanonal cencerns. For instance" the tnvo lvement Clf Chii I s;:oc/ety groups was a key feature in lhe form Uf~a;{UOtltl'f tile $.or; i~r It-ii:form Agen<la" the peac.e Age nda, 'and Ph iIfp~i 11~ Agenda 21 whir 11 sets the natlonalaqetida te r J!5 ustalnable dev'i!:lpprne:mt.H Th e legislativ'~.-Exe(lItive O'~ve:l.opmerrt Advisory Councl! (UDAC) also ~.Jiets npun from civi'li ·so(iety. All Q P these j havegive.n :c::iti2ef1lS'growl's d i rect acoes$, to membe~$ 0·1Cabi' and other senro r 'offic rals of 'the exec utlve branch -and allowed them to have so rne influence on the maklnq of policies and programs.

At Hu:~local gowmment

level, (ivfl·so(~e:ty groups have been allotted seats In
courrc,i{$ that forrnu la1e dev,eWpr'm~:nt

.specral bodies like the local development

plans for the 100(aUty as we.!I as more -focnsed bo:dies Ii ke the local health beard " loca,i ~dlOQI board; tnll!. peaceand order cound I, etc, Theoretrcaliy,fd rrnal mernbershlp in these bod~ts allows 6rganit:,atrorls to.l nf uence p()iicy·m.~kj~·g~:lld ~gend<l·· at the locall le\l~I, Civil society gn:JII..lpsiil,!') aha play·a. k~y role in ensu ring g.ovltm me nt account" ability. Th~'S has. become. mar@.f~as~ble after the pa:ss~iI1g the local GDvenH'ne-nl of Code: of HI91 wh lch provided for the devolution of power, local autonomy and civi.l .sodety partlcl patlorr 1n icU::tlJJ gover-rHHlce,. In facti NCO'.}' active in, the rorm'lJlati'ot'l O'r the'Cude: it~elf, when tl1ey formed th.e N'<ltional Co()rd it'l'aring COUI1ell for Local COVe'I'!1ante i n CJ rder 'W provide flit:) puts on how the CClde sho u ld be drawn up. As a re-sult, NCO.') were allowedto sit as observers in t:h~ oversijJh't cornmtttee man ~wri ng the Code's lmplernentatle n.. This' wa'S no mean feat givft:n the: Ph iHppJne p.Q!~ti,o-adm i nlstranve c u lture that ~s marked by layers of bur~d,I;!cracv &n(j'cor!!£~ol!s 'Of '~e-gallmpedlments to the particl patlen of outslders in cff]i

clal bodies, The Code alsc enshrlned

offlclals by ~roviding Act~on Center

for the recall of- elected

the concept of th-e a'(,CQunt.1lbmty of local offi.cialsa,nd c~tjjz.en~· ~r1!it1-ati~/e"

For rnsrance. In leg',lspi


(ny, members of the ~ocal Catholic Ch urch's Social th~ VIM sa Bay(ln project ~Q men lror whether Iloea~

·offiGla~s have fuUllled their election pro mt.~es·,They cond uct public foru ms eve ry ] 00 days Wh'eT:€ local officials are as ked to dlscuss the status of their pro mlsss.

The d iscuss ions are ai red by 10ta.1 rad~o stanons and pub~is-hed in the local new__s·
papers. The. foru rns have. enccu raged



be actively lnvolved

in rnonl-

wring the performance of the local offici,1).IS, and have also made local officials rn 0< r~' Co n Sc in 'U' s of tile iir rn Ie an d respo Its tb iii U es_ '.'

To provide aoq ltiortal venues thm iJ[J h' whtch civil' 'soa~ty could have di'rt::-tt .access to governmel1t; some n'~lkHlal de parrme rrts have serup Dm~S to li.~i_)Qn witI1cHlze.n'.q;J rou ps. SOrllJ€ hd.\(e: set up '·NCO de"Sks" in aneffert to inStitlltr.cmal iz:e 'the i nvolvernern of these groups <'VttH~policy, pmg ram or even pTQject leye!. Among the national depa.rtments· that have SeLL! P such desks are th~ deparrments of~ ag rartan reform. envl ron I'IJe nt arid rsatueal resou rces, il!gTi,[~JtLI re. health, h'!H:rio.r and Local 9~vernllle!"lts" social we lfare i an d J usnce.
III the legisllaturE!



,e ivi I sodety partictparicn rs Instlturionallzed i n the apof sscteral representatives i nrCG·ng:r-e.~Y;:UTd.i nlocal &aw-mak~r'lg b(J.d ies, whic h are represented wni~i~.t mai I'dy of the nl<lrg.il1aJized- the urban

poor; women.

power these' sectors

peasants, i(ldigeriQ~Js cul ru ral commun ltles, bygivitlg the m access to Iaw-r'i!aki i I'lfll.l:e.r'lce· the fo rmu lati(l~~ 0.( la,ws and pollc les. .

etc. The goal 1.5to emng' bodies so, rll'e'Y can .

Th~ erll pha.sJs, onccnsuitallon wuth ~ iv.!I society; i nr::luWrlg no n-govern ment social sectors and people's or.ganiz.<).:t.ltln.s·, is a key fe~w re of the RJmo.$.· ad min i strarlon. ExtelJsive: cnnsultatlons with govern rnent ilnd 1'110 n-qovernment gn:Hlp5, down to the lowest p_Qs$lbl~ I~vs I w(!)re do ne in the preparatlo n of Ag-e i1Jd~ 21 rfhe' Soc~al R:ef0~'m Agenda and the PeaG@ Ag@ nda, These culnni nated ill natto r"lca,1 mrnlts where various sectors partidpa:ted;wIQ major pronouncemsnrs su were made by the pn~,s rtt. id~ 0rgZlr.~~a'tio.m.,

The R:am.o,s admmlstratton conve ned these nannnal sumrrt its i norde r to reach a cense rlS-U& on key i ssues .i.inOt~g a cross -,sectton of,sociietv- OUl er "StJ m mils
called were 'the. N::~(oOi,nd Ord'~r 5 umnlit and the Am:i-PoveJ'ty' Surnmlt.

~o nnal structu res, proc@$S~S and I i'~5tituHpti~, f;iow:eve r, hav~ nor.aJwJYs en[()·,".lrd,.9~(j,but h,'Wt also' hi ndered, meanl ngfu I participatlo 11. After a~1..~itJzen'5 :9 reu ps cDul.rlga throug h the rnctlons .:01'parttctparlon - S~JC ·as :5lg fling a "scclal h cnrnpact' or "memorand Lim of winders tand ing'" with gov:em ment without reapi ng any tanqi ble res ults, The. moral mportant questions are: ev~ n if r lvil ~ocjety has ilnfl.lcUew::;ed the forrnu Ia.UoI1of critical po Ikies, win th~se be i rnplemetnte.d?'Will the: active and m@.CI.nlrlgfLllpartlcl oatlon of (i\li I .soclet y be. ~_us.:~{~.~,FI,ed? Wh,U wifl bl!:. clvl I ip:ciety~ ro It" in ~mp;lE:\m·e:mJJ.ti{l(n? m~H~itorf~Q? .~vall.!atlcn! These are the fun(;I~lm~lntal tss ues that sho,1.!ei be addressed tn de~ermi ni ng. the e::<te;rH of civil ~o.(ie~'':i''s l
i'nflw e n c,e ~lis~tti



Ba~(:!d on the resuhs 6f the survev- a.rid i me rvrews with key iin rdnt1antS, it wo uld app,ea.nf1i;Ct the formaJ l!leClla~is,m5 fo r civl I sorJety p.;Iftlc lpatlon In pO.lfc·{ makl t1g in the exec uHve. branch nave D(';!en U nder-utl Ilzed. OnlE: ke'Y re..spo ndent anwi BU!!1:!d th i~ to the frustratlon .ofdtiz:erf's grouD,g wlththe slow rna rrre.nturn of formal processes that resu ltin agr'b~-me IT~5--hat take a. 10[19 ti me be fore they are t i mplernented. Partly; the respondent said. the falJ It also Ij·€:S" ith NGOs ,ul1d POs w

often do not do the pre;paratOfy:mrff

pr6gr'a.m~ to


work needed to pro pose pohcies or

The very short provided by 'thegovenrHn~nt fo r t lle~ol1S u ltattun process a15'0 d lscou rage the .. LlSe of form'al chan f1Ie'1. There w~re: also th o-se' wh-ci s said W;iJt the formal rnec han i sms ex is.t 6 n IV as 'fotmalHies q,Fld are b~'ir1!gused b n Iy to ccrnplv with the ru les set rro.m above, hl addition, ~he i nce~sant red tape and

curnberso me prccsd ures that characterize render these lorrnal r:hil.i'lf'!eJ~ineffec'Uvc.

govern merit ln5ttWUOI1 S Olnd precesses

Thus, most of U1e survey re~lPo'H'J'~i1U '~e!t mat infonnOl'1 chan nels a Fe ,'10 re effecUv~ In 1nfluancl rig po~i[y <11 exerutlveand fhe C.3!b~[Ie[level Eve 11 while this js ~O. the fesiJol1derJ'l~, appreciared the el(isu:: F1(e or lormal SW.JClures for' chlu~ soclew mrerventloa. They s~y ~h[l( such Formal mrr;:cJl;Hli~Ul1~
are needed

cue cr ltlcaltc

the U~~ naht abjec.U",e of imtijf utlonallzl n

n9 "lvil



etv IlnvCih/ement In governance T11eprob~em" however, is that formal precesses 1:lFt,'! slow, G~ven tile mit u r.e 01 many of the problems thai be ser PhilipPine ~,'o.ciety, swlftness of Irnptementancn has nghtly Of ~li,frollgly beco me the g,J.ugl1! fo r mcasuri n9 Ih@ sucres s (J r prag ramsand pmJecn •. Thus, the' phrase "fast rrae ki nq" of lmpleFr1i~nto1110~1 has beeorne ,1 part or ~he lIIay to ri.1V voc."IOulMy of national pcllcv

r!1~k~rs .tInd the- i rnplernenters
"HIPo mO~l (lied
Ih~1 I~ the

In thl\':! bureaucracv,

I r1fOfFna~ (h,HHH!i

for ~I1fiLH10C 1 ng lh!! e:xecurive ;uld

h,rOF'J'l1t:1l dialolgue'. Bei[19 with gOIlIIHlf"J l onic lals I rI the ~~li~'e Lt'l:evl men slcn or raoro t~ Ik SI'10W p~f'!er, 1111 ~alPiha Fl. er ln ir-nehlgew::y .;I rueetl ng s provid eo reY'l!I~I' ~pjJonu 11111 rUI dJil~Og ue, Bur SOfll'~i I mes, the most Irnpc r~o;I;~ll, u ~)!ltl· ~ take place 11,01 d U ring I he "on the ai r" disclIs!Io,ion$ dl'1d formal mutJ !19~. hl~[~'L.J, the fn{ormal dl~lJOgl.:l~s,ijI nd ~x(halr1ges. of IIl'fm rnatlon wh i(h tOike pllace be fa re MHl . ilfte r !iU[;~1formal ,occ:a~h:ulS, provtde o~pommHul!sr'O i i:1lnUI:l nee the thin kil1g of
narlonal pol lev-rna kers.

t'~e Cabl-

The d l~tlo9l.!e J s madeeasier bv U'It: f~(t rbat so me ...f t h O~~ ,n the executive branch have thernse lves come from ~ht ranks ·of (!Vil socterv, T~1e "c redrbi lltv of au r ofglll'1izatio n with these offioalsand our la.JI'ge censrnuencv makes It attracnvefor govemrnent offit:iaJs as a. dtaJQg'~H'!partner," ',;H:clJ'rd'~ng to DAN:ILO Sm.Ju.\..l of the Coalition of Deveiopme.n1 NGO~ (CODE·NCO). TIl~f!, there are of [0 L~rsetne lnformalttesthat playa. key m'l'e ill JnfhJenClrl9 the: execurive. Being: a ~elauve and friend of the govErnment o.f'hci.1lI"or having s[ood[ogethe r as s PQrlSO(~ in the
same baousm or we~diflg Add ltlonallv, informal still IC:;ury w~tght .. channels are helpfu I rf on I v

because rhev are. me r~

~~a)j:edand thevallow Ol.naffk:ial to be' ~sp~red fro",!' frJ,akinqcomrnltmerrts. incit ud i n 9 0 u tri 9 ht fu rtd co mm i[me ats, pub lidy.- said A.1JR.OItATo ~ENTINO of Ihe Phi I ippine BcU5iness for Social Pmg r'~55 !PJ3SPl. Whether lh rQ~g h form.a~ or info~m:aJ channels, It 1$ impor~arH for civil SOCi'f:':~Y to be involved il'1 for.llluialing f@5p0rJ'S]Ve public polletes. Such involvement, howC1V@f, has to be acuve and rnea,niogfuL 01 n.en1!i'ise, ctuzens' groups will e rther reI' red in the formalities or bt':com€ sll.!spicim:l:S, thai; the processes provided for th~.i r participation a r:~ i mended merely ..1.5, mechants rns to leg it i f11 lze the govern rnent's rule.

To opnrmze civil {lild wea knes s.
elley! ~speclilUy




,rniJor rant ro understand hs sue ngrh s

Among Hie maj(l r st reng1hs. of (lvi~

SO(l(!ty are the folillowing: iI ~;uge ronstltuhat oj NCO r"1.Uona~ COi!!lMions i'Lnd rorm<l~i(ll1 s, ttl nVellljern~y an-



ables theqoverrrment to reac h a larger n IJ rnber of NGOs Ii n j u sr 0 h~ d' TIlis also provides the executivea window ~o (he pars peetlve of the COIn stltu encv Qfrlle nat lonal NCO- Tine rnajo r strength of f, lvi I so ci ety gl"o Up5 Is that HH:~Y hay~ il gras:HMts base, I n add ltlon, the I r ability to organ ii~ comrnu 1"1 iities and thei r credo i bi! ity are also major srreno ths,
Cit~Zf(!f,' grolJpS are helped by the filet that the national leadershlp itself advocates active civl I ~of;jew p.:nlicipq,~iQ h and the polltlco-ad min lstrative l~nvi· ro nrnenr is ho~pi'tdtbl@ 'W such par t lc i patton _In t he words of 0 ne respo ndeot, "The President himself advocates partnersh lp with NGOs and P(]s, pu sh ing Cabinet secn>..tari,~ to. to n suit their r espectlve sectors r@9ularly on oo I ic ie's an d 'prog rams." ~ But the respondents alsc cited weak l'I' them the II1tC of"technical 1< capab i Iitles that hamper the ability of some (ivi I soc ietv 9 rou ps to influence the execut ive As one res po ndent ·s·aid; "It has besn d iffic IJ I t to pressn t arg U rnents W govemment officials in 'the: fNmal vanues because these officials have the advantage o-f a~arg:e s~~Jf and resou rces to do research and pre POITa'{Q ry work. (In COrlrrast) we would no rtll al] V have to rely 0 n our Ii l'l'1ileQ h source c~IJabi Iity to provide staff support tq O:[J r representatlves. (Additionally) 0 ~I r re prssentatlves have to prr~S'enl the: r 0\0'011'\ idea.s v".[tho1J't the b~n.efi~ g f con sultation witt1 our members because government rr1~eliilg 5 are us uallv callJi.\:!dn.1 rried lv,' 1

A'iS wi II b~' illl u strated inthe seen on On the formulation of tile Soc ial! Rsform Ag errda and Phiii ppl ne A\genda t I • civi I sot fety gro LJ ps put a pre rnlum o n process an d ton 51JItatlonamo ngl thel r membe rs, an d this is one of th e i r cutstandrnq strengths. Sometimes, however, the 'P ror.ess be{orne'S c IJ rnberso me and IT'Iak~~ the rn unable to respond rrn med tate IV wgover~,merH co nee rns. It i~ r(~togni~ed' thatat tlmes, go,vernrnc:rH has to arrlve at;~n~ quickly, ibm this goe;; ag,a,il'ls:t 1he g.-air1 of the normal con s ultatlve' proced ure.s that mark NCO operations.

lIIustratin,g' the Influence on Policy Ma.ldng in the
Th 15 .sectlon

of Civil ,Society EXE!'c ... tive: Two Cases exte nt of th(:!

deals wMI two ·SPIH:i;fir. cases. that 111l.!strate the

n '[he executive and in ih e fa rrn ulation of speciflc natlonal po] ie les. Civil soc iety played il rnajo r rola in "the formulation of t he' Social Reform Agenda and the Philippine t;"gem:Ja 2]. Both polic;;ies form the cornerstone of the adm i nistratlo n of rresjd~r!t Ramos. The fa rm ulatio n o+these poJit les was marked ov i nterrslve. bottom-up, vertlcal and norlzo ntal ccnsultanu (IS; lnclud Itlg pre-xu mrnits and su rnrnits. An:Qther key leatu re of the process ls the Public declaration of com rnhment of all secro rs to the pol lcles. lnfl ue n C-E! of c'iv~J society

The' SociollReforrn


The' Soc: tal Reform Agenda, (SoRA) was drawn from a wid@. ranqeofconsultalid ns that u nderscore the partners hip between th e. govern ment and non-povernment ·grolJpS i n formulatl nqthe C;OLH1try'~ development 'thrusts. he SR.Awas based 011 the outputsof tt~es~ consultatlcrts, The: S RA inc Iuded the inpUB. from <II se rices of consultatlo 11 s with various sectors. These. to nsultatlor: 5 lnc I uded the Natiof1JJ Pe'i.l.ceCOl1re renee, the People's

'the Peoples ,Aget"'leJ a fo r oeve loprnent and Democracy, and' the Soci a~p-a'(l of Me;P': hI99-3. ALso lncludad were th·f.! recotnm~f1daHons of 1he r:Jati en wieJe: '0 rrsultatlcns COhrj ucted by t~e NatiD.ll8J~ Unffh: .arlen Corn m~s'~iClni n 199:2:-.and 1 993· it) an effort H) list down th\, p'ol itical arrd econo mic n~fanns. !1eeded to addres 5 lon'g-standing ,i nequJHe~ i rl' ph i Ii ppin e 5:0c~ety, .. '.

The resl,llig of to nsultaticn s cond l,.Ir;te.tlQy the l'j· fQ r Co u [1C nysl,d!1i D"('!;v@loprl1ern with tile' I 9 poorest .proVI·!lCe-S <ll·s,o served as g.u idr~;srn d rafti ng the f nal 'fo rm of the $~/.a,__ In .addltto n, the bas tc dQC[jment.~ USEd ~n f()rmti laU!'I9 the SRA were the. MTPDP: th~ Local Covernrnsnt Co:d@, the SQ[ lal P-acl fo r ,Credlt, the S,trategy Paper to Fig ht Poverty,. the Tr~parWe AUlo n Plan 'for' 51ructu ral Adjustments, ilnd the Urban Developmem FrameworJ..; Plan wh lc h were al so prod ucrs of

~onsuhativ~ processes.

The Social Rdorr'n summ it i 111993 \vu preced eel by month:s ofi ntel"'""0genqt tonSlJitallm1S and plarm i n9 and Furt her CQn:s.u It1tlQ trs with varlou s' scclal sectors .. Tne $!J mm~tal5Q Involved multl-sectcral representatives from l ocal g.o\{~rn (nerH units, pe6~~~/s :organiz.ation s, and ncn-govemrne fir org?lfl i"Z;ltlQ ns, LlTel udi ng the Chl.lrcl1, ir~ the 19 ortorttv pl.·dvhlr:~}"

Three years: I are r; in March I 996" the Pr~·$iderH conve ned a N"ttio ual An~iiPoveny Surn miLlr was. nafftrred to as the "rnot her of 11.11 mrnlts" to underscore su the government's efforts to lrHegracte and puth)getheniv~ irlitii,l_tilve$.of the vartous sectors in addressing pove rt~( Accord i n:g 1:Q the; Pre.s ide nt,

t,fonS""of both

Nelli anal At:'it-i-Pov@rty Sum m It seek5 to merge tt1e· rr'1<HW i ntervengover!lm.~t1it and nOM"·gO\i.e:rnment organiziI.tinns in the e"ff,Clrt

tp F!lis.e. Our pc:(1pie·~'.5taJ'ldard

of liv~h:Q(a.t\d in -tl~~ pl,)'f{uifj pri[)speri~y .[and p~a<e and dav,eI9.pmf!!1t]. I

of justice


~:epre~ent.ed III the surnmtt were ·nat,ion.Th~ atld·gov~ nwn\~nt offlk.ii;l.L~, farmer..s,urban pOOl. ~ffqf,genous people, fi sherfolk, va uth, wo men plJ!rson s w"ith d isabl IHi~~, leaders of the bustnesssecro r., arlo laaders of the church, a.r.:Jl.dern~, and the med la, ~n fact, two-th 1rds of the people. !J,artki.pating in the !9:1I rnm it w.e r€: f-rom the poorest social sectors, A'S.the- Preside rrt, ,s.<l~d'; ,
r .

'"hi"" is il;S it d'lOLi~d b~ .. our basic seeecrs have. the f~iQI18st' s~ake~ ln the war ~galn5t poverty, U is (.flay whQ will £loti Ii principalll y IF weare able to overcome. It ts they not ~s in gov@rnn'l~nt or jJ~ tile busi ness sector who ~tfln-dw. Im;i2!11o~t is- Wfl. 'Me ,defM~EhL For the

SltAta succeed 1i't is imperative: that 'effor~~
partnersh i"ps b-e"tw'e.¢n ~he goviElrn


and HCQs

Te reslta Detes pOiMed
Re:form Agenda
-agafn&t i!l

ou t

d l,ning the Su mm

rii'ern and


made to 'strenqthe n civil soc·ifl.ty, As NCO it,

a coveriant b~tw~ei'~ 'GO., P05' ·d9 we'.$trengthen that cove nant so tha~ it call standthe strain ;;md srres s of the cllffe.r.ent :style's, of work and the dlt'fe:rem prioriOQ,s and p£np~NrveQ .How do we foniJy (it) sotha-t ltcan b"Q.ZI" th~ of GO/NCO/PO pOintl~HshiP.,not to mcrulon tbe· burden of if tile sodal

tne fight




Deles also emphas1:ze-"d the (:;0min uirlg nel:dfof,"'C-Q'nvergenc(!" of aid.s I;: etc is in orde r to, properly address the prQb~e rn (If poverty.



The- formu~atr6Jn O:ftllre SRA wh ic hcu lmtnated In a nano rial antl-povertvsum-. mils hQ:w,s how g.o,ve·m rnent and civil soci~ty can wo rlk wgerher "to add ressa (om, mo n problem. Clvl I soc iew grO"l.JPs. nsisted 011 the. r1e~r;j for intensive andeven ·1 arduou S Co nsultatlen s, <J.mOng its ranks, and the crafting of marly dccurnents, resoIutlo I'IS and declarations oJ comm it merit. TheS'eeverHually fa u rtd thei r' way lnto the 5R!~" Go.\)enHYlf:·nt's ro le rinay fl<'i.'V@ b-ee:n to co nvehe '~he su mrntt, but ,th~ k~y
role: of dvi I soc ie~y in pavrng the


fo.r its S.U(Cf:jS carl n ot be den ied,

PhUippine· ,Age nda :2 1
.As part of the (0 Untry's efforts to fulf II the [.ornmitments: it made in the lrlstor!c Eitrth S..IJIniI'nH in] 99 .. the P:hi u ppi ne Age.nda 2'1 co nvene:d representatives 1:, of key social 5€:"co rs h'! order to forge it. consensus on all aerion ,.'I!genclaforsustaint ~bl-e develGpn1enC It ldentl fled the key actors IF'I ensu ring SU stal nable de\;'el(iO~ rne nff:.tile g:bve rnment, buslness and civil soc iety It also framed £1.. functla nal ,dif· ·fel'e'ntiatio.rl c·f modern sot iety mto thr~.e. real ms .: thaeeo ndimy (\;,vh'e re the actor Ts ILw:Sirl¢ss),.the po Iity (whe:rethe ..fl.rW,r· is Q9vem tn:ellf) <lJi1d (\Jltur.@ (·whe Ire tl;.e acto r ·is"dvi I: sot. [ely). The- th"fee reatrnsare inte~ac'ti·ny, dy.r~amic arid lo»mpl't!nlen-


tarv com IJ.on ents of an iritegr~(iwho Ie.

The ·lormu latiQ rr Of Age~da 21 was l.ed by- the ph iii pp~.n~Counc [I for Sustain~bJ~ D~velopri" (PCSD). The com rrl'ltx~e chalr w~,$ _t:oirlt'ly shared hy one repres(tl1ta!ive. fro rn government and 0 n¢ from t.:iVi<l~· ~tv, Exten 5b.... (on~lJ~tafiom socl ~ markedthe IN le process of the form tJ latto n af Agertda 21 .


At first the gov€:rrlmeru, NeD coalrno ns, bus lness and othe r secro rs c:~n' ducted consultatlerrs within t;Jl~i nan ks. Representat~ves of these fJfClll'r}$ then mer pe nod lcallyto co m:e up With 0;9, con sensus dQ['U ment.". The: ",:iple:s of U nil/' lMt e.rn~rge,d fremthese meeti n;gs the fou~datiQn fOr Agenda 21 . 'it was a. documenrthat was VU Iy traftEil by all the secro rs. The influence of c~Vi I ~D{Je~vwas o,bv~G'u$:1ri path 1M.! Ia,hg ~Ia~ge .a,n.d the yont'el"lt, . . me

nt Authority

This was how th~ln recte r-qeneral o·f'H~e N<l,tiq,nal Econo rnic and r).~veIQP· destdbe{J the rf-gOlQ U,$ con s u ltancn process: .

The. cOrllfultQ1tion p~ocess com nW;[Jc,ocd wUh th~ 'flr~t round of n~gloni1l.1 cluster COFlH.l.l't;atiorl;>, l~~ rnaln 0hJecUy~ of which ..... to g.~.nem~e corn rncn as I,SS,U€,,$ ami approadlL'.l:3" un I' these issues at the I'ocallevel and to ~e(J:k ~ons·~r;),su~ on a, ·su~,rOli able de.vdopm6!rlt n frarm!wodk. l'5Lralkl ~onHlltil"· eions \... 'en~ held by tlorl·.governme'l1~ ()ty<mi.zaliol'lS, business. yout·~l. health, IlahGf, urban peof and a~he,FS'8!c<tor's, The outputs from these, censnltattons were tlwl1 ~l1h~gn\.te:,di!'lto !it draft PAI.21 ami ,e:nhane:e:d br' anumber at" de.vel"· o.pmtlnl prac:titirin~r~ and advocates. This draft was then ·~'JbJe(~ed to a f~ed_badUton~\J~tation!/r('!v'i@.w i~wnlv!ng a.[1!s· and other ~mf!.r~'"st{p:] p.a:t"tll c I~ai'lt:~. As the drat,. PA, 2.1 traYii1IL":.:d ac ros s the re:g i0 ns .:tg ~t'lde·s arrd S~Llors, IUJmen;ms Gth-:er r~vi'e\"" se5,.siOlis Were "',:ori·dlJC"t~d which we~1ili inltl<tt:e·d by im:ere.sNd ]ndivitJJI.,ldtl:=,and Im~·itl..ftiQ~l$,. lll~t l;iarly,w~ had airqdy fellt the ripple;effe~t of the: censultatlon pr9ce~5a~, a potent advoqw rnechanlsm. In fact, it g~nl'!:.r8,ted .so rn uch et!~h'us<ias,rr. i n -, ome plas;e.~ that 'they s ~d!,f,!<'l;dy ~JH up thei!: local peSDs to prepare ,for the eventualimple:mentation of the Ph:ili ppine AgerlCla 21 and'lO: address the- al ready'·g GOncNn:s.~

Civil Socioty and the EUC-!:Itive

.' ·29

MajO.r stakeholders involved ill the formulation of the Philippine .!i;gend'l 21 tncl uded larrners and landless ru ral workers fis herfolk, i rid ige nOtJS' peoples, urban poor and othe r disadvantaqed grou' S uch as workersi 11 the i nfo rmal sector, women, children and yo uth, perso ns with dlsabl Iltlss, elde rl "I, d isaster vtctl ms and overseas contract veo rkers and the mterrned lanes. The NGOs tog~the r with .other form all lnstjtutlcrts like !1 atlonal and local 'govenlment 1j n,its, the bu si t'IeS5 sector, ch urch-based orqantzations, civiC grow psand professlo n <II 2I,S"50C iatlo n 5, the mass rnedta, and the internatjo rialcorn rnu n ity were M10 n 9 the tnterrned lartes.

The PhlllppineAqenda 21, has been .guided by '[h.e i<t!.y concepts of in't'egratlor1, co risen sus-bu i Idi!1g .and operattorrallzntton. nsacuon aqenda iden\ifie~ areas where civil socletv can plav a role tn Ituegr'(ltting sustainable de v elo pment prl n d ples/vj$lon$/pararl1et~ rs i n dec! sion-makl ng precesse 5 and on such efforts as ~ reen iflg the workplace, glivi ng fair remuneration, E!:!:itablishil>lg a tas k to rce for r hild labor, reviewing poltcles On land conve rsjon, working fo r the. P<'L~$ilge of' the Nationa.~ Land Use Act, and i mprovhlg accessto reprcd uctlvc healt h services.

multi-st; keholdership,

(ivl,1 $'O( re'~y 9 rou ps can also bee broke F.5 o'f irlrormalio n and appropriate tee h· nolnqles. They carl .also Ill.Qbi,1 reso urcas but can also IJ pset the smcoth flow of ize resources an d im pede the ac hteve rnentof desired gO<.lls. They can be n~two t kers, strenpth eninq i nstltutional ltukaqes '[h rouqh rnforrnation fiN"', tech n Q 109~1 tr?J nsfer, resource r;J1Ming and exchange, thus facilitating links and interphases arnonq themselves. Thev can be trainers and product enhancers \... ·i,th ihetr expertise and available tee hno Io-gl¢s.. .

soc lal lorrnancns

Mo rsover; .(:lvl] society

fo r rneZlrllingiQ.J I i nterventlon


e n han ces

IrJ the various ecosystem
rl~forma~ relatlonsh i ps

the capac

ities of cornmu n ities and

Civtl soc lety buHds on the. cou rnless fo rmaland ture the dav- to-day activities of Filipi nos.

processes. that struc-


C·ivil Sodety~s Influenc~; on the Executive

TO rnaxtmtae existi;ng venues of dialogue and exchanqethat will-enable Civil s.Cldety to meal'll ngtu Ily infl u e nee po I i"cy"rn-aki ng, thee follow'i~g co urses 'of actio n

are s ug:~I'e.sted, Specfall;z.e and focus. NGO~ and POs must decide to focus on spec lflc areas where th'ey have the "co mparatlve advantage" not on Iy in terms ofskrlls but al so in te rrns of ge-og raphlcal and sectoral foe U$ and speclal lzatlon. Take fuN sovs« ra9f (l (the formal mechanfsms made JvaiJa.ble to civ-it :loriecy. wj,iI~ these are 'not necessart I y the on I'If means no rthe most !:!ffenive rnechan i srns for Influem:il19 policy, It would be w,i~e. to take full advantaqe of rh~111 if 0111V
because "thsv are there.' Civi I society gro U ps must" give the formal structures and mechanisms offered by govern ment the. benefit" of t he do UbL On~y if th ev take the effcm to. part fd pate can these 9 rou ps work toward effectlvs andgenu i ns partne r· ship w itl1 gov.erll menr,

Coslesce With other like-minded

i n orde r to, complement
tion and d upl lcation

efforts, of efforts.

rl1, of 0\111society. Thts is necessary map' 0 ut te rrno rles and avoid wastefu I com petiCoal ltlcn and formarto n-build i ng also provides


for small

NCO.') an d POs to stn;ngrh e [1' 'tlh~ it own c;apabi Iltles and
at influencillg the executive branch,

&0 rh,H 'they Call be better

Co nt/un' polh::y'(f!5.eafcn. Infcrmatlon and knowiledge are alwa:ys sources of PQw'er. Th is Is es.peciall vtru e if all NGO is able to establis h a "t rack: record" of tn:in{] a credtb!e source of specialized infcrrrratlon,

Build cJpabillty in areas that may need s.trerJ9theniflg. This mav in<i[J(ie. lncreased appreclatl on 0 f govern merit ru les .and proced IJ res negotiation ski II,s, etc. Continue the dialogue betwe'en govemrnent Jnd civi! .society. This ts one the. most rritlcal areas to r max imili ng the efforts of both S,I~cmr~ i i'l nation buildi ng, F.ormal strucru res and chan rle Is she uld co nstantlv be r.r~vrewed with th~ ulnmate 9bjectiive of ma~i'l1g them mort responsiveto the needs of the I' constituencies; The ~~ 'Qf com rnu nlcarton thrc llg h lnforrrral nes maximized. . channeh


sho wid llkewtse be

M,Ol1rtM ~1rJ4 e!vaJua re COrT$t<1r:1UV. The re. should be corHi numg se lf-exarnlnati all. ror Insra nee 9 roues sho uld reg u lady as k the rnselves w heth er they remain credible and ..... hether thev Me able to fulflll.thelr commitmentsand stand by their


lse, t~~ey rnl nlm ile the I t' i mpact and hnfl uen C@, As DANILO S(mc("u said, '~NCOs, POs shouldfoc'l,.ls Of~ spectftc areas where thev can 'en.gage gov.ernme.nt rather than' tryi ng to, Spread the mselves chin Iy over ev;ery .aspect (If 90Vtirnal:"lc~." . ,

I s'oci@:ty 9 rou ps should als-o co ncsntrare


wile re they are.' strcnq. other-

Civil socjetv ShOiU ld playa key' rote both In the form ulauon and the implementation of fundamental policies of the gcovernment, To do so, citizen!">' grOl)ps

must be able to Influence the exec utive 'branch, either thro ugh the office of the president 0 r. th rOLJg h the me rnbers of rh e Cabinet, Thelr ro les can range from s i rnplv belnq mforrnancn provlde rs an ~ data gatherer~. to be.i I1g advocates and co nsultants en what po llces to adO"pt..nbey can ev-e-r! be: actual forrnu larors and lrnplernenters Q'f pol ley.
h1fhJ~nci n9th.~ executive and the-Cabintt can bedone t.h rQuqfl both fa rrnal and tnformal than nels. Forrn"Uv; dvi I society 9 roups are allowed to sit if! various interagency councils, often with 'voting privl leges. They are part of the i nfrastructure for brtOad·lb.a5e,d consultation and they legitimiz,e the process.of pol'icy formulatlon.

Bur i Mille I1dng theexecunveand th e Cabi FI et should go bevo nd formal structures arrd processes. Sometimes, informal processes and consultat!o n S are morif effective, These are where frank exchanees tak~ place; deals are struck, and COI'I'Ipromtses arearrtved at .. Agr'e.ernents are then formally made in ~~i~ ig nl 1119of memo5 rand u tlI15, compacts, etc. that usualty mark the culm lnatlon of an i mportant public event, such as a sumrnit. in which both govern rrient and civil society take part.
Civil soc letv m ust recoqn ize, tt~ stre ngthand if it wants to maximize Its influence OIl the executive. The strengths of civil society lie in tts larg~


and its abll itY to' orqantze

and mobilize a gra5sroots

followl 11'g.Cronps

~ho~,ld not overstate

eve'n leaders hl p; -are

Ihe:frs~r~ng~h. fra:grm;:nted,



when their


i:g1'1.11 l'z·~tiorJS.-


·.so(h~t'y dH.).uld

Th~ dialog usand con stant ccrnm unlcation between govefnment a,tid civil b@rnairitailr~ed. n@: conduct of joint ilnd parallel consultaricns rn theformulauo n of key polic ies should likewl se be f.:mcoJjra.g~d. espac i.aJ!y if they take p~:{Iccen .a reg irne of 0 penness and transparencv, The forrnulatlca of PI1il i pI pi ne Agenda 2·1 .'md the Soclal Rei.orrn Agem:Ja ,]I_re exam ples of '5uch p~r1rlerships. N{)lrh$~thM We Ph II i pplne Co nstltutlcn provldes the, policv infrastru ctu re fo r $ljr.!,

efforts. At the local level.the clttzenpartlclpatlon.


C:;ov€rnmF2nt Code sets' the

~]ar'&lh~h~ 1'"5for

.C~vil $,OC lew sho.uld De (99 ni.z~mof lts rQl~ arid lh "ccmparatlve In monltOr1n.g po llcv 1mn~e~ematio~ ft'oJ"!1 '.:I people's pe is pective,. It ~r:iety's respcirfs ibmW to' provide. feedbar ktn 'go~'em merit, UlWZ.~rig ,tint:! lnforrnal channel s, s:uc 11f@·e:dbJck sustain s the inwlie-mentatto n 'Of

i s ~Iso (ivi I



'pori cies



~6;t h formal VJdh rnfled




(, N D NOT

!E S D"(:: Wmld

Th~~ IS re.feTred l~ by K(Hn~ a.~· a, pm(~s.s,!i)f ·r~.(IRm(~(r.8tl7.'8ti()t),· ~" World I4nk, /)l<;v-e/{)P'l7l€"nr IrJ Pr,~c-tlC-f!.;'.cov~m,an,&" Tn@ Wpr!d [l<'l!lk\;



5·ibrGI. ,

!l~rlk'. 19-94). p., vi L

~, ~·lfI~oiijl,oot, 't'<~q.n<lglti"gDweltipme:li.~ Thlbugh ber t99S, "
,'5 S"~,e I>t'~ht,e, Pf'vllpp!ne


f:l~lIldfng," A()S (rcq,~1I;;n~I' PArd No, 17.,OttO, .. '
Deve-lopri1'ant, S~pt@mL)(II' 19%1.

,;nd~ 2 J (PI1II1Pl)i M COlll'IGH f0rSmt~j:n~l'll:!

!I !YU], FI()flmcio B..'j I~ No. 5:636: An' Act'!.denfr1\i1. [(1 h iJ.r'ldn,g afl.d!'uthl.l1ali!;ll\g Pu,pul ar anti NI)n· t~(l\!~rl"lrMi-lt,r.I Particip.atiM in Loc~.1!] i\mJ.!1;dmini's(f<Hio~_ Amending rOt the·,pJ;.JI'p1Jse sectiQn~2. 5, 2G:,,::n, H, 3:~, 36, 37 ,Il I. 5,2, '5)" 60, 70, 74, ,9&, '100, (,02, 1{J3, 10o, H)S.I 12. I 14-, 11fi, 120., 1.:22,1,2 ~,I 24. 125. ~t7"jlntf 3 I 8,ofH,A, 7'1f,6.-(:)thprwj~h knowr! ;l;~ tf"l~ 1<()~8.l(.rW~tr.TI1~rt



~fld Do," 0.11 POPUI'a!' Parli£!p~tiq() HI I_rxal

;"'gro~, A:lbertQ, LHer.f['LI,re l!evJe-,;:v ()f~Sd.flJ(<'!d·L~,:~~\tl,Idlei C~V!'I'n;!n¢~ and Admi!1'istl"<H'iOti, Altfaba, FNnaft(i(). ·3tr~hqlh~!1Ii'lg , 'OpJ1')(!IHa!~d Dem~~.r.1DY-'


n'ioB S()(i<ll tiE!,ctor: ,An NCO-PO /}.g"clTtia"" in Rc'u,~llt HNrn()$U, I,e!;!,), DevetPeoohls itgel')d~. Qu;e_?Q(ICiry: ~\t@n1'!O 0(1 t..tanlla C(;!ntef for Socl~,1 P.ollc~\ "P(i!opl~'~ P"'I;tici patton tn I.o(,d ~Qv'<:f'n<lrr(~," /;}<l$efiM' O.u;; O("c~


1 994~<

l\l<Jnen'clE]. Manil~ C~t'!tflr far S'ociai Policy, ~(QJ' <l11)~p{t_[ P 1- I, I 9 ')'3,

!l!illg.llt~s, Alc;;:)r., B, The f);:e,'u['ivil;<lMii'<rrl'rJ hA![i~~ of A, Il:~t"(jrmai ~e,d~,j. Q)(fQrtJ LJniH"r-s'if,y Pr-I2S~" __ ---_. ' "RedeIl'1Qcmtiz<lliol'l





da Guzlncln

~.nd Mil<'i

Rofe-l)fNGO~,· 11l~'(:YIHltbOl1~! R-evif!:w 0/

and Det:~F1Lral i;:::;!i~!!gl In th~ I"bILlnrrlrl,~$; Th(! IncrE':,;\sl ng I ~~~Qlc~IHP A,dnlil1fMf~ttv~ S{"i~n,"as. VpL 60, Number 4. D~~e;'llb"F 1'\l9~,

NCO, M15[ ParUtfp<tte [n uX·;-lf Cb",'em~l1ct\, rhe RD/Il!.ofVt:ll.uJlitOiry

I Q'9L
Or~.NlI1rZlHH,Hl5" ~ISA: KlHn~~n~n Jlrl'~,S,

Clark.John, D,~rrwa.anzln@ Del,i~./opmp.'r)f.
CQ, [lin! A, . [i v il Soci elY

1~9l ,

,<In th ~ Ph I~IPOi rreNco ~

Mr.rv.e.rmnl!· S<lJi,'l L<l&~~. No ,,'11, .on'(_) l~~r l':i1,':l,

l)i(1CI'~~<:lr LP.tJ~)'pL Ar1 !m~lgl'~!W,I.J:;,gatpi City, 19)5, {

rlmlH~r, Jw,[r., "Sen"ll'

Bill No, I ~4"3: i\!i An 8roa.di!nin.g, Fnh1innng and i.1'!~li~~uo!"l;J.I!sltlq hlPul~r ,~nrJ NI\)'fTgov<1:nlme:nlal Panftipatlun in l~x.~!1G()V'ern<lr1(~ and Ar.JmII'UHl"witln, /\,mendillIJ rnn'Ft Wlr~G:>~ sertt-O[!$'Z, 'i, 2-6', N, 34, 3"), 3f), 17."41, 52', 5S, 60, 70, 74,,98-,100, roz. 103, 106,108', j l.2, 114, I 16, 1NJ, 1LZ. In. 124, I ~~, ~;u, ~I~d :ll B or HA. {! f::iU -1)~he.r'\"'~13@. knflY.'n ,1$ the I {)C~I("·o~'~r!lrn~nl (,,~t:I~(Jr 191;)'1," N(,tl~

:-,;II'i18Q, EJ~E~to, "Th-e l'~lU.J L~evel(lpm~lli .•<! A ~ SI ~1,<rrk (l: P m,f)t'mTl me, 1 992,

In rhp l~hllq'Pinp~:


Phi li~Y-i)I!~} I M\,.,ltJl~rt'lel\l

l!'1s<IIUte o] P()lllll,'~ .ilfld r.t:Jwrrllcli(f!' Pl,'rn~,': ,V!,1xinn'",H)g till' [ota! CrlF:2rllm~n(CGdL~, Ail NCCH'Q Prr.~pf!'·;r, City; C(,lTj'p~ratP!~ IJlriJH~hlnq for A!.Jr-d,'·i~rlR~l(jrm and R'.iraJ .D~V~I(jpm8n, 1996. . !O$IIIL!tQ fOl' 5tr8!t,:;:gl~ and Devi:~la.prn~nt 9.lldi~~, C(J-t¥/) \,0\/;:)((11 Pr~'J~" !~arn Ked~I)r'!,'fJg (,(i~'e!'n;;:r.I(:) ~Ild (!.r).tI;;:If.Z!r,\gP00p/e, lI(npQW~rm{!J7L NGO~. l)O~ ami Ille ,I \i9! W.::::~!.G1J~'emnWr!r Coj~. :(.)·J~L01 Cny: In~iil!J!'l' 1','1,'·8gk·.3,t'ld ff~V~I(JI."_ltl~nl St,_jclies. Inc" I 'J94.

K8J~W. ~'l,'ximo T. Civil S.OU~()I~ ,'(oJG! /11 (.k*S!i (,i3'1/~tnallcB_ [l:-~~.t!;nr0.C1 Dll,VE n ~EPEGPLC.... -:l~ R~)I<1! [~'J11 ot .;o(i~ty i~1 th-e Ilrs.tort·, and I·U~lJl'~_.Oi' .1o~! Inlt~d \I.,tIQ!l~·: A r.iti (~I1~ CrJ.f\r£oI'~~(~ Upi;:}rihfJ Nt:(~'(IN 1 R{!l;lLion~ ! n %11 Franfi'~(:o c~Hr;:l'T,i8, Fhdi ppine l-rstitute 0f'tlJn::!rn,1\l\i I·WLr!'{!*. JIJ!~' I q·S5 KClr;£<,~D,]\.qd C. Cc'ttin9 mW rh~ 2 r !J!.~,~ !I!~:, I);,HL ~



CUJI'I}i'V: VQI~lrrd·(V AnJQr) :li1d C:;;/,oQal Age.'ld::. S'p<=<!thdf:!!iv~r~d

~~;t1nr.·C1I(\i;.;l(umo,n,lil O'J!'ll-,q ',hp 'Inl~l'r~Cinq -, I ~i.~(J

I_OI,dgt>. Jrwi, t" iuw"n.l" ,.I M~dtJfMJljj' CO·'i.GU ,\jCO p,v'mchhip_ Wi~ll DI~C, 'Se:cretary' .R:l'b~r! H"fl;ter,~, N,~qa (ny, I ~.96: hI?WJm:~,'

{\,JiNI'fY. SLI!mn.'f


[1/ Frd'f~8'.ciing>

~.6~1' WO'd,qi;riJl

0L![Pl/i'. M4Y'(h i <J·bL

N'LQ.'\ !lxnmJ

RHal uti on No.2 (S. 19i89J. ClNdd/pe0 O'fhlnIZ:'i[I(Jt) (G;)-NG.m CoU.alwr;IlID.'l.



~)I'g·allt~.~rrint) ~ncl ....,OIJ-s;w ....lrl)ml~!11 !

l)rIYl.~nt~l, A:;p,1I11 no, ri?~ U:H"~J (,o','w,'jm~~M {:cCl'~ "'", ! ~g.1 Phil ippl ni' CQullci I ~OT ·S\15Uln}ibl(t De~'~lupm811t. Llr..v-e)opnOj en t


Ag.?nc!a 2 J: A. N<lricm<lf.1 At/enCI,1 f9F :'?(Js!<'III1;lM~


s:<;q'Jncio E, ,')txf<"1' ~(~ndllT~ U -r\,i:~~7J flti'(Wr J/)J('>/ !!"I tr;j{~,11 C1J~'(~n{4I_lt~. Q\~Z(~[\ eil y'; 0nivitr~IVf P rh~ FpIM:'-,. ! 9%. .


R:1.:<:.t.H lton; '-Mnml;;'llng J)<:v.el.Qt:n'i.enr Th.~'f,u~JI~ I t'l5liruuon

B~i Iding," MJ.R o.c.<.~s!on<71 P';;rp~I'
DC: CIVfCUS: .051.1, 1984.


1;t. OUohl:r




:Sr,d~1'V In rJ:¥.'As!-'l P¥~f!r;:

i~Bgic;'1, W~sl!jnglon' M.1lIlII.LI,.1

S1,)~mellJ., GolllGi·W~GC D~<t'l!rr.~1f2.!lj(ln "(J.o~,' R~foF;'tj Agend.L:


~(f!k!r.{1 ~. tl,lla,'1(~ in phl!ifJpi(Jp in pr~(.(!:C'~,

HW/l~.'l ,l)ioY~I{)l."tlJ@m~ 1994,

\·V.j)fl~1 ~an'k, lJi,>wdopmG!~lt r;'\11K.1994.

The kVb/,id Bi;'hk~

b;p·~ri~!Ke, \Ao:'I.$hil1gtofl LYC; V!;'crIJ

INl ~RvlL~\f;fS • Phi.!ipPI ne Btl~ine~~ !'oj' ::>'O~lalhqgr~~s• ~Jtlolnl C(ll"igres~ ()T \ !niol'1~ 11'1 I~e' $~"r' i r.dll$1 tV thu P'h·HipPiJ1~$.(NAr_IJSIP-TUC(; • M LJ I t I St!( to.r~J Alli;;l.n c e fo I' .Dev e I eiprrven L fM !lAD-Nt eROS) • Sr(~~i",1 Rd;(~rm (owlf.11 • DA··CHfice of lh~ Pn:iv[rr(;.lal tlgrll~jjl'll~rl~I, N~',!:wJ;.~ ·Qc.(ithatllal • Phi lip-pine FwurTstit~ So'{iety, tr«, • CoalHiM or [)·~:v<ll('lp.m~r,i N.GQ~ (cor_)[ NCO) • ABS:CBN FC~lfld<1ti~r] • !n~1 il:lH~ hI'So('ial "ltudies and Actfol~ (lS'5A) • ECP;!\,T, Phi lip"pin'~~ ~ P~u\'Tnci<;1 Aq~I:!ln1a.rine C;:\}Orrl.r,.iJ;in~l CdrTImltL~'(~ m\t) ~ Phillpp.1 ne L~~li ~r~lnrs.' fi)ll!mitte~ on P('cn ind DQvi>:lopmeHl (PLACE.OJ ~ 1/1lrimiS local offici ...ts .(rllos.tly munrctpal mayors);Jrlr;ci,), Lile Wtfli0i1~'J {"ti~-I.Jlt'lbQr\s 0'1 IJ1t~L"'<lO\l~' (;1 t'.-~'J nlclp<'llitie~ '(IF the I:;hlllnplr,,~ tr~I(1 !n I)avao., Aklan and PiJ@{rlGPrinu~';; • NC:O~ ! t1 BJ.colccl DW


State-Civil Society Rel,at,ions in Po,licy-Making

Focus on the Legisiativ'e

Introduction the: Eig hth Cong ress (1 9:87·1 992.) was e-Iected .. I n I 992, th e Ninth Co ng ress 11 99 z· 19S5) WJS swo rn Into office, rnarkl 119 1 he fi 1"5t peanJul and 0 r("h~tly trail sfer of powe rthrcuq 11 the ballot S i nee the. I ~ 86 "pea pie p6w.e r" t'evd~utl 0 n, TIl i's pivotal

The Phi Hppine ~eg i s lature was r~s urrected with democratic

v~go r In I 987 when


the triumph

of··Civ'il sotir:'[y

_lin defending

a fr.a9il~



of the Eighth Congress

Sired as tt was by "people powa r," tilt Eig hth Conqrass devoted I"n u ch of ns atrennon 10 broaqening and d--ee.p·ening 'the legal bedrock of popular empowerment I" beth t he pol i:tical an d econcrn ie :5 pheres .. It passed lan d mark le:gTS~;J_'LiCl n tnat contrib uted to the 'demccratlzatio 1'1 of I iti"cal' rowe r, This i,rK Iudeo [he fol-


Iqwijl'lg: (I)


i(l,nrganic ACt lRA 6.734) treatit'1g the Autcnorn QU.s, (,ARr... 1M) to be (om I}os'<'.dof the prQVim,~s, <illd dtle5


plcbl s clte, The A_.c:t ratcs s

nor '1.'i11head AR:-",1M·~ executive


R~gjor(i rr M'~5lim 1\1111darlHQ thm wi H votefor autonorn ~' that a POptll<ld'ly-~;dc:ctcd r~[Jlol.<l.1 gev., rwhile Ilcgislatlve IJ.Q'vVf'.r..... 1:>1' vested . ,ill

ln th~ Regkm1l.1 A~H!'nibl''l judiclal power will rernaln unde I" the .supervrsron of thE!!Suprema Court. But tne Shari-ah appellate COlHt and other tribal appe II,"TQ courts will admini ster Justice to to.'1I.I:)linu and other i 11dig:enous cornm unifies ti1 rnatte r s of rel ig.ioLl:s henef, "I.~sto·ms, .~a.·ws and value", (2) Tile Initiati:v~ and Ref€:r<!ndum Act. {RA (735) allowing tile people to dirRctlv
crdinances., or resol WHOll5 pass~d by <lrlY I~gis'la:tlv.e bodv: (:) An Org.anlc AO, {RA 6766) n~p.tin~ ~h~ Cordllh!I'o Autonomous Fk9km (UI,R} to. he com posed of th€! CltV <Ina pro: v·ini;:('i$ that will ..... for autorrornv In ~\ ~p~\'i,d d~e plebiscite. Thls measure hones to ensure the '_ordillera people's rig!1r to thcrr ancestral domain, establtsh OJ: system of g{)\i~Hla.n·c~ for them. ;J,1l0 prom ute tile1 r cultural heritage_ (4} The Local Covernment Cod(i of 1991 (AA 71(0) decentralizing the powers, ;lLl~i1urity; reSp(lnsibrlhi~5 and resources. of the 0 nal gowcJ:nl1'l,ern if I order to make. local. !Jqvemmel1t propose, enact:

approve or reject.

ln whole


in part. the. Comtit~Jnon,

Ja:.... , .s


~el F-I"e'l~tlt. The Code also Introduced



.S:i:at.,e-Civil SQdeUy

DEMOCRACY AGENDA Rlelali,tHlS in Po,licy-M,aki1ng

rncchanlsrns of t:l:!call, lnltlative of local government offlclals,

arid referendum to ~n~lue

the cu:rolmtabiii,t'~,

In addition,

th@ Eighth Congress
and developrn em::




laws ~ntended


spe,ed up


O} ThlO!:!988 Compr-ehensive

Agrarian Reform Law of 1.988 rM 665 mandating that no person may own or retain anv puhllc or pr~v;lte ·agtkultur;;l;1 "and I}"~vend re.l~ntiQll limlts to he determined 'by the Pl""esjd-¢n~.ia.l grarian Refbnn A COLlIlCII (PARe)' Lane! ~iven up. for redtstnbuuon shall than b~ p<1r(d~d out \0 l,anGles s farmers, farm wor.k~ts, .agricuIWrall!essees and share tenants. collecBIlISirH~,.s!'i

n or others working' 'di"rettly o'n the land, {~) The. M.a.,gna. Carta for ClJuntri{5c'ide and B,1lrarigay
'K·~lak2J.latl;;:Q lRA -681O} ~htoLiraghig terprisQs which local the growth

Enterprl s es or the
business en-

of cot{litry,.;ide

and operation

ern ploy up to lO people. It slrnp] ifies laws on the f®.gistr1.!tion of rheseenrerpnses ami griilJlts them u:emptiom from .all na-

t~ot1a~ arid


with certain

llrnltation s..

0) The Cooperative Code of the Phil lppinas (RA 6938") promoijl)g~he growth af cooperatives and corn m~nding the gO\.fernn1ent to provide ~eC'hnic<i;1 quldance. fin~ntiu.1 as slstance and other services to (hem: (4) Tile. Forelg-n lnvestrnant ACl eRA 7042} providin~ 1,n,cel1tivlir:f to attract foreign
investments to the countrv e'X.cep'(it'l eccnomtc sectors wh!'!r~ fOfl~i.gll(m., are

b~rn~d from ili\;'estil'lg: ., ('5) The People's Smal~·Seabe Mining Act (RA 7(76),n.g the. People'~ 5'l11<111Stalle r..-1'ini rrog;n.lnl to ax;i1Jeve :a s.r's,tematic and g'Zfti6 ng nal ~C;h(;!1l1J:)for th.e ' small-scale d:ev(ll,oprnel1t .amJi moe of mrnen),~ res,owces; (til The CoumrywkJ~ I ndustrlellzaticn Act' (RA, 7.3(8) promot~rg the estahll shrn'erlt of manufacrurinq, proce~·:;i I1g and retated i ndustrles in the cou nfr\,(;rde by p:roviding financial assl stance r<);,ngl from P30 mullion to 'P40 m IHion tu evng
erv town and city; (7) Ali Ad Grant'ing Tax <Ind Duty Ellemptloh (RA 7360) which qlves lip to 100 percent (8) and Tax (retllit em Capital exemption from customs Equipment dutie's and


Il<\~i'D!la' qn'te.rhal revenue raxes: Tho. Rura~ Banks Act of 1992 (RA n 5'3) eticQ.uraging the estahjl shrncnt o'f 11 rural: bal"ll<ing sv~tem that: will make cr~dit available .:InrJ acces slble 111 th~ rural an::;:t~On! reascnabje terms, and . Tlhe Base5 :ConV[ltsicHi and Deve.i.oprne.nt Act Qf 1_g92 (RA 7-22, ) c:(e<\th~gthe 7 B.a~e:;, onversim1 and DeveJop:I:;nent Autlloi!'~tv "\i~licJl ai rns 'to hasten the s ound C
and balanced conv~rsi(;)n of mil ltarv reservations
laws (DI LG);

for productive

L1Ses '.

Othe r


e nacted by the


Cm1gress were those defining
of lnterler and

and penal:iz-iIn9 the crime of plunder;

ucatlcn: c~eating H'l~ Abet-Kava Pabahav Fu nd which provides for a social i2:e:d bQusing pmg ram for the u nderprivi leged and the flo rnetess: creating a Board of Claims fo r victims of u njJuM .impri sonment, .dere ntiiQ n 0'1' violent crimes: .and suengthenin-g the I'ClW pro' hTbiling di_scrimi natlon aga,i FIst women, Covernment Btjt indisputably, the "crown jewell" of the EJg hth Co,-ngress was the Senat€:'s rejection of the draft treaty that would extend American rni Iltarv oresenee in the
Phi Ii pp tries,

establlshlnq the Department fo r free public seco ndarv ed


of th,e Ninth Congress,

The I~er'fo rma nee 01 the Nl nth Con'gn;;ss has bean hal led as u n precadenrad i 11 Philippine lustorv because in Just 90 sesetan-days, It was ,.1111'" e naci 46 m !i.lJ a r to laws. i r~g; In 'th~ po lit I cal sphs re, among major l.;Iws Ihi;l1 were passed werl1! the lollow-

(I) TI10 Pun Y·U!>! Syste.m Act


7g.·~1J .lIocatlIlg



ct the.

lH~i1i,s In thf!

~!)nor~, nrg~f'lizail (}I'~, <!Im1 P;lIll~!; 12) Il,n Act Arncf1clllu, S~(lhOIl 27 of R~publlc .\(~ No 7T(i.Ei Of {im Act ProvldiPlfJ 1"01 ~\ti1( I imniz d ~'IJ,JthJtlI nd t.oc. II [1~(uol1'1,lIItl fOI EI~c:torill Rdo.ll1ll. tRA SCM 5)

190'U~c of Repm5.I!I1Ii:'1tivI;!5 to m«m:;lllliihzed

and nnderreprescnterl

wllld~ .1~iIJtnpl~ to dl~tOLJr,J,gi! (!leu~or1 lr ud bv r~fJldlfl111J rh .. r rhe s lxth t{'JPY' r III" ulecuen ruuu n IH~p,'~t'd h ,duo bo.utJ Dr ~I' r tton hl~p~ttor~ be r11V(i11 '10 !fl' rll'iZ"n\ ,11m. tIIhorli!: db Iht! (nl1lml!;',lI)fl !')Ii [1~'(~II.lfI~ (CofnohH.): <111<.1 (3) All A(.t AW 11m1r 1[19 ,I,,,, 1.0m "It'C ~o PUD - rl'§t a l.Ornputiil rl~ed ~I(·rtioll ~y~~~ m (RA B()~'r.~)III 111!l v Ollutl. (oUlHin{l iH1d ~dIW"~~IFI\' cd voh'~ II~ rhe ~'J~,G ARMM

~lj'Ltl(~m Among fOII()v.'ing :.

111e ace 11011m ~daU::d




(111:' N I FIth Co rig rt'~~ ~Vjm~ rhl"

(I) tm An ~dnu,II,:tllzjng and SHcn.glhl!rml~ Ihe. ilml·DLHnplnC] LJ..... (R.,!\ 7U4Jl to p~otell Fill pin!') ;>mer PJ !!.eS dgLllnst torNgH compctrnon arul untarr rri)d~ prac

(2) E pOll Dt!\leJfJpm~n~ ,;i\n [}f 199·' Ie"0 idinq far [lie fOHiililJ.tion 0'1 a Phlhppm{! ,


E.'oJ:Pbll! D(l\l'eJcpm~nL PI.m IP[DPJ -lod Im:l!nH'It'i!!> to l"xporro.r!.; AI J ACf lnstlun I!1g: a j ,l"W S'll5tern DF II.llnel <1.1 RE1SCiUfI::C ~ Ex ploratieu

m 111. Utilization
that wlll govern s.etvaUOrl of

oiIl1d CoO!;cr auon IRA 7942) provldinc 101 II l~g.ll frame. rhe m;magel'mmt e plofatlon, unnzatten, devalopmcnt. 'resources.

D~V('ll)p· .... ork 1:0'11-


'GI.'uhm the


and exclus Iv;'!

~nintJr1Ill (

zone of tip country: and (4) The T~d1nlcaJ Education and Skills. D~ve.lopmef1t Art {lor 1991l (RA 77~6} creatIllg th~ Tec.hnlcal Edutamm ..rid Skills De\,eloipmEHH .Authonty or the ITSDA to e:11~lJr.E!efficlent technical aducauon and skills develeprnent of Fil tplno 1111d!ed
Ie:vel manpO'N!!F, 111line v••th the country's i rlveness. goal of ;;lchltll,ling global ccmpeti-

Other laws' enacted b~1 thiS Conqress provide for comprehensive and intsqrated shelter al1d urban develojimem fina.ncillg. fhe irrststution of a nauo nal health insurance pr'og ram, theprohtbiuon of a~1forms oI sexual h'lI 0l5S rnerrt Irt the. work. educat: on iil nd tralninq envrrorrrnent: tbe fair and equitabte access to ed ucar if) r'I: the strenqthernnq or the. lrnulemen at],on of ,he agrarian reform program; rhe protectlon of migrant workers and overseas Hhplncs; a.nd the: model FI laatlo ill of t~~e Armed ~orn~ of the Philj pprnes tAW),
Tn!! Tenth Congrk'ss t l 995-1998) ~as S10 'on, Into officE III an envuonrnent of p,OIlHcaJst~lblllty ,~nd sigrufic iun economic gtfowth. By tha.t time, the national reunlflcatio 11 process I1ad gained way, Wltll revelutionarv 9 rou p~, fro 1"11 both the exI re-IlH! L[!;jt Jnd t h~ eXH!.!me RighI being won over by govew me n t e.fforts 100 brl rig , hem bac I~1ruo fh~ matnstream of 50 ietv.

.36 •• P'ATR.lClA ANN V. PAEZ

first Re'9uhu Session of the Tenth Corllgress

The first re9ul<:lr session (Ju,ly 199,e;·June 1996) of the Teml1 Carlgr~ss fP,sulted the passage of 20 vital 11at lonal bills e,x,('!!~.dih'1g prevlcu s year's; record of 17 the


The leg i$ rust was to s'u slaJ'J1 the econo rnlc growth rna mentu ru. lI.rnOFl9, the laws passed wen; those pr.ovii:;ling for Hl~ der~g ulatlon ofthe downstream oil lnd ~JStfy (RA $180); repLa,r;:llng.q uantitauve restrictions (QRs) on aqrlt u Irural products except rice (RA 817'8)~ further Ifberalizing foreign Investments (F;.A 8179); excluding the Offieidl D~veloPI:rHmt Asstsrance (OO.A} 'from the foreig.n debt ltrnlt (R_A 8J 8"2); restructurino the excisetax on petroleum products (M 8184}; strenqthen lng the Crop tnsu ran ce Prog ram of the gove m merit (RA 8: 175); and i rnpos i ng do u ble in dem nity fo r the pre sc ri bed increase i f'l ih e wag e rates, ([i;A 811:18). 111 the pc Iltlcal fie ld, the focus was on measures tnadvance devo lutto n -and el:e(torall rero rms. These i ncluded 9 randng allc ltlzens' arms eq:val OPP(H"tun~ty to be accredited by the Co mm lssto non EJectiens {RA 81 73) and prnvid Ing fo r a gen· .eral arid conti nu i 119 System of Vote I's.' registration (RA 8- T39}, I r1 .add ltton, local £love rnrnent un its were al towed the u$e of Hle flva- percentxalarmtv fLmd out of the mtem a,1reven ue allotment for calam lties e nd d i sasters vv ithcut Wa.iti ng fa r the President's declaratlon of a state of calamitv in • fleeted areas (RA 8'185). Li nes of

nqui n·y

This paper will attempt to provide an swers to

the fo~lowfll,g.qu~sti9-m:

Wha~areas of il'terve~'tiq~ ate formally and inrform~IIY'il.Vi.liiab.l~ to clvll sect,cty actors in thii:' legi~'lati\l~ bpJ,nell of Qiovermnent? ~ Whi~h of f~l~$e areas IU'iVl2 OQ@.1'iI utiii<::~d or uhder-uu ltzad ~y b'u 3i ne ss. ch urchcs, rn edia. acadern tc instituelons, i"I(m'goV'ernm.!l!l1t argalliz~tio;n ~NGO~)., rH~orJllt~' orga:nizati-(lIIS WOs)' arid othe Far-torS? yVhat factors \;VOiJkl "'C(Ol~ nt for such
utlllzatlon "' or Linder-utillzatlou? ' Wnat have been the strenqths and i ntcrvention? What factors. account

weaknesses of thes e actors in the course of

for t·hesl;! stranqths <,nd weskne sses? civll society actors flJliy maximize existing 1J0l11W>'S. i nterventlon? for Wh<l~ other venues need to or can be dev~!oped? How

DeH n it-ion of Civil Soclety ,Actors

For the pu rpose of th is pape':r, "(:iv'i I socletv" or "civi I. society aero rs' wl II refer non-stale actors or to those who, either by election or appoint rnent do not
that inc Iu des the. executlve, leqislatlve

form part of the formal state apparatus.
jlldicial branches of government.


Outline. ot the Presentction nit! onal
This pape r ,:5, d ividedi mo efg ht sectlons. The fi rst sectlon covers theconstlactors. that empower them to be' actlvelv and lega~ r~ghts of clvl I soclety involved in 1~9lslati on.

The seco nd section rae kles the PO\;\!d 9 rid and the current po Iltlcal al i9 nrnents in Congres.s, the' key and supporting playtus within rt, and the. rolesthev play in the I~gislative process,

The third section deals with the prOCf;:5·S€S 3.nOmechanisms I nlaw-ma,k'ing <IS well as the basilc e lemenrs 'uf the "internal slr9-~egy" whiC'l1 refers t(l;[heGiv~1 secttty a<:tOr~'gaTm~ pl':H~ in puahi n'g theiro.uses til ro~~t1 the. l"egisLathliE mill, h
c!:ty actors' com

The tou t1h secuo h di;,>(u sses lhe: "external str";u-egy" wh ich refers to clvll sec 1p~emen"tary lobbYlnglrifoitS outside ··tli:!! hall~ 'of (ong:r,e.s.S _ It fQbrifllg

cuses on the ~o lob~)'V th~

e·xetlurv(! bra.nch, the medi.a .arid· the legl·slatGr.s' abq'UnJesf red resu lts In th-e l.~gisl~m..Je. r

have.used beth the analyze the factors

The fifth sectlon attempts -to assess the, degree 'to wh lch dvi I socretv actors fo rrnal and non-formal areJ,s forlegi'sl.'.I.tive ~rlIte:rventio.n and to that ilff~ct dwd r eJfe:LtiIV{niH~:ssto do so: strengths
and ,•• eaknesses of c]\,:IJI soc:[@t'Vacv
S frolfl

The s"ixtn se::ction analyze~ the t.CirS,in ln fI UE:r1Cintl Ie:g~s.iatiol~.

The seventh sHtGot'l draws $0 nne. I11~ tg'ht5 .and lssson ~a:n'1Pv,ign s that ptn be i nsrrucnve for CiVi I SOCi~W actors,

past h":!-g~s·ldtive.

terventton and explo res !lew il,ve 11U~~ wh lc h they resoo nsjv~ and ·a[cou ntab!e leg:isbtu re.

The eighHl and final secnon qn).PQse~ JrlI .eligbt-polnt anion agp,jlda \IV hk'h civi I sQOety actors.can undertake t6 rrla.):{ilrJiz~ ~xJsli 119 v.en~ tS fa r' I~gi~ latlve i n.. u


to !=n~~re a. more

The. CQtlstituti,on

and Civil S.odety.

The an:hHe(ts' of the : 987 CCfrrs.tiwfion laberedu rider the tlrci.tJ rna of ho v,,' the previou"$ CQ.n~tihiHon I,v&1 us-ed to Ileg Itl rruze fltJt",horiTatian i s rn. Th us, they armed ([viii SGCie~y with the: legal wea"p(rfll.s protect 'and a.5S~rt its@~f:


Th@.'I 9,87 Constlnrrlo



1t is eve.p(FHi pirro Citi.z~h'S right
of the peopltl and ~Ile'i r o(yotn~iati(j ~IHl.iJby


d i recrly-

~Ilgag~ In the task Of law-rnak: fig i.IJ1d to lobtlv C:orlgre'~s;
An XIii,· Se c 16: n!(!riqht nstu ,effG!~tive and re.asonabk P~r'tLCIPaJion at :1111 lel"/a~~ of socjal, eccrroml C declsion-maldng ~h.. 11 !IN b@"abridge.o, Th';S.ta~e

pol j"th:a~


facilita~·e thee ~~·~Z(I::i~i.~hnlf.:'Il~ ad~.qtlat~ consultancn ef



The Chr2etn'~ right "to d i re:ctl:y propose, eaacror a.pprove. '0 r reject <J.:nyau o r Law 0 r part thereef ~assed by [dng ress or Jny IOGt'l legislative bodv" is likewise stipu~ate.din the COrlistilu_tion, Til' IS prlntip'le of c;itlzens' in iti~X~veand refereridum

'make'S the Ph i 11pplne

Co nstitution

su premely

lJ n [que"

The Initiative and Referend urn Act
The: Hg bth Cong r:ess passed -the lnltlatlve an d Refertr'ld urn Ani'to' put rle~h to

thls Consututlonal


llnder the syst~rnM ~rliti~tive·. the.' people. lrmy make a petitio n to ( I) at!fH!Hld the Cqnstitutron:~2) e nact nartonal leg lslatlon: Q r C~)'d raft a r~g:lat1al, orovrnc ial, clly, mu n lei pal O~ b<:tratlJ9?Y law, resql U't~b or ordmance. n
The pee pie rtl;jY atsoexerctse ."i ndirect I,~fllafiv@:" by propos: rlQ' a measu re ro Cang resscr to the Inca! ~egistative body faT actiofl. The Law 0'11 provides fo r a so




svstem of referendu m whe re the electorate may ,approve',Qr (ejecl a law th



elecnon called for the purpose. Ail reg i~'teLed voters of the. cou n~ry•.autonernous reg'iQr~$, provi n c.t'$! ciUe s, mu l1i'cipahtieS and br1rangays may lxen:.i sethe pOWl2:it of i nitiarive arid refe rendurn.

To @x~rci Se th powe r Qf~n iti;niiVt: or refere ndu rn.arIeastten pe rcerH of the: total number of n=9istefed vote rs must ~rg n a petition for the purpose and reg tster rlw~t'h the Comelec, I n the petltlon.anv leg i sJativB d lst rlct must be. re prase nted b;y at least three percent of the registere'd voters ttiNe,"
On the other hand, a petrti onfor a.n 1nitiativt on thel 987 Co rrstrtutlon must b~. sig ned by atleast 1.2 percent of the CO'L.lri1try's total number 01 regl.~te red \iGli'E'!I'S. Ev.erv I'e.gi51<!.!iV\~ i stric::t !Tluit·be rtpr'dt.rrted .qy at least ~hree oerce nt of in re1i~d ter'ed voters,


P·arty~List RepfeS!l!ntativ~es
The Censtltutlon atso mandates the lnclu 5Ton of panv-ttst representatives tn tbe 1-10 se of R@p.rt~:se L! I1Utive s~ These representatives will consril ute 20 perCf!rlt of nH~ mtall i'lL! mber of seats in t he House, Includl rig tho 5£ w 11.0 ar(£ pari: orf rhe. pOlrty I tst. .
.the Ni nth ,Co ng: res:s ~;assed The P.anv· ensure the: repre 5~ ruarlon .of marg i r12\1zed and .'U nder-reprel seI1t~d' sectors, Drgan i l,ation s and parrtesl n ~he' Ho IJs:e..

list System .Act:'~\O



Ii 11 e'wttfr thts C01~ sbtutiQnalpf6\1~skin

A.nyo I~g;lnlzed P!Otrty', organ izationo r C:Q~litlo'li repi"e's'e'ntlng the foll·6wfng, sectors rn u~t reg Lster with th e Co mel ec if th.ey Vi/ant to be included in the p;:tr:P/-lis.t system: bbor, peasant, fisherfolt, l~ rban poo r, lnd ige:f'lou ~ cu ltu ral .(:omrl1un ftirftS, e Ider~Y',handlcapped, werne nit 'tout 11,veteran s, f,w-erS.eas .workers and pr0fes.siorlJJs.
S)fOUp 4'5

Qual ified drgflJlfzaUoF!s may t10I'l1lirrJaN'! not I~ss than five names fro rn the] r days. before the el.e(UQn·~ ft)[ the HOl~S12 o;f R:eplese(1ta:t~v<t:L

Evefy voter s h.aJi be allowed two v9re~.s:the fi rst OMi ndrcati ng hiS chotce .of rep resentatlve for ~l i;s kg i slativ-e.·d i strtct, and the (HOe r, hts choi~e of the party; org~;hliza.ti{lll c/r coal itj·on he yVi\r1t5 represented in the. HG.u,5e.
Those parries 9?meri ng (at least two p'en;ell( .. f tl'n! total votes casr 'fa r the; o party Ilstwill b.e enrnleq to (me seat each, Those g€:tting mere tbantwc: pe rcent Will be entitled to add ittQnal sears-l n proportjsn to the t{)taJ number ofvotes Hrev worr, winhingg
Party-list re presentatlves be obtained from the list of norntnees ofthe rou ps (l,c(ord ing to the i r rankl ng. Oi reo voting by citizens uride r UI!e partv-l ist systE!tll vid,lli be' i-mplerrrented beqint'li~ng with the 1993 electrons and in ev 121)'( Gin 9 res sicnal e Ie.en Q noth e re.J;:fte;r; .. The CQt1sHtUlio n further 9'lijarant~e's respect for th,f'!rig hls of persons appearing ] rl or affeC1Bd by C6r1lgre'~~iqr1aJii1q u i ries lnald ·Qf ~egi·sl<Itlon." ltalso states that I~ even leg i s la:tive bod les of LOu.1 govern rnent s ha,11 have. sectoral representa ,



tha pea ple."

they want and thin k they deserve The CQnstlturlo n further ensu res that "a free and 0 pen party system shall be allowed to evolve accord ing~o·the free choice ..of

QLlal!fvfd Filip.! rto vote rs also sha~re the ldnd

of 'Dllgr~ssi()rJal represen tation

Clearlvthe fundamental Law Oif the Iand amply promotes civil soclet'l,/s rr91~LS choose legis~ator&. t.o·oversee <we! dirli:ctly partlclpatein iErgisJation, and even to tlitlke or unmakelaws; This, is j n fLlIl CO.f1lSG uance wi~h the IIJbtrtarii\n tenet that Iis{lvet'elgntY resides IT~th'e pso pie. and all~ govE':rn rnenr .<).Llthority em~rlate'S from r~em." .

Doing BaUle

in the.

legIslative Arend
03.11 d

Eyen Lfthe leg-al



re for partlclpato

ry democracv

is now in place, c lvil sDdety must team wgrappl.e with the' Spet ific realltles an d cvnamlcs of tn~ 1:e9lr[~I'alive. arena, H tab~.s' more them conviction and bel lef in the justness of CJtl~~Scau~·eto t;) revail In ~h is' tJaUI~9ro undo MoreQve r. :althQugh the ·
en niUtuhor1 {Qnta:~n$ Frondad pr'oyi~i6rl~ that .g uarantee civil's riO l"1tt-S' to ~e::gislate:,. it ViI.asnot acco rnpf(J1 ied wrtha, manual of ir!$tru(tior!s.

It Uki2:S a master str<atie'gi~t,an astute tactlc iM wtth lou .of po I ith:;.a, I: sa,vvy, a publlc relarlons expert, a d lplornat arid a wily r1eg.oliator with rile' p'atier;lce of Jbb - all rolled 1 nto 0 ne -to wi n rhe clay in Ccmgmss -, If ~n.f!Yare to succeed if'! p'u,r:s.~~rrgtheir legis-Iaf~ve a.g~.nd:aarid ma.king their volces ~\e.ardin a cacepho ny Q£her voices, civil soc iety organlzutiol1s must under stand how the: corn plieXi la,byrl mh of COhgfe:S:5 worb and whiff rnorlvates the plla}~ers with i n 'it.


COil.9 ress ts divideel into lWQ ·c.nambe:r:$: the Upper Ho use wh ien is the Senate aflid. the Lowe r 1-10 u.s€'wh lchis the Ho.use of Re:pfe;:se;'ntatives,

The Le~gisetors l
The S!:!na;te is 'La mp.05ed of 24 se nators elected at Iar:ge fa r a ;s i X·y@.M term and who '(an be re.-~lected fa ranot~er term. The I-IQU!leof Repre.serlta.tives, \·/hich should b~. comp'·o (if not more than 250 rnernbers.vara ~iected bV diStrict. Pfe~er1ltJy, the re are 2'0'4 dJng(@$smen, I;;ach re·we5elfrt.ative is ermtled lQ,'! thr~e-yeaf term and h...aIIGw~.d:o nly th reec.9rrs:~cutive terms, · . wen; appotnred by the IP'residt:Tlt and conf FIi1I!;d by the Commis.5·fon -on Appointmerits. The secto rs r,epre:s@ rued 50 far are, the fO!~oWil!g:. cu It~Jral [om rnunttles, labor, overseas e.ontract w.O rkers (00\15), youth" women, pe_as~nt,fi silt rfolk and the urban poor, As the eltlzens! direct voti ng for traE! partv-tist represent.1t~ve.s wi II not he 'I) rrrll the 1 ~93 elecuons, thfi!:prese nt crop of secto ral representatives are all presldential appo i rIH'!e'S.n~i$'is pr'Qvlde.d far in Art, VI, S-ecrYo:n (2) of-the S Con stitunon, wh1di stares: "Fa r th ree cO'nsecutiv:erefms 'after [he. rartflcatlon of th is CO!'ls.titUlipn, .Q.r'le-ll41f ofthesears allecated to' partv-l i stre.pre1~nta:(i:ve$. shall be Filled, as provided by law, by seh:'!.clion or'I frcmthe I aha r; peasant, urban poe ~,~mHget10lj$ eu ltural (01"1'1rnu nit~es, yql~t'h, and s !.M::J~ ether s~ho~s as mayhe provided by taw, exceptthe reliqlcus sector"

I n ~ddili()n, th ere are ~1s@ctQr.-d 7

re.lyres:ellita~lves',in th.e Low<er He use who


40 ,. PAT~'!CIA ANN. V. ·P.AEl

Tne Officialdom
Ead~ cnarnbe r has its .1n'.d procedu res,
. I~

OWr r

official hierarchv, Wgil!.r~ii:;, " Fules.

pro ~tr!mpo ,s ecreta ry,

The key o'fHten of

re, the

the' $e.n~.te:·:aJe the: :Sen.ate-.pres.iderit,

the Sen ate pres;id'ent

rlil<j.jorit'l, the mirWrlW floorl~·j,d~r·a.nd

th-e S'~~a'te

In the House, the top bra~-s us composed of the speaker, the t hree deputy speakers r@pr@1>enting luzon. Visayas,and M i ndan ao, th.@:rnajority floorlaader, the

minor~i:yflo.() rleader and the secretarv-qene rat

-stand i ng to mmlttees. The ~upporting

The m am 38 st:rnd i ngco rnm lttees in rhe Senate. 111 the House: t her~ .·are 47 '1 9 specFa~ COl!] rnlUEles and CHlf! a.d hoc cernmntee. '


Clvn S.Qciew actors who. want to know what i.s happe n i,r~g in d. S!'.!;.nOl,te rnmitco tee must touch base with two perso 110$; the leglslallve committee secretarv who Ls inc harge of secretariat needs and the senator's-cornmlttee .secretary who heads

the .rechnlcal .st~Jf and IS 1; h'e·refo,rf!the "pclnt-perscn" on -substanuve matters. The 'technical ream is rscru ited bv the: Senator whD chairsthe committee" A~ TlQ Iitical appo rnt~e-s, U~~tecnn leal staff '5 term of office ts cote rrntncus with thar 'oJ th~ .appqi r1tfng s,.el1atqr; The'i\.t.e corrrmtrree secrerarv, Q n th'e other hand, i s.a career emp.~o,Yee ~ho is Pa.t1 ofthe S~nate s(Z~r'etariil.t.
Inthe House. there is: ti~~:ly person to de-al witl,,: the cornmittee one S'l;:creta~v who rPmvidf~s b01hs~OiHari<j:t and te(hrll~a~ .s,l,IppOrLW I'he ccrnmntees: Thi ~ person has:rna re I'espons·ib~·~hi.€s. exercises '9 reattlr powe rs til.ln. the 5er!at~'.~ and leg15 latlve r;Qmmitt'e~ secrstarv, ButIl b~ the :Iatte r, ,he:.occupies a permanent plan'tirl:a ilen" i s not cote I"nl,i nous. with the CD mmlttee chalrperson and lsalso p",_rt Qfthe

1-10 use secrerarlat.


about COll1l"11~tl~e. work, Ofte-n ~ thev IW= bette r i nformed than the legisJators whu preside OVH the committees. The. committee secret:ari.e-sh·a;ve..the i nstttutional rnemorv as far as h;:(g 15·1a.tiol1 c;oncemed. Me.mbers is 0"( CQ'n~,F"'e5S rnav rIO 10f"I.§e·f be re·elec~ed or ceuld: h~ ~ntheir -la~I term, ,a;n.dthstr c.omrniu,ee·cha"i n'n;:J.r1sMpt may end elthe r by cholce or because of si~lfti tlg,pClJ~fic~1 ~I i:gll ments, COrhrrJittee secrerarres, on the !4Ither hand, uSlJally~t<ry in tb@:committees long er than these na.tors or COr'lQ r1E!5~men' thern.
A leglsbtor's cfftce 1$.run by a. ch iet' of staff who, depe.ndi ng on the trust and confldence in him by his superior, i selther expected to sim ply manaqe the. office or ''Serve R£ his. alrsr ego. Aki rlg with 'lhe~~g i s lativft committee sec retarles, the G~ lefs of staff are ~h€ f~rst access pp i r'litS to· the' tom miuee,s and to t~'e~~gi starers. They are crucial contacrs for :setting an appb i ntment for a meeting, prde nli;ng a. proposal, or d i5C:US~ing th€ battle-plan to' be 'used push [Of, 'or blQcking a measure.

Since. they are permanent are pef' the most mformed


~he ~eg~s:lative committee





I[ WO-Uld he 3 9 ~ms: mistake to bypass legis~ative committee secretaries bJ in:s·iHing un 5~eUlig aco mm~tte:'€:' ember d iH~ctlYr erto underestlmetathel r place m in the tote.m pole of power. Committee menl.pers wi II u$l).;!ily rere r queries back, to

th,e secretartes,


slnce If is t h.e Ianer who are assig ned the. "d i rty job." By

lls,ing legrs!attve secretaries

as co ndults, lobbyists GIn obtarn tip'> fJ n the best way so Qer\t(lI"S atrentlen lI.nd/"o r su PPOtl. As thein ltial processo rs andf lters of i nformation. 5.euetark:) can make recom mendauo ns wh ie Ii (an be fayarabl r::. 0 r ~Infavorable rolbbbViH&, .

Pol iticel .A~igf'i!me nts ond

RE;1'C',l:I:ign menta

TflldltlcmallYi the key offle lals of elthe r chamber are From the pol incal pany ~·hat has n u me ri cal :superiority. But pol ltlcal ·exp·e.d ie-ncy sometimes takes pr:p."ce;:denee o0~",r p'arty d isei pi ~ne (l r cO~lesi\j,en~% S', Pl)\,v"er' Shar"ing .0:rKIOf19 u n Ij~kt::ly person;;:lJiti~.~ t<o aS~~J re 1t~H~i~I ndlvldual '.5L!rvi'V""~I. rath er than obtai rI pa,rty gml,l.s·, h a,-:;. bsccme til e FW I'm, That ~5 wll'y leg~s:"Ia:ros rare lv v©h~ accord j ngWljan;y' r lirres.

The Senate



For example, the 199.7 "coup" in the Senate gave birth to tI. rrunant, Thenew maJorltv that resu lted ho rn rhe coup calls ~13e!f the- "u l1i~ed oppcsltlo n" aend b (Om po-sed of 1 3 members who. d iffer::ent part'Y ';;lffi I iaticHls., I t is headed by" Ernest-D Ma(:eda of the Nationillis·t People's' Coalition {NPC), il party whic.ll oddly enoLig ~I, 11:~S On Iy two me rnbers inthe 24-rnembe-r cbal'nl}e:r.
This bloc i s ~onnposed of the~'ollowirrg: five:,sen;;J,tms from the l.aban nq Demnki-ati,kong Pi1ipiiTO tLIJP)-Anga'ra. wing, .na(l'lely Bias Opl~, Eme.stQ Herrera, Marcelo Fe rnan, Fr.Jri~ j·S(O Tatad and ViC~111te S:o~t(i.hi: tw6 senatorsIrom the' rl.llirrq Lo1kas-NUC: , nam~IVJual'l FIavle r.and Frail kjln DrHqn; tV~b i Flq'elJ¢nQ~nts, G(e;:;rario. D Horla,sarl and Orlando M~ rcado: one fro rntlre UbeFal I?any {lP), JIJOI,r) Ponce Enrile; and the onlv other member of the NPC, Arma DorniniQu~ "tosete'n g, Thouq h' H calJs

also a,SS ured Pr~s lderu RiI.mC:.H that lhe Seriate revamp wUI not affect t~le ex ped it~OUSDas.~·<lg:e· fvnal bi Ills in".::: o I uded h,' theco mrnon !~g,i!; latlve ~I(ge:rl.d.) of Co ngn'lSS

it~elf H)~ "u nlted oppes ltion." S-(jrrate President MJJ:eda has

and the e-xec utlve branch, A cmnpleac po I ltlcal c~~atlH~deol1,. Ma.:c~dais assu ranee gains some. credence ow 1119 to the fac~ that he 1£ relared by a.ffin itV to Ho I.,J S'e Sp,e:ak@r.d~ WneCid, whS is 'the co ncurrent sec:reta'ry-ge'heHJI of th,~:ad min istrat~6n p~rty, the l<\1\;4s-NUr;:D,' '
Si mi lartv, the m'embe rs 'Of the mlnority hall 'fro rna tf{ere nt' pollt leal parties. The:.r.@ tw'o from: the Laka.$.~N UC D, ~<l,rn-~Iy tLe:tici~ RamoYSll~hanli ~(@ and' Se (g lo OsmeFfa Wl; four from the LlJP Raul RoL'o, Heherscn Alvarez. Cklfia MacapagalArr~yo and Nepta.l i Ccnzales: 0 fl e from the LP,lR;lIm.on Ma,g,saYs.ay, Jr,; and I~I bello Romu 10 who recentlv H!S'ig ned from the LOR'
Re:malrl i ng Urider

rh e 'so-called

"u rfcateg.orized



i flam



Peo ple's Refo rm ;Party

The Houaa's

Rc,itibow CoaUtion

Due; to' the cou pin the Senate, fr...aligll rrre nt~ were <1150ex petted j r~ the Lewer House, I}ut' the\JUCD's majO riW of ~32. members has managed to rernilJr~ intact

and is.- eV€r1 wool rAg dafecro rs from the: 29-me-rnber LDP-'" De venecta ha.d earlle r forged a "rainbow coalitton" 'a-mong v.arying politic,,1 parries, SIKh as the Uber;;!;1 Party with 14 mernbe rs and Wit~l '[he: Nil:ciQ'I1alista, Party with 2 membe-rs. In

.t2: •


the minority

are the NPC witl, 29 members,

two, the PDP·laban

the Kilu.sang Bagong with one. and two] ndependents.

LlPUIl<HI with



Mi ru-power CE: rite r5 in l:he: House. also exist. These: j,nc:i ude the "Ncrrhe rn Alii· ance" made up of Northern luzon cong ress men; the "Mi'ndanaQ Caucus" co mpos'ed of those who represent the Mi ndanaoleqislatlve distrlcts: the ''You ng Tu rks" whose

members, are below 4S vears old: the "We-me ns Caucus. composed of fe male leg· islators: the "Batch '92" made up of .coriqressmen who were ( elected to the House il'\ 1992; and the so-called '!Pf091'~5Sive bloc' of the lLakas-NUCD.

LEDAC: Supe.rbody
utlve Develo prnent Adviw'h i en coordi nates executive developrnent plan Flil1g and conqresstonal budg~'ting. LE.DAC is a· [) "cl aarlnqhouse" IN he re the competl ng leg lslatlve prio rltias of Cong ress and the ex-e.[utive branch are threshed cut, draft bills On vital lssues are d tsc LIs-sed, and a consensus is rea-ched on whlch bills should be consrdered urqenr.

so ry Co-unci I (L.EDAC}./"I't is a con sultatlve arid advlsorv bodv

The re ls.alsoas

U p!!rb.ody

called '~.hi2' l~gj~lative-Exi;t

ostertstblv created to avoid a grrdloc:k in the dei::isio-n·ma,kiI19 process and to 'fast-track lawrnaklnq, the LEDAC h(is alternanvelv been praiS~d for achieving JUSt t'h at, 0 r cr'iW::'i.zed fa r I.J S u rpl ng the pn;~·roga.tiv;~that fightfuliY,oelo fl'Y.S to.Co noress. C hal red tive secretary,

by no less than the pres id'@J'I't lmse If, or i n hj~ absence ·Qy the execuH
it is
[0 mposedcf

key members of tile Senate and the H9US~,

51nee even M<I.lac<l.fl<lr~g has to lobby ~n CQn.g.res:!)"another ,ag@h,cy called the P,"esidenti~.:I Legj5ldtiv~ Liaison Office (PLL,O) was set 'U p. Its mother offiCE! is in M:a.lacan ang and it has sate IIlte office's nil the Senateand the Ho use, wh ich are staffed by the leg islative Ilaison office rs of 01.1'1 the majo r 'Ii ne de partrnents of the



1rl rhese bodies are the lead acto rs and '[he suppc rEing crew wh 0 pe rforrn on n g res S lonal .st<ige. (iVi I socretv crqan lzatlon s".that wish to hLlY~ <Hi rriS .de trac k IGn Corigres.,s shou Id be farh~lliar with the i r names and faces and develop acre ss 'to thts cast of c haracters,

Apart from fanli llantv w lth bot~ the I<;e-y players and th e formal 'structures of Co nqress , clvl I society actors must 03.1 be knowledgeable about the processes so and mechanls rns of lawmaking. If they know wh lch butte ns to press and whit h levers to p u II, they can the mse lves beco me- dvnarnlc plavers in co ng ress lonal deciS lon-rnaki nq,

"Inter.nal S'trotegy


The Legislatiye Mill

Th ose wtrQ wi s h to Infl uen ret me law makinq pfa cess nee d to pre pare an "internal 's.n:.ategt'/' 0 r overall garne plan to .ensure they Me heard In Senate ijrl.d!
Hcu se com mittees and in the plenary of beth Houses. A good

that Congres s approves the bills. th

ev. want pas .sed.

$1 rat'eg:y


A bas lc knowledge of howa bif becomes a I a.w ~sa must "Proceed i ng fro rn th ls basic knowl~.dge:, you ca." the:~ work Y0I.H Wtl.f: up to more so phrsrrcated methorJ~ 0 F lnte rventtc n,' stressed Arma_ud 'SebaSUiln, a seasoned Se nate staffer,


of the llegislat~ye Measu:lfe

The firsl area of dilr,Ht [r'll~rve,rrrflon fmr cr"",~~ociety actors is in the blll- or s reselutlo n· drani'v'1r~ iJ~HI~e Every bm by Congr@ss shou ld C,>ViU orlly one subject which is stared In ltle bill's 1h ~e. Any mdlvici ~~lli,(I fgiil.r1lz<Ltion the e:xec~J· flv~ branch of a member of Congrc:'ii~ may prepare It.

Those who w isj,


assume a pre-acnve

stance tnstead of a meretv l'e<lcLh,n~

one can su brnrt drafts of proposed bdilis or propos· feu congre~~io n al i I1vcstlg1l. tlon and 9ivCHh~ ~e d I~clly to 1~~hJiMorOj, fm sponsorship. Of<ihs do, .,Qr have to lie pel~ect •• 1.!> they wlll be reflFlI(!d In lh~ I a t~, Stilg,ell, 0'[ (he legislative precess,
AS Sanator JruOlFIlavlc'f put It: ''\i!lIhillE': Icgisl;!toa f haw t heh own per~pe"tlvc o'F lhl ng$! t11~V1'10 nn;tlly d!'irive their in~igh~5 and leg !sliB.tlvc pro pos~h Frorl'l CHHSid~ u),~ hull) of GO"9res~ If rom the peopll~ and orgaoi2.iUiQ ns chal br.l ng U ur the cr:HHiity'& clrff~r(>m prcbtems all d who know but what t hey need mterms of leg is

latton." /'

Prepl;lriflg tor a Pres'ernhlHorli

!ogrcally presents tl1.~ rauonare for the measure. Th.e:y must s~f..I.I om who wm beneltt from a bill, who wm be disadvia,or.l,ged. ~Hidhow. Facts must b~ <1CCUI'.:J.te

Draft builis must be iil.n:ompanied by a.cencrse bnd~1'!9 paper that clelrly


and ·aLJtt~ofitalive:. P'ropo I"I~I'IU who use 5ulVeyOj, or upln 101'1 pellste .~ bstantlate u thel r i;lrgu menu; have an edge. It is also iJs,efu~ ro precedents and to rrrdud,~ the: I€gi.sIatlve chronicles I]f similar C<!'Slt!s. Pr~sl~nttng lenbneous fnfo·rmatlon erodes a proponent's crecHbUily. Proposals should IJI}lS~ d1e test of rf'gDrcllJls scrutl rw and ~rg uments presented should be abte 10 ,..tithMi'ln~ intensive grillingl by legislators., at: least 50 percent of whom art Jawy,i::'f'1.




The n€Xl sre p Is to seem fer <I. bill sponsnr; The j.;,e:y IS to fl nd a reg lslator whQ can credlblv e5p'ouse;:l~d (flampiof1 ~he proposed bill. ChOQ~rng as spen scm afHdais of alther Hnu seo r thec:.haii- or rheacuve members of the t.:6mrntttee hJ w hlch the bjJl wi II Hkelv be refened \0 win b-oos~ Ule ehances of a bill'sapproval. C ivB socletv actors. must the r:erore kiil'QW the scope of work of rile various corn rnittees and sub-co rnmltreesin (ong.rl1:s.5 ~o th~y can readily kl~l1tlfyU·u~' key perscnalmes who wi II take part in fl1 E bpll\ d~hbera.nons.

for the bll I can, be expected to def,e:od n. w~~h more c.orwh:tfo·1'iI

Spouse rs whoshare

the same phii'l:o.~oph:l(dil 1~<Lnll1gs, the 9 I'mJps lobbvl as


spa nsor can be

approat 11~dthrough both formal and in form~1 channels. The form a~(hOInne Is are malnly Congres:s oHiclaJ~., whil~ mfnrmal c:h<l,nn>elscsn be dne sporrso rs perso nal friends. relatlves or former pfofQ:5~ioFlal collc'<!.gue:!. W~10 (an mO'i rehmal sand ke facllll.ilti? th~ "·' process Having Institutional ties Ci r ilny rorn'l I') F affin iW wi~11th ~ Itl:gisiarcm, - 5ullc:l~ ..l.~. b~1I"1gilirnll(Jw !1I"IC rnbe r 0 F 01 civi" 0 rgan lzatl en (I r'eHg'lm.!~deno mlnetlen, ,it frate~fI!hy or ~orodTVI a fellow al ~1f'[1!'1U!O 0 f the same schco I - ca I'l goa long way in5enifl~' lntrodurttons. The fan·5Qf.~ w~y 0 F~ alnl ny

44,'~ PA,lIRICIA ANN V. MEl"

access', however, is


be a consthuenr

or 10 raprassnt

a vast field of grassroots

make rh E! hi III r@dundarll or ~h(l:'tit does not violate aJ1YConsrirurtonal prevtsmn, ~ny member of .cbn~~r~$5 can 5p01i.S.or and it•.I'~i 5 then brouqht to ths Bllls and .lrH;I~x Divi sion - the re posuo ry .of all bl II s and resolutions ~r1Cong-ress - wh lch

After it has b('!en ascertai ned that there. ijS as vel no existing

that .... 'ill


9 lves. it


11 umber

First Reading
f1re~ days after its 'filing, the numbered b'illiis tncluded til! th'~ order of 1:JU!,'ji· ness fo r First lRe·.adiIl9 in t he Senate o r House plenarv ses 5 ion, The secretary reads 1~'5 title and f1 urnber andl the speaker desig nared pres idlllg office r nHers th~ meas ure 'to the pro per cornrnlttee or co rnrn itt~l"!ti.


The ftrst bill Wed I S 11m neCes sarUy go i 1'1'9 to·· b~ me nfst
wi~I'1 take. tenacious ~he phe rdinqto push a bi II through


bm to

be 'taken up..It

Its formal

rltes of pas sage,


H ea rings

The seco rrd area ofd I rect Intervantl on fo r clvl I society .actcrs is at the corn m ntee level Here, lnvastl ng good \iii i II and establtsh i ng good rapport whh the. I~g·
isla,tive [0 mmittl'i!€!:


re;raty and



tee hntcalstaff

,Is a must,

, hase are 'the kev pecole who recornmen d to the chair what bi:lls ~h ould b!l, In the agenda. They ;;IJS.O advl H~ on whether pu b~'ic heari nqs em therneasu re are' necessarv and resou rce speakers. hilarecver, thevare the ones. who wll I issue public notices abo ut the hearl ngs. They revi~'w the position papers of parties i nte rested i n the bl II and prepare fact sheets an d brier"i I1g papers for the
prlo rltlzed


me mbers,

The secretariat stafL;:lIs.Q prepares the transcn pts ,t!,e -spo t reports and minutes of tile co mmlttee rneetinqs 0 r heart [19s. Access to these public docu rnents is a rig in, he Co nsntutlorrs Bill of Rig hrs ,(A ride le III, Section 7) states: "The' rig ht of the peo pie to information 01'1 matte rs of pub I ic.cOI'1CNn shall be rec"q9" lzed. Ac· cess to official records and to dccuments, and papers pe'rtaining to offtcial acts, transactio 115, or declslons as we II as to governm-en1: research data 1.1 sed as basis fa r pol ICY development, ~ h alii be afforded the citizen" subject to such I ir'n,itatiOn~ as may be provided by· law" In add ltion, the' Code of Co nduct and Ethical Sf·andard.$ Far Publ ie Offlclals and"Qyees (RA 67] 3~ states that req nests for offlc la! lnforrnatio n shoutd be acted u pon by the co ncerned official or ernplcvee Vy'jtt1i no1 5 days fro m the fili t1g of the request. Othe rwi se, such official or employee can be he ld llable L1r1d the law, er
Those who have establ ish ed good learn rnun tcatio J1 line 5 with rh e secretariat and th e ·tee hnlcal staff wi II flnd that the Ir requests are eas rlv ~Jta:rHed even if" they do not i nvo ke thetr rights, It i~ -also bes·t to 'deal with the tech meal .staff in a. friend Iy and courteous manner: rUlm i rig their feathe FS seldom helps. If publlc hearlnqs are not nef!ded, the co rnm trtee proceeds to deliberate on the bill. Clvl I society actors, must not only monitor the committee meeting s. ttls their right to demand fa r a public hearl ng r to be represented, and to be heard. ,B·.ut with this d'g ht· comes the resp,onsilbHlty to be an effective res-aurce perso n ami a

gbod (0 rnmunteator knowl'e:dg@tlble about ~he tssues 'at hand ,'Si nee most I.egi slaMrs .are la:wyers; thE!y are WQHt~Q Use courucom ·lattics, in q~t;':Zilil9 V,dtne5se'~ summoned to Ure ht.arir19s. Allticipati'ng counter-arqumentsano h~v~ng a .dr~~s ~h~Ns,a.l prk" to t.akrng the v~'itne~s stand e'n hance a resou roe person's p.erwa·



The 11ea1rings or delib~.ratUo.ns may result tr~ the adoption of' the bi II wlthcut amendments. The hi II may .als9 he amended, con sol ldated with ether bll ls of J. ~lnlHilr nature, or put in a substitute bill. Pi commiUee report 0 n what 'action fS tak~lf1I is then prepared.

Sl nee 11l1UCh of the spadework Is done ~1.Hhi1 level, [ivi I SQciety acto r~ slwuld go our of theIr wa:y to call 0 n each of the me rnbers of th.E(comm~tre:e·an·d try to qet t,heir mE!%<I"ge ac ross effecnvely. A legiis late r"5 time is. valuab le, so n(~'Ser'ita!io.ll.5 should be, foc;usedandwe 1.1 deJi ned" Pre-s~e·ming,.two to tlj'r:~"e-pag e .exe(:.I,J,"iv.e~tHn~ mari~t·rs often better tl'Iardu99in9 around vclurnlneus studies Of backgr1oun:d~rS',

~awy~r A,!'lene D.ada-Arn-q,ldQ, wh:q hia:sbes n on varlo LIS" le.g rstanve staffs ;.illc..e 1.98.7,!i>a;id that' the chair, '[he: vl:ce.-chai r, the -CQt11mitbe.e members and ~h-esecret~ri~1!/v~(h r1~taJ UB;ff .are privy to the ultimate, verslo n of the bl llthat is likely to.~mHg!1;,She advi~ied ~obbyLst~d.O be into uch with these people :bec:~H.J.£e· they "can give yo u a low-down on deve loprnents whIch will .not be apparent I n open publ i( h~afiit'l~p such as which parties are l:ryln,g ro i"tirfhJlen·ce th4:".bill, who the: pri ncl pal
and ~@c::ortdan!opposhors
Witlhi more


N 'the bm are, whom to be wary of; w.ho·m to s.upply a.nd whom.w swa,y to 0 ne':,! p~n'pectiV'eS"," !.

pro JWS a.:1 as

Wi'th such information, "you .C.;In counter adverse modes 9.nd ma.l¢ a (au ntsrSQOri as pO-S.5ib'lre,".stle. said. ~,

Technical Woddng Groups The t'hi:r-d ,Jre13.of ,interventlon, butstl
i ron out areas of co nfllcr ~m~wg bills 'covering th~ S".ll:m~'Subje~t, cu reo Je:g.a.lor consnturtonal ii1~irm itles. 'and to' take up other techntcal or substannvetssues. ThtrlWG m.elll!t~<ng'S offer.a p~e:vie:w of ~tiheactual com mittel} "rieeti ng&. and arel ntended to ease w'o:rk eif corrrmtttee members, tivil S0citty acto rs.can ask lcd)e present lidther as "Q~b'$el""\{eTs 'Of partlclpants i ti the lWG m~,elings., .

llat the corn min~~level, Is: ill


nlcal worHrrg gro


(TWGS), The:S'g9 rfmp·s arecreatectc



Focus;i:n:g ~Qbbyung energiec5. on the committee

IS not a g'uarante~


flllt"it could mean handsomerew~rds.;lt is !'el.a:tive:ly eZl,6V to be' heard a:t this Sldg.e rmcll.U$@ thare is. On! ly'oJ: mall cl r.dle of lnfluerulal s plaYJ:~r$" ln plenary, lobbvlsts have to reckon wlth at lsast :200 -player'S WheH\ as Dada'·Arnalldo sald, threv wl II then' be faced with "access' coastralnts. resource u:.Hflstral nts ancl·UmaWtlstra,i!'1lrs""..I4

'spons-q r; Th)s helps th_e bill sponsor wi n the support ofthe

The quest fo rail ies must b~g i!~ll the same time. as' scouting for a: StJ imble q.iU at majc.Jr'ity ·o.neeUle bill 'is put 10 a vote r~1 plenary,

At "tine end Qf co mrnittee deliperatioolls" .9, report OWl! wl1actever"'ded si6rl~ have besnarrtved at in cornmittee fs. prepared. The: committee rTTay apprDve lts report by <l rin.<ljo vot~ ·a,fti!"rwll lch it is transmitted tP the ;CotTini,ittee en Rules Wll lch rity lncludes it in the "unass i.gllled business. n




The Committe'e on Rules
The Committee

friends or all les when they are p.ushing for, or blocktnq, a bill. This comrntrtee has
power to facllltate a. bi II;s approval to derail it. or h6.ld it in its tracks. Rep, Mai1ue~ "Mar" Roxas II, a committee member who was lnsrru mental! rI"geWng. the nod of the rules committee on the anti-rape bill said: "You mav have <I. perfect bill co mingl out of committee but if the rules, (0 rnmltree does not calendar tt, n Is ;a.t goad stuck in the freezeJ:;~1Thi:s committee wields tremendous power.trs d@(:&SiC) ns 0 n the. fate cf '" bi II are final.

on Ru les is anotherarea

where c:ivil~socie,y actors must have


Question of Rules: The E-VAT Case

The Ninth Conqress ptl::5SkQ the IE>:pa'nded Va.~lJe-Addedi Tax '(E~VAT) into la~, but its implementation was suspended when Senator Arturo Iolentlno quest,ioned the ccnstltutfenal ity of the law bill!fcre the 5 uprerne Court, The hig h tribunal o@:v~nWall}' upheld the law, wh len was implemented begin ning Jan uarv 1; 1996, The law, however, was met with strong protests. Some I~gislato(s moved for its repeal, w h i ~~ others pro posed amendments to' llrnlt the co-verage of the law and nd it of what they satd were. its arm-poe rand provisions. Stl II others called fa r the law's suspenslcn for ','3;l least cme.year,

meetings wereceriducted by the HOJ.l$e Ways amend ments to the I;·VAT. Or] De}t'~.l'if1bef I, 1994, the. committee lssuad Rep,on No. 94 on Hause a.m No. 5479. This reporron the bi II was schedu led fo r second r~.~dir1g. or floor d~nb@".rati()rI·s ln Jan uarv 1995,.
Public ti,earil1gs and cornmmee

and Means Co mmittee

on ·the proposed


plenarv, Rep. Edcel Lagman in~'ist@d that-he filed Hause Hill


even before the Suprem@!Court had declared the constitutionality of the E-VATlaw, That bl II seekillig to repeal the E·VAT law was thenstl II pend i ng wWh the; House Committee on Ways' arid Mea.ns. He also polnted out t~at he had later filed HOLJs~ Joint Res'D1 uno n 8,klng the SIJf;;,p-eTtS lon of the E·VAT 'for 0 ne year 'l:GlaJ~ow11(:1915lators to study its ifrlplrcatlons and fir'lallv decide wh-at to. do with it wiitchout being pressu red by rnou i1ting 9 rlevancss from the peQple .. Lagman arg ued that his bill sho uld take precede h(·.eever anarnendatory blll O't"I the ENAT law.


decided to rntroduce a measure to.arnend

Rep, Exeq U f'e! Javiie,. the charr of the House w.ays, and Means Co mmlttee, reled H-IZlt the comrnlttee tlao rejected the repeal and s us pet! 5"10n of the ENAT and

it instead.

Lagman then asked Majority Floorleadsr Rep. 'Rodelfo AU"ancl.(wl1o also d1(~rrs


on Rules} for his opinion

lhe matter,

AlbaT'io 'stressed that when a cornmtttee repo rts o ut d (0 nseltdared measure and if ons of 'the. printip<lli authors that the committee has not properly (onsidered a. particular meas ure, then the author can re~llste r h is objections to the House Secretariat and reserve the- right to sp.eak agai nst [he committee report. He! however, stressed that once the committee reports out a bill, all the committee, pruceedloqscn that measure are. deemed terminatsd, He added 'tliat it FlOW depends on tile House '[Q decide whether to favort!,b~y constder the commntee report. durIng the planarv sess ion.

H(jI!JS,@ No .. 5479 amendlnq Bill

Lower House alt!1Qug h it has vet
VAT law remains In effect.

to be

th:'~ E-VAT law was eventually passed in the. enacted into law. Meanwhile, the oriS! i nal E·

Second Re'odin'9 : Pe,,.ioQ of DebateoS and InterpelJutio·n
once a Jegi~lato r requests that a: hi II b@ care nd are d for second re<ldiUlgand the rules commlttee approves it, it is JS,5",ig ned ttl "ordtnarv business." In plenary, the secratarv reads. the number, titleandtexr of the cornrmrree n~port. Wh at fo 1lows. is a period of debate, sponsorship sp!:':eciles, lnterpellatlon and tllfrIO en co·mra. Then; a phase' of amendments, committee arnendrnerits and individual amendments takes over.
This ls. another area of 1ndtrect intervention for c lvil society actors. Alliancebu lldl ng ls the key stnl,tegy in th i sfro Fit. Civil socletv actors whetherfo r.o F a9a.i 11 st a bi II Can help ~~C [Base the' cornbat-readmess of thel r wa.rr~iJr$ by loacHng them

wi'~h amrnunttion 'fo r ,<1 decl slvs offerl~e Q r defe nse. The d~b.lltes at t1his sta.g~ Ji"e usuallva reprise of the rnatn ar1ju merus and co urrter-arq uments that emN9~d dur1ii1g rnmlttee 10ar i ng,s. LI fling up a batte-ry of facts fig uresand stausrrcs can e hel p prDPQ nents win :j n this arena. Proposed amendments, addttlons, or deletions can still be considered at th'isstage', althougrl the bill may have previcuslv beer! modiJie.d in committee .. AS a show offorce, civil 5Gci~ty actors can mobilize their supporters to attend the plenary debates and to boostthe morale of-the leg~slaw rs who SU ppo rt them, Pro per decorum sh ou Id be observed in the galle fees; publ lc d lstu rbances at this poim wi II Drily be counter-productive. Intervention dally in high

by the 'Otfjcicd H ier,orchy

Access by' civi I' socletv actors to th.l,e offlctal hlerarchv

bjlls, The offlc lals of both Houses are ex-officio members of all the standinq committees. Moreover; the committee chairs are supposed to report 0 r explain to the Senate president 0 r to the House 5 peaker the status of bills on their decks, The i nterventlon of the offk laldorncan change the nature and alter the co u rse of the dellberatlons when thevqive the appropriate

'v contentious

can be ;;:rut lal espe-

Shelv,ing the


D!<!polrtment of Fisheries"


Dn'i'. example is. that of the. b9tl call i ng for the creatlon or the De-partrtl@.nt of Fi~heries,. The aJllance of flsherfo Ik orqanizetlc ns ral sed a howl agai nst {he proposed department, saying this would on Iy enco u rag,e the USU<L·I bu reaucratlc "topto-bottom" approach and discourage gras'Hoots partklpatlon. The bill I was already passsd 011 second read i ng in the Lower Ho use, But after the all ranee's representsrives appealed to then Speaker Ramon Mitra, it was Shelved.




Sin Toxes ": Defying Congress Officials

A legi$~ato r can aliso request that a bTlI be taken up by the 'Co rnrn itte.e of the Whole, mean i I1g by the entire Senate or the House in plenarv, i nsread of meTeiy try a partlcu lar [0 mmlttee, In this. rase, caucuses to thres h out internal dlfferences are
usually held. '

The Senate pre.sident or the House Speaker may also crack tile VI/hip to ma'K~ members toe the party [lne. Speaker d@ V@neda dId tMis to fast-track the p<tSSJg~ of the "Sin taxes 0 n beer and rrgareues unde r the Comprehensive Tax ReToOf'Il Packag!;! (CTRP) whose ch ief lobbyist was no less than Pres ldent Ramos him' el S.(~:If, But if] thls' ~rJ:StarH:e, w hip-crac k~ng· did nat lmmedtately bri rig abo ut the d~' ~tr~d resu I'~&,shQwing that Congress or partv officials can riot always trnpose th:6r wi II. The reaso n: the bll] was cauqht in the elaws of ccrnpetl I1g intere sts jo~.kevlh~ for advantaqe wlthlnthe LOw·e.r.asw~1I as the Upper House,

To begin with, the executive branch went 'through a. rockN road before it waS: able to Ii ne IJ p a battery of h j,gh-cal ibe r ,spOf1?ors for the bill. Speaker de VeneCi.a was tasked with ens.l.Jring that'the CTRP law would be passed by the HCIIJse, IiOwi ever, the: suppo rt of Rep .. javier, a lakas-N UCD me mber and chair of the HOLlSe<.: Wa.ys and Means Committee. and R.ep. Renato D,iaz., the vlce-chau; we re not en· listed by M.~laca,Jlang. The reason for rh is 0 miss ion wa,·sthat there were persistent rumors that both Iavler and maz were ':a~llle's Ludo Tan, One of the [otl,mris 'of wealthiest" busirressrnen, Tan is the owner of ASia Brew~ry Inc. ~ABI) and Fortuns TObacco Co., which wou Id be taxed heavl Iy if the :crRP were enacted into I:aw. Th:~: bi II provided for.a ~htfr from ad valorem to specmc taxation for beer and! Cig~·

On the other tlo n (SMC) which

side of rhe Fenee was Andras Soriano, jr. of San Mi~luel Corpora stood to gain fro ni the tax refo rms proposed' by the Depa.rtment
€Kcu-sirlg 501lU! of the finaroc.e departme

eire ulated in the Ho use,
being pro-San Miguel.

of FUinance, I n the h~at of the- fi rst sklrrmsh

ave r t'he C·R.:~ d, wih ite paper W.tls. lits key officials. of



Fin an ce offlclals ,argued that the svstem of ad valera m taxation was riddled phol es. As taxes were based o nthe prod uctio n value or the factory gate

price, un scrupu lous compan les set LJp rnarkatl 1'19. ftrms which bouq ht at low pnces arid markedthem 'up for resale, This enatil~d these companiesto earn more profits wnhout having to pavadditional taxes, The finance department pointed the ac. (Using fi t1gN at ABI - which has conslste ntly' dec'l" red losses 5 i nee it wasesiab ll 5 hed ij n ~981 - for resortinq to this u nethical huslness practice. in 0 rderto dodg,e

taxation, Dur] ng the R~.mos adm i ntstratl

the. Bureau of lnternal

Tan for not" payi I1g P2 5 billion in excise taxes horn 1990 to ] 992- The magnJJe'!~ flags h liP company, Fortune Tobacco, 'controls more than 70 percent of the IQcaJ

Re:ven·ue (BIR) sued


market. Luzon ,Allinnce/s

N orthern


In the: course of the debate over 'sin taxes; a small power center flexed tts mu scle, The North~m Luzon Alliance refused to su pport the tax reform packaqe for a parcch lal reason: its consthuents, tobacco farmers whose produce was.bouqht by Tan, stood 'to lose with the' new legisl atron, Tan ts t'he bigge~t buve r of tobacco i!n the re:giorr; Withe Lit him, the. tobaccc l ndustrv would 'collapse, The rndu&try ral sed PH, mllllcn l n annual reve nuesand 5 '1.31 3 farmers depended 011 It for their
liveli hood- Thus, the. N'orthern lnzon leqlslators - among them Majo.rity Floorleader Rep, RQdolfo Albano (lsabela). I'e p.- Santlaqo Resplclo (lsabela): R~ps. jose Aspiras and victor Ortega {La Unio n), Reps. Eri;(:'SiI1gso nand Mariano Tajo n (11Qco5Sur) and'

R--ep£; Amadeo Perez and Cnnrado Estrella (Panqas] nan) -


fo r the retention

of the ad valorem tax.
In the. end, instead of a total shift from tbe' ad vstorem to specific tax, the House approved a hybrid VNS!(lr1, It adopted a, "tax co mparator' wh lc h would enable :the gov@;mment to collect ad va.foremtax~s or speclflc taxes dependlng on

~vhich wquld qenerate more: revenues. ,"

Third Readil1,g~ The Final Voting
lJsu<l.lly;once a bill passes tile seco ndreadlnq, its'g~ in the- third ,'ead-

Ini9. wl1e,te amendments



longer an-owed, is assured,

After the second readlnq, coplas of the billl (ref~e(ting the amendments) are 'printed by the PI!1':nary Affairs Bureau and dtsutbuted to' the members of the chamblH three davs before the third read i ng, Th~ bill is then' tncluded i n the calendar of



On third F~.adinq, the S~eretary reacts 0 n Iy (he !'IU rnber and title of the bill. At this stage the h~gis lato rs in plenary ~Iimply vote 0 n the bill without further disc U~-SiOHS. A roll call \Jot@c called and a me rnbe r; if he' desires, is 9 lven three min utes is tcexplaln his vote;

The bill is approved by a majo~Hy of the members present and if it Is dlsapproved, it IS transmitted to. the archlves,


of 'til Ii! Si II to the othe,r Ch'C1rn bel"
where It goes. th rough '

The approved oi II ls trartsmltted-to the othen chamber the same Ly'~Ie: it dld in rhe ¢.hambe r whe re It ortqlnated.

To speed up the process, it is best thatthe bill is ftled sIrnulrarieouslv in both so it C[l'~1 move in two parallel tracks (the Senate and the Housej at th-e SOirlie.ime, C~vil soc iew actors must the refore secure.sponscrs for the same bi II t from both the Sellat,e and the, House and try 'to have the measure fried sirnultan'e(wsl\f in both chambers.

The "Third Chcmber ": The Stearne,ral Conference Commi~tee
If the bi II has b~e:Flpassed in both charnbe rs, <it, b-cameral confers nee com mittee corn posed of representatives fro III beth HO'lJ5,eS; is created, Thls ls tfile fifth area for lndtrect intervention by civil society actors.

The task of thts (0 mrn lttee is to reco rrcl Ie the dm~rences or' d isagreetl'lents refle{~d ~11 the Senateand House versions of the same bi II. However, the conferees mav also introd uca rH~W provisions g:~rmane tc'rh€: S ulbject mane I" o r may report our an enti r~ly new bi II Of! the subject. Due to its v~st powers, tlie bicameral (onfenm(~' committee has been dubbed the Third Chamber, -IIKiIHng





Tho Ulg h thh! i& rare,ly done, the bicameral confere nee committee may "ki II" a bill by si m ply !lot's,ending 0 Lit its report for approval by both chambers, This is the unfortunate fate 'tilitix befell the country's health workers wllo wanted to be reintegrated linto the Department of Health.




With the pas5ag e of the I 991 local Gover'TI ment Code, tP~e nait iotlal g"(lve:rn· mNl t devo!vced its responsjbl Iity 'over health se rvlce-dehverv to 10C<11 o\.N~fTrment5., 9 But the local units were th~n not prepared ~Q., she u lder the hstal COSH of the devolved po~.... 5 U ch as pavmei1t'of tile. ~<lJades of hfea.I~11 en workers.

The health WOrKE!rs. whose cau lie was cham plcned by :Serrator Fre.dq ie-we:bb.i I obbied to havs the bill fo r'the i'r (I; il1lt~g ranon passed i n both Ho USes. Aft~fW<:J rd, Q' bicameral conference ~~rnmitt@:~ W;:t5 convened,
the Leag uesof Provi nclal Cocve;rnoi'f. and M,ayor's, the bicarne ral committee the ~Ji by not transmlnlnq II its report fer apr roval by the Senate JI'Id the

Bur bowing



EH1!O r'n1:0US-

pre ssu res fro 1111 the exec utlve


-and from

"kiJbecl" se.

Or'!(E' the cotlfe-relll{".€ CQmmi1tee has reached a ccnsens U5, a report is pr.~. pared; .AII the. rrH~mbN5,must .sfg tle~ch'arJq eVEry page ofthts report. Afterward, it is p:asse(J on r6l constderatron 'and approval of beth 1-10 ~rs~s,.N:Q a,me'ndment is ;a11~!Jwe.d til is' staqe. .


Onc€. b'dth Houses

p~t% 1Jl~ rneasu re, copies

of the b rllare

s i9nbcl

Serl.a~e president, Heuse Sp.e~hr and 'c-e·rtlHeq bvthe S~n<,lte ~e.CTe.t;i~Y' .~nd the Ho LI~,!! ,$ea~t<!rV-g0JH'!raL Then this Is. $~bmiw:i'~ to the r tit s<i denr,
Plresider'ltia~ Action on the



is Ma.IJicafilang where

The sixth area.fcrmtervennen by civ~] ',society actnrs lhey carl Ulrge rhe Presideru to s.ign or veto Q: bi II.



If t'he Pt''e5 rdent aptyrov€:s and s i~t'iS tIH:: meas ~re, it 15, assiMeda "~~PIJb'lic Act" number and IS tra,rF.srnitted fQ the c flambe! h'O.rtl whEr!f it came, If the:. Pr~$i" dent de(id~5 to disapprQve or Veto the rneasu r'e" ~e ~.e.!1Q~ il",bac 11:. to the c hamber of 9figil! with ..31 rnessaqe c tn ng the reason fo r the veto. Cong ross lcncl .Acti.on on Vetoed Bill
The. pre:s tdent's message is calendared in tille. Q rd@r of bU5 i nessan d Cong rm rnav dectde to overrtde the veto, Th i'~ i ~ the hnal area of iflte(ve nucn 'for "civil .srrc:i·e't'y, actors who ma.y be agair(st a Pn.::~ ldei1t,i.aJ veto, E-achcharnb'i:: r s~parat€'ly reccrrs ide r~ 1h~ hi II or 1h~ vetoed Items on the bm_ If thg .btll or v.e'toJ~d ~tern is pa:S5~q by a \;'tih~ 9.f two-th i rds of all Jrl~mbeJs of e:a~ll chamber, n' becomes al\'lw, Action on ApPJovedlB


The.' Ia.w 'is reproduced 'and coples af'~ sent to' the Offlcial Cai~tt@: 9ffk~ and .0 istn buted to the lmplernentl ng a~' is als.,o rndu~led:i n the An nual Comp~latlon Acts and Res()I\AW~rT&"


Evvd.e.Jltlv.the areas, o+mtervennon where <:i\til socleJY actors n"av.e thastron9£:§t impact are at the lower rungs of th e le9i'Sla.tiv~ ladder. Their impact pro grf:s, 5 ivel'y d lrntn 19.·he,Ss. the bi~,1 moves up th,({ Ie·gislative.ladder; a .


Strotegy~': "ndirect Intervention' Bra

LQbby~"g the Executive

fve 11i1S 11,ey work Wl1~m1 the offiCial structures arlr~ form<lJ rnechan Isrn ~ 0 f Congre5s, civil soc lely actors must ..~so tobbv outside the hell I~ of COllgress, This II~rhe "extern [II strateqv" - ~!le IpIJI~ lor convrncrnq lawmakers who IHwe it VClI(Q in rh,~ outs ctue thin therr COIl5t1~lJem') are sohdlv behind rh . pro posed bill,
Althou« h under 1he pnnrtpl ~ 0 separat Ion u I po we t .., CIJ II gre~:. I ~g I ~~ate~ and til@ xscunve ilnl,Jlpll1P.OH. lobhyUlg th J. uer vl]] ~rrel1~thell rile hMH:I at ri\.'11 sor.ietv .l(lOIl} ill ~1f~llln~ leylslauon There all' v .:11 us r('t1!OOrili h11 1111s. to
rlr~~. UHJ varicus ~lt'p.:trtlIWIRS and ag~ntle".i nf the execurlvo hrar« III ,lfp ,1 sourca iJ'f dl.1il ums which Ihev rerouuncnd 10 (he Pr~..ldfJl'H iUHJ \rl'S~ llm1l!~,11 tile 1.1 OAr. Clvll ~rH Il"Y ,'1.(101 ~ can ~ugge5~ OlrCd~ FOI h~91~lilU(1ri '1<\,1111 the legdl h '.1 0 f illl V 11lJ,~depil n nwn1 (an pad •• >In ige IIlh~ d clhlh bill S I nee "v~ II M<dal(.U!lZ1,IIY n11J~1 ~,Cl'11 ~Uld IIIV lohbv (ong r ~s.. M~da( Ml ang ,11'iQ fie ds ~jr,I~~ roots su fWO rl to i r:IHs'l urm jdea~ 1 rite h::~ I) laU 'f! (C u on. In tart, till" 111l~ de partmeuts aa" al",..avs III sp,urh

sible h~gI51.,tloi'l because rh v .Ut! n~lluUliH.! by Mala[<lnilllg to conS'(;J.mly COllie Lip wrth PfQ IN:5<.11 The rajac'~ mayor may not decide ro me o rpo rat 12 these i II to the s. I~gislatfve age nda I hal !'he President usuallv presents dun rig hts an rw ••1 S rare li,r Lhe t\~atltJII addravs.
Second, the heads Dr all Ute major line' d!'pan n)~ r'ltS are members ot tllf.: lEDAC wl,illl derides on thE prim itv hills a~ the a:dmlnisU;UiOn. Their prioritizatlorl Is lin ~III rl ~Iarmo n fztd 'W It III hat t:l'f the Senate and the- HDIJ~e I f the bill being pushed by civil scctetv actor.'> g'Ut:l'.i the ,SIlIlPOfl of.a deparrmenr )e.(retar'y, rt~ stqnlllcance i~ [!1e;vEltedsl:!v lu;:1i notches. Tlus as he case with 'he gerle rio biU 'w h lch the health secretarv S[I'01191y suppcrted,

or .,llbjt'(F


tor pos-

Third, Nth line de-par menr dod all a.gelloes under il has leglsla'\I'iie llaison officers In beth chambers of Congress who can ~ walk' civrl society actors th mug h the ja'~'rndl(JJlg process, he Ip them g.lIn diCCeS.5. to msrde ccnracrs and pets ntlal allies. and assist them in sbepberdmg the ball. fa urth department serretartes or their duly deslgna[e.d re prese ntatives are routinely s u rnrnonedtu rasufv before mngre:'5SionilJ comrmnees AS resource perSOIlS, the-r Views ~J"!dcl'ffjclal p05i~ion5 carry a lor of weFqhf ill 'fh~ I egi s law Fe.

Lobbying the Media
"Inte rvenuon in the public airwaves should be co nstant becau se while tll~ senate rs and toliig ress men are leqisl .. rers, they alse li50fen to t he media and are r sensttlve to publtc
OpIJ1,IQj1," ~il.ld ROXi!t5

Since tl1ei r su pport for legi!olation d~p-end! rnalnlv Oil whar the: Ir consutuerus ~111".kand say abo IJI tin! i11,e 'S IJ reo members of CGn9r~s.." are i1UU m~d to rtH' p!Jhllc a
pulse, It I~ rherefcre tmporrarn for (Wr~ socllHy acrcrs u:J rev up fh~ engine of plJhllC OpU1 len, The: prl mollry source~ of ~nformiJ.t Ion of (he voting publlc are I he broadsheets. nblold), r~diO and TV, The n~m!on of the m~I:I~ m~tll,~, heth IWl Man II;:!and the prevlnces, must be snrred up m order to (rigger qras aroots support fOI the I~h I~~

Once a topic becomes (),"btl rni"m9~SS UJ::," legiSlators are compelled 'to ~bten andi act, A l@gT-slaw,rriIl<ty nave a rneasu re l.angLiis.hin9 in the ho pper for q ulte sometime, bur when -an event related to it heats up, Hie bill is hasti I y tab led for d~S-Jcus.sf,Oll..Or, all' i'$~w~W~tsI1ot inthe med la, and ~egislat.orlJ t<lkeHdvant<lg~ of the tl !r!lng by sched ulirl9' a related bil ~ or in iUati rig. ·(eng [f,!s,"S.ion.aJ inve.SH~gati0n purpqt1e&y [n aid .of Ilegis I~;ti"o n, . , . .

Fa r t!xarrlp~e,a barra·g. e of news reports on massacres, races, k~idrla.ppings and mhe;r r,rime.~ cat'alyiE:ld 'tbe passaqe of "the bill da.s.sifyung certain acts as, hel JlO~J~C ri mes punlshab I:e by ,t;!.eJxh,PubliC opin lofl in ·fa,vo.r of the blllwOlS strong,
des plte the opposition of rhe Catho lie ~hu rch to tile death penalty,
a~GUl5~ fostering good rnedla.relatlons hi part and p-arcel af effective legisla· ttve lcbbv: ng', c~vil soctetv actors must learn how to deaA wirh the press, To start with. thev mLISt know .arrd gain the support of reporters who pound the con.gre-~sicnal bear, the opin I on-rn ake rs , andth'e celu Flf1Ir.1 15<t'S who are alwavs: ~ooking cfbr new~wortll':f i5s·IJ@:S to 1~:ckle,

Pita,,;:i rig ads ill the;' newspape rs or pi ug'S on radio OT TV, w rittrrg letters to [hf' ~ditor, s u I:;im~nil1g o.p1r1iol1 pi.¢ce~, maki,lig ·.s"la,ternents Q n the Of TV - ill other WQ rd~' Hying to. get tnedia rn·ile.age --~re th i ti,gs· wh~t;;h clvl I societv actors rrwst learn to be: 'ikJ I Iced. t. for SId plaoce.rrl>rZr'l.t:s:,9@ttirrg. i rue the 'mea la do-·e,;' a not cost mo[u;:.f;)meHlevPaJtici patl Q n i u co mrnittee hearinqs such as- s ubmiHirn:g PQ';iti.OI'l papers Of rn,tldng testlmon its is notsuffictent, The rn u Itiip~lier@fft(t oJissu i 1191 correspo rrding pres-s releases and ho·lding ~pr!,:,:-$S confere nces.l rr the media centers of the Senaxe 0f the I+oln;e is incalc ul~abl:e,

The med LVipmVidethe most cred i ble and fasten. transmtsslon lines to te1~'d~ , message ac fOSS W the wtdestaudre rice Inc] uding the I.eglslatcrsthemselves. By fnJe:Clirrg all lss ue ~n"tQthe tn~Jr.)m;:atll of publlc co nsclo ~ srress. lobl)yi 5tS are more

ILkely t.o ~'~idt·onal ·;:metlltiQ n.

Lobbying the Leg islayof!i 'Constituent's,
legl's laton are political
"0 convince. leg i s latcrs that .a pkoP9s·a.lorstance Is tI1lE!".bc~~.tfa F till; "co~[\p,n~v{{ gO'od," It must he. shown thar v;oters ~[rqs? the. n'atlo~~- orin the case bfa congre.s smart, voters i""nhis distriCt - rallvbehtnd ~ cause and are: wimr1_9to b.e tount-ed,

the refore have to resporrdtc, or .at least are 'seen as, responstvetc

arrlmals who are voted into and alit of office, They' thel r COI'l stltu-

A cause that is ennotionra,JlV,ch,¥ged and has, sri rred up the ge neral flQ pulation i~ ri pe for mass rnebl llzatlo n, Th UiY, to draw. attention to their cau se, j.lJ·me~ NGbs an d POs usuallvlaunch $19 nature campal.g ns and hold rallies and de rnonSHllttOrlS, where n19ilJhifestos. arB d lstributed. A letter ctunpai!l!l or a phone briga~Je in wl1idl' lndlvlduals wrHe letters-to or call u p leglsld.tor~ [0 make known tbeir pcsitten can b~ pore ntrneans of .. $I1Qwing "tInt ~Ul fS.~L1@ ha.s w'i,d~ and sohd supperr,

Re;;al tetiers e:Jid phone

patd ads, Kt'lOcki n'g em cong ress iQn-alci!ffi:I:;~~

calls !1iade by. re;;;!~ people [Q Ilectiv(:lIy

are: me reo per~u.;l,.sive .. than
and i ndivid u.i'l.lly


PrQ~ec.ting ~ssues,erven; savthat senators ·who are €!I~[ted ~t I. , rge are mor€ :anwr~d a ~o national ~$$:ue~ than theiir t::o 1,J,!tlterp.arlS i nthe tower Hou s·~who tend to be rna re
concerned with parochial Q istrkt lissIJ~·~.

Wi~hcreativltYi however, a dlstrtct lssuecan be. projected as a natlonal tssue, and a n.atiol'lal is'su,e can be brm.J"ght to a dlstrict's att~ntioli. If ttrere is an tssue whlch affects all or most d lstrkts, it is-easv to raise its n,l~~rrl1wideVi5ib~iity.

FromDistrict to National ,Issue: Jrr'igotion Crisis Ad
For hdar~"(~, the lack ofirrhga.dorl! -raei I lrles has been tile co mplai nt of i'nQividu.1JJidistrlcts for decades, when a ~it~ crtsls hit the co untry in 1995 the lEDAC asked the (0 n\cernE;!di. department and .agf:lJlc·ies,o explal n. The Hm:ls~·Special Corn" t mitt£e on Food ~ecurity ais«} prepared its own report". Both showed that most agri"cultu ra~ dlstrh;:U; we re pl~·gued by the lack of irr.ig;ltron facillties. Instead of ·-·~eptJ.rdte wr3ngling fa r "pork-barrel" allocatlcns Iy for thei r respective d lstricts. the. House dec lded to make this concern ,a national priority. Thls I~d:w the drafti rig of ~;nonmibus .bTIIcalledthe I rriga;rlon c,:rj~~sI~ct·which has bee n ·(.ertvHed as urgem




adrnm tstration,

The "B.ote~Gal"(] pq" Bill
An example of lesse r importance was: tile so-called "bote-garapa" tii n filed h'\t then R;;ti:p;. ablo ocampo. T:I1f.l blll prohtbtted P the rer.ydirllg Oln·d u~e" empty I iq lm~ bottles for sauces such 3:5 fish sauce and SO'Y s-auce which are larer so ld in th~ markp.t. Ocampo filed ,thi~ bill to save CQHS for T~nduf.ty Dislille ry whkl, preduces its c:.W(lf1, bottles but lS unable: to rNfi;~ them b~taru.5escr:ap deah~rS"· sellthe m to sauce manufacturers. Tatid.t:lay Dii5ti Ilery TS:·.locate:d in Ocampo's d~striCL· .


trkt of MaJabO~ and N.av(ita~, ·O.pp:o.s.i3d bi III' bey arg,tlIlng that the :5.( ra,p deaters the are's im~"lytryrngtQ eama decerrt r:iv~lng"She'·suc:r:es.~~fuj~yonvinced her coll€:~agCl.fEs c to support her by evokl 1'19sym pathv for tll@SC rap Cleai~rs in eve ry a !Strict whG,s,E;! live:l~hoQdwould be jeopardized should OC.;1;mpo's hi II be enacted into Aq ulno
was- even .able to marshal the suppcrt oftheoppositlon and the rne rnbers ofthe Committee <on Rules·. Thus, wh H:~.'the bill wOls·taNed for dlscusalon ill plenary; it was not de I lberarad on" A nancnalrss UtE! carl llkewlse be transformed lnto' a ·di3triCtis·sue by r",ising th~ awareti,ess of th"e:·leglslato(s. rcnstltue nts and r~o.bil iting thetr active pa,nkipa·

REi: Te resa Aqu tno-oreta, p.

who represents

tf:Je: fish


ng d i s·-

'tlcm .. Eve.ry m·~mbe( of COll'lgre'Ss bl'low~ that ccnsntuent service Ires at the c.or@ p·oHth:: a, I staying power. Hfil s$es<lTlp judg~s< ~egisla:tive. br'Q.pmah ir1 terms of ~Qw ·th@y r~$alli:lt~ in 11,is. b<"l:ckVarCi. . .


LobbyLs.t$ should the refore tH~a,blie to rauJ€: off to a! lawmake ( the names of ~localinfh.J.el1tjaJs"from hiS home: base Who are ~acking a:. proposed rneasu re. The su ppo rt of the local parlsh priests, members of the ;u:adl~rYliccorr1mum~ty. officials 'Of £iVk ·anEiprofessto nalo rganTzattons; and Ieadinq members ofthe business &e-o'tor shou ld be tapped" Thel r appeal for the le-gi's.lia:tb (~; suppe rt w idlII rna Fe likely be listened to [han iif such ·appea.1 comes from those w!10 do not even res~th~ ~n his diStrin. There is t'lQth-ing more. effective than ·e:l1hstir:rg.a key' person from the congressman's bailiwh:;ktO hslp in the lobby, es ped ally tf that person knows whereof




he speaks aXH;! has astake i nthe the. best ~obbVisl.


ssues htif!9 espoused, A ccnstltuent

Is ~Iwa::{<s

Every [,t;Jcng man has dustrict offlcers who act as: Ute. co rnm urncatlon link res,.s between tile former arlo his, ·con.stiu.l.ents d LIrinq se:s5 ion davs in fh.e Lower House. senate rs, 0 n rhe other hand, h·avl1!, pol iti(a~ officers i n charqe oftha ir regi:on'dl bailiwicks and other te9~OtT) of-the courw'y'. (iVi I 'Soc ie'tV actors must th~r@'f-o~ a~~o· roue h base with these. !t;ev -$!aff~ r's,


Utilii,:z;.ing Areas



ThqUig h t Ili s is !ilot CO ndbu~\.'·;e, ba~e'd 'on iilt~r.;h~\v~ whll ~J)me leg i s,laror$ and cong ressto n al staffers and the s·even-ye.4r work expe rlence of 'thi s WrBN in Congress, it seems 'that the I'e.a~t.utilized areas of tnterventicn are these 8l.vLlilabl'e with in th e formal structures afro ng ress: Thus brt
0 n~y t he bus i tle',Ss- senor

shown agg resslveness
[0 s~Ne


us Ing


and :senne w-om-en'~ and labo r g rou ps have fa rmal and dH~Xt·are.<r>of Intervantroe:

Ths partie-ipati 0 n of the. rnernbe (5 of 'l(~Ldeme. NC!Os Clr\rdPOs has ~_;I.~J~n~,:dnly as reS()IJ rca pe rsons on f,s'~ues, Thei r in itia!~y.e~ if! leg islaticn are h<l,:rdly

eithe:.r try marl i 119them tcr rhel egi stators' Q·fht·es 0 r by attend i ng. pu b I lc rrearing~~, It IS rare to h.ear ofan NOn, PQ 01 an. acadern i( present .:L dr.aJ(bm. for 'i nstance, fcg ,s.porlf.Q r::;hfp by iii me rnber of Congress;On the other offici-al hi lerarchv


O.r fatt, U.SLially,lh"ey


p.~si.ti0 11papers

0 n rnattets the.y want


niqn tp


th ursh

represe ntatlves, rrlrEeting §


in obse


of the

pril1e,! ple. of the separatton

of Ch urch and S~ate,

th r.o~gh private

IJSLIaJlily di~·cus::; i ssues with the bu.t not in OP@I'I publ lc hsarings, Or

lse, rhe bishops i 5:5 ue pastoral le'tte rs an d medrastaeeme nts ..When the Magna Cafta· ftl r Stude rl{S, wa.s being d lscussed in Co rlgl-e5"S" lih~ C h l..ntl1 sector Q pp'QseQ the bH~ prhnarlly til roug~ its by or9<l11 lzations,

n,~ busmess sector has been the"' mes,t active' i:n propos'ipg Itgislati.on <Inti in co n-greS.~ibrl<l<1lobbyJing. 1.-'1 n:ct, th is sector has its. cwn "horse s" and mouthpieces F in both the House and in the Senate, It is known dnat the ele~fiO,n 'Campai'gm of manv legfslato rs we ie partlatlv ban krolled by th'e bustness se.ctnr. The M.a.k(J.'ti BIJ&i" rle~~ CIu.b,tl1'~ Phiii ppl ne Chamber or-Corn rnarce and In du stJY and PHILl£x:po;rt,te name a fe:w. havethelr own lobbyists, co ngn:~.1$]onal rna rI~to rfi19 teams and p()~ncy advocacy gI'OUj.JS. Compared to other civil so.ciety 3.C;lO rs Ltihe bus] ~ess' sector tends to D@must actliv@ at dOle co rnmltree level. Th@y Ikl1!owthat 'the <de~ib@rctti(Jn~ th'e on text of a bi II co mprlse the fi rst fl'On't :in rhe lag i slative war. TheIr I laiscn officers also touch base arrd perso nally meet With mernb~ rs of the 'cQrI'HT!itte~ ·~e[.reta:~tlt and. pank lpate ~ctiveb' inth~me'eti ngs of the H~cll nical work.i.[~_g 9-rOtJ ps. of the taborsector
has als_[] be-err active
senator ErnestP sue h as

the Tr'ad'e Un ion CO·l1gf~S.S of the Ph i lipiP~n~;s
arena ~ndi s In fact renresenred
HOU5\,) ,

i rr the legi·5lalive

in lr by

Herrera and the sectoral rs prese nt.ltives i t1 the

The re axe several factorsthat

Id .acco unt for ths under-utlltzarlon

of th~

formJJ Jre,rs of interventio n by sorne NeOt) and ros.

rlRes ist_!O!lce ParCldigm"

First, the rncst politica,II'y ~ctht~- sj!g rnentsof th~ OJIU rch, acaderne, the stu·9,~ntse'ctClr,.-th@- NGOs <l.nd PO;S dire-s:rm in the "parllament ofthe street" rnode, or 21-$ Prof. R~ne-velasco PlU f,t, thev --stil.Isubsc rltieto the-",re~151arld- p:aradi·9 m.i'·~That iswhy- thei r most com mcnlv used methodsare 03.150 those ~s_ soclated With the "parii:am~:-r'ltof the streets' s uch J5.ho,~ding mass actio ns, 5-1_og<H1e~dng_ and lssu i 119 m,l;n1f.p-sto5fuil of protest rhetoric.
Thevalse rely main IV on t~e rnediaFo r information on what is:4utppe n i ng i!1 CQ_ngH~%.However, themed ia, more ofte n t;h;;lJl rrot, O1~'ly r:epert 0 n the Co,n'rrQVl?,i':sial and the sen:satio nal 0 r' on bl IIs -liHll I, been passed on _ se:concl and th i rd

re"ding_. The rMedi.,ts ~~uenhon- span on tssues

co!,.!l,·d a150- be ~bQ_r1.. The depen-

(len(e~n me{:Ua reportsmeans that when civ~~soctetv -or9a!1iza't~()l'rs act, it i 5 usuaJly toolate to i ntfluenc@ eh~ leg~slative oroc e-S:5 : -

At'! example i~ the. CTRP whtc h took t .. years of dra,f~iIlQ py the Pres ide n tial ,.,...-o Task Force on Tax Il,eform. It was 0 n IV when n was being d~scus~e<dIn co rnrn lttee hearl ng3 d iel' tI"H'~ NCOs:and rOsproteHIf they had Iin'tervenedlilarlier,the.y co Lito :have preempted the- mea:%j re. Thrs mode of action -see rns to be a th row-back to the- martial-law reg i me wherJ Mal'cos fS-5 ued decrees.Jerters of i nstructlon S and e.X)(':!c uituve orcers an Ei clvl I society reacted by expos in,S)and opposing tbern, VeJasco explal ned. For 8.-5 If:Qn,gas civil 5QdlE1ty acto rs depoe m1 i'(1aiHly;· on indiJreq channels of informatiolland '011 indl rect methods Df irrte-n/emiQ!1,fhey will conrl tme to play :3. rel9;tivel.y we'll<;. mhf rfi shaping the' 169 islative agenda. . -


l.cck of UnderstQnding
The-second fan:or that makes dVil s-o(iely actors ineffective in dre leg lslatlve arena ls thelr lack of urrderstand i ng :M the pfo,.e$Se~. and dynamics of Cong res:s .. MOOiHi{th'-·~m<Ire unaware oJ how a, Gm becomes It law, and of the pl~yer$. i-nvolved i nthe p-r-oce~~- Owi ng to this, they have- n:ot availed thems.~I'i/E'~.of, and optimized, tl1ili! cfflclalavanues aval Iab J>e: to fllem for effe't~ve. I~H~fv.Entio i n,


with the Legislative


1996) 7.402: bi 11.$, 6,£1:2 resolutlorrs. 2-:3-HOLJ~:e COI1CLUll':nt resol utions and l{Jjol ru resolutlons we-n~ fir~d. Of thls stagg; n'uJnb~r,. only ZO bi Ills have: bee n p~:"s-_s,ed nno li9;W. Th~- -I_E:-g[r~ mill g,fi nd~ 5 iltJrwiy. It ental Is patience, vi_g'ilaht_e arrd aqlauve gJ€!$siv~ness 'to push for a b~II.
It ~& a rule In Congr~-s-,s,hat a. bill which was not passed drwing a c-O(lgre~t slonal term has to be med aga;i nln the; nelxt Co ng by a legi:fJalo.r who is interested in PUll'S ulnq it. The anti-rape blll had oe@nHh~ddu nng the E.ighth Go,ng r:e"Sfr a.nd reflled twice {d uri ng the Ninth arid Tenth [tmg ress), Only recenuv did lt P<lS:S ~l1e~,~rta:te and the Houseon th ird rea:cli-ng.

Tt1~ th lrd factor i'8 .impa'tiel1ce with thf: legislative process. The re areso many bl II.~ and [u st not eno.t~g h ti me. I~.~ tJre lower House alone, front ju Iy- ] 995 W June


~ep .. Eras mo D~ma;s ihg who had Ci pposed it du rrllg th.€! Ninth Con~.;rre5~ made a; 36b-dft~Hee tumand Ibatt~d for it. wille tlI the_dim~te of public o'pinion sh ifted in th-e hi II's favor;


Clit:he a) II may searn, there is wisdom Tn the S>ly!ng that It is better to have tried and lost than neve r to have tried iU all. To bl(9'm with. ~Merv~m i ng in the leg i slattve are 11<1 at least ensures UU.l the rssue ~\IJS brouq hr ro the pu blic's aml"l' tion Moreove r, 10':;IIlg rhe flr~t bcut does not really amf,J unt to total de fe,U. Si'IKe i he IS S LICl'O rvrd ed Congress JnIG lhe. pros. cons ,md r he undecided, rU! Uf!! lolJbylllg



clearlv qdL"!r1'1ifiabl('. This allow s to bbViSl~ to ftne- ru ne theu ~tr.l'[·

egy as tney prepare (or

second attempt



he measure p~M;@d,

U nwi lIingne&!i ,to Aniv,~ o t c Censensus

he ourth
that legislation

IS the ul'lwllhngUCl;!. of sorne CIvil 500elY actors W ace 'f,ll tile lJol11llo 01 consensus. lnstead. rh!f'Y fl1lFlklln! th~il role I~ ttl Or! 1'1'1[' rne mbers rhar th~1f posuron IS the oilry rdghl POSII(IOII. fartor

Sen(Hor CIulla MJGlpaQal Arrovo s,;u I Ti1;U tile ilrlu·GAI II Jot~bv W;l,~ .lllhmal f ... Iu I~~ bl!(,1!.1 ~e some Its m"JO~ ,p1oponellt-.. "we ~ no t dr,dtJytJ III g L}i I ~ Wr.1e ceuLi ducunq monologu~~ II~Hj!o':Hj' She o.rtd~ed rhat "ev{m if the OU!f't ~HJ~ {pro-CAn) , II fI, d Y 1HJdie!; sed their cone II)S d UII1I9 iI. heamlg, 111 I he II ~ 1 round, ! Iwy ~llil rnlser:! till? ~ii.rll(1 WHHlg 'Iacrs' Ihat IWlI' a'lecl their prevrcuv tH9~1[111:!1l1 on," $ht ~ der ned' polilkai I! <l1 ~ 11.1"11' .... tv~n a ,,!(ttm of u ame-ral!l mJ .md <I '1 r epnsal becaus .. If 111:1 ro,GAlT posItion

fee Ip~eIH

II (th

rears ~Yf

Rep, MI ke Df'fI~ 1\)0' 111\0e pressed h I ~ Irustranon ~H!;O me NGU~; I hone They HY 10 understand the eJrrfu'\J.lUes g'~ those who he'ped them In!;teaa of bJ~1111inqLIS jus: hecau-e we W~ 1111 able to dehvt!r {!vNythmg rh,.u [hey wanted." Of





the Campus some student


mern of campus

ell: perience" 01 Ite p, Wigbertfl Tarrada who au r hored An 1.0 I1'fIISlUe pre.$$ freedom and e{ICOtlrage ~I'e developjournahsrn in the countr . Tad'iada ended up being la.r'l1baSlecl hv the

groups who r.lairned that the lit,: had



"C lvl I 5.oti~tyil.('[ms pessuade [he unconvlnrad,

must reaH.z:e that a~ rhe very least thev sho uldtrv to even i'Fthey do nnr gef the vote," '5aid Sebastian. Hi!
is half

added, ·'Cetting the support 0' he solons does nor cost money: all it takes brain and a VI.' Illlngfiess. to dialoque."




of the Banking' Sector
the ball ki n9 ind umy

Sell, M<lcapagal-Arn)VQ pcinted to 'the ~a~'i!.I' Ilberahzrng

as :'1.r1 excellent Example" - here he protagonists wa~ passed because thev \~~re reallstir enough

were bo·th smiling when the law


rl~e country's domesrtc banks, represented by fhe Ba.nkers· Association of'ths Philipilirlies (I)AP) wers 1l'I falvor of ~llowin9forEi9n banks [0 come rnto thecountry on tiles E? condtttons: first, their capnal requrrernents must be the same 2lS that of til e demesne banks. ;md second, they can only 0 p~rl a hrn ired nu rnbe r of branches I n the countrv, The fore,g:n banks .ugued that the apttal raqui reme rus fa r them should not 1:)(2 < s 1''IIg as the demesne banks' smce ~hey have a n i rnernarlo nal h network 10 h.i1Cklhem up, Th!!V also [Nd not WO!Lm reo much of their '~apltij~ !(') be [I~d up here The rOf~'rgn banks als" refused re limIt 'the number Of branches tlH1Y would ba OllllowC-dwe up.

rhe compro
It aillowed

mise arnved .tt wu nO'1in terms of cap,ltill requ I rements. tnstead, bank$. to e:me r !1['lltO' jernt-ventu re .:IgreemerHs with 101:<11 anks. b

uomestlc banks accepted ~his because having a forelqn partner would .strenqthen their p{)sition. But the law also limited the number of branches that <'t foreiqn bank call upsn. This was <'1far cry from the BSP'5 ori9ina~ position ro allow the full liberal lzation of the. DZIIi1kdng· I nd ust(y.

~nce S', the If ideas and concern' C9.m~ .aily acceptable co mpromlses.

S~nce the BAP and the BSP had a ccntlnutnq .dlalogue cl:~wite inilti'al .differ· to th e fo reO an.d bot h parties arrived ar muru-

M.~("apag(lhA.rroyQ th U 5. advised c lvll sccretv acto rs: "Althouqh Cll")iI.~may be pf;!rfec~ from ones pol nt of vie \'II, it is beuerto have an lrnparfect bit I that 9 ets passed Instead of a pcllticallv unacceptable one."

tClCk. .of Coniidenc€'

in ,the ~,lf1s'titutl on

The fifth factor is the lack:"elf confidence ln Congress as an Irr~tl\ul:lfln. It L; often heard that Congr~ss is ru FI mh~tlv by el ltes with vested intere SIS to protect a.n·d promote. It call riot th,ereJo re be expecred to be respo (IS iv.:; to the v,,'ill of c lvtl rori~ty o no leg i slate fo r the "collle,ctive good". $0 ITIe- sectors therefp re f;~eI OIltn· i ate~ from (0119 ress. At the same ti me, they also have a defeatls t attitude that nothing wor~llwhile will ever come out of being involved in l~grs'ativeadv()~J:qi c.~viIJ< ring tn.:ll1gyavanJ',

t:hcmgirng Face of Congress
~ut for all its I mperfectlo n 5, t he leg i5~.a:tLlr~ hasexhihited a re rnarkable capac ity to. survive under the rno st tr vi rlQ co rid Itions ina. transltl anal dernocratv that was. weig!ied dow n by cou p attempts. a fester] ng corrtmurust i ~)SUI'ge!l [y, d~:b't ". I . problems, and an un precedentad
5 pate


Il atu ral


Thethree c:clIFlgressi:on al electl 0 n s i,n '19"87, 1'992. and 1 !l~jS ~ sald \Ie lasco, alsa "suggest the relative strength ofdemocratic politicS 'vvhicl1 is nurtured by the e5ra'bfidte.d process 0 f acqu iring and maintain i n g:;l I~g i s latlve mandate."
ment ofa

I-I~also po i nted '0U t that the outcorne of thos,€ elactions chaillenges the ·argu;·char\ge.le~:~oliqarch lc hegemo·ny" in CP·OgJtS·5.. 111. ~tu.qymade by Eric Gutiefr@l'_ th e lnstltute for Po outar Democracy" sno wed' til at whi:lel 6'9' rnernfor h@fS of the Lowe r I-IQw;e in 1987 be IOrl(Jed to ()Iigarch if. families, there ~Nfr re on Iy l4S~-SI.JCh embers in I, 992.. 11'11 'I. 99J, on Iy h .... Ouan Pon~'e En ri Ie and S.efDio Osmena m o 1m of I 2 ne.wly elected se nators we-remembers of th-e trad iti onal eWe. Ve iasco rro~f.·cltha..tat lea.)! 30 perce nt of the pre sent cro p of leg lslatorsare yoimg, 01 id'dle.

¢ I<\naed elhe that recapru
bsnt legisla,t~r$




and e ntrepreneu

rs W~~(J red~Ked

the po Iirical

rol e

<J.r~ not

red State

r i n 1 9 &6, Moreover, a

FlU rnber

of inc um-

rn('! mbers of tHe' elite. vet manaqed

defeat [and i dates

from political c lans. 'Surveys of the So c;i aI Weather Stations (SWS} also Indicate that, til'@"·,,,:l'U b~ic\s approval I"ating for 'the leg is Iature has been posltlve. ave raq Ing around 20 [Jet"(.em from 1987 to 1995_
NGOs, and POs

\'~;is hto

make a


ltive d iffere nee in


po Ii(y-

rruiki ng shou leI.therefo re note that the rna]o ritv of FiI i ctrio vo:h~ have not I:o:s,'~ rs flY~frccnfldence In the I,egi slaturs. They must ,get j nvolved ~n the legis lattve pro-

c~~s'lf tfle:y do not want to be pushed farther back th~mselvl!-S isolated,

to fhe political

or find

eye! eef MCI S s A.ct~(Il1s
·Amo!'lg NGO"~and POs,,~he mos~ utilize,!] m;ec:halni:sm to intervene. ~11 Congren ~sthe Indi rren are;;l"o·fill'ltewenOoli!, paJr1kutar~y massacucns. BUI, <ISthe e-x~e.1'il· ence of some NGOs, ~Iild PQs has. shown. '~he5e a;~· not necessarily tllWiilYS nlQ most effective. Nonetheless. the k.flee·jerf< Ire·~pllJti1.s~of most groups to issues tha'tthEW are again:;;t 1$to slag'E! dem01llsmnlons and street marches,
ods are eHecHve on I.y under 'the follo.wrng (oi'ld~Uofl$. Fl rst, when a broad cro,~~· sectlon 0'[ the populil.t~ol'l i$,· 'Sluffl(i!!m~V ag'iUUed so tn~t 'they shift Nom being, apathet!c fe:ncl.l:·siue:n to .atUive p\i1l1hans: second. Winer:! a larg~ nu mberof cltll; :?:etU are willing to the f'!:ec:,e·s.sary s3icrificll'S, [0 sustal n mass rm:Hest fQf a decis,iv,e perled or~ime: a nd 'I'hilrd, \l'IIhen nH}S~,~Fthe mau med ia are on tile :sidQ'Of

The experience



the streets" has shown thatthese


U,e protesters,

When 'these three elements

ar-c present,



a:ssume~ P,(\I'g'

rnou I'll po Ilt'II'''~ importal1(,(!. A po'H~I'larl. igno res th!2 ag1itmion only at hls own' "ern, for lnactien ls U!i!lll.almo !Jnt topo,il,i·tical .5 ureide. These three eJemMtS w'e~ present i tl the I 99'S exec utlon of Fi ~ipifl1i.:l. ma~cI flor Carrtemplaclcn, whichg~ritf' ate." wid.espr'eild pmu~n and 'forced M,iil.I~(!J1 and Congress; to rush the Magn~.

Car111fer the: Proler;t!(),o

lite-saver tn the. raging sea of poliuca~

or Over~eas

FWpw,Q Workers, which

po~,jtIc'l,an~ saw as il,

achieving concrete resu Its. A period of relative qUIet 'l:ak@~OVetr untllanother masS action is la'!AflCI!ed on stlll another iS~l1Je,.and the ~yde repears Us'e~J.Civil 50cjetyacmrs should tli!l~' fore rtiidi.sSes.5rnatr methods iilnd smdy \1!I'hen ,mass actions yield pesltive resl,!l't~ and when they de net, They should be more creaUvEh experimeifHI n.g with r1~W and

Without these wm::l]~ion!>, 43:ctkUil 5 500n ebb withoul

modes of all::licHll.

Successes: fOlrt·he M'~Jr'9~l1lallli.z:'ed
indeed Jt can he saidrh!1ltCo.ngr@ss reflectsthe vested fnteruu in the soti· etvat large:. It. can even be p05it:e.d ~hal the de'gree (If Influence of ti.v:i~ .sod~.[y


rn the ~egi:5I~~I!Jrereflects

the el!:~ei'l!~,of the.Ir infhJence

and clcvt



theory, Cotrl'g:ress:tsan institutfon that a.ggr~g,ates nl\! ccmpstwithin .a s'O'c~ety.'l3'ecau'5,e~heyrepreS"en[ s-ome cf these interests, c~vil' soctetvacrors ~hGulldQ! be he·am I'll C(lng'n~s~. n f:act,~om!i;l mC!.rljlinallzsd secI tors h;;tlNea'lready Scg~~som~ SUC(.. esses and have ·d@fu1;~d entrenched i nte:~~t$ rn the leg i:$.Ia.tiv,earena,
ing Interests Act of 1992 has been (ii'itic[zed

In dernccrattc

uhe enaom~tilr ~n~o·law of '[hlll!Urban Developmen[ I and IHQusing by sorne sectors as favoring squatters and for abetting squalling. b!J[ U was the rce:H!'I:u. intense. [obbylng by urban poor Qlrol<!ps. olf The Genetrics Au ·was vehe'men'[lv ,o'ppiosed by drug comaantes, and tile Ccmsum· er.!i Protection Au, by miilJi'iIIJfacnJI'IHs.
PO'IJ!f~S le:gh;lllat,iv,e

For example,

The UrflQriI


The IJrb&trI Deve~opment atnd ~'o~siflQA(:'t of 1992 was authored by Senator jose LI nil and Rep. Corl'~uel'QPuy~t·Rev~~.Arna~dCl bI1Ji~\,Ies that a majortactor for the ~llw's passiilge was ~Jha~ nobody had, tih,o,ugl1t tha,t somebody of Reeyes's"class orlqln' and soc io·ecOfU.':l,mic sta~ uS l.'~gl~,d'db'n fall" a law that would favor the urban


ho rneless, But at the same th'ne, Arnalda recalled the massive. rnoblltbefore' 'it was passed. .

zattcn of urban poe r groups who sat it our in the gaHery during the longl se nes of pl,€:l'lary sessions in Congress. The Urban Deve:lopmel'lt ami Housinq Act 1991

took five years of dellberations The Campaign for Generics


The.Cenertcs Act championed by senator Or,j<l,ndo Mercado was also a victory fot civil societw TlI@' law was opposed by drug manufacture rs and tin'! eq ually powerful Phi I ippl ne Medka~ Asscciatton (PMj\) which persi.stently tried to water down hs provislons. When they fail@d to influ~Ii(,e ·lfongress, they F1'Ieda suit

questlnnl 1"19the law's leoailry before t.heeSu prerne Cou 11. Mercado narrated that [hose who opposed the bill also used theirclcut as m~d~a advel1:jsers so s uccessfully that the pro-generics camparq n had cHffictilty getting media s.lIpport.~i·ln addittO!')', Senators' (l.nd the conqressrnen were bein~ lnfluenced bvthelr ow n fami Iy doctors who were' agains·t the Ceneri,cg An, Mercado, however, had the S!.J PPQrt of NCO.~ like the Med ieal Action Gro up {MAC), tha Alliance of Concerned Health WO rkers and other orqanlzartons from the med leal professtcn, They presented a good case 'and found a,' formidable ally in the health secretary, These allies ,if'! turn, tapped t'he su pp"Ort:of 'thei rfriends .in the media and made publlj,e statements to

raHy support for the law,

As Mercad 0 recalled: "Becau se tl1 e i ivll soc ilWj actors act ive.iy ~ nd tlnwaveril' participated In this campa,ig n;t:hev lei;1rn~d how' a bill th rougl1 the. {leg lslatlve) mi II r they learned how to use the committee. h@<J.rings to arucutate their vi-ews. arid their expectations became realisnc, We we~·there:Q·U".estorm despite. the' odds. But while it has become a law, iln:lPlemen""t.ltiol'l is quite. another matter so we are stm clcseiv men ltorlnq it, The reslstance agal nsr it ~Cl:;' not sub~i ded ' beca use the d n,Jg marl ufac tu rers are Sot iII tte m p'tin9 to have it repeal ed w;it@red down or amended."




wi n two other measure$the Consumers. Protection Act" and 'the Mag na Carta for Or'ScabledPersons. In f.act; some. of tile concern s wl1'ich su rfaced during the del iherations 011 the Generics Act were addressed under the Consumers I~TOte(~iOf'1 Act" s'lJC1; s. the lssue.of cou ntertelt drugs and false labelilng of druqs, a P'lIshingl for a Logging Ban Mercado, howe.ver, lamented the: fauure of civil society organizations
Ing a logging ban Ccnqress, He said that whlleenvironmental

Mercado added rharwlth the help of theexperience they had gained in pushing for the GenQrics Ad. these groups later mobl Ii:zed their resources' to nel phi m

in havgro~p5"

arguin,9 with the senators instead 9f persua.i;ling them, These antagonized pot-el"lHal allies who were turned off by the "self-rig htecus lecturers and necklers," Later on, heed i ng Me rc ado IS advice to be d i plcmatlc and clvl I r they S WcC@tded. In rais! rlg

are 'j,ust as co mmitted

as health wQr' r "they sta .. ed on the. wrong foot" by n

the l'eve.1 publlc debate on the Issue. of
But at'ltl-IQ99in9 axttvlsts wendightilt19 not only logger;s, and wood manufac-turers, they were aliso, up ag.ainst influentlal members of the HOl!ls~ of Repr~s"@n'tatlves some of whom operated tirnbe r co ncess:ions.

Since M.~rC<.ldo·'s camp was .aw.a~e that ,Hn~·Io.g.g'~rtgball had a slim chance of makingt·~t.hrOl.!g h tl1e Hou se, they thou£! ht that ["hey could .at least gain ,n-ed~a rrHlleage from .: tt.1ckfnQ the pn:Hoggi.I'H] IlegJ~Jatci:rs r~ell NG05 gave.. Q WI! awards a ..·G like- '[he n..K.£l, ward" an~ the "logger's Award." B"u'tthis d iel .nm d~~~H opposia tlen 10 the bill, whi~.h was IHl by Q.t~e£on City Rep. Rena:to Yap., head of the House.~ environment and natu ral resources comrmttee. The Gret":Hi1 .ampai~m d ic:J 110!t WOH't" c Yap. His (0I13ti1'hHUQ.tS, he. sakl i were F10~ directly affected by the debate as "waI3 nanMng grJoat .m Q(J.ezon City (therean~ 1'10 forests in Quez~on CityS' Sti.II~,the ')lltHoQ'ging groups perststed. MercadG wo rke·d with org'i\:nizati()t:l$ I i k~'HH~ Gre:en Coali~io n, Sanlakas, and the A.po Hi k~ill9 S~)dE!ty whic h ca,mpaigne:a aga~nst "Yap's r,e-eie·cHon. Yap was net-threatened. He repone"dly remarked: "HindI ninv:o· aka n~f r·a.t.aJo,. m<1p:apaOJ;5 to..s .niYQ Ja(j9 ~}(O (You can net beat me, y01,.!'11 jl.l:St~ cornpal me to spend mere.)"

mE;lIllwhiile used h.~·spoputar daily radiQ pr'.ogram t"ci take digs at Yap, !He cracked joke.s at the ~arrer:5 e;x.pense'. "';,'1.1')0 ang t<l wag sa loggef' sa Sjn9~pO'M (What tsa ~o.gge:rcalled ill Sing<)iJo.[,~7)"Answe.r: Ate Yap. The App Hikh~9 Soclet,y also de~ivered .simHa.r jabs at 'Yap in their ncontirne TV show. In the end, Yap lost to h is former aide Rey Ca.IJ;~ay. a former janitor ir~ t'h~ Ho use of Represe:ntatTv,es 'who became Quezon CiW wl'm:Cilor. CalaJay snundlv thra-shed his frormer boas ~md now represents the fir~t district 'of Quezo<n [ity.
Th,usl .aJttlCll.l£Lh they failed to h'av@ the loggi:ng 'ball bill passed, clvl I society _g rCHlPS 5ucceeded in dLslo.tlgi n~from power one Qfth>e ~~il's rnO!!'l vndfeTou~opponentsIn theHouse, M~Fl'G:ldo1.00 ks at tne whd.[e, d~bat@ as a ~.~arn~rlglDi:pe"·· rte·rl.ce, He hasn't given' u p veL A~ "the new cl1ainhafl.·of,-the S,.~Mte t:::qmmitte.e.Ofl Ernvimnrri~nt .qJ'~dNatural Re.sbu rces, MeT~~d:o wi'eld-s hio ~ c.l9tJt now, He alsc replaced Sen.ll:tor HeheTSQ.n Alva.rez. whQ' cppcsed the hj'gg~ng pan, ... commlttee as C hal rmarr. MercadQ hOD~ll to use til:€: lo,gg'i ng. ban bl ITin b'alrg~ill('rig with the House, which bad Iy wants thee Irrigation Crh~i Ac:t·E;id. H'~ 'is plann ing to trade hieS' 5 uppert for the~rdgatTbn bi II in exchang(l! for support fera total IOQ<gi ban. rig

Me rcado,






Source:s of Stre.ngth
irflPact they

The stre!'!!gti1s and weaknesses. of clvil S'.oc~ely'actors determl ne now IITliJLCh can make: onlegLslatio.~. The streng:thQf tne:.s@: actors Iit ~rq tbs f~;J~low"· in9; or.gan lzation, 9 rassrcots membership, (r@dibHity,. resources, u nhw· wilUng· ness to compromise and f~e'xibll ity. OrganizQtionQI M.achinery

O"rga;F'liiation provides .civil sQdew acto rs lhe muscle with wh ich to ciirect"ly and iillldkenly put pr.e~.s.!llr:e thelegis:l.ative pr¢(d.s. Strong, @ffi"cient 6rganiZi\· on tiO!"1S make pO.s.s lble .successful ~nformi.J;1i~otl,obbying .and COrlsUU.ll~ncy-buJlding l c:arnrpaign:s, Groups whfith can boast ofa na.tioFllwid~. car! deploy·ac·J' tlon offlcsrs at the drsnict and provincial ile:v~~s.Sucf! Qlro!..! ps can put presiur~ Mt" on Iy in Metro Manila, but can coordinate '[~eirloliby~ng.r@~d!t~defforts tn vafio.u~


pam oJ the co u ntrv, Th ecy COln re pU ca:l:~ c; a,rll pai 9 ns T11 .d lstrkrs

w hen; the


h .lV~

[atlen. Aft~r all, ~.eglsl,atoT~bene.y.e j ri HH~"po Iltlcs of additioll1." "Command Vofes
Orqanized groups

The: gr~:ate:r they are in n umber; t!1'e stronger their capac


to influence

leg ls-

ma nd vo tas"

whic h are reputed to h:av~.the c,apcacity to deiiver "cornp racHe€! b r0 ck-vo t I rig al.Jtq riflat leal II have the ~'bg Iato rs y is ears because they are a voHng'force. to reckon With. The most n6tab'e. a;re'~eUgiQWi grnLJPS I~k:e. ,Iglesia irIij Kristo,an~ th'~ EI Shaddai, whictJp"oiiticianllo ign~r@.on Iy 'if the the'y w.aflt tQ put their po~,ltital careers at risk [veryel~ctitlfl .season, candidates £19'on I:)ilgr~mage to ask-for the btessl ngs; of the !eader5 wh'6 can carrlm.:l!.lld'~the vo:t>es of these blocs. "
0 r w hic h


There is: no tath91ic vci~eiaJrhc)JUgh the campa.i,g~~ waged t;!ythe Catholtc Church and Its lay organ lzatlens a.gaimt 'Senator Juan F~a.vieJ in 1'995 seems to
have cost him a number of votes, Wh,en he was h'ea.lth secretary, Havler had Ln-

curredthe ire. of the' C~tholk h:leran:::hy'by vi90FO.IJsly promntl ng farm Iy planning.

A grCl-s.sro,dts: ri1eml:;leTsh~p ls" a big adViU'ltag,e, ~rgaJtii.ati(ll1s the: numbers. Hh~Y'l1@ed'fpr successful ;;I]:SO ph:wr'des c;:ivJI soctetv actors co nstarit feed b;tc k fDrmLllai:~ legisla'tive preposals 'that are r:~s,p(lnsi'o,i'e can ,then be p:~ss~d on jo Corigre5sfor ap-prW,priatf Rfi'Jsol1rce entalls log~st.ical requirements.
riot en 1'1b~( . ;l:Ul;:e it ,gives, bobbying. G~a.sSfPQtsSIJ pocrt wh lch th~y neerd 'If they are' to tty€! peO'PI~,f~needs" These-





Ne~d less-to say, h:a;ving reso urces is 'a major asset. Anvlobbyi ng campaign
such as, moblltzattcn otrnembess, tnformauon
expenditures. With a 16<1:d~d"'w,ar chest, "g roup.s .e:a!lput up the:ir ·OWIl cong res;;-!QrraJ IDoO'Sling'offlce, hire f~JIi-time. research and !etHII 5raffe'rs, ltaison officers and !11il€diajPR e:xpem. Th@:y can eWI1 lnvesti n 'the' :2:ampaign kiittie:s Qf conffre$~ioi1al ~andjdates, who; willensurethat the favo r Is e1(1Uiprnffrit

retu.m~d in terms ofa fa,vdrable leg i.5lollive action.

More' of tell than not" those who make siz€qQ,le conufbutio ns carl LOU nt on ef their .legislators. This ;is t-heemajor .of the business sector', Thatls why legisl.aHvi battles imp~ng i nqcn big~'orpo rate l nterests are bound to be, feroctcus, as rr-I the Case -of the brufsing battle between Lucio Tan and AI~dres Snria.rlo over proposed tax Ilaw;,\;, the

Stte.ngtl7 in Un;fy
Unity ils a source of sneil,gtti because COrlg~.5S responds 00 "one voice." Le9" ~slat:ors \vi II not want to be dr~gQled into i nterrrecina battles, For' as, :Iong as t;ney c.a;1'i! duCl\\. '!t~they wil!~ never rr~kuldng any actlontha] will gai tlJ for them a ibIQCI[.;:QV Ylilte.s but make them lnse .;I~QHler,


Pr,o-GAlT and A.tni-GA.TT 'Detical Alliance. Rep, Leonardo Motnemayor, peasant sector representanve beamed wilh pride as he' narrated how the pro-CAlT and the anti-GATT camps set aside their dtffer.el'ltes to be able. to put up a unlted front for 'the red uctto n of tariffs on a.g rkultu ral products. '" The 0 rg_arl rzahonal ex, pression of that unity was 'the Agrlbusines's Coalition compo~ed of peasant group-~,

agrfbusi ness executives __ commodity producers and some members of academe.
The qovernrnents tariff restructuring proqram lower tariffs

to zero to five

pe rcent by the end of the vear 20-03. Under the law. the 'Presid-em ls a llowed to
, ad] ust tanffs, but Only tfthese do not exceed ten percent. The (.03.1 Itlon pushed for lower tanffs, arg!ujng that some of the. industrial products whtch are being taxed are also used lnaqricultural prod ucnon (e.g. fertl Ilzers .• fls l'l1il19nets, refriigeriued vans, mac.hjnNY and packagIng materlals, ~tc.). .

However; some representatives

of the penochem iC9I1industry, specific:aHy

petron chairman R:<!lul Mangl~PlJs and an lndustrv leader, Jose Concepcion, Icbbie.d _ili!g_;aicrlSt tariff reductrons. Manglapu:$wanted to attract 'foreiLgn fflVeSwr~ lei the local petrochemical industrv and asked for a 20 percent tar~ff on tndustrtal prqducts JS.;In incentive. Concepcion. whose farnl Iy is ~nga.ged I n refriqerator manu' factu ring. wanted to protect his business by keeping tariffs Of] Imported goooshigh.

The A.gri:bu'Si ness Coal itiol1 W:a.5 created as" counter-lobby against these in' terests. Rep; Mo ntamavo r delivered .a. privilege speech on the III effects of the 'tarirf hike and filed a resoluncn agai nst lt, The coal ltlon also sent memos on their posllion to s~l~cte·d Cabinet members and to the. members offarmers' and agribusil'le.~5 cornmurinres. The counter-lebbv was asuccess, L~ss Hum a month atrer the coal ititm's, formarlon, President Ramos. sjg ned Exec utuve Order No. 264 sertl hg the tariff at ten percent.
,I '.

Consensus-Building: Peasant CafJt:us. But'Montemayor believes that much more remains. to be done to alleviate the pllqht of farmers, who are a negl'ened sector even if they comprise the majoritYQf the. Filipinos. He attributed this to the fact that the peasantrv is disun lted, I n an effort to fo rge u nfrYi' 11 1 people's orqanizatlons involved i,j'l peasant issues, n i rH~NGOs and two representatives from go'Vernrnent entttles put up the PhmpDifie Nat.ional Peas.arnt Caucus. Montemayor descrtbesthe caucus as "a foru m for the detlberaticn and exchanqe of ideas" that wm help ths vartous .groups arrive. at .a common declsion and course of actlon, "The G'lUCUS does HO.t envlslon Hie' dlssclurion of the distinct perso nalttres of each orga.· nlzatlorr," h@ stressed but to come. up with ~ consensus en the. issues,

The Credib;'.ity Fodor
Another source of-strenqth ts credtbi IIty, which a group earns tn rou:gh i{s OWr'1 efforts. The. mestsuccessfu I org~nizario t1S are these wh lch are c redlble, and whose' leaders and spokespersons have. attained a reputanon for credtbl I itv. Sud'] a reputation is developed by making clai ms that withstand verification, either In

terms of the nature and co mpesitlon
sent's when it lakes a stand. PR:.A.:"sDim;"ishea credi'bility.

of the

0 Igtal1lzatlon

or the fans that it prerr ,PM)

The Phlllpplne

Reta,i INS Assoctatlo

failed to establ Ish its crediblltty

in separate

with Senator Serq lo osmeria

chair of the counterpart

III, chair of the Senate Trade and It1tdtl~try Committee (0 mrnirtee in the House.

and Rep. R{ix(ls! the


The PRA 0 pposed a law that wi II liberal lze retail trade. <lrgu i I'Ig that this will force. the majority Fnlipino retailers teo close sho pin the face of 5fliff (om peutio n from 'fore'iQlr1f'etd:il~rs .. The PAAr however. was unable ro produce figUFE!St,o sub.stantiate lts argument.


Osmena, for 0 ne, poi nted out that the biH I i mlts fo reign part~ci!Jatiori to those who earn invest' at least P10 rmlhcn .. a prcvislon des igned to protect small and medium-sized Filipitro retallers. Citing It}L.I~irH~:Ss statlstlcs, the senator said [hat local retailers capltaltzed at over PI 0 milllcn the estimated 418,0000 local retailers.

constitute ~ mea:s,ly.0004

f!certent of

Osrnefia pointedout that "these oppqs,irlQ the reral I trade blll are actually the Magnificent N i neor tlh€ ni ne bU9gest retailers in the co U'ntry who can fcice fo r~igrl ccmpetlrtcn but are olIgafns[ th~ bill because ·th~v want to matritai n rhetro iJgopa Iy at the expen s.e.of the FiIi plno consurners.?" He furthe r dlsclcsed that PRA Fe presentatlves, who were mai nly mediumslzed retal lers, had in an earl ler meeting with him that they 'w-e re amenable to 'J compromise. 011 the. bi II. But VI/hen these -n,egotiators re ported back to the PHil, board, the comororntse was rejected, ir turneo oul! that the medlum-stzed retailers we~e beh'Olld~n to the big retailers Vl!rhO .Q·wn the bi9gest shoppinq malls In wlilch 'smalle r retalters leased .HIei r shops.

how many' small and medii) m·sked reral lers 'Mad' ctosed shopin Cebu 0I11t] how m:arly lost their jobs when ShoeMart p~it l1P. .3, brand there, the organizatio 11'5 offi.cfrs w@r@:tumped, Sonne of them eve n revealed '~hal thev dehberatefv des .clareda low capitaltaatlon 'to avold pa.ying higher taxes.'&; any leg!sl.awl" wou ld riot want to defend 1:1: pos ltlon by citingr false tax declaratlons. Compromise .and Flexibility
Another sou rce of .$uengt'h is an organizations abi I Ltv to be flexible in accepting cornprc mises as well as. adoptl ng method'S and strataq res. Women's .gro u os .displayed sue h fle",JbWty du F'i~g the debate th~ anti-rape bi II. These gro ups .~;e.redb.satisfl.e.d With [he 'waYlhe Housecornrnjttee had removed sorne of HH~ prov~5ion.s 'they wanted to be included ln the bill. BUt they decided riot ro proloFl9 the committee dehberatlons when it was. ex plalned too the m th'at the bi II would move faster lf ir were take n 0 ut of 'the cornm lttee and debated j n 'the plenary .sesslons. The other provlsio« 5 were then reintroduced du ring the pie nary debates." That way~ tile bill mo re quickly ~,urdled the Third Read ing in both the 5enJ.t€ < rid

Roxas had aslnu lap' experience

when he met with the PRA. Whe n he i,nquireq



the He)use. Had the women's 9 rou ps nor heeded ltre d lcturn "one ste p bac kward, two steps forward," rhev would have lost. Scurces of W~Clkness
The wea.krlE';s~e.s clvl I society actors: can be traced to of

the lac k or-absence


~he sources of strs ngtll cited above.


Huge Reserve of'ized Citizens
tt has been estl mated that there are. at. least 18,000 NGOs and PO,~· the. m
counrrv, Still, niliIIions of Filj pi nos remain unorqaruzed and u nreached by these. qro II p·s. There. are. for example, 10 to 1 2 mimo;' farmers, [lW 01111' two to three million of them are Formally orqan ized, said Mo,rlte.rrrayor; S i rnllarlv, woman voters n LJ mber some. 15 rrl i Ilion, mo re than hatf Of the co u Fury's toral voters, but only a small perce tiltolge of then. are 0 rg.ar1i;:ed arou lid gend~ r-retated iss ues, Such is the

·for most othe r social sectors.


No Machines for Vote Delivery
E\re:n the most we 11-0 an lzed grou ps are rg
cant by legislators

com id ered polit ically s.ignifi-

because they have thus far not demonstrated an abillity tef deliver votes 'orre vote as a bloch. Fortnstance, while rhere are many wom-en's,
youth, student; ~a-bor, rarme
1'5 and


groups, '(he re is as vet no


vote, (;;1. youth voteor Of. Creen vote, Stich is net the case in many We.stern countne where politlcal partles. Iike Gemliiltl}t'S ~ ree n Party have taken 011 issues wh lch ar~


NCO issues

in the Pililippines.

Disunity and Frac:riousness
d tvis lvene ss, SIKh fracuo usne ss saps. the energies.' of groups atre ntlo n from the. cause thev $hould be fig htl ng. '

MI6l'l1~r factor that weakens the: porencv of Chi]11society

actors i,5 internal and d'eflett5 th;:il

Student Divisions. Frartio us ness 15 evlde nr in the student secto r, which been divided In its lobbY~M for d. "',Ia.g C'2I,rfafor'Students, wh kh has na

pendl ng stnce the EJg hth Congress, Sp.H;lern gr'OlJpS on whetne r they should cornprornlse with what they see is a weaker" verslon - of the hi II. Thevare alsc

divlilied 011 what methods ofadvocacv shoutd b@used. "Unless thee studernsecrei gets its act togetne:r, U1e blll \Nii~~ rernal FI stalled rni the '¢ornmittee," said Rep, Michael Defensor.
NGOs r Split Ove" CTRPoNGOs we re also s p ~i t ov er th~ CiRP. The ANTI tAg ains-j New Tax 'In creases)' Tax M.ove merit deno LJ need it for b-eirig "anti-pee pie. ami: anJf-

pco r; pro-buslness and pro-rich, arul-envlro nmcnt .. anti-laho r an d co LlnTN-prDdV . tive and deceitful." Other N-GO leaders, however; even while hittir19 the tax pltciR~ age as "mode rate," also commended
it as a "s pringboa.d to attack the 10 ng-m,ndiI;gi preble ms in ·th[§ internal revenue system" aJ~d for "mitigating some of th~ re:gfess.iv.e featu res through tax. relief h:wHxed" income earners ."

Credibility and Image Problems
An orqanizatlo t'IJ n,a.y have .0: M.UO nwide mach i nerv and.qrassroots member· s hm, but 'if it: does not have ned i bllltv, it cannot do much in terms of legisl.ritiv· advocacv, L.egislato rs fi tid suspicious {hose organ izatlons I;vhich, rig fitly or wrOhY:I~'. are seen ~s having a hidden ideological agenda.. Conqressmen are w'iJ,ry ....het'i"t~t ,

representatives of these 9 roup's. attend tongres:'ilona~ hear'il1gs because thev 5U).pect t'llat these g rou ps are there me reiy to g"et pro paga.nda mileage ra,therthatl:rJJ help craft ['eg i s laue 1'1.

A classic exarnole I!. Sayan. I~haugh us cemrnitrnent to work for societal: change 11",$ been hhloricallylesu'!d, Bay.:ln was mas! effectrve dUfii19 the martial 1<11,-\' pe,rfoLi whe n the sHug9 le was on 1he streets and no one bot hered to lobby a



Wh lie 1\



a. spent fence, Sayan\; po llrl (!:II IMI ucnce

seems to hav~ dlmirrished

(om memee': "Most It>gaslawrs ar~ nolmcal

with the ~SWralIO[]

Qr democranc



and the

Macapaqal1110n1@nt 'they

an~ 1JJ'('lsIH1ied with iil:fg uments seen <ASldeo!loglcallv off rnentullv,"
This perception of Id~ologKa.j mortvanoo

co lorad. thsv sh ut themselves

(uI{H.tI~ ~h'~ablltt')l of civil ~a(ielY

<Letol!.to Will rrlenos and supp« ters j [ongreH. Many nrnas, Illeologrc< It tOlJIJ> come unprt:ip.1red 'fol co I1gre~sional hei'lnng~. so ~hey (1'0not even georl'I'le pro 1'.;;1" ganclla benefits that Ih~y WiH'I1 In addilt~olil. the ... a ten take an rrnpatient and mllltam stance. eVE:J1 when wh 1 I~ n edr.tI is ~u (OUf'H!rildver~e PO~![UJrI§ thmuqh iJiI,tl!;!11te.o1sOl1lng. A~ Ro ib !:laid: "tf your support hM nor expanded ut! rhe r drcle of !he'll ke-rmndad', then 'yo u have not gilU1ed new r 0 nverts I r I ~l I1{H o nly till!' !linger' we want to hJ::a~but 1I1~a 1 he ~ang ,-

Orgrlllizatl.o Il~ wfm:ll ail'!' lIi1ddled wuh (IoedH;lIlny and Imag e problems fI rl d I I very dlffi cult '10 I nfluence legislative outcomes usmg the fennal areas of !rite rven HOIl, It (an et C:OUFH: be S I:d lht'l'l. llH't~1 n!~u~al ro availl thern~elve~ of rlle;,;;(! rnstttutlonal mechantsms reflect!. 'Iheh own neqaHve im<lgE' of Cone r~ss. Bu( such refusal will nor make the ~eg'lslallVi~ (mil gnnd to ill at least not unrll a critlcal mas of ctvn soctet y ~IHHef, this flegaUve perceptlon cft the leglshmrre to the ex ~12 t IIHI~ n ~Iley will resortto e'Mtra-pilfha meruarv mean ... (0 realize the i r .. An example o'Fmeffectlve prme.s~ was the cm~ lau nched by rue BuJdu ran ng Miilnggagawang Pillplno (BMP). ,a labor fll':der,U[(In led by ~ormer co mrnu nl st FII~moDl ILagmar'l. Ihe BMP had ~n]yed that slnce hdm(s demand 'For a. legisl ared wag e hike has a sltm chance of being' passed Tn CDngre55.. the next best lh I n 9 we rkers should demand was the SCJdiPPll1g of mandatGIry wage deductions u.e. fo r CSIS. SSS, Pag· Ibig. MEDICARE and other p'a\i,m:eI'lHJ. This, f,\!'ay. the worke rs' take-home poW we u hJ be bigger. In a rally rhev staged to dramatize their demand, ·BMP members tore rhei.r residence certificates asa slqn or protest. The protest passed largely unheeded, panly because of BMP~ image a'S a troublemaker;

f u- D'et,k~'ed'


CI1amp'ianing i rhdefil'1~d i~51J1i!~ is a drawback in \V,agIng leg i slanve batt,les. The carnpalqn fnr a cap on foreIgn debt ~ynH~·nls. fo r example, has been mudd Ied by too I'I1,U1y sloqans llke "US imperialism." Legislators get ,mp,H1Ii=nt with these

will be' hard to draw members of Coogies~ rmo acn rnon lous debates pe ppe red with t;we~pmg slogans.

sloqans: After all, "US tmcertahsm" cannot he resolved


the halls of Ccnqress. It

Co,.mp/a C',etielf m:~d Pas sivi ty
Eve'l' well,cr'ganlzed and well·funded gmups ca., 'frltter aw(w rheu strenqth IF they are complacent. Somellm,e'.:. 'the'Y [11lnk [hal S Lrbm[Wng P'O!:l1tIon paper ... 0 r fJllngo ,(I blll i~ ~uff.c:qent, so 1iley de n,ot bother wrrh ForlQ'\"I ng rhel r pro Dt)~.all~ '~hrough,



For example, the Philippine NurSes Assoctanon (iPNA) asked for a blllon the lntepratlon of the nurstnq professjo n. Ol1ly a few davs after th"~ bjll was filed, the PNA repress ntatlveasked when it was .go i n'g ro be passed, mo ristrarlnq an ignoral'lc€: not on Iy of the I tg is latlve process but also of the need to. lobby for pro [)M~d leg1slation,


Locko! a Comprehensive Legislative .Agenda
Anothe rweakn e~s is the absence of 11. cornprehens ive leg lslatlve a9,endll., lnstead, groups do their 1·(!9islative. advof, . ill a seasonal and riW.!I..Ii:rti( ma!ilH~r, Th us, <H'OLn1d abor Day I n May. labor £Iraups are' ex pee ted to press fa r a 'Nag~ inc rease. ~nJU11e,when classes are abo ut to 5t<:J,l'1. student. 9 roups are expected protest agai nSl tuittc n fee ill'1lc~a:$·es. n S~ptembe~, 1~ i s rhe womeh's grou ps' tum I to draw cine rrtlo n to their O\r".'11 sectoral concerns. Alld in Dee.ember" as Human Right~ Day approaches, l'lll man rights advocates take tl1e~r tu rn in CQrt9feSs" En' 9 agernenti n law rnakl rig and advocacv, how@'v(£r, '$ h ou 1(1he a Yfar"r9!,Hir,J effort,


Making up for a Lack of Resources Manv civil soctetv actors are hobbled by a lack-of resources. In contrast. the busine 5 sector; for example, has ample resources for its lobbying efforts. Bw resou rce deftc iencv can be 'offset by networktnq and rhe pooling of monev and manpower. Moreov(\:r, if the business 'sector hasmonev, civil soctetv groups have
I he

nu mbers, The m?rgifla!ized, the' reso urce-deficrent and the IJ nde r-represented rnav not b-e able 'to play the monev game, OUt tf~ey ¥e: S IJ re.wlnners ill the. numbers game" t rou p~ wh k h rio pal nS-taking or~f9.n~7.3.tio al work and havea valid cause n
around which

ral:~y people


have the voters


their side:


111fact, if' orqan lzatlons are coalesced into powerfu I voti'rlg 'blocs. they can eve n get final'lC lal support from the leqislato rs, So me member of Conq ress have channeled portions of their Countrvwlde Development FUI1d (:CDF) and Congresslonal tnttlauve Allocations (CIA}

to legitimate

NGO", and POs.

Forel"gn funding

agencies a,11[Hore:ign govemmenl:sltave fro m gave rn men rs to N:GO-s.

redirected most of rhalr fundlnq

Lessons From P,mst Legi slotive Compaigns
The past ~w.oConqresseshave provided c lvll.socletv acton with a deep reservo i r of ex pe rlencas from which to clf~,W useful i nslqhts and tesso n s- The examples cited above show both positive' and Ilegative experts !1ce~. From these, some Iessons can be: drawn, arne 119 the rn:
Fi rst, civil soc iety Clew rs must know and exercise their Comaiwtion,a-I and

legJl~ rig ~n$.to en~lage. directlv In the t2l,sli;.of law m,ak~f~gand i 1"1 lobbyi ng the ie9:islature, The pqw~r of initiative and referendum tit-Mallows them to propose, 'l'!n~ct or approve, or reject anv act Of law 0 F part 'Of it passed by.Congre% Or ,any local legishl.tive, body. Any or.gani;?;r.d party, organization orcoalltlon can also partir+ pate in the party-list system al1d thus earn the rig ht to be r'epre.!;'erU'@.d1 Congress. i 1' It is also their rig ht to havs aCC~5S to public docu me rits and records of O;mg ressas well as to partlclpate and to be heard it") public hearings.

Se(t"md, to ach I ~V(! th~desJ rerl ]egislil.T.iVe. f~sui.t~, r:ivi t soc i.ety actors rn us~ appTy both. the "i nte mal S[ro'l~'egyn as well as the "external .5trilteg )1" In rh eh lobbyIrlg Gurlp~i9!l S.

The "tnterual ~{(~ll~g(emall~ kno v: 1 nq rhe power g riel in C'myr~ SS. what motivates the people bel~md uand the worlmlgs o f rhe 1~~.w'I<ni\l~ mill. I r mean ~ fldellily LH11'19~he for 1 na~ areas of Irnervt!rn 1011 {\I'I.'helher dlrec [ or mdirect) In <!H srep5 a~ 11"ri:cong resslonal decision mJ kmg precess. A«e~ ~ I~ i mpo rra ITf and r lv i I SQCI~ly org,lniztlf ions I1'H ~! d~voejop the ..blllr V to gaul I! •.
11111) 'wlaU~gty mvolves nerwnrkmg and blJlldlnSi alliances wuh leurslarors antl the kcv sratters "''I•.hcshcpc the h~g1sl.l.'UI,I"Q' aQ@rtda. rt reql[lre s ~y::.mrliallf.all Y 1)1'e· p,J Ilntj ror leg !sla,'1lve bll~! los ~~l,ollgh w~ean:h. Dun nc,lcony Fe ~.'iIOfI;,..1 I ib(!r arions. de 91cups rriliSl be ,] bre 10 pl'l~s u:.:u.l,vely pr~~(l:nt then (a~(' .'I.f1ltl t'() Co unter arqu rt~Nll ~ wl!.11 ~IJhd 1!'\i1de19t:~. I~!.Lle~ muvt be well de J~r1eci. CIVlrI(y. tact .~nd cJIpin mary IHlt ~1!Llll~I·.mll l >lnln WUI rfl!J-nd~ ,wd ~ ~JPportl?l" m tilt! leq I.~ 1.~lnH~. rll(~ J1e<\~ ~)f lntcrvenrlou W~H~lrc u\1I1 s,orll.:'Y .l( tor~ coin 11a f.I TIH> ~'wlly~~~l v lrn nac I ~r~.' .n ~11 h:wve r 1 UIIgS Il~ The le'gl~lolU"'P f)f tilt' t 1r', t qag~'io o r rhe lelJI~I anw e IHOr..~~~.rn ,,"C:l [11 ~1'rJI e ~~wl~iv dlll'1rU~h~l> ih ttu: bfll rnOVh LIp I hI';' 1~~J! lartve lillrl l ~

dr-r. The "mternal ~'1T3t l1'~n' H1U~t be 111 tandem wrrh the: "e x rNI1i.l1 strateqv,' n''III~ mea! IS b u Ilellng a CO~Sll~uen(v outside Conqreas, It means lobby! n9 tht' execunve OlililCh <tile! wirm!ng the !">uppon oI tile nn~dlil and the ImJ!'ilaLOfS' ccnsrltuerus. Wh ile

branch. through rh~ lEDA( !~ now a key actor n de<I{:III~g m~ n;;;tIOtu.J legIS~"lI\N? prior~He .._ ~I~e ~Xf'fut~ve .11~O lohbies Congre5i and m~e.dst~le support nt rlvrl 5{)Ueiy ar,::{Gr5..]50 .iI Hl U n~erwelgh t to the 1'''9isi;lll,JriZ!. TIH~ ~X1!tlJtive can bE: <I partner In push 1nq for a legbrat ive nda. It ca n also providathe d..~~ lsianr e 0 f lts leg;lil staff and Ie.g~.~lan,,~ liaise n offlcers; Ge.tti ng the supperr lin: media I~ uuclaf. The mass: rnedta are the faste-:;;t ;arid most efficient ('OT1V.e:yOf of a causero the ger1~rdl publk thati ncludes leg isla-t.or~ who listen and are sensitive. 10 public: cq:Hnmrl'. Media artsnnun .and svrnpathy is also likely to 9 euerate C!Jng ressrenal attenrien,

11'1(:: Co II suiuu cd gnwmmenl,

on pro .. d'es n


th{t separanon of powe rs ,;unoll~1 the thf~e"

tl ..~ executive


Seine"\\'! larors are vNed legis
~Iso nec,eS5.ary" G roups

[,no r:s


IIlm or out of offke, lobbying their CO!1 stltue nts i 5'. wi.l~ .know when Ihey have succeeded in rhise fhHt 0 nee J carl the aU~1'11101'lof ttnnr (ong re5cS mall Dr 1,e.Il<LWL As a

rU~~r l~glsi.alC rs respond

more easilv m their

co m tltu en rs H1<l.n to outs: de lobby'

Th Ird, Clvil ~ocjel y actors should rernemberthat

ucs of consensus.


fI_~~lbmw. p<ltlem:~ and dip!amaql

leg isi,Ulof'! invo lves the p6liI he legls!ditwe precess e~~tillls ;~ 9 rea! delll of .. Sme'l! ih~ IcegislOlt!\,IE n1IUg ri nds slo WIYi they

!ihtluld also brace ftl r a gl\l~f, rhernthe opportunity


c.nnpa.igfl and re member

that eac 11setbac k

to fU'le·tunelhe~r

Fa lJrth, c ivll scoetv actors rnu!>t gf:t theIr !lct togeln~r and speii! k with 0 ne voib~. Dh'!i,$ ivenes ~ tHv~n's'f2~'~JOnal auern ton away rrom Ule Issue Ih~v .art" campalgm 1"l9 Fe r e~lc~lllre thi'lt vote rs make wl!lc

Fl'fI~, Co rJgfl'!s.s ruogIlLz:e'), orgalHzed voung, power. U Irl rmnely. tl1e k~y IS to chcices during e-iPCfions, boot In:9 CHH 0 f rowe~ [~iI'1 ~~




re prese m narrow vested interests while I m,talhng thos-e who reallv represent 'the i ntcreSlS 0 f th p majnntv, The nature and composinon 0 f the 1~91:S LI re ls, alter Iat

all, c.ivil scctetvs

vn creatron.

~Vilhnut noub . (,vII sod ty actors can ~fill rna IrniZ ex I~"i 11 ve III res fOI' r interveutlou arrd ii' pjore IU!'\~ avenues for tegj~'alfve aovocacv, Th~ rollovviny elf" I~O n 110~nda Is recommended:
rl rst: Nl~O~ LJl1d rQs. can network and lorm .1 conrmon '-0 t! (J re~ ~Iml~ I I!1bIW" ream will 11ri1ay be ralled 'ill Public (, U""S' Conqre .. slnnal Lohbv; Hy POI1I'll!J lheil reso UI U~~, I h~jr eUorl s 'Viii b • more cusr-effrcre nt, [:cl II NCO 01 pi 'Whll h has a I~ghl,lll\!t:' Ii m 10 pursue 01 POSIlIO!1 to advocare would after <111 '11<lVQ I'Ll lobbv nH'~same set of 0( 0 IlgU' ~sla l'laj pl.We!s.


1:<1(11 yrOijjJ


to IliJe I'ff 111 Tho


IJd~ It 1i'L!> ks: II a 150 11111g,

leglslatrve IObbyulg can ,lS~191' il mernbel UI Gill then be 9,oLlped toqet,llel to undertake I,:.g ill (e;"ean:h • rid bi III dr'",ftlf1g iI rid n,edi~ wor k.


ali se


structure sources.

WI1II'~ I t1dIvldufll 0 rgal1lZatlOu1!. Inay nOt have ~tJ match that of COn9(e~~·. they can, Second- NGOs

the e,:,ap,ae.ny


TO put u P a



share H<lff and re-

rnu5.! co nd uct an a%fH I rlVelHorV. Th i s Involves (I) who have or can h.=r.veii1ccess (0 iegis~i3ltors. key con Oof the exec unve branch and the rrl~di~.: ami (2} class~fying members, according rn ronqressronal drstrlcts and ac(o,r~lng to region.ll/ provinctal baillwid::s of senators.

a,no PO~

idem i fVll1g presem members 9 res ~iontll staffe, s, mernhers

Based {J n thi~ b.lseHl'le data ,[he\, shou Id come up with a natwcrkl 119 plan to establ ,Ish [0 ntacts witt'! l.arg eted I~g I~larors, Ac [rem offi' en fa reach Ie:g lisIa tnr s h ould 111en be d e.s.ig nated. Croups. which h~ve speer lc i5~1J<tE$ to propose or efforts to kev actors who will have do dij",e(T hand in the members ot a jpt::c.~fi( House and S~I1P1te com miH~e. the the executive branch ana . m the case of the medta, repo 9 ress: 0 beat and selected opimon-makers.j advocate. ran limit their lssue's detiberarion ( te, perttnent department of rters who CQver' thecon-

Tllird: Civil society actors can send out quesuonnarres to- the 265 leglsl~tors to SO u nd ufftheu vi~ws and elicH the Ir 5ugge5t~mH 011 specinc leg is I.nfve proposal $ Thro L1g h IMs. they can have- some idea as 'to who <Ire IIkelv to s uppn rt 01

op prise 111 E! measure, as wei~ as whe !ilre. under rcl~d on tIle mar ter, 5 uch ~ su rVf:'i
r an help palm a plCTlJif'e of the Uk-ely vClmg configuration and guide lcbbvrsts to where thev !1i1QtJlddm~cr h@Jrd OU~, B soliciting the legisld:wrs' opinions. lob· bY15'15 ca n Idem Ily whrr h asneces o'r Thl! legrs'lanve proposal are acceptable, .vhlr~ Will be (Ont~mlOIUS and wh1ch call 'IIlcgcuau~d or rnodlfierl. rh i s efto rt does 1'I0'i entarlmur h reso LJ[U ~,~:o!u~pt feu the thlflllkmg needed TO ~QnrHII.:tt1;'l ~t handful of key que suons and the rnallmg Of faxing! cosrs.

1-!:lIJi1 IT:Clvll soc:iet" actors (In launch a re.gular fa rum
1111,1 ulse I oru rn to wlHr h i'l'ghl P

ors and 'til Iiou'lffe rs can be ilwned for d i;llog,LJIJ~~

wn rc h IHtly

be called

,.aM meaningfull lnteracrton - Such a FQru m ........ 111also provi de a v.e nue fa r t stabl i s 1"1i n'g,rapport and buildinqlonq-ter m working relatio 1151'1 ips, with l~gh!atorsal1d thel r st ..Jf,
Fifth: Civl I s'ocl~ry actors tan COfiV~ne a Publ ie. Cit iZ~!l $' Leg i slarlve S Umr'l1H w~I'€n~I'epr.esentativt:s of 0 rg <t.fllzed sectors can h'_a me r O,U~ ';1co mmo n I~g'islarive rn .agemd:I and a planof actio n _ The sum rntt can Irsr; r:ne' pri Nit res because real is~i;i!llly, alii lhii;!! LegiS'l<ltiv~ pro pOi~l~ cannot b.@. C:le:d on ail at o.n(.~·" Th<2. res LJ Its cf rhe a rnrntt tan be orese nted tothe executtve bran~ h an-d l((Cor~g ressIcr i nco rpo ra"tlon i Il~Q th~i r ~egislative ag~tlda. A frerwM~" reptes~ ntativesof NGOs an d Pi;}s· carr map 0.~.n~ 1'0 bby in·e p I.~




SiXth: eM I seciety actors sho wild form Po lifk,al Act iO'11 .Com rnlttee s (PA'C 5} which wi II not on Iy hrl ng r111;~r C!l.l1S,.. to Co n gn~5S but OIl QCO ntrlbute yo I U 11tE'·e rs e ~
and raise fi nancial co nvibutio rli5. '[0 the po I itic<.li campaigns of congress.!f) nal cand~t:Ites. Thr:lY s heuld cand ldares who can c hampion the it (au se 0 nc e l hey .. '~Jt''elected. Pa,rt of th i 5 propo se-d rneasu re is to trarrstate the P/K.~' po Iitisal po v... r 'e in~ots:nuJI 'vori l1.g power,
in' p.repiJ,ratio n for th~ HH~ir hand I n ttus ¢.oli~j'cal e':<:·et'(.I~e_and raise th~i r l'~a;tiQrral ),Iisi bility, ttrev rn L..I st form ~H Ie'ol_st 1 2' . [o.ailltiqns Q( parties because the 1l;),W' p revldes for the: reprasentatlcn in .Co !1gt@s~ Qi 12 SeCl(ir~. are:l9ibor, peasant. fls herfol k, urban POQf, i n d,igf:r~Q u ~ cultural ccmmun itie'~. :eld~riy, handicapped.wo n1tln, yo.uth. veterans, eve rse fS wo rkers and profe5·sioll.;tls, Each [(Y'J.~iit iol'l must reg~$ter "Vh~l the Co me.1ec, arrd rfthev ,qu~.1tty, tIl~y may nom i nate not less than i'iYe rJ'<1I.mesro m tile gro,u_p. Dnce fo rmsd, j rh@_ose: [oa.lrition S or parties mu st try {O get the. me.di,~~ attention So they ,,,an rnak~ ,\tNets· (kw~re about their e:xi:stem:e aria the i r goals. , S~evlit1th: NC05a.nd

POs ShOIJ ld i mrnedtatelv


~~,9'Rimp'lementa:trot'! .of 'the pa·t1'¥-llist system,

Tq strenqthan

EIghth; Civil societvactors must unite be·hrns mo\·'es 1;0 rust It ute etexto ral retGYrmS .anQ edlllca.te cltlaens abo u ~ their c ivic ~igJ1ts and dLn1~S·, An ~m proved e:'1&tor["~1vsrem a:nd more aW<L)"e. voters u\'n he I p e.r1::;un~ the e:I~('tj9n oJ ;;; rnQr~ s re·t..p~·n~iveand accourttable II~gis.latlJre, H:o.pefully, i h:; ivil SQC iety actors rake the Sl..lg'ge~-red {:o.urses of act;jQFI' I rsted above, theycan xontri bure to :sl'l.::iJii n9 a Con. gr~~1i;Uvatis trud,y (1 pari~ame nt anne people. Aft@r an, as tlte- .s,,1yi r'g' .9.0 (';S: ''D-enlQCfdCY ~S.Mt·

a '~pe-(nton po rt,"

ENe I \(1(<1,1 L€gI5J~tl.",.q Ac"hiev,e



I'll en q ~ ~j ~J ! \hl J, eLl I] qr~>f;.Mth c! .pnil I p pi n 6,· 199<1- r 9%, CDlTgh:::5~ ur ~h~ .phi d.ppiM~, 3 .~il'Gflfs LiIiW:' COtlgr~$S' B~jfle{1n,Offi(8 {)1' M~clia Afhin., Hcuse t.~fF\:ep.r.~:,er~1.l\IW3, \/()U, No, ~, M~~u.';jus~ I ':1!~6, p, I , '1;"rlle C~.nlsLH!1tiD'" of the R!!puollr (.'If the- n!l!i!Rrith!.:S 11~r~rl1{).jt~r rd'2!'1l>:d '.::l as lhe tun ~.ti',u(I{.'n, t\.I.:.(tl';:n,,1 Cti*~rllrne!lL Cenl~'r,O~V)ber 1'5, ~98G, p.. D, S ~ ~pld" }\I:....Vi. 5e~, ::: _.p.l 6. 2 (LRepi,Jtillc A~t N(I, 6.135_

"tfYI~~1 LSQ,'SiMIV,fj

g. Th~ [Qn~lIHHi[lrl, An vi, S~{, %1,2).I.{' 10. IJ)'R~pubH( A'c~ No, 794 1. . '. Jl -r~e.e(lIwitutlo'n, Ar~ VI.Sec •. 2 I. p,13,








V. PAEle

13- lbid., Art, IX. (., \(0'1 1 .'. p, H_ 14 /" b..-HI: t\'h:fE-:m:e mOil ·n.,1 '~r'll o1',q "'" I~ T'I~ ::>hlljPflJfII' L"lll ,I.! \i~ DaVelopm(!nr. /;;n\I;:IJ""\oI I 'jlJf._

12 [htd,


X, ;~L_

s. p.






Ilw r~ntl!:l


T'S Sec Arpf'ojmcE!> A :1Ifid B ter IJ-.~ org,~nl,'::.J'lon.!.f ~h.a,!l~ ol Ihe I h Thu II ill~'" I'lthpF ( hdlTlb~f m,"t b(' d-mn'gr.-d (If mrH.h'h!iJ til Hul"~ IJI ihe ~1~n~H' .ind HHlt'~ til 1Ill! House ciln bl! tlbl~~Jlrtl 1Ji' r ~




re~[),,'cl.!""'f'ly r;>r[11 ("OP fo1 Iii '~I'

In ..,\"' . ry Hlngrl"!"~I(ln,iI . rill f~~'~ fmm

I~''II'' @(I{!'[<lFl~t ol beth chnm ~
,Ind '(IJp"





";"II,d I' IrlJ

th@ I-fULl~ •

10 AI'I'E,.,tm:l:~ (_ :1In,dj Il 1'J:5["lr.rII~ t·l\"

lor the h ..\
.11" •• to





w11rk ~UI 'h~

I fj

["1" \l{!I1()(1 ,.', wltl' , ~1q,I1I'd II'JIrlI 1111 "J

er \11


~~.1\ .~"u .I.rI""11 ,pnu~e th .•1 II"WI

I l h~, 011I HI~ Wtlll1'I~,

h., IJ..~F'~

1'11\'(1 IIW 1T1~lmb"f\
~~"'~UI,'lIl)n~ H!'flUI.II....

Il~r 1-'rm.1ndo r'f'fl', mJ 1l.1'~I, NI'tH,L11 (",~II"I/.d!'~,r, h;l'I~ ,',II iern '~III L.lkJ~ NI)( [) Whllf' (,1,11; JI.", II 'I.i~
~1I111" I <1M i" .,'mN'" lollthl,flnll. rn"l"ll"'r\ dP~I'~IIl'lrl'd • hl~HI,'~wd

;11 II


... 1~lln"ll

, 111 I'MI'

by ....irtu» III

M"111IWI' 1lllloIll'd WIIL)'IIII.1

W.1 II, Iw I'll .. nlt·1I ....

h,11.m.iI 1]W·j·

,ifn.!.11 (on'lf

I hOi

1 ')1)0:: Vir,

1'1" I [)llll'l:~~'cI plll,,,J,

~11 iO ,j I 1:1

ut, I hi' ~I'IIIIII
,"I>'!\ Iflll'l


II00jUH' 'Iw,.kl·r.lo.(·~f'rl


t. bllwl 0'.'11.1>",·
Io,ml IH IlUfltl.rllY



•• ll r urru



11\ II,,,,

I'y 'I;,t IJr"~ld"'11



P~I'I~, me: It", r()lInWII'U~



~111'.,li,l'l, ,0[ 111,1',1 tl" rnpn"t'III;l1 M~'rllbl'l',I,

"dNHI:l1 a IJ 1.lhur

.111111)1111"" d rfllr~ : ,\,III Irllll'

:,,'fll ,II'IV~ r r] I hI' [ru III ql)V('II'fru'nl oIll~' .~, III (IIA!lIl'ldl!(11i I "jill ,I ,h,iI] h ... .u. I )rl IltUIIHI1,d

111111'.. "lI'Oloith f()?f ....~Or ,1'1,'" .ll'ld " rlrl"'~1'1! wr till \


1 '111'





llV(io~ .IQl11



ll'I~',II)1\ Ilf il'1,t1~I,llI~·.· rl1t1n ~I~II jl·I~·n,.II·

" I '11'1"' Ai'I'! NOlk IE loll ,I ~l .".'mll'H I JIIVI'I11IM ,1,.1" 111,1"'",11 AII'toJ I ti: I'll "IVI(·W 11f1'\I'III, ~:3 IjllN'\IIt-·,I.'


.. 1.11..1"r • t ,lnlh'H1Q

I 1I1I\'(I~'Tlil l.,'.~" whit h ~'y \ I1FO'p,III'IIIl', 'fl'IIIO"' Iv. til I~[ !u,. !II u!,~ IIUIJ I' <II lu"),I,,,"'111
,'wn ••I., ~t.rtll1r ~If\

I ~r1

.......h Mr ,!i.II~oL'ld ~,.~,1\ 1 ~'Jlth ~;,:,n,Jl.OI Iu o'HHHI'"

vi'I~fj n,l


1·I~jh'~'1 I 'l'llIclfl"

~ 1111(:1 rl1l'

L'i ~5

IIHi~rVIf""'.' "'1IIh lm", Allrolw

.. rl

II oi\'h'l 11m" I..b[Hlm ,,' QI'14rt' ,

Da.J01 Am~ldo."




Y fir I "Ii

'I Ildll'.II1.

, ... ;"; ~,I\ .~

I1t"·[1 ~ Iwy

1"1\ .. 1 ~1~!11'1 '1rIf"

III· r. ,illh

if, Ibio t. / II !l.I!r v II'W
1,~ Jj,'ftm'

wllh Wl"l

I~~n .j'~dril.H·1 'M,lf H~)I'~~ nit


(OnIO::f"ElI(~ [ommIIH"<l ~ enh •..tlly.J.

I rn ..., en

I 118 S~l"1at~ .tnrj



'~II' I~X~S,"


',jlinei hi II


edl\' mel

H,'llnJ~ Cunanan, lS~

111", 1I0c'110 ~oll;in, wno JI Tldmt S,A

rc,;d re lh~


l<l)o, A.1'<lrJU1Y


i I 71_ See "PGIIi.if
(hld-f)f·q~l1 l!.lld.
1l~E"r\lHW" With mleNr!'"," vo'I1h

"'Jh~1 • on!.'1 nt .. tJ Ih?-m



l'hlltpGlili: O..niy '!len';;";) vl'!,~"Gl.pol1i1cal


;J.1If1("""or D' P l btl lu!llu tobacco retlliJl1~ IJndi>T ~..... N~' Wc,v(!mCH 16, 19%, n, f1, screnr e Ilmle~~m d.t ~h~ .lr1Io;,1(!r5H~' rhe :;Ihll' p)::ire~ <in~1 \)1

] I rUI~ M;u tio~;!~ jj ~efi;;wr
L.imlf!i e ·,la;cap,aglll AITO'fo



R-ep_ Mi


33 Eric CiJUe~-l, TI-l. T11l5 Tilar Bine/: A Cllld e ,(I ~3ffl.!'jr 8tlswess . ami O{her l'nr"'r;;o.H~ 0''1111[>Mlr;[/l ~:(.ingll<H of rha IIOCIse flr Peprf'~l.'nH!I(IIof~S, PdS~g- rClprD_ 1 "19-\_ 3 ~ lr,lf-'rvm ...... ll h Sefl~tClr ')rLlntJ{J M:lrC~clo. W 35 II~tervj~w wli'tlRep. L@ofl<lrdv Monlen<l'l"}L :3 [) Intj,jIVIQW wuh Sen .. tor '!.i'fCllll Osmllo;lll' The M~91nlh( en • HU;, Olc(cr::lln:g tc I'J~ m~fi~ -,Iii! rh~ fOP()'.'o'IFIQ. SllOer.t.n f i!pll ~l;!'!i'd .. 1 PI .5f. hllhon, ler ur DflJg <l ~I~'II rmlhnn, Hu,.t<l.n'~ -1'" PSG') rnltllnu. l,~,'(1) "dll'~ ut PJ92. mil 111:.mN"71l1j~,"1 Roo~tD<re 01;1 rJG~ rmlhon Commumcatlcns Sall.ltiom !I P \i Ij rr'[]] Ill', and Transursun (oq.1 ,11P269 ml'h1Jf\.IJrnwllj~ .... ~II!\ ' an:nmJ5E: (ItJb', P.l~ ~ I'tlllllt.HI .lIlt! SU~I'I\"!~'Jell"ir
dl I-'.:~O'~I'IHIIIDI~. J7 Ibid, JfHJ .Any Ct!(iI~ lIrwi!! 1]1 \IIV)I, 0111 '~lIlbr~l,u

38 The wurer W,J~ iJH'~rm dlJrmg lhl'!> lTI~ell1'lq, ;;;'1 I hr' '.... i;!:!1 ll1~rI",' Ihl P!tpl.JfI.J!llm '0 r ~ ("~("Ih~ Hf,llfm;mn
om;l!1I/<"!1J!J1"I ul W(III'1I1 'n\ Qrul1p~









.sr!.v,~1'1 memben All 10


Con,mILCa>~ on Rul as

hillodlcfilft ilnd cottilQlllrldus( Ing IlII mmmodHies

and rl1a.r!,;,et·

maIler!; afl~r:W)g the RlIJle~ of lhi' Sl?n~lle. [1:;11' calendar 'l~ w~l~ ;r~parharnemarv role;. iJnd


order ~I,d m<lrm~r rl"Oll15<u:llng bUiine.n :1Md [~l e Ctl!;HI On or co rnrn iU aes,


'Ih~ I.11;Jlr'[lall t~'f n~l~ t..l;ln1fnltl~I'

~lnlJ t,ll' HI!,' M~II'rlt'r' L~~cl~r Qr ~np ~pnllt~ the VILI.' ( hajrIIW'I~~lIIH tho A:!si~ti!.t"!l M'I~!)I'Hr L~~dN) be


.omnllttQ~ on rthks, and Prlvil 1lf!5 S~"'l!n 111 ,, All mdHIlF!o mlilllny III Ii'lL' L·QPduu. wlhl~ ~lndprlllil 'g~~. hlfN i tljgrl1h!. Inlf!(lhlV tltld rnpu! ~11i;mor the $enille :lf1d Ih ~ rnbers.
UlmIl'f1IU~I' M AI r mml~
mauurs f

Cornmutee on A.gri[llIUJr~ and F(lod ~~v~n members. ""I rnauers ml.iltmQ {Q ayrlnll(urfl, 11301:1 radLl[flcll'l <IFill ,d\1rlhU~I,n~5~. lnrl ~ldi~lg p -iI,gMculwr.:!1 e;o:p~m'l'lro!nt'all ~T,n~(Fn~, qrl( lI~lUr\l:1 ~ ~("finl)rrlln Jllti r~~,p.;m h; ~'lli slOJFVey and con ~,j;>rv~U(m; aqrl{l.1I rural l'dllt:Oltlol'1; [r-~hlll ~al 4!1ll!n~~~!;I11 \"'I'VIC~:I: anlrnal husbanelrv: Ilv!!· lilt!;;. CjLlilr,1llnfle; ~~n'-LiItIJTi"!1 ~lJprmrt I'll lr o: ... d fI~hl!m' .md .tqu.~b~ n re~Qur~I!~.

cornmmee on Coopilrnm;Q


S~V '11 ml'mbN~


sen ~l~',

the ~IJaIUI'~ ;anrl .IdN~ rnnrtl 01 ~II ~r~[lUfH~ rll~rtJil"bl~ "9ol~n'l Ih~ i'\inl!h r~JFilw "~IJt'rl~~~ .ifH.I ~~1~\,Ilt~~~oj ctw 'I~thlfl

S(iV!ir\rll 'nlt"lr~, All m~U n rl'1,}Wl(l II,) c Utlf1(>f.if I IItl ". bnl'fl ur b 1'1' ~ncl rurul b~~(ld, tnt IwdlnLj, h~11 IHU llrnIH'd Co 'OIrrn crud i t .HI tl 0.1 fill ~ ~ nJl'11 1,1, 'UUlJrr~n""ll rriU\I"rtlNH\, rn.lrkr,rlr1\1 .Iwl frltl· ..uml!'l'~·(lr~lJf1I.iiltl(lfl~, ,JJ'lt! rhu I f11j:ihlIIINI r auon nr I he (iHl j'lt'r.1Uv ~ r 1'1 rl~' 0 t IH' Phili Pi'll 'U-!\



Ctlffiol1llW't' 01'1rll~i1nH'r· - '~l"lIl·nl.·I·tl mrmbl'n. All ITI~t~,!rs Fr.!l.:lhng lc:l hJl'lth Itlt the upundj tun:~ et ihe NJIi [)f! !I I Covcmmnnl nd for ~.C
r,.yrnr>ili Ll'1 puhllr InOebll:'dneH, inJd~tlli\l II "lC!lIJIl" :1rllt:! [':o:rH'ndll!Ji'"I", uf Hw .. ,)lloltal (;OVf!rnl'11(!n\,



clntms a.galnSI the \l,Qvemmenl; m (! I'IBII rW,tr~'nu l! ~111"" rll'1Q. iln 11. III ql!t"U';r.d, ~II ITl,Jll~r .. rf'LJlLflq [L' puhllc ":>ip!!n
ComlillttQQ On W~'!I5, ;I.I;[J M~~n~- LI~v:enmpffib P.f$. All 1'Ii@rt ~ r~ ml at In!:l ro I'~V~ t'lU(! ilIo1lJler;t11 y; ~8~(!San q J~ Q ~; [OIrlff~. loans ,OIIKI lh er $oulHS o anrj furms LJI n' v ~IlLJe [OJ1lIllI~te.d on Ecollomic Mf1in Nme rnernbars, All rnauers relat:lng to ecunorrnc planning .;rid p royr-amrl"lIn g; I h planning ot domestic and fOr<:I!Jti IlidetHednes'S-. gl?'l'II"ul 13.

(,o~nmflU 1m hml.WI ilt,l.illf(m~ f If I Qn.JI crn m b,pr~ !\II m.lUl'n rpf.ltlrlQ t'l (he n~l;:rti(jJl" 'I'u' ~h~llpfllrli'l wlrh (1fir,'r r1.1W1I1~ \l"rlllrJlly; I.llplOmall{ .md Uln.,utlr ~I:!NI~!~S: (hI!, ,tI,~:.!). ~lo1I1i)1I 01 Southe;;s! .l\SI an N;Jtlon~: tho Unit 'el :'\I.J:tJ.Qn~ Org nll;;.tl(ln .-I'nl! Il~J.gN,(II.!~, mlll~1 er ~I 1;.1 rq ;mll. ...hJ'ns. ...11 I flililf rl..lU 0(141 acreel me 1'1 IS , ehlt ~IIOI'IS ;}i'l11 r nnt r a ct s , nnrl OVi!!(~N~ F IIq:lln{)~ Con'u'IlIH&!!.'



Na~ll:InJI Def.erl~~ .J,r~d~e~LJrily



ami coord Imil on.
of industry <In.c

ElI!....:d'I member.:! All mdtl~f" t r~l~tl M~j' I Q f'1~. IlolTI:ll tJ'phm~<!, ~i'( umy, P!'.10" ,mu ~mj~(:I'h!' Armoo fcrte;.ohhe PhJllppin.e~; pens ion plans and fnngil ben ..flh of W;l!'"v~Ler:;lrh and military' reurees. citizen'S army selecuve service: JQrI.~: arsenals: military bases: rcservanons "'rid ;ifrl~,co"..t, getldlili.~ ,l.ntl fl1e~eflro.lm"irnl 5\.1rv~y;S; (illl! dafens e : Phlllp13lne Ndtioml Pohu: pnvate s ..cuntv aqentres: and mil itarv

regulatloFl <lind t.J!\letSlf~[al'lon lrwe S trnent s.

f@'!~rrh !Ina




[omtmtwQ D!1Il<lnks. Financiallm,IllUUons and (urfl;!tl;t,I,~~- S~vlln members. Jl,1J;r5C banks, fll:'lan,~a1 II'l~tin.ltiQ.n~.gOlfern· lTi~ni ,,11 rJ P rl \loa I ~ c U,fl~I1,(,1 eST' 2 pital m3tkelS. muLUClIrLilntl~, ~~~~~llIDl,tJ~~Il, rtlJIl~g£! aillil Llr, cubei 0 11 of rnon ~v011GQ\'~rnrrrent LOrpl)riHI(.lrJ~ <lnd Publlr, tmerprl~~s -5~~!ell m!Hrlb!,,~_ A.II qU~i Lions ECti ng goveltlim<1rH (!1Hll'I.)r" Bans: thl!' Inten>stN of I h~ ,gQ"'l'rflm~n'l ill the dUfllfeJ'1l

Commiuee on ~~~'" Unifu;:<lU(ln id.lld I~·e(nnclll a tlDI'I 5,CVe(l members, All rnatrers relatmg to peace, inU rn ~I armed con fl i ct t~sol utien, ~ orit~ cal nego~i a'UQ n, cassat 10(1 P t r, esul Il!fe'h am [l1.;!~~'Y, re t;l ~I FE t u rne es, I 1'1'[ ~ g r~ .. rnm "mi cl,~\i'",ttlpment. na,mnal unlflcatlnn <Inti
re(ofi(jh;Jlior~, ':'::ommr tee on Jm<nce nnd Hu man Il,ight~ ':Ieven memi:l trs. All m<JU!!r:!l r~latil'llJ IDth2 Of' gilniz~tlOrr and "dmmrstmtian Qf lu!;tice, (1'.',1 fill.1I15. p-!'!oltentl<!nes and relarmi\tmy 5(llool~; prnb Bon; ImpI!M~Hni'1'l1 pmfE!:t!<I..IlfllJ~ aq<lltl'it (tlnSlitullQn:11 (JFfl(~r" <Ina nlher {l1Ticen I~gall., rem()"vdbte by ,mpc;[cilmenr. regl~rr;;!(mn of rdnd lul~~; ImmlgJr.HlfJn ~nd n;WJr.!~It.;J.tlfln; th~ ~mph,'rn~'rlt.Hlui'i (1« th~ I'WVI~Wfl~ clf 1t1~ C(m~mIJlB(ln on hum~1l rIQh!~; ~,rlrI,.II '1l1.ltrN', ~!."n;l~nFnq to th~ corrtdl'tI.:y .... F1Ufl'rtltTl1~ 1'1 till!
1=1 rO~ II[ 1J1IoI'I SII tv I (If!



Indu~1rii!.l ilnd



C.omm~Hee on Inild e ..rid I tlnlm~ tf ~ St!~"'fI I1wll1bEa, All m ..Hc~~ ~J~,lJl'lg In' dOlm~~tjf ;JOt! ro ~P..9f1I radl) ;md 1)(1v·n ~[Or jlQr,~Hon~: !All
l"llt~, n~tJ'r'flalll s, lr.-.dll hOlmei and llrilr;!comilir, \. ~ml'1~. rcl<;, w~lghi_~. ml!iI~IJU!S a"cJ c:lc~i!~,,1..

t;lUoliW ro'l, comrol ~tnl)I~ll;HlOi'l al tltl~~s l~r t'OmmQClil(l~, ttHI~umer plOt ~IIDn;





tin flLll1ll( Wtlri;;,\




rhlr1'£~n ml'mpI Jfll'1If1q, ,un<;.tfUl

tlorr, m8iinten,lllC8, imprOV-QrrH'l!1l arid! repair or publl~ bLJilditv!l~, hlqhw~V~, hridHe~, ronds, pmt:;" ai rpcrt s. hOlrb OT~ and P ;'Irk s, d r~j nag~, flonu ntrn I a<n pn:.m:£ti'un: and i rri g~'l1j() n .lInci d W;O!{ill" utilitii.'ls_ .

tlli! u!ge:r,;;:u1te ohhe


of Phillppin€!




COlTlflTiU'~.~·lin lo~aJ GQVB'rnmem - SNi2:!"'i rrrernb Po r..:;_ .A. II Icnatt@.·rs !:(! I ~.tirQ tD8'!J.tOJ'IG~rl Cl'US re I 9 I0 n.~, p rev In (e ~, d Li-es, ~prt(1 <II rn E~r~lp [) Ii t~r] 'p'ql i.tI(;;!,I· ~.~lh dNI s ior~'s, rn~mtcl p ~IIti~i and b<1nng<l':l,s. on Url:;'atl PI.l!lnl ncr,. llousinq <Inc! f;:~~"f!td8m.s1nt g:even\her;,.AI"I m~rl'~ri'~r",LOlLi g ~o th~ cJof:vQI:o~~mOl:t;,t e]' rural n :lH8,S, upll r~rmn( of Ih~ I (}ndfri~)"ti~ Q:F rhE"JF Inh;).~I\-

He.;lJth· and [J~mQ~w~Mw Nine hers. AI I i'T1 a(~er's rei ali n.';! to p u hI tc h~'allh in. ge he ral. medl C 01.1,h0"5 P ital 11'i d '-q uaranti h~ s erv ke1j.· D'QP~u'l ri i 5'S ues. ,co m:~m~., pol Iciih Cltitl <I~l d p roqram $ 8 ~t~ nq i i'lJ:i1viel U ~ I·~and their hlllill es, ~h~ Tf(;cts ~ n nation <II. 5 O( L~I and lre Co.flrmitMf-011·
It"! ~ m




ii.:'~Of] (fit




2'5 ..



Commltte>e on En.'Jironrrf:E<nt and Natur~1 H~· sources. - Nin!'" r'll~ml:l~r.:;. AI'I rn@ltM~ r~l~tlntJ to :the- (orl.~~w\"~!lbn and f1tYlI.~(~lll("1r~rlh~ envlronmunt, the f~·gl.l.latlQ..n of U~E';jmp<Xt 'I: a~'.ia re IK:S 1; 0 f 0 II Fe itlzctnf; th e re n"w al of re ~o)J IU!S i n da I'll ag e d @(o,,~~ ~t!% arrd tiH-lIH e:Flvir~nmL't1! -n}I~~~cI Issll;l; an·(j J.tltrlam~r~·~J<l.Urig l01he <\dmil"'~Slral~Cn, 1l:l;:~l<\g''t, development. protl'!WOI1, .~xplc~ rat i on, ;~mr~g~, d 1,. rr'9.u~~!~)J"!and II I 1t1~1'0m)dl: wls~ I.HIII ~atll)r'I ·r)F the· COU:1rrYB n <ltkl·n~I rese rves I!1d lldm{l< b IJt IW' II Il'1 ited ~~, M e-n-/i W,nfil ental
~{H""J%'I,"~f>r~1, "t hed eveto p m

human "(:~Iy.lli-e~


thfl~(J;m~, th~ prcrncuon

ants artd d~liver:y
hml»rng. 19. Cornrru tree

of :oasic: 'sen'i-c'e~, except
. lJ~vchJpn{ent - Seven

C n nllr;:.~1


(If ruual 1rr~.,.,~,.uplihme~t of tl,,>2. ({l.ndi liol1~ of ~,n(ciFmhOihit~\nr:;. ,iml d~l!very of b<ld~
ser .. res, except h(1u:>ing, «
CmTH'I'Iitt~8 rm Cwl~u~<'I1COiNmunl~i~~

All m<lU{!fST'el;J.ting

to the' cl.eveJo;p-




r-M."·r1b~rs. All !Wat;t~ff, ~eJ~J..t1 to cultural 119"


p~bi I~ 1,\nd,:jf{slwrt ~r?'l.~lIJId" e n1 of i nd II S tri e s b:o.s e cl G Ii t hes B

re ~'Cllrr,~5, Corum itt~(;:O I~ £i1.er1JY S eV()~1 [t\;h n1)(~ rs. AU n~atLe'(-5 reLa.Hn f.l w th e ex pi ~ r ~lJ [) n, e :>::fl~olra.~
t Ij}l1, dev~~Io pmi' P~. 7)(1 to\~1i{m, rrn pm1alwl'i, ~-. rrrling, LF'1n.~'pl!n. !n.~rlfeting. dr~tri h unen, conservatlon, or ,stor.«gi@ of <ill forms of ,?n:' ~J!;iY Wl)d U n S.· nd ~'e~:l) ur.G~~ SLi (1'1 .! s j rn rn f~~r a ~il fll~·I$, irk~ petrnleurn, 6'.)<LI,nill~rii1 gii;i ga~ I i.quids, nuclear fyel rssuurces: 9~()tn~s11il11 reso U1rr(!S .;:;n GI n Qh-CCi 11 '.':Qtilt! 0 nal, 'Q ~ i.stir,~ l'I.nd potj3.rI,j<L1 FOlms of e.lH~.fgy r{!.sourc~s;<U'.& 9 enerarton, tra ns rn I ss..,i !'i 8.t:ld d.i stn I:c~tlOIl Dr O e Iectrtc I)N~' r. e '


1~\wRed 'E'l$T~t~'s., 8.~,d Imp'I('i of nH! '1!.gr.:;\ckm land r~j'orr"r! prl)~d.,kl(I!Hlrlhfl r.:orj~ti tuticn. 22 , C I;)ITIrrtl rt ~~ 0 n Lab(l,r, Empl:oyn1 Qn L and I It I mz, II Resot,.ll'ce;5 Dey e lop rnent !:.1."E'lV WI I"fI (;!rTI b ws. AJ I rnatrc IC~ relatt r,g w lap or e rn pf ovmerrl a nd h utn'<lil m'iotirc4'dev"elo'p:lll~m: rriaillte.llan;C€ or lndustrl .. 1 peii.(~: f'lNti-K~UWI ~1r .~rilpl{)y'8r -!wn p 1'(Jy~p' COj )p~~;ll:o t'l; lahor 8du,<lt i 0".11 st;!~l ards i (I and stat1,:>tics: ·ory.arrilOl.titm ,J;~ labor. mat I~(!t I t'i eluding m~ ru tt IlIe·m,t ral nii1g .~ltd pi ace-

C-omrllitlee en i\g.r;~n'~n J(eh)rm 5evrm rnern L').~ All m <Itt QH rel a ti n g ~d <l.gra ri" n ",,:foo rrn, r~_



reso U I'CeS: r~ rej gr1 W ork8!'$ '1n th ~ Ph iH~PE tIe.S: .proillction '.lI1U dev~lopmet!~· of wO~k#r'>' 0.r q a i"i i;:! clt f on~: <1:r1Q p 1'(:)"ll"H:l:li'cm ~fI d dev.~1 opr'm!"'it .~ fert1 r I Q Y'J"A®nl- i'nt:~'n~ive l~ c hll 0 log y,



wo rkarsand

~xpm't~ pf II UITl'\.r,

C6mm itteeon Sci on cea I'ld Ted1I'10 10 i;JV". 5~'~~!IrlJ~mher$., All FrrZlt~I~Hrehltl ng 10 sCiE'ltwn,n; l~~hMlggy. 1t"1J:::lutlilll'j. $_C·iP.t'lTitic;tnd t~ci1f10· I U.Q.i res e arc I), devceh.rp m ent an d a~vil.n('~\ el"I I'"nent. 23, ..~. c.ommlttee (iFj'SOCial Ju~trc~, I,\'rdfar€ anll Oil" V(;!lQipm e nt - :s~v~ 11l0m'D'@'!,S,Allrn £!lt~ 1"">. r~;' 11 Iq.m~g to th~ impl~mJH-<HIQn of ~ho1lpro"'isjC3J;~ ()'f the C~:lFI$U~·utiflr)on s(j(lal.l!J~1:1[~ Cornrn!1"l·ee or'! Publ!(. !5~r).li(l~s - EI~·\J~!l n'l~fn, bf,5r~_ AI I In i"Lt:~~rs'rel:!t I n.g- 'lr~cw~g pu b IJ [ ~.~r '.'iri~<I!r!r;J uti Ilti.8S·.: mmmul'lk·ations, "and, M, rive~ <I·r.d~ea U'J.tlsf'l0r.Wtion m.::::h.Jthll.g f~il' ro;a,q.s, Im~ r-I 51ar,d n <l.-Vf.g-"ti un, .000m;J Ilyl1\hvus'es:' and thegrML orjll'11<!mlrIHtnI ~lfl~gI3l(.(lh'~ i~~ri' (hi~~~, Co Irlm,i terti;! 0 n !"uhl Eo[ ~ PIfmTT\<lt Il)f] ·~.nlj Mas& Met:lfa -$Wen me'l"1nMrs_ All m.<;n~rJl r~l;tlllg w puP-lie In'urrTHniorl, !li,ij,'Ss comrr'nJt1I~~l1.~ri CIi!) d 5 o:rvke:>; th (t Imp Ie m em"tl:oll (I.rt!h(l, p~ov.~jom act tho;, Con~titution fqpLd· ir..g o~." ~t"~~1 i P 8On·d l"!'lg,n ag'fiime tU of l':ri·<l"sr m~~


ment;iuol()t1 Hpi! p.rQV~~i[H\S .af thlI! CQ n ~LIt !n~ Ft>;gan:lI n.g th a f!;S'lab Il~hm8nt .rJ Ii ()"~, f.n:!:1! public ~I€:ment<!w '<In"d s~C0~dO\rv e.duc;;l.~iWl.: 1'tnJll :ar~ 11.1 PQ<!'<Lht Sc. ~'~ib~ i rn:c~(lind 1111:;02(1n\;'f~ LO' d~s enlLng .stu.d~ntf; 1l0wfoml<l.l, i nfonnal, i rl[Hg~I1O:;;'\.lS learning system~,and .aoll I t eidu c.1;\ti n;. th e pm s€, .~ (h f1l~'r!1 o mi .;my ~vQlutl(:m 01' FHlpi"nQ arts' <lind CUIt-UflI!: es· tabl i.shmehl 'and nn:a.! t·enan (:flof n lihr"Hles: r ri ll~f! Ut1Il ,s,h ri"tll8:s, mU!'Ill me.n.t$·, .!nod oth er I'llsS -an d "tu It[.!;t-al ;and art I&H( prog r-am S -ofi tTlP',m).tiD n <II j n sUtuti 0 m; ~n cI 0 Z[,J I OTl~ t)'ll~ ra~ing in. the: Ph ilip picilie 5. 'S th <Is t.he U NtEC 0; ~nd JlP"edal (orrlm~m(lr<l~lve ~vents' such ~:!O

(oillmltl@ on E.d.uc~tI.9n. Arts 'and c:ulum~ fl rlf!~n rr'iE'(mb(;,rc~, AI~ rniluers mhting "to ·~dJJc(;I;lion, sdwi:)~s, collegQ.&, :ufliv~r~iti~s'i implc-



lQrfi:.iI .~ L~S I


tip. d i fl(~ ~~ t rai ru ng pmgr.~ 111S




~he;.tdv~~rt~si.llg I r1d.I,I~~ry; and th~

l8,fJ F1 o gy. ("II

dl2v(:lopfn!!r'1t <.!f1Upromotion

·of lntorrnatlon

Committee on ((]Flstltl.wunaJ l\me[ldrrr~l1t5. R~vl~ion ofCoqes anct Laws - Seven members, All rn <lJt ars fJm p(J~r1l(J arne nd rnents to t ha, Co Il sntutlon ·oF tt;ie: P'hlli·ppine$ <l:1'1G1 cornplla. the rlon ~nd revlslon of ~iSlii'lg cedes apu I,"w~; d~uion law~ dt)d I mplementatlon of ronstitutiona] fm)VJ slons lnltiati .. e and rden~n' tfum on le.glslativQ acts: recall of .j"ltKliv-e (If~ki.,~I~i the rrila ,m-a riyflt~ of p;eQplr~'s or.g_<Ini7atl:::~s: arid sectoral repre~ent<l~!on_


<IS P ri rn arv co mrn Iltee: <~II rn attcrs p~t1.aJl'lmq to ths usa Clr FIIrn for publk i.nforrn<l.ti(Hl ~ncl rna S ~ tneJ.iiJ. and its' i m ~~.1i:t;:~ri ~(}' i et~' in 'i h e formalion anddevelcpment of rnnrul and cul I ur:~1 values; wlth tha [(Mnmjilee on G\me . and Amusement as. prit'na,r'( cornrnlttee, prQ TeCtWJl of th~ il1dLi~iry from all foom of pi ,,,.cy: <lncl Jbi ITItI~"With -l he :: 0 mm i t~~~(In w~'(5 ·a·nd Meam" the asses.smerrt and (()llp['i.lnn or

amusement 38,


C1jmmlltee on Gill 5@NicC') and C;{)vernrw~I1t

f1,eorg<lnfz<l"ti:oi) - S~v-?t'I members. A'I matters rcibting to the Clv~1 $en/ice MId the status of nfficers and f!tl·lpl(J,!,'(~ of the 90v~rnment 1'11[Iuding '!h~ir ~r'-~mi Illrn~nL di~cipline, retir~'
l1l~nl: the.i( (()mp~l1~ati(Jn priyillegeE, benefits ~ntlln6;'IiU\l8~; rrnplernerttaticrr 6f the cQ~lstl' ll1t.1Qn~1 prov.i~()ns: OIl rFlf!· rlr;mU; ()f jjtll,'Nnmen! 'Norke'rs VJ tl'Htl1 and ·juin labor Q g<J,nilati on s: pu h II " 5 e C to r I<\,D0 r-npti..,9 ~ m·8h I' r~lall o n 5 ~n d col] act i v« Ii Q'Qroti@llon agre~m~nts: r~org<mi4dU.flJn·(lHtle govemrnel1t ur ;my of its I'lI'an(fH!S er In~;TrUl'trerlt,,1 ilkS; all i'l11man m~ourr.e d~>!fo,l'.Jpmeilt programs PQrt~1r~ir',\) l fl the goovernm ent: and all oth er rT'l~tl~rs r~1ali ng to th e b urcau Wl.CY_ .. Hr CoIlfITIitt(!(! Oil \OVl)!Yli<!t'l ami F(,lmily Itel<ltion'!; . seven rnambars, ,,;.\11 rn~tt~:'~ relating to women

C.orl1mittee 'on Arcoul1.labilltyof Pll'~lll( (MTI( e'F5and InvestigatioM T~lin,p'~f' rnernuess, All m auers-relatmo to, md IJ~itHJ i rlVestig<!.lion o] n.l<'I!fQ~S<lfl(~,. mlsreasance afl;d nonfC<l5..,I1De.1 tl off! r.e I-~y [1m re [5 and ern p Io y·~~s· o r t h~ I,Iqv-

ornrnant. lts branches. <I'gcnci QS, subdlvtslen.s and InMrutT!t'ntal iW'S ; Il11pll!.melllalitl,rl (1( eh '
prcvlslons of the Co.nStilutiol' on MPOII ;;m: lI1ves·u~.Fltion on <lTI.Y rnattar of fll,lbli1': Ir]li1!.[e~~ On i~s [)wn ! mt"iatIV~ Or ~'.uughl to ib attention by Jtl~' member (If th~ S·ehlllc,


SOURCE: Rules of the S:Clna'te, Tonth C(m'\;jre~~,,M~ nil a: Se,nanl pulblrcalia-ns B,_jW.;I,W, PI', 7 -13,



or .REP·

~ncl ramlly relations.


CD rn t i Itt'le· () n -r:~)1JrI ~rn - Seve·1] me III b ers, ,411 rr'-.aH.p,r~rel::.~tlng to tourism and the tourist IfI· I:lV5tr'tC'JlTitl~I{(ee on YOlJtll and Spat1~ De\/~Iopm~tlt 58";!ll marnbers. All matters rel ~,inJ to youth ~ndamateur sports development: the Inlpl~m·t<ltl Q f the· Con st i tuno nal provis i 0 ri S 0 n Nl 1\~Uh· ~rll;l sp 0 rts, I; ·C~mminee un Games and ,A,mu~~nE!nl Se,l~ m~ m bars, A II ttl att"l'!rs re Iad [\!jI to am u sern ern omd prof~$sl 0 tl al g"IrHa~, ~u( h as rrof~~ s i o nal Il-ask tb~.II, hors e, bo xi n go, cbe kfighti ng, .wre;tling_low:!. -as -Br:ldJal·alaL ~rHl1rMI:e~on Motion Hctures and Tclevlslorr - Seven rnemh All m rs rel.~.tIn g [g l he e arttstl e s.ta,ndarc) 5 a tlci q \J iJ,1 l V Q f th ~ rn ori 0 n plrlure and 1elevi,iolllndlJstry: d~finiti.on and lmprnvarnent of the .,1,( I sue st~!1d'lrr.l~ and qlJal~tyof fi I ipi n 0 til n1 S" ;OJ rid vi U(;lUpro tJ ~J(li 0 nSi. m~tltl.nI·(lt1 I)F <I sy~l.em or l-atmg.5 for ~iIm~·. lli~i1!q on their rLIsth;;, <lnd mor<ll v~h.l(!;enhahtel1ll!nt of the 1111:hls:try'~ (<;r)~bil Ity W prodU'CE quanW fillf1s <lfid t,el~vlsH')n triO! Wi~I~: pmvlsiun for .a Il<ilinlli;9 llnd hum..<lJl les·Otirc(! dev@lopmant &, with the. ne'i:;' ,f!~~ry Inti;ilHrU(ture ~~Wp·(1rtand FeSr)lm~e5 W fu~th!er ev~I.I)p ¥fiod m .. fntaih t~ (otrfp~U!/'It;~ d ·bhh{j~8 Irwblvp"d in thE>.lndus.ny wilh l;he (OfT! rnitl(~e.IJn Pullilc Inform<otgon <iI.nd Mas~ Medlia

I he Standing Commlttass nfthe House of Hcprl2;S-2n tatlvas ex c~~~t P. Cu rn rrtl i ~,ee th .011 RI,Ii (;$', am OF g an I z ~ d 011 U1~ basis pf pr(rpnrtior.>lJ q'cpr\!~enGltion ct thp \f1~lJodty and tl)~ minority, the mer lb~rS(ll D and ge 1· E!f.:<>1 JUI'i~ dicth')n nf wrW..:h 51'1<.1..11 ,15 1~(lFel !"I9fter be



Ar.(O:.u ~:, - ,:1-:) members. All matters r!'!la~If;~; til thH preparation, submi ssicn .. nd df1f1mvi\1 a of the internal budget of tfrp Hou~e, and supcrvlslon -;:NH th~d·r.([)Llnhr.g rind financial op cra.imu_ of !:h~ Housa, Agrari an f~eform - 3"5 members, All matters r~I'atl(lu I·v·ayrarl':\l1 reform, landed cstatas, r~~et~lE:rn"'nt and supper; !S~r;,.iceil til I tw i'l~11efi"ci;.l,rje~ concerned.





ters rul~ling

and ~.uod - 55 members. All mat te <I,;;jriculr;.lm:l: a~JrI i'llr~ine·~~; <!.gr.iwitlJf~.1 8ccmOttlitS ~Hld r-e~~'lfCh: soil E·i:lIVG\1 and ccnservauon: II·rigation: ag~'I(lJltur<ll. ii.dJ.!c auun: fernllz er and pestlC.idfiS: eX~I)n~1rm servicp.s;r1ni mal mdus,try; I ntludmg I ivc!st.ocl~ tj Uijr~.t] ~rn e - farm cred it Clnd f~_rm ~~cu rl ty: ~ f{;p d II ..... es"(o (k ins urancC! <I nd y uarante·€' Khcm~;;; ilnd organization and supervision of (!.griclJltl.i~ coop@r:aUvq:s, Allrjrultur"",


Ar)prQpriOl:tlofil5 - 69 memb, All llla~Wr~ latjrrg to funds for tna Q;,:p~(lditLires of the nati()h~,1 !,!i)VerfiltT!ell~ <Inri for th~ p,lyment of public inde.btC!ciMSi, <J.nd tlHi, dil~ ~Inl",tHrrl ~lf po.sitions and dt'!te~'mi na.tion of S01.1 ane·5: allow-


1 Ii





aneesand ather fringe hell£!ti:ts of governmetH personnel.


Good GovernttHmt·


B<tllk:s and ffnalH~i~lll1let'tne,dlal'l~s . 45 rnemI)~FS. All matters felalltJgto banklr!9 and curno ncv 9'e.ll'I~r;j,Uy; 9 cvernrnent-uwned or -contrclled n nanclal Inst ILUII o'n ~i r;:;ther fi nancial irrstitutions: corpcrations: and ins ur a.n(~,s ec uritia ~ an d s(![ uri ti 8 s Q )(ch an'gil. private

to, ihduodiing, invli!stig<lllOns of; malfQasa.nce, rmsfeasanca and rHlnfea.sance In offi C~· b:y offrcars and .e·mpl.oy~ ~s of t!l.~ 9 11vern me.n t. jt~ p()lftkal: ~ubd Iv~s~on, <Ind.ll1strumantallttas: and i rlV~~tig~t:l.(H!S M an'~


35 Iilliirnbers. All maH~rs'


m<lt~erDf pl..!blicilltere~t. on lts own f!li.tialiV~ cr hrolj 9 hit to its :attetiti 0 11bv anv rnernbs rH


Civ~1Servl((~ and Pmfl.'!~~imml Regulat,ion • 25 members. AH matters relating to ll'l~ operation .snd rules of the civil service and the HOI' urs ~lf !:! ffiC\;!FS and ~mplo'I"",,;asof I.'! covernment Itlidud,ing their w~[fal"e and benetlt s s uch 'l~.reri rerne nt, pe n s lon and 91(.aLI.!I LV: .and the Irequl:nion of profe'ssi ens and pr>:"fes $1 OJ; al s,


Cov(!rnmel'lt El1t~rpri· and PrIvatization ·.,S: members. All mattars rt!:1:lting W the ,rea,~I~n; organi:::"utm. operon (j,[l' and ~eorga.nizatlonof 910vernmi:m-owned or -controlled corporatl ons oth e r than b ank s; ~i1 d 11rldl1.ti a I in stitu, {Ions, In cludl ng the Gd.vernme·Tlt Setvia': Ins u ran re S.ystern, the. S uri <i! Secu ri ty 5~'5tern


sFmilar insrinnions.

Ci v i L Pol iIi cal and Human Rf911'1 . 2 5 rn ernts bars, All !.n~tte'rs r'elaHl'19 to the ~nh~!'\o~l'ne1i1t or protection of human rjghts -of ;11[ persons in the Phlilpp~!'1~~ arid Filipinos abroad: assistM~e tovletims of human r-ighB vlolanonsand their r<lmll les: ,anJ the pre~lemlO,!of or PUhtshrnent fur vlolatinns t'hjir~of.
~onstltulj(lt'Ial Amendments> 3 S mcmaers. All matters relil-tl'fi.g to amandmants of the. Cm1~ sti tli tion,

lB ..

Reorg.<l t'Ii.2.@.t.i.C);!1'2 5 m 8 !llil e,n; .. All ~ martsrs rei atlli g ta Ute r~{)I'g" [I,IIZ at [on 1~f th~ . gQve.rn ment g;-r <llIi y vf its b rafl.c he ~ and in~nw· rnenrallttes, extludin'~J 9'OVetnment·owned M -coruro II e d ~orp 0 rati (I n 5, (In d .the creanon or aboltttorrcf <lnyquvernment ag'em;y or ,hang;!' Gove,l't'lnU!ilt of its pnnrtpal functions"


Health - 4 5 members, All matters reI tinw ti) public health.and fiygl~n€!; and rnedical, 110s.pital atld q'u:;jraOlitw fllCilitie:~· atld ~ftrviCL"S .. Houslh'iJ .;m(,l U.rb<l1!1 D~'....-elo~~merl~ - ·~S mem' bers, All matters mlatin;9 t\l hOli~ing and ~II o~he r fu rrns (J f I1Wi1i3,i'i sh elte r or nab itati (11'\, 'IN he pev~r Io e<ueGl;ar~ u rb a.n I<l.nd reform iind d ~vQ:1 opmsnt; parti cu I attv water s uppl y. el ett ri fj·c.:lti.IJ1!1nd ZOIl i n i;J. and the. up Ii ftment IJI a t he. con dlti 0 f th~ecL! rba t11 p D9'r_


EcologV 2'5 Ftlefl'ibef~. All matters r~!l8JtiFlg to ~co~y~~e:m management Hu:lud:in.g population


45 !ll('lrnbMs. AH matters r(l~.IU·n9 to e COIl 0 rnl r or 5o r' Icecon 0 m lc ~ t~uras • .p Iaimin 9 program mil'! g,.an d devel eprne nt, ind udi ng soctal se curit y p rog ram S. .
E("~Mmi( AFfajr~



Ed~Gl.tiol1 and Culture

- 55 members. !'111 matVii'S relatillg to aducanon and culwn~; schools, colleqes and unlversitles: flbrarles and museums; nor-formal! and community adult educ;ltl nn: the t1 atiorl<ll I an 9 u.agli!:; and the preservaH.ofj" enrlchrnent and dyna,n:iic ~vollJ' ti 0.1'10 r Fill p!;tKl hath.} f1:a~ cu ltu t'~"
[rn e.rgy·~ 3:5.mam b 1l!1'~ •


I~elati'ons and Diph.J.mat't'· 19 members, All tll!i.UC!fS ~latltl·g to' inter pari i amentarvrelattons, linb:ge$ with int~[naInteqJariliamen.lan! tlennl parllarnentarv orqanizations such as, but .not I j 1'1'1 i ted to, AS EAN .1 e rparl i.ament8,ry Or nt ~ a.nrlatl (HI (A Ipm; :A s i a- PaJ] f!'G Pari i~m e nt"r' i an s' LI n io ['I (A I'T~U). As i a-Pacl filt Par II arn~ntar~


rei arm 9 ro d!.e :e,xplordtlon, development, ~xploitati on, LLCULation or con ~·W\! ~ 1.011ot',~ t'le.tgIYi sn d Pic! bI a Ii c ut i I iti es co ncerned With puw e r g~ner at I (H\, transrmssion, dtstributlen and supply"

.A II matters




1\11 matters rel~ti'ng to conduct, t ghl~, privilege, dignity, inte~rhy and reputation of the Honseand its m€lmbBr~. Indivldu<J.llyor Ct)ll~ctlvely,

25 members.

For.ym (ArPf) and the IWi~r-Parliatne!' t U n,j an (I P'U}; O!;SQ bl i ~hITIe'!1t o~ i nrer parliam·8nta.f,y fri~i'ld shl.p s('lcieties; forei~j'j 'tra ..... I an d atta ndanca ~n on a I co Ilf~" e 'ences il'lcllH,W'ig the formula'llon ofgl!Jlde'm~sl .standard 0 p er"lIlrtlg p rocedu res I['I c (lt1l1e~ti<i,1 with such for€!igti travel; and visIts of p<l.dl.a' rnentarv delegali{ln~ .<!IS w!!:11 as other fOrliig~ 'di~}nI1aries,


Justlc~ • 45 rn~rf1he.~~,.All matt~r!> r!!latlng w.
n'"U'~es t)rpr.Qo~~dur-e g_Qv~rnlng. ifl"qtJlrjl~s In al~ o f ~eg i,sIati on: adm i,ni'istr;UiQn of ju ~ti{ e~" ~MI co urts; p Iilfi ,ite n t iar! e s' an d refo rm ~~h'~lJlt,: pra'Clj,ee . o,F Ilaw and n of th 8 Bar;l~ gal a.ld'; adtJll p n: impeachtllenl o WO' Cfl~ In.g,~ ag:<llt'l,~ r"ot'Is~iltJ ~imral ofn cers' Ollie other offic:€i'~removable by Impeathme'i:it~ r1'![1" n5traLion ·oF land titles; 3.110ImmlgrallotJ.,de· Ipol'ta(ion and na!ur.arkzatlan,


~o.r:tllgn Affa:ir~ . 45 !TIl!!:mbel's. All muuet!>· Iali ng W the ..~Iallol'!s of th~ flhili p pi tl es 'iN i~h ot cow titr1 e s; uil p,l 9m,at.1 '" 'dill d ,Or! ~.ular~j) r· vice~; the LI h i ted Natl u n s ~nrd its a:ge;h CIes:: if'l. tern ati (J tlIal ell IuJiral. h eaUh, Iabor an d otfwr nr.g Oi,ni zat:i.o;rrs.




- 35 members. A'II to all form.s arid plac~s of reCl1!!<ltiolf').,g<lme~ and :amlJs;el1'lt):r1t~, G<J.rnes matters
<lrId A.rnu5ernl1rlts


rela(1 n-q (u laJ>o r, em pI0f~1'en.L and m",1Jlpowe:rdevelopment; rnalnteuance ef irrSuaJ;i~1 .p~i!lc@a:ircl ro In'nti on of ~ mpf.oy~t' ~m· p pl(i:'{~ e" G(lOp~ rauo n; I abor e d ucartorr: ~~~n.d~rds"'nd stati511[5i prg"r:JI.z:a,~iQJlof the filM[ Pi"il ark er, il~duclin-g promotlon, cI~velop, nli9·ni. ml:ruitri'len.t:, traj!llng ~r~d pb"("~rT,~.n( nr
Itf~~tP.fS !118rljl ()W

lap or ~t1id Em p~(l ym8r1t" - 4.5 m ~ff\b€: rs. /; II

rn i n H'!n

,11l C e. lrn j3 t'o.'J~ rM rI t Cln dre P. al r s 0 ~ I' l1pi[ ~ b i_I II d Ing s , h! 9il'N.rY~, J;I ri Q 9 ",,~ds', p·arks and _$ ~k~i n es . <l1lC1 m 0 11umanrs ~nd Mh ~ r rHi!:l,II' edifit~5 ef hi:dm"i"c intOi'8sT:. ,ln~ dr~I['1 ",.g.0,fJo-od c'(lF1tr'ol·and Ni),r~nt~)ll; w;lter utili [·i:e.s ~n.d U[il~z.g~io.t1 M W"lNS d the public



d:r~rri~In. 35.


ne,t1: e.nJ abro ..d.

11,~y-f~ion QF


~!) rr'!prtltHr~.

LCl~~l(itJvNnrrfe'l'Ir - 45 members. All ~atiilg. to provinces; cH.i~$, munitip8:ri~jQs, t~~~~JlIfliilns. and bg.rJ;llg4Ys, J n(ludfil.';I !h'.:)~~ {"1;ll'll'!.;!.~Wd f!",J,us i ve'l y w~t 11 t!-1 ~i r rev ~n u~~ (lJ ~-lpMdilwre~.

1:~I<ttih9 IfI g.8n£r~dll) .(:~xi(}r! (jf I~w~,


tdl mattcrs ~n.rJ/(.)r (~clifi-


It!jl"'~ - 21 members All rnnuors f,"(!I~tina w 'ille RulE:. of ~hc IlaU~Q: Grd~~ ()1'flLlSlrl~%



l~~:lfsl~tI'.'~ rran'hls[~~ ~~ rf;_~mb·~r~, All



r~Ii\tlnJ to lh~ gi·;ml. arnendrnenc. s~@r, 01" revocatiou of fr<tr.'l;::hislls,


(lllt:!nci<Lf cf ~US~!~!l'5S: I~d 1'11~ra'atllJn d rurn~ r miU8es an d lr,t!ir jlJrL$di·'ikm, l'I~e Majority u~",Jer shall be the charrrnan <i.'lcj rlH' nu i1.;ir.qy I e::tti'e r ;; !11embc I' of till srcm In i [lO£:~ ..
~~IJ r.;!~Dev e IG pm"l1( '2 s: m e rrrbers. All IrL~ U-QI'S rd~i'i!1[1 W i'h~ (O~v~lQPn::ellt of !hD, ruru I areas, ~Ipllirl flien! of the con"Wi"Ori I:l.fll!~r I nh~61t ants. ansi clelll/QrV'ol basic S~tVl:-e,~. ~j((~Pi holts,lng.

~,i FflMf:a1 l!,~Ji
Ali rmtt~r~

(s· 2") rn ~r'[1 b,e rs, All fnillUi$ r~ reMli'lg W Mu~llm ana'i r$ <\nd r.hf~ dWI~IC)rllhmt of prlldonii nant I M us 1i m i71re~"s,


r~I~Ung .~~ n~!!on<l.1 r;ilji~r~1 6nT!mi.ln.rti!lS and til£) dl;ve.lOf)ln~r.l M rcIi"<'domin,ililtly (;pl't.ur;!.1curnrnunllv ~m;;;,~,
~iJXjQIT<lJ D@fcl'ltt: - 45· rnemaers. AI~ rn>litt~r"s!'lg Ulo I\ati ~~Iul df!-.fp.n~e and ,ye,curir:'r': Artn.ed Forces "Or~he Philippines: 'JtI2~115. army;



2 j n-'~m[;lei-~. ,8.11 !Th;;in~r~ 1'~I~Jtil'l\oJ t~~ tb~ dni"l(rp:!"'1~l'1l andad.,i"i1ti~meni r)( s clence il.m:;lle(-hW;lI.o"W:<ln.~ '7 ~ Ell r,j! fi ( .~n r,J_ t!~dll,!,pl pq if ~I r~~·~ rch, \til

'1-ti .. n((" ,\i~J J~("hrNIOiIY

~~I~"i:ti\fe'sefvicE~:' and <Lr~.e.mds;mil il;iJV 'fJ.r,s· ba se~· rP."wrn.ti-a rrs a nQ yardS;<ln:c1 c 0 ast ami 1l'aIld ~ti c fLi t:'!!¢.y5._

1\Iit:\lfft' p.;·e:ti rc o·~-:<15 iTI~m b er~·... \11 rnaue rs ou
re'ia;tingw natural f~~·m.lrCQ,5., ~<ei2pt Qncrgy., _"llnd .thi;!i r' ax pi tlit~-t1q n ,11fI'ari ~lg'E!me nt ,Mpl ol'a,

,So.uJj S·QI'~'jGl?S 2.S rnembars, All matrsrs reI au r'9 .to. ~oci.::,l! r ~~b Iem 5 wh lc h ;;;-ffecl the stab i~ll~' n~ ~dju sirne nt.ef 'lh~ ind i"ttl u..1and the ,3 I . community to the .en\l'i.f\)nrn.~t.;. and thE'!·~aR p rh'pri ,;;t~' -sN s:8l"vi n ~ 'w hrch upl l ft', qre'rt_glhet! ~rrdd~v.fllop irfd·ivi'tJu;l1 and cnm!Tiui1,f(y Ii r~, SuffnLge and I:I~ctQr\11 R.cfQrri15 - 2.5" members _ A'II t'na~~E!;rs"t'e I arl T'I to s-u ffragE'! ~'ndtJr~ r,vn·~ U d of el.~[I()fl s i pi ~ bi:~ (i V~S, inlt iali)/8 s,r~ f· ~'rerHja ;mr;l 'n:p;I,lh.

·.U~)nand !Hi~lzatiOr):18nd~ (":)f ~h~ pwhn~ dklrnab1; mi nes and m!!}Ie rats: forH s t s ar.d park s, Pe()pl"l's- P\;I,rtidpclt[Oh -.2 5 mrfhlb~I'~ - Ali mat~ef~'YeIatl 119 ·th,:' 'n)I~.1'i 911ts "and·' r~:;;p o,r\s iI)iliti~s of people's Qrg;:H'li'zatiOi1J5; and th~ ilS't~iJ If sh me nt of ·ade-qu :H~ h1.~dwri"i sms Fa r cOr] ~LJ11 ~a:tkm wit hand p :it'~j(i ati on ill Ulle a fp t~ir-s a-~ :g~vErl'lm~lTt. .




To uri

$'!11" ~ 5 rnam 0 ~r's _ AH,m atte rs rei t"lg to to urlsma NO t...h.a to llfi st I n.j\J strv,

{etat! t~~J to

Trad5' a.t'Id Indu5W'" -

~s mell"'ibers_/dI m~hnr~ dQm~ ~~j r. a w,j fs:wetg t"I u'a:de: rrar· enl:>; t~<;d~ n.~meS and (r<l,ue marks., M<lrl.d<rnh,
w,e'i'ghr~ and m-e;J,sur~5:~e~igm; ql.l~ii~'( tontrol: COon~'tIt:n~r PTOM"Ctio'FI, "Contl'ol of j:)r,icoe' of s ~:ol'l'lmodit'i.f:~;tml1.ditr<lfts an,d {:ott<lg~ :inclustri~.~; and th(!"d{lveIDpm~nl, toordirntiQitll, .reguI atlOi1 an"d d~"'f!I'~ifk:aH(),t'i of ~ndus'tt'V <lAd I h).le S~(r;p. Ilt s,

PopulaHot"l <lM,1Famfly I(QI.d..tion~ -2:5 rnccllIlbc·rs. All m~;Lt~ri; Ia~it"'g 1;0 popl!Jlammgr()wth, ~ b:m' il'l pJ~nnin,g, and '~l-'\tistk~· fOl.tTilly- relali.on~, rights .~nd respons.ipltltlp.,~; quaJltV ('I~ .fa!nily. Ji fE:!. 'lI.fe: the ~I:d<!rl y .and 5-tre Ell d'l if-



Order <llild S~C!.Jri~Y - 4S mWr:'!b'~r~, Ail [il,d I d ~fari5@, ~al iCQ <li'ld pol i"Ce fa rees' €\ndage 1'1 c'!e~' and p riv8tli!- H CUi'

m atte r~ ni I an:n,g to



ritv a,90n["j_0.~.

I'~bl~c IFlft)rmatltm - JS l'ifiemb~r.~, All H1a.tters .rel ati I~g w p·ubhe .i n ~orm~.t i 0 rlI and ~n me-a:ns --of m<ls,~comm'U!nica~ion .<1mltl1,!l. fi.9hl~'l pdvl.. I·!·1Wid re:sprin~ibIIHJe~. ()f ttw~~ ~n9afJ@d
H1e~in,. .

Tr,Ul:~pOrl<lHQ'n' <lnQ [omm,uni(ation~ - .55 b~t~, A.lI· rna_Hets FeIat! ng ttl I and, ~.p' a., an d ,<IiI" t,r<ln5.porta1ion an"d <iiI pl;!'blk l.mlin~s, CUrII ner{~dH~Iewhh; p,ort:~:~t!d POSl<ll, t@l·cgrapk. r"Jdlo. t~I~ nl"l(] M 80rl el oth~rm(rJlF"n un i bticl-t1' $8"1""· vices •



W'ler;nt~ Afbiir·s - 25' ml2', AI.I·nl,:it,{el·$ rei Oiling to wal,~n's ..... eHrril.!% of Fni, In ~r),l
cam[pa.igns, milita_ry'mti
1'Il~S< their


~~. ~~bH}' W9rns :inC! Hlgnw;;l.Ys • SS 'I'Il,~rnll:~·t'~.All
JFl?ltters rdating to the planning, &ns:trl..KUQn~

~PQ~s~:s <lnd .mh'er'hf.1"'ioafici"aries"




v. PtiEI


W'a'{s :'iild, Meatl!; 5S members. A.II matters relatill!;l to fiscal; mf)netM),' ami l';il 31' fd·ir~ 01 tha f]a~lon<l1 g0vemm.ent, includl nn i arlf]', taxation, re ... nue, bcirr'Jwlllg, tr~dlt O!tlIJ e b'Ofld~d tmi.eb-Wdf'le~'_ Worll~n .- 3.5 m~rrlbe·r~, All matters r(ilatLng to WQtne.p·s rtfjbis, proteruon aild w@lfaf~, em pl(Jytllenl and worki I\g concliW:lI1, and thalr potential <lriU rol-e h! t\atiorl·builcling; '\'olHh "nd Spcrts Df!vell:lpl1lf:n'l - 2 5 lemb~r~ .AII 111atters .rel,;;t i n 9 ro ""'0 LJt h ~Ie'o} lop me n.t <11;0 e promonon of moral, phY~I( I. !nt'!I~nL1al and ~llnal wi}ll-being~ and :::.rH)rtl'o d~vel()jjmft! tt In gE;n~-r~1_

prl 1'1'1 p III &·il';lJrl'.a. 'L!I.,;~~~..,rut rn,,~~i .... rpfljl ,~. ~ . J' . ianon program,



~p~r l:ill l,l)rrlrnIH~~' n,! \a"'lng~ Me:blll7-atJ.8n I S members. To pursue. and ov"'r'_~8e I 1[0IInpln" meruauon of the rm",\id~nt's 1~ p(JirH s·~,(,ojn9~ monllll",p IO~ rliln: t~j eundurt ~ corrnnu ~g comprcbensive Hudy ,\nd i'~'~1 l)'I' I h~ l)lllJ [,'w f-i QS 8 r,d pro g.ranl ~ on cI 0 m 6'; ti c 5D:vii1(~$ and
to rec.onHMr:d to ~~mI-IOL:~~,H1ch m{;a~.~r€·~H~ it deerns ne'~~~<iry. I D liPhl'rat,. I WO 1I!.)r',dr~d bitlicrr-pesc sa:,.'il1g~ in \\','0 V~<ir~



5 peel

hon Sma I lnk~pri ~~s

~PEC.I.A,L COMMITTEES. 1, Sp(,rlal C-amrnittee onEll1pl~''i'mem (j·ener-a.~!(,i'F'! I 5 rnamb-ars, To conduct a {,'HTlnr~h~t1~-I\':Q studv ilnd r€vi ....... 9f th~ unantptovment ~j\~.n- S. (Inri In the countrv, lncludl rIO but not urnuad to, (h~ fanors and Influences ·'.ilusJ Iy It: to rernrnrnend (0 thE' House such programs and polloes ge"reci wward the crealiol) of emplo¥rnel"it.[jppoFtunltle~ "ufflr'leilll'lJ rf!eet the amploYml!.FI~ requirement, tit, he l;ti\Jr'!rry,

.on ~h~ (,~.rli)ratioJ'1 at A Mit· 1 rtlernbl!rS, To con' duct J ccrnprahenslve studvand review r:flh~ f}Olli"H?s,md programs concerning small en t~rprires' and to r~commervl \0 'the H(1Ir~e suth leg.lslatLon QF acnon as il deems necessarv Hl pro mo,ttd'. J nd once UI;agf: the. vj ab i I'II. Y r~r- ~~~II i:l~Herpfis@5.

<I I c'!f'


Speci<ll Coml1l~Uee



Pei;l,~~ I~ro(ess ~ id


- 15 marnbers.

T(] cor~drJI:l1!


2,-Specj~.I COmmltl~e en POV<'llt'r'Alleviation-·' 5 1'0 conduct s cQmpr~h~FI~lV~ ~.t..udy alld of the pCiv~rt':l IfI~,ltip.tI~~In ~\JblrM\t and to Ft;!tommend to the Hcusesuch pro9r~rn~ and policy proposals int~nded 1n protect <11'1.;:;1 efltiOl.nre thE! rjght of tho poor to a dt!G!,!M life: , Speclal Committee en E.ff~cti\,la d!A" EnfQF~Ement - I') i1i€>f[1b!!.FS. To conduet a cornprehansrve SHJdV or'! matt!!rS n.~I·<ltjngto criml !'IamV In tho country' p<lflkulady ()rQanl~,jd' crime, In ILbdlng l)\..'N~jgh\ a-nd review of palic~es and p!"Of) ram ~ on law en f 0 rcem ent ~ltidto rem 11(11TI~n.d LQ the' Huus~ such I~g·jsl"-tion OT ",-dlori jlS the r(;l.li1mltl~~ daams nete~5"";V \Nd\n raspsct to the I"hiHpf,ltt)(ol' t':J;::H'ion~1 PQlice and ether a.gencl~s t<l~kecl wHt1 trfm~ pr'f:venlion,·

IPreh(~I1$i\le srudy and r~view the 'polities a~d programs un il-n':i,[Ie:st'r' and the If'lfegtaTion mto the nrai nstrcarn of .~(l(i~t-y or a JI rebels, rnsurg,ent!> and otherp ersons who have or rn ;xy hcNl! clJmmiH~d PQI'itk..a1Crlfl1(!:S, and W racommsnd to the House by \t,'~.y of 11'!\:!1~llI!IDr!Wdy~ of ·u;u.'lining la~tinlil ppLe OiFld.a sur.ql,ssil.ll unif


c.:a~0 n prqces s. I g.
Spp.clal <;:nrrimi~tl;'.'l;!..(}nthe f"ishQric5 Ind~$triI 5 rnernber s, Tp conduct a comprehensive study and revl ew 0 fall ptl,llr: I e-~ <l n u tlr'n~,r~rrh tOllc8mitlig fisherles and 'I.l;llj~'lk ~~~I!JI(e~: (0 re.comrMlid to tha HOll:!i€! 5IJch legislation or actl 0[1. as It rn <If' 'de~til t}er.o(l;5'$ a.ry to d cNel~p the fisherie:; ndustrles and promotethe lTI~xi· rnu m 1')':::0 nc mlc ut IIIzati en 0 f fi ~he ty resources,



Speel iii (10m m In

E!~ on Ex p-ort ,I' rom uti o n - 1'~ members. To conduct <I compreh~nslv.@ rnvi~w· elf t Ie pmgl"<lms and poliO:::ip.$reg rdin",l or aftf!!;ti ng e:xport& ,and to recommend re the H(lLISce by of le'grsiali(l'il, wavs and means of acceleratl n.\:,! exrpon grQ'wtll. redycmg lh~ tl'~cle tJQ'ritit and ~hen~;dftp,r, nalntalninq n fll-r vorable' trade: ba·lance,· .

Specl <.11 Co m illi tree em the NI)r i h w ~~; Luzon C~QW th QU<ldranglf; - 1 5 me 111 b ~ rs, Tn condu ~ a cnmp.rBhf!~sivc -nudy of 0\11 ol iciesand pro p g·ram s f~~nt';.Elrnl h9' lh~ 'No rthwcsr Lu:!:r-n (; rr,n.... h (~IU adr,a rlgi ami to reccrnrn end to t~,e t House such ~.eyi sl"'~iOIll or actlon .as It 1l1~¥ ,deem nace ssarv for the' nrcrnetlon IJt'gr~at.e·1 aeon 0 tfl ic c oeperatl 0 rr with P f(J'Xi mara ewno· rnles,





"pec~flttommill~~nl'i Refa·rmstatlor; . T5' mernber'~, la ~?",duCl il c(lmp,relm.n,ive sHrdy l:Ind review'nr thl~ poticie~ 'i:Hld pr~gr-a,ns ,·on.~'~rn· In g Fefor~5 t:;;IlijD I~ 1n t~ i n g th i!; f.:tlecls oJ foru·J;i ~~t d8nudation s'IH:h ~~ ~bil eros-ion; slll<l\iol'l an d d ro ug1H a.ncl to r,ecorn menJ tot hI? H ous@ 'such: legislat'it:m or <Jetton a.s it deems appro·

peel;)'1 Comnrittee orr the 'I:.';!S' A .ean Gro'o'I'tl' .Area- 15 members, To ~Orrdl}(t a cornsrehen slve stuov and review of the political, ew, nornl and s o cl al policies aHHI ing h" the partldp~l:infl Units ·in the- ~~,I A~e<'ln Crowth Area and to r~Gomm~nd to the HUllS6' such lj;!gi~1 ",lion {:r O!(ll tifl ~~ It Il'll~ deem' t'l8CQ.ssary to foster ~Fld faclll~~t~ rr~cl~ and among the pat11Cip<ltll'lg 'wnit},


, 'Sp~ c'l a I Co rmrriUlCe (j n C [)opefaLi "'·e~ D@.wIDj:;' ment- 15 tiH!mbers, To co!~du'Ct:J. c()m'PMr~I'f' :~iv~ study and review of .all policie:~·. a~~J pro_g'rdms concemTng CI)OrJ!:lr~tivt~f>.~)(Cl!pug· rlcul'lliral c(JuneraHves: and to· recomrhi!I1" tc

th e 1100.lS'Q IB'g isil at ion or other action



flH tar
In the

The fiJIIDv.'ing

and growth

pf ({)o~rattves



Cntnmltlee OTi food Security 1 S·m~rn· ber~, To conduct ~ comtireh~rls·ive studvand r~Vi eW' of lh e p I'()g ramsand p.c~i .des r~ Iali n.q I to. feed produrtlun and! dtstrlbutlon, lncludIng thE! factors <iFfecting the supply of b.Hi:c food cQlnmodlhe$ $urh i,l~ rice, corn; fish; p0u~try and rIO ~ 5: <l;nd t o recorn 11H!n:d to th ~ I-I04~e Ieg ls] atl 0 II (if other acti 0 IH IH!C(lS S<lIY far ras~·tJ."ckjl1g the dllvelopmel1l anti modemizLltioJl ofthe:·agrjcul~ural se~~on.lj'ld ausrnirig food ~ecul'l~'i", sel l-rellance and sustained QlroQw~h in basic food cornmodlrtas .. Sp!1c!al Ccnunlltee. on Mgt.Jilt l'in'ilHlbo - 15 tl1 rnbers. Tu conduct <I cornurehunslva ~t.i.:IdV and r'~'1lew ~l th e pi;;:rg r-ams an d por i c ie's ffi f l.. tin~ to the rclubilitat.ioFl and reGotlistruClf~;n of Mt. Pir\;!(lLIlll).·df!lvasta(~'d areas and the in-


are U1P, :::al.d twe.rI\y (21)) da' pressed PfQliin(::~s;' ~'l.bfa, Agusan [),el'$~r! .t!"n· Ilq IJe, Apayao. Aurora. B~l.SII<WI, B<rt;]ltH!SI Beng\le'l, Bi liran. EaQijrt'i ~a,mar, G uimat is, Ifug~{j; KJ.1in9a., t..asbete, Mountalu Pr¢-vlt;(~, t I~omblon. S(]lJfh~rri Leyle, SlJrV, Sl:ll~g<l('j D~I ~~r

and Tawl-1awl, ilL
$,pe<:ial Comli1itt~e on N'd,ti(mal Dbasl€fS IS members, 1"0 look into f;jqor~ 'hal hamper and ioIdven.ely affsct th~ 4?ff·IH1i\.'~h5~ of cstan llshed 9{lVemme'nt l'~spnM<~ W flOl.liol'l,li disasrer s to fa.' i i!W <1:11 I a W~ rr::.<l.ti 1 Q to or encornp .. ssin9 (O'r!{n;lil xnd rnaniJ.g;em~nt 'oF i1 atl o nal (li. s <I~te rs: Io in i ti ate, th p. HI ~ctrFie11\ 0 f legjs,lw.U\,!f! rnaasuras for I'h~irle,'elojJlll.:!tii: ar d more cornp,mh8nsiVe ~Il( e?lpedlcDt gov~rn ment re,pIUlSe to mltlonal disasters ~nwtlg ,he ditfanmt d~pMlm~N~v<UTo;:l <\9'cl\ci~s oft"~ ~pv· ernmeriL ~5 well ,3S nloh'gQ\;'f!n1'tn~nl orqaruz atlons an cI oth Po r p rlvat e e [lH,1 e.;' i I~ undertaklnqs .. pro~wamS th;;'\llregei\red tow<.\rcls theastabllshrnerrt of .. more ~xpedjr~1U and compr~~HHrstve n!<l! dlsaster ri:!spome and ~(j utlllze ~ni_. neces sarv and JPPt1;~rl,m!' lp.glsr·a,tlvE' pow~t'S, arid pr"rogatjv{;s hall anlVI(ieg desigJlI?:1J to explolt ~h., q(cuFrfmt'e of n ali onal di~:aste~s,


,hihitants th~n!'or, and and d<lvd (J p rne nL

r~,c(lmm'~nd to the Housa I.eghlatiotl Or other action as it deems n~,~ ~sa!y to far.IIH,OI.te ttl ei r r'80C0VC ,g rowth rv
. '011





~peci ,,1Cornrnl ttee

Oversea') C ontract Wo:"llt

.~t~· I S·m~t1'lb:er:l, To zo f1~j Y.c l a co m preh en~jye revi~v.' of the poll ties arid progr2lm~ af[ectit~y overseas contract wo'rk~rs; and to recommend to'tha HOU!;1l I 'gi~lati(lil or other
acti on


co mmittee

£l ~ ern S ,Ii e(



W pro<Ilil d

more then fu 11 p rote ct'l 0 r~, ern pJoyl'irl.~ n t

1"6, Special Committee on ~icol Re'gion [)evalop rnent - I: S members ..To conduct a Wrl1flreh~'ri: sh'"Q 'S~t!dy of all rofkii):~ ar~cl prog.r.;arril$i ~onc~m-hl9 the Iliwl re9ion and to recommend '9 'the House such IQgi slatiOi1 or other aQll·(]n it m~y duam tl~Ce:~S~~uy to -(!lei IltaN': dev~I<OIp· rtl:et'lt a:nril t;)rowt h.l rr rh e reg i on, 17" Speci",l.Committee on Tw(!,r)ly (20) DerfresseJ P'rovlnces . 23 members. Io conduct u xomprp.heh s.lve ~tU d y and rev i ew a fall pmg ram s and poli ~ies. rel;) to tha .SO'clal R~fntn~
~g!!irda.O'flhe gov~](l"lInem for.lwr;:nIY {~O.} depressed provlucas of nul' (.ountr'r', and' re recGttHl1~nd tAl HI~ Hou~~ I~gl 51~ti(l,n orc other ~O:ioh~ nece ~.~ ~ry for f~s nrat~ i rrg th~' d rtve!· opmerrt oF"lhese provinces ill order that tll~y J;:an c£lJch Up' "11th other dewlop~J provln es ~nd to' ni(lt'Il~ortt'i* Implemp.ntall(l[l of prujetls .•

SpeciaJ COfT,;'I"IIWH':on Mind1il.ri<lo ,,".."ffairs, ] ') mbers, It) ronduct.a comprl?h{!n II,,'.~ su!dy <lrid review of nl] poHde~ and w[);'ml.!il~ of propesed selutlons to th~ rllujrH,~rilllls prob\eln~' and nlI"lS~~8Ir,t~ which ha v e long hampercd the: davclopmant or Mlh(,~:ot:"HW; to g;!;: lei, col,lat~.arld rcnsclldate planrunq data, r(!;segrch mfN1'!nr.f'!hta1t~t!c~ ro be able It).dr;l;''~ J hells uc, rauonal, svste rrrati C B. n d c tl m p I"i'!f).~ n S: V e d(:v~IDPI'll~t"It pi an cons I Sling 0 l' the short, medium and long·tf!Fm ror 1.11ndanao; .. a rex{)mm~n,J to th~ House stlcl~.legi·slati0F1 ()r ,t~tI() n <I S th e corn m ittee deem s ~ pp rQ~~F" all:! 1'.0 oicc@l~rate t,h~ .dev!'!lof)menl of MinQ)n<l~ and its tra.n:<;torma{jol'l Inw 1:1. ",it,,1 trading c~n I er,


Ad Here ()ver~iqh~ C(Jmmim:e' on BJs~~ Cqn· ve:t SIC,n 1 ~ members, I:) exercrsc gerlcnil [u rls·dt( tlcn over illl matters relatl ng to' .JJSo.!S

. ~ofle~ in forn~ef

5 p'cciJI 02GHlOmi c milftllfy' brt5lls, s~lp. L)f mill 't~I"l" ca'l'np$ ,md di sp(J$itiun oJ !'I ~ pr-'Jteed~. !'I:!lor::<ltjon of milnarv r.a.rnr'l~ a,IlU perwrmel inl,'ll~di r~g r;(lm trlK'ti on 0 f new «1m p. f.WiV~Fc~.ri!1,

(~r~r~,lI(ln o(


: Rtl!@.s O'f lh~ Hl)u~(~ Or Ri:i;-lre~~n~<lLiv-e~,


City, H()u~e Pl'in ~ng Dlvi5>i 01"1, Marth 1<)96, ppJ -18,

an •
Ap,pendix E How a Sill




AC,TI'ON ON siu,

A IJn!, ''''tcdu~~ I~ I),,,, S~I'ut!l Is lab.elied "s;' "IMI aprlQ~~(I n number



- - - _/[

{t-fR'S"t F.~ADrNG -..-- __



__ r._1


*c/)MMITffie stu~fES·& RECOMMj;;NDS: • II" ACTION ss FAVQI"lABLE, nil:. il,E.I"aFtT IS sui1MI1'TED THRU COM»'lItrE!: (i·N !lUI.!:!> -IF UNi'AVOI'IA!lI,f ElIl,L IS tjl.l[ I QNTI~Ell'o.a'l.l"; (AUTHOR/S I.NfOf1.MED)





1' ,F'AI~URlIa TO ACT WIUIIN.3D DATil, .; L-_A_-I_-"PR_'_Q_Y_'E_S_.....II- - - - AFTl:R A:e.CEIi;>T,!l!II.LlAPSI':S INTO. LAw

R.E.TURNS 1'0 OR IGIM.... lING I-iOU~!:: WliH



-ACC~.S(lR - O\i'~R.'~ IDES S"tl' ~:l VOiE. liN BOrn






The I nfl ue nee of the Co ng res s fo r a
People's Agrarian Reform (CPAR) on the Legislative Process

h1trod u ctl on
Formed in Mall '19ai' and drsbanded

in the summer of 1'99L the ..Cong.ress far

~ Peop~e's Agrarian Reform (CPAR) was the broadest coa!ii,~iofl of peasant orqanizatlons to !:ampaign and lobbv for the pas by Cong ress of- a Corn pre hensive

agraria.n reforrn I aw, Its mernbe rs nlncl uden r1ational de moe-rats, social de rnorrats, scclausts, polilic:a,IIV non-al i9 ned peasant 9 ro Ups, and non-cartlsan 9 r.ctssro.ots or9}inizattons. These d i s parate 0-(9an i zatlcns were un ited by til elr tom rnitrnent to thorouq hand gen U Ifrne ag'rarian. refo rrfl. Hew arh leve ~his co rrmlOF11 g:oa~ .was U~e: questi'iJt1 that Mounded CPAR sinee. its t·OI;n.cfing i';ong ress. and was the dects ive


issue in the coalition's

break-up 'in, 1992.1


(PAR believed ~111at ra ri a,n retorrnccu ld no lonqer tit:'! P05.tpor'l.ed, It re allzed ag that redress ihg hlstonc i nequ ltles inland tenu re ~\la·snota n Iy a moral and eth ical imperative. bur was also a. necessary first step toward achi@vilrlg em no mlc 9 rowth.
(PAR was not the on IV orga-n·izZlt.lon 'working. for a co rnprehe nslve a:grarian reform, Som~ 9roups not part of the aWance !have bean involved in ':"9rattan rssues: vears befor-e some of th ~~0 rg an iza"tions ~ha't were' part of [PAR were formed. What d istingu lshed (PAR, from other orpanlzanons. however, was the ene effe.~t it had not only on the strlJg~le fa r <tg rarlan reform, but also 0 n the ~~hble soc tal movement and 0 n what is often referred to a'S clvi I sodew Al the IHdg ht of (PAR's IIegi51ative camJlai9f'1), <"ligfillriarl reform became a subject of mal nstream debate and ~ljb:l:i~ di s~uss lon: This case studv will look ,at the experience oJ (PAR in le9isJ.a.tive interven'tlon, particularly ltseftorts to inf uence the pass-.age of an ag rari an refo rm taw from Ju~y 1987 to J use 1988, This pape r "vi II ane rnpt to an swer the fa Ilowing questloas: Wnat mean s of tnterventro n did CPAR U:$~ to influence: the lawmakers alld the legis lative process? What was the impart of CPAR on the legi slatlve Cl!} What were its successes-and fal lures? .. . .

A B,rief History


The expanstor: of uemocratk space marked th~ ftrst year of the Aquino admmtstratlon, Political detainees were released. Civil r,ig ht~ were restored. Tal ks
PHILlfPINE DEMOCRACY AGENDA S.t.ate.ChtH S:oeic,ty RelationB: in Poli,cy.Maklng·


betwee n the. govern merrt and the unde rgm und Nat~onal Dernoc rartc Front w~r~ For the fi rst time, the. pros pect of real peace 100 rned in the political horizon. The. 9a~es of democracy we re sudden Iy opened, letting out a flood of high hopes and expectations for lasting social reforms.

oni nated.

For the peas a ntrv, it seemed 'thatgen uine ag rarlan reform was FlOW a real poss.ibility. Many peasant orqanlzanans were therefore disappojnted when the Aq Ulino qovernment, i nstead of u nderiakl rig sweepi ng land reform, cho se to pass Oil the issue of land redlstributio n to the 'Constitutlonal Cornmlss len and later; the sri ll-ro-be- elected Congress ... his disapco trnment tu rnsd rofrustranon whe 11 (onservatlve elements inthe co mrn lsslon d raftl t1i~Jthe.Co nstiturlon reslsted proposals to include i 11 the charter the of farmers to. own land in line with theprlnclples ohOC90l1 J u stlca and eq uH/_ Those from people'5 orqantzaelcns and the emerging sector of non-qcvernrnent organ i:la,t~on!; b.egarJ to doubt whether-the Aqu i no' g,ove rnrnent - whose (l xiste nee was al r-eady beirlg threate ned by rebe IIlous mlliUuy facno 11S - LOU Id stand by irs p{i-git"!.ll.promis,e to 'j,nsUtute reforms .. In January 1.987. when fanners marching toward the prestdenuat palace we Fe 9 unned ~ow'fi by the pollee and military. many organizations came close to abaru:lon,ing all hopes for a govern,· ment-s po nsored C>Q mprehensive aqrarian reform 1,,,"1,,'/,,

Still, many othe rs contl nued to b~ Iieve 'that c hanqes were 5tl11



splre the hardenlnq ofthe Aq ui310 -govern mern's pn s'ition nn rnanv key is suss. A~ 1he same tima; des pitt 'the lnstabllttv and uncertal nty of the tir~t few years ·of the post-Marcos era, manv no n-qove rnment 9 rou ps, non-no Iitical party orga.nizatlons and m uhlsectcral, c ross-pohncal bloc fo rmatl .. n 5 we re formed. ~s ues and themes o S wlli!:" were pn~\liQusly sat as ide by the antl-Marcas protest move me nt - like the e nvi ronment, gender equality, ethn icitv, S'U stamable devel oprne FIt - became new focal pctrtts for the orqan lzatlo n and mobil lzatlcn of newly pOlititiZ'ed sections ·of the population, ' same time, new constituents w~re recru itedand renewedene rgy was the traditlonallasues of the pro9resslive'mov@I'I'~ent - the presence of bases, econorntc sovereignty, and a.grarlan reform. Irnportant players period were the broad-based, plu ral lstlc: and s i ngle.i SSUf! coauuons. In the Philippine.s, coalittcns have. been an effectlve form of collective acuon In assertl t:l~ derrtocratic and pop ular demands. But these in the post-Marcos era - like the Ann-Bases Coalition, Green Fo rum , Coalition for Peace, Freedom from Debt Coalltio n, National Co ngre5s of Flsherfo Ik for Aquanc R,eforms! and CPAR - were ever'! rno re potent than those in the past. l instead of ju st ' ng gvve.rnment policies and Laying down dernands, these ccalttlcns presented concrete alternatives, and in acrlvitteste test the viabilitvof these alrernattves. At the poured into mHitary d wring this.


The Found i'ng of CPAR
(PAR was launched 011 Ma.y 31, 1987, on the last day of a three-day m u ltlsecto ralco rig ress convened to discuss t;h~ srate of the' rural areas and tfre prospecrs to r 9 e 11I!1 i agr;ari9i11reform. sur the proc-ess to form a peasantcoalition for genu I ne agrari:ad1 reto rrn b~gan earl ler;


The new poli[ical


LJ ration


emerged aft€! r tha downfall efthe M[)Jcqs

dietato rshl p prese nted real pore ntlal for democratlc



tin we an.d expan.d the scope

ncn-qovernment q!lga.nizatio'i'l$ saw. the need to cono( the d.emQcraUzaUG n proc:(:l%.,Peas;;J:rlt a r.gariiza" tlons, whose. hopesof lntlue n6119 govern rnent pollicy had been raised by the demo(:rlltlcoreforms .initiate.d by the Aq'u inc adm I nlstratio n, mad@ kno·wn to the government as. well as to the geJ"l~ra:.1ublic various' p:mposals fo r agrarian reform. p

tions, actlvlst

9fOAq;l~ and

The: Ki I USllJ,\g Ma9'bl.Jlbu kid 119 P]!Ilptnas {KMP). a vete ran of the am~·M~r(o..s djcn ... torsh i P. movement, pn~se.i1tt'ld twO majo r d.QCuments 0 u~~~n~l1g po!irty proposcab for ge·tiu,Jijn.e:gra.rian reform and for agricu ItLJ ral ?flrj ~olJntry.s~d~ d~v{:~Joplne·nt.· e AMlt'h@r m~.JcQr se~. of po.! icy pr6pbs .. ls was also .Nes·:~ rif,ed. by 'lh"€: P,]rnit)(.Ir1)an:g a k;,1h,t~a!'l 09 mga SlIlflahqng Magsa-5ik<:l (PaKiSaMa).
Meanwhile, NGOs

all·byer the countrv held consultatlone,



N arlo nal C Q n s·u Lta:t~a ns on Ag.rari an I\£: fa rm and Ru ral Dt'!ve I0 pmen r (NaCARR[)~" A second NaCAR~D was C(llWen~gd i n the latter-part of Aug~Js.t 1 986 to conso Iid<'lJe '·tbe Fe.--s,u:ftsof the previa IJI$ t;:Ons ur~n\'t;ion:s.• .

nces to ~ss~ss the ~ew sltuation and its imp Ilcatl om not their work. as NCO!), 'out 011 the whQle· dsrnocratlzatlonand develo pment process. Of thes~ NCO COIl5 ..u ltatie tlS, those il1!litJated by the Partn~nh i p fer the IDevelopment of Hu man Resources in th~ Rural'J5 {PHILOHRRA) had a .signifi· cant bearing on tbe formarto 11 of CPAR., From May to Aug ust 198<5, PHILOHRRA. .sponsored 'series of peoples consultations at the natio na], re~ ional! and Vi IIClige le.vei to draw up concrete poRky recommendations for 90v~ rnmsnt. In ;;l,II, 10,000 members of 9 rassrects O'l9'"n iZ:<J,tiOn$.took P<lJt ~n these meet, ngs..,krwwl"1 as the

cussro ns, andconfere


the Fn·ru rn fur Rur:al Concerns (FR:C), Philippi ne R.\I ral Re(Qrlstr.ut:tlon Movement (PR~M). era' nter for COJnl1ltJ n itv Services .(O':;:S), (.I5'i;an NCO "C.oaJitio n {ANCOC) and the gamo n Magsay~ay Award Foundatio 11, also cunducted si mllar co n sultatlons. The Urlba.n·Rural rv1 rsslon of the Nlltvo nal Counc il of Churc hes tn the Phtlipplnes and the NaHor~al S~:cretariat of Soc lal Action (NASS,~) ,a~~opu shed for 9.erlU i ne agrarian reform inrhel r Altogether,. such pub lie advw.;;acy of land reform help~d lay the g.nJlHid for the of (PAR.'
$ fwowe:d that theP',i';l, partie: u 1.aI'IV th~ farmers, wanted g-ovem rnent to ~xp.and tHe.deTnocrat·ization pn;i~es.s nor 'Q~lly by rei n·"Stating 'ivn ·11bettles «rid· 'f~,rmaJ dernocratk rig hts, but <11:50 redresslnq sQcial ~ne:qujfiet.1 starting. with t"lle.centu.riE!~·9rd problem lOY of tf1~ concentration qf land ow ners h i p..

OthE;!r NCO:,;, amonq thern

These cons L~~tatiO'm; .and initiatives

peasants arrd

s mall

A series of alarrm rig events catalvzed the corm n:g togeth@r of all these ~e~a· rate NCO .effuns. O~ januarv 22, 1937, 1S farmers were 9 un ned down by th e military In a ra~ly at the fQcJt of Me:ndh;lla bridqe, not far from the pre~,de:rlHal palace, Bdore this, and sven after t~Ls, p~s ldent Aquillo had refused to meet f3ce to face. wrth· peasant leB;defs to discusstheissue of ag r·ariarll reform, At the same lime; landowners' grOl.lps w~re brocldl1g the·sig.lling. afanexecunve Graef on (J.grar·
lan reform that NCOs and POs we:(e ,lobbying Key members of the

fo r.

ACES~ CCS, ANGOC. 1PRRM and pp~ togk th~ in rNGO.s aduocl..c.atii1gagrarian reform and hl11.king them up w~th national peasantorgal1 izati'Qlns.(\. These NGO~a,l1d peasant orga.niza:UQI15 agfeed that th~y ,need-ecl to butld the broadest possible coalltio n of orqarrizations th:Q.~ w~'I.!,ldpush govern meru to Corne up with a ccmpreherrstve.<lrlian reform pre.gra'm. Preparations TOr the settl n~ 1.1 p of th 15"dream coalHio.rt were i rnrnedlatelv .s_et into rnotjcn.


gat'hering all the



The oppcrtunjtvto hasten the founding of-the aqrarlan reform coalition came i n the fQrm of the. Rural Conqress that was be i1"19 ofganize.d by H~~ Catholic Bish· ops Confere nee [if the Philippine's, and rhe National Council of Ctllm:·hes in the' Phili ppmes. The pri me obj:ective of the Rural Was to. bring together rural developrnenrworkers. <J:rld advocates fro m cljffererl'~ pans: Q'f the c(lun~ry to dtscuss thesttuatio n i n the ru ralareas. The two Iti,i,tia,tives - 0 rueto c9!~1 R· Co ng;re~s, a the cthe r 10 form <i, coallttcn for agrarian reform - were soc 11 rner:ged into one, This. merger W3S fac: Iitatsd bv me mbers of the Rural Congress.' working committee who were also part of the ccalnto n project. nus, on May 29' to 3 I . 1987. Z2 5 pea pie belonging to 70 peasant orqantza-

tions, NGO:s, actrvl st a rganizatio ns, and ch urch groups convened the N'alio nal Congress fo r iii. Pee ple's .Agraria.r) Refo·rm. The. co r1S(,!(]SUS and co rnrnon prl nc lples arrd objectives arrived at by the partie i paots l FI this co nqress we re embodied !ill a dccu ment called "The 'PE'.oph~:~s Dec.larat~oll of Ag rarian Refurm." Tile. princ i pi (!Sand
objectives as 0 ri··9~ I1Jny' formulated


(I) land to the rill eF;the c6mpl~te;;abci~iti"(lll

of Ilandlordl5n1, abolltion of absentee And acces s of thherfQlk tc water resources; (2) cQ.mprchc,nsive: coverage of all ayricuhu,ra,1 lands regardlii:~s of dasslflcatlcn, crops. planted, ex.lstil1Y ~and tenure relationship" or farm S'l~, w!at~r and natu-


ral Fe sources: (il) terms and conditions of land reform ~hat are not.burdensome to benefictarles: (4) JU "ai"! d ge 11U it1I e part ic i patio" of agrarian ref 0 rrn b G 11 c: fi c i ari e: s i 11 program pl<lr1nfng, tmplsmantatton, and monltorlnq:
(S} full provtslon of adequate, timely


apprnpritl.'t·e a selective

se.rviGes; 'for' a,gra.l'ian rearid bf(}grcessiv~

fo r hi be:ne fi oar Ie s: (6.) compensatlon to I;mdoWI1(~rS ha..,~d scheme:



ill l:-FOP

rni1f~rc ntlal option tor cooperatives .and collective. farms and marketing' p:~ well as the provision (If credit"; and, (8.) the use of 10c;,(1 resources for agrai'l~n reform,


Tho rteen national peasant 0 rganlzatiol1s initially made up GPAR when it was lau nched: A Hsherfo Ik gro upcalled tld.~t2l.n9g LInlan later pu lied out fro m the coale ticn. P(W r to th ls, two blig 'feder-atiol\1s - 'the Federation of Free Farmersamd tnB National Farmers' 5'1.1 re me Cou neil (Sand L1g'IJan) - wh kh attend~d thl'!: May con·· p gngs decided trot to jo i n the cnalltian, Th@ twelve peas-alit f".e'deratiQ"il s that made up CPAR were:

(3) (4)
(5) (6) (7) (?)


(1 l'

Ani ban ng mga Mangg.agawa 5Ji, Agri klJlhH'a (AMA) PambarrsMg Pederasvon ng Kaba,baiharllg r...lagbllbukl!d (AMI HAN) Kalir:llman ng. mg'" Bagong Pillpitli.'I. {KAlBAPA) Kapat:iral1 Ilg Malala},arclg MalHiH na Mahging;i~dar19 Pilipino, lnk, (KAMMMPI) Kal i pu nan n g m ga Samahan n g M<.lm am avan (KASA MA} Kilu~<llnQ1 Magbubuldd n.g PJilpinas (KMP)" Lak"as hg m ga Ma~ 5 as aka. Mal1ggagaw.a I at fI."""n 1119 ls da n 9 Pilip Inas 1LAKAS~ 9 t.akas I1Ig M ~,g S;].5akan 9 Pi ll pl n 0 (lM P) N<1ltPonal federation of :5L.1g'·foQd and CE!!1E!r'-.1I.i Trade s (,NFSW-FGTJ Pambansang Kllusan ng mga Smn"1ilhang Mag~asal{a (PAKISAMA) Pamb~n~"al1g l.akas n9"t19 M~.rliarnala:kaya 119'P'lllpil1as. (PAMALAKAYA) IPhilipllihe Asscciatlcn of Small Farmers and Fishe:rfolk, Inc. (PASFFI),

(NCO whic h was composed of re prese ntanves from the' I 2 me rnber organ lzatlons. The Nee ch alrperson was to function mere IV as a facilitator, and the posftio 11 V'las h~.g·ul<irlyrotated {I,mcltlg rnembe rs of the councl I. n-rnakl ng W.lS conse rrsual, whic-h meant that ,~vervo 111 ' had '[0 ag ree bsfore a deelslcn WJs. con s ldered e fii'lfll and executorv. While th tS practice meant a slower wO rk pace for the coalition 'it crisp ensu red that eac h 'and every ste p C.PARmade was supported by all of tts members. The preparato I)" working cornmutee for the May Congress'.; which was made up of representatives of the NGOs that were the. most active in Q rg{J,njti 119 (PAR....;,en~asked bv rhe Nee to stav on 'to provide techn ical Stll ppo rt to the coaliI

CPAR's higlhest pollcv-makl fig body


the Natlo hal Co n S ulratlve (a lIn~ll

tlon. These NGOs constituted (PAR's ex panded secretariat. A fu Il-nme natlo 11 31 ~{'cre:t,aJf'iat rornposed of vounqactivists .and pro fesstonal s was fo rmed to coo rd in~t'Z.CPA"".-I nav-tc-r -dav acttvl .I"·S .ay acnvrnes. 1

CPARls Efforts to lnfluel"lc€' ,Government's Agrarian Reform Policy
Immediately afte r it was 1'0rmed, -CPAR ~ rnbarked 0 n a massive qmpdig n to IlJ p ~\ii'th J co rnprehenslve !3-graria,n rero rrn prQg ram, N:·rce.iving that the ne.vvly elected Congress was dominated bv landlords, (PAR Qfaci(led to focus Q n workinq to ~l@tPres ide rrt Aqu i no to i SSllH.'~ an eX'tC utlve order th,~twould uphotc the: principles agreed upon by varlous NGOs during the coalhlons inq, CPARcaicu lated that sue h an exec utlve order vyould prevent Co ngress from legisl<lti ng <J.9'a:inst a9 rarlan reform since they wo uld h~w to work within U1e parameters set by Aq uino,

petitio n gov€!rn rl1,e tto C:-ome 11

On JUne l 'I • 19&7. lead,~ rs 'of the coalitto n fqrmi3(Jly presented 'to the Pres ldenr thelr "'D'iclaratro!l of Priinoc::fpJes,"PAR also acnvelv ~ngaged the C;,aoi net Action ( f::~'mmittee (CAC), the. task force formed by .Aqu i n 0 afte r 'the Mend leta mas sacre to COr'l~olldat,1'! related to. aqrartan reform. While consultatlons with the CAC·~,!,enton, CPAR onJian'izecl rnas-s actions and h~ld medla briefings and news ~'!Jnferem:esto make he putJlic a....... of the- On go Irig process. are Dn )u-Iy 22, 1 937, Aqul no si9ned Executive Order 229 (EO 229) putting all pUb.llt;an(j prlvate a~f'iCtJ ltu ral lands und er an aqranan refo nil prog ram to be 1rnpl etike voluntarv land transfer; votu ntarv offer EO .2 2'9 also gtJarai'lteed th'€: co ntln uatie!f1 'flr Pr'esiderlt.dal Dec rite 27. ~h€!M,Clrt05~r:l-ld.nd reform prcpram r:;twe(ing rice and corn lands. rr provided for a 1SO-da.y to rnpu Isory land reg istratlon campaign caJled "usrasaka." In add itlon, ttl€! DeparttlH~ ntof Aqrariarr Rero rm was. givell q U~IS powers, :;uB(1 the f'>res,idlentiai Agr<J.rian Reform Council was formed_
te sell, and

mentsd thorough a varletv of

5C hernes

am] distribution.

.CPARrejected EO 229, which it deemed teo arnblpuous to' provide ~nv real p,'rorection poor farmers arid peasants z.tgains.t big landowners. By July Hl87, when tht!" new tOllg ress was In .se.ssJo (PAR sh if ted its lobbying efforts from the 11, Ie.K:ecutb,,;,e to the leg lslatlve, The coalition engaged the HOU5~ -of R~prese'ntative dlfe.([ly and mOre active,ly 'than it did the Senate, a-s the fo rmer was tasked with dr.aftifl'9 and pi:lS5ing an agrarian reform law .


.cPAR rHr.ectly intervened jo the leg lslatlvs process fro rn July 19.37 '10 April I9g8, a. n~I!.ativ~ryshort period in the coalltion's five-year Ilife span. nHE brevity of its di'fec;t le9islativ~ enco U nter did .djrnini~h CPAR:S abl I ity to have an impact 0 n 'the pass,~ge: f the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform t.av... or Rep!:iblk Act (RA) 6657. In o

8~ • PI. \fILlJUIIIJEVi!

the end, however;

CP,o\R rejected the law Congre55 rnanv I,DDpholes for cl rcurnvsntlng Paral'lel Inltlutives"

pas sed bscau land reform.·






PARCQD E and the ·fo'il.ed


Instead, the coahno 11 adcpted an alternative ag rarian reform program called ;'People'~ ,Agrarian Reform (odie" (PARCODE). and shifted tts energh3!i 10 dire:o::tlj' imph!:rrH2:nting this prog ram. PAR~ODE was formulated by 600 repeesentatlves ·,6rNCO.s and POs from ail over the co untrv duri 1'19a mu ltlsectoral confer€lr'lre {)rg~nized by (PAR, The key points of PARCODE are:




cornprehenslve co:verag,e or aU types of arable land, water resources, f!S \\l.~11 as tillers and other direct producers: progressive and selccttve compensation: i,ilel.'!.lsioJ'1l a~1 previous land rentals -and unlpatcll labor 01.5 (Hrect paym~ntsi Of
full partlclpatlcn of benefir.iade:; In declsian-makirlg PT{;!fe:Jfc.lltla.1 option for coeperatlves and collecuves: rever~ion Nons;
rl g hts of '... o m e n ~"O 0 wn land; r to. Hl lpino ·control of all

land to the Wier and complete


of absantee

land ownership:

and i rnplamentatlon:

(7) (3)

lands leas ed by multhnaHonal, corpm:a,;

ri4}li1t of ~hl3'11 Fisherfolk. to gr(!..jjtcr access to and use of water resources: ancestral land rights;. ' (1) lmplerrrentatlon of-just lab?r conditlcns for farmworkers: 'and (12) lise of local resources for fin<lndng agrariaiil reform. (10)


To implement IWRCODE. CPAR launched two SHS of rassroots inhiatives ca.l led fo r (PAR rnernber-orqan lzatlorrs or son1e of its features. These i ncluded land occupation aile rnattve econo mlc structu res, Ii ke ccoper'atlves. land


"parallel lnitlatlves." Tht@ to'lmple ment PAR(OD£ and the development ol n by gov[!rnrnen~.

do ned land and prbp~t1y seq uesre red or marked for sequestrarro

occupanon entails po~r peasants and landless t:rgricu ltural ~vork~ rs OCCY pyi ng and cultivatt ng idle or abarr-

The second set of lrittiatlves was 1 n the legjs~atlve arena, andcalled. for gath' three mill ion sig natu res allover the cou ntrv in 51) ppo rt 'Of PARCODE, The ~987 Ccnstitutlon allows the pee pleto arne nd, reject, or enact a law throuqh' a petition -signed by at least I ~Opercent of the tota' reglsh~J'f.!:d voters.' tPAR'~ II,eg.f~· lativ,e initiative hoped to Influerrce legIslation by util i,z 1119the co n stltutlo nal pr(Jv~ slon for direct amendment, FrQffi mld-I 988


in~ithese twin iriifialives. PARCODE Carnpalqn Centers were set up, in the different regions to .co.ordl nate t~l~ i nfo rmanon d rive and glatner:ing of sig natures in tb~ provinces. Ar the national level, CPAR launcneo a. two-month long campalgn to

end of i 990, CPAR poured a.1Iits resources to devE'!lap·

ce mral office that was attended

PARCODE. This campaiqn cutrnlnated ill ~ rallv heldln front ofthe DAR by 4.000 peasants and peasant advocates. The

mas $ dernonstrstro n Was held 011june 'I0, 19aS. the f rst a.t'l11iver~~ry oJ the agrar· ian reform law. later that day" the farmers marched t9 the Ateneo de M.1lJlua Uhi· versity where an 'indoor rally was held and attended by more than 7.000 peopll? D~:5phe 'these efforts, Ileaders and organizE'!rs 'of CPAR had, hy rhe end ,oQ~' I 990, bequ n to do ubt the correctness of the coal ttlons two-prong ed str.ategy.' Thlil

gr<:t5s:r0'6ts iii ihaUve campO'I.rgn proved :dliffi.b.dt to. s.u~W,in. From I 93gml Jand!e~s peasants moved l:tnQ ;\'l,oal'ldonep lands and made the~epf6du.~tive.



documented 16 .successfutcasesof land O{_"CL.!p~[fO>i'I";" But scrne NC.Os ;"!lOl'kLlTg, with pp,:as~.nt orqarnzatjcn s ~ngJ,g.ed ill bod ou; upatlen and other 1for-rns of direct li ([ction had rn i.xed fee·1i n~r~ fltJ<tIl!Jt the outcome of the g.r~"'5UOGg ill i.ti.a.tiv'e5. For one thIng., manv of the land occupation cases were deemed failures because the peasants were legal.1y d tsqual i:ned to own the iatld they had occu pled. Some of them we:re" o-nly' pa.nia.lly ;;,.IJ(.Ce.$~flJI because the. peasants we Fe havi ng tre:men·tlQ~.I~diffi·( u lrles ] 11 nna,hi I1ig the Ian d prod lIctiv~' d LIe 10' lack of farm support ser""ic~s, credlt ~ande w mHS"

<\J19 .appro p~ciate technQ~o:9Y as \.vdll as continu ~nghara::;s.rn~nt from

Ely the ~nd of 19'9.1, (Pi\H was'll reapv a:rga.nizing trmjltls~:ctoral fact' Vin:.ding 'yrcwps inve:~ti·gMe ano mal les ln the im pi ernentatlon-of the ag rafian ruJ@rrFl lIaw, .~~ well as ho:ldi rig sem i na r~ an how~o maxi rnize dh~ pro-peasant provl S i6nr of the la:w. in -effect, CPAR.~s positihn had ;;'hffttEd from rj urrlqht rej'@.ct:ior~ of the law to f!ric9~g~lll(1 nt ~'!;'lth t he Law's trnple me nrers.


At the s.ame time, by the second half of '1-990, [PAR's [arn~:aigll w gJJH~eI" three millton s ig nature S' b@:gan to. lose steam, By early I 991 th e !-lad ':~roundto a halt.
1/ . .

The re was r~ever i;i. tho rouq h reckoni ng by. tll~ CPAR. lea.d ersh i p of why the CQAliti'o n's parallel inil~ativ~S' fai Isd. 5Cn1@ kt'y'le-ade'rs' now PQinto utthat the dec+ .sLi;i,ri laU~lCh ttlf:':Se. tn itiaJJves had been based prl rnad~y on a stro ng desire to ·kel=!p 1h~ c··Q.~ILti i ntacr, ill ~tead (jf 0 n d rsallsttc ,appraiJal of thee s·Hu.auion at that on it[me. At,the Din ~tr :Ch¢ coal itlon was djvide~d Qri how best to IJLJr~w:~ I;Jfl,RCODE. hM~liri:lnf.Qrgant~atiorJ:~ lik~ tine KMP. AMIHA'N PA~1ALAKAY:A, .In.O Nf'sW·rGt bel ieved that th.@If:gislilUVE track was no 10 ngp. r pClssib,le; ~'tld s':trolllgly s upported n:i.:ot:s,: ~n'i~iaflv-eslike land occ u pa·tIOJ1. Meallwh~le,. the rrlOr,@' mGd~rate nH~rr1bers of CrAft had become wary of e ngaging gowrrl.rrJer'~t in d [teet and confrontatlonal actions. To keep the grOU~3 it'Qgethel', (OaHlio n bul lders moved to reconci le the rwo pestHens by I iterl,lIy co rnbl ning them, IT move th~t ~n the, end proved UlnsuC:fe~sfuI, (~



In {l. way, the paralle I rni~iatives undertaken after the. P,;)5.S&g.e: of RA G6S7' mi f'rQred1he tw.o·fraCk s:H9!.n~gyCPAR dev¢~Q_p.t'd 1rr ~r~ cam paig tl' to inftuence land reform. When Gong ress was convened "in i 9'8:7, CPAR me rnbers be.~~e,v,e{i that [t wj.s pos,:sibl€: to ensere the passage of'a g~~nui neag rarlan reform ~aw, Toge·tnt;r
with other p:eopie'.5 org.atl~zati0t15, coalitia n members marked the f~rst day of Con~res$ by pitch it;lg a giant tent on the 9 rou n ds of the House or·entatives,. Under thf.!; blllcwl ngt:ent, VarLO'iJ s ex hubit.s, w,or:kshop.5 and d tsc u sstcns were held W drawattention to ~hei$sues th@. peoples organl7.:J:tiQt'lS wanted CO~lgTess ro cires.s.


Lj.~pbed the. "Tent GtvfoJ P'eac'e.,"it was a, form Qf collective actrcn to wthcli popula·.r 'movements tn the Phi Ii ppill1es become' accu stomed, CPAR, however; h~d little experience fn the ~e';~<'I,i[h M~Il~l.. This was m:w te rral n for many (PAR ... . e mem'per~.otg;anizaHon,5 r'llos:t of whichl h1Oli.d beenfo rmed duri ngfhe Ma,n:0s dictato(~.h~pwhen fc;w gro ups eng.1ged ln leg~s~at.i\le a:dv:o~acy- The i naJJglJratio nefthe


was d· 9 reat (hallenge to rh~ coal itlun ...... hose in extra-parllameruary anions but had no experlerrce in @nga;ging a pnpu de'ned legisja'tl)fp.. T!le senSE! M novelty WaS mutual, Po.lrhOlJ{lil nl£lriV of the- lators we reo mernbe rso j' the pre-martial law Congress and the MMCQ ~-e 1"<1 Bau:S8J,i19 Pamba.nsa, they, 1:,00. fo u nd themselves in a d ramarlcnilv changed po I itical terra Inand fac ing vigll£!,ht pso pie's orqanlzatlo ns !1ke CPAR.
members were skilled

.1:11911th se of H'eprese nrattves Hou

(PAR pi unqed i nto the I@gislativefmt'lt wit 11 the objective of 9 euirJig Congress to l~gi5Ia1e. genuine agrariaJl reform, It adopted a "two-track strategy" which involved dtrea ulte ry~nt io n in Cong r~'S5 tel i nfluence the' ~O!wmJ\ker5' nd tile legis· a lat iv@ process, d'S "Ntll J& indirect intervenuo n in I a:wrn~kjn.g th rouq '" .caliol'ared mass act ions. These [Wo t rae ks we.e (CI.lled th e leg tslatlve ~'ra[k <mel the mass. moverne nt track.

The Legis lcnve Track
(PAR did not easily reach a consensus
me rnbers had

p iffe

I"ing: o PI n ion

s en whsthe r it was possible for Cdng res s to oass ~


taking the legi.sbli've

track. IL

trulv pro-farmer

bill during Pre$lde:n'f Aquino's term, Some rnember-orgariiz.aIIOfi·S II ke K MP. and NFSV,,':·FGT did not want 'W IJU~ all thei r effo rts I n 'the I,egi s lative ;'l renil., and cautioned the other org<rl1izatfons from doln'~l so.

Nbtwh h stan di ng. t hls ime mal de bate CP:AR 5etious~y and effectively


the various formal proces ses an d structu res j n COl'lgr~s5, The coalttton farnl liar· ized itself wi~h ·the rules of the leulslatlve game, and heldreqular sesslons to as sess in 'effort's and map 0 ut Its move s, CPAR was al so able to tap the pol iti(.a.1 g(nJdV,lm 'Of allies in.qovernmertt. the media, academe, tile churches, arid the NGO secto r, The-se <;,0 ntacts and networks gave. j nvaluabla S UlPPQrJ; n d raftl ng the prQCj posed btl L rno 11010ri!1~J'th e devalonme nts if, (Prig ress and f.Jhila{:a.l''rarrg', ra.i:sing ~nd fu nds. All les inqovern rnent included those in the exec utive and its. line agen(:iei' who provided fnsi9 hts 0 n how key gave rn merit offf{i'als View ag~Jfian reform dna' al so constructive crlticlsrns of.CP/l ..R'~ actlvtttes."
1. [Jtaft'inYI Ih(!. pirQPose,d bill

The. ofi rst ite m on Cr/~R'~ legislative ag e nda was fram in 9 its OVI.-n agrarian reform bill. (PAR tap pe.d the exoerttse of I,naivldual ~ and 9 rou ps From the rne:c/la; academe, and various sections gove· who were sympathetic to land reo fa rrn: The coUatroratior'! proved to be: productive, Fo r exam pi e, me rnbers and (M" sultants of the technlcalwcrklnq group 'oJ the House Committee on Agrarian Re" form hel pcd CPAR translate the 'i;!o(:(JITIe-r'lt "The P'eoples Dec Iarat i.on of Agrari,(l'H' Reform" i nto ,n dran bill, These me rntiers of the co mmittee .staff, as \o,'e.1I s other ? lawyers', researchers. and academics also briefed CPAR61bo ut parlia.m~fit.arY processes and kept tile coalition informed of crucial developments in congres's"r Me.anwhi le, svrnpathetir j curriallsts were con3'uh~~ on how to rnanaqe tPAR'~ carnpatqn, a 'c:nltial element in the coalltions "two-track" strategy, Ncn-qoversment dsveto pmant Clrgani~a:tio ns that hel ned orqan i2:€!: 'the (PAR foundl i'rg cor9 r'BS:!; provtded 5 u,pport for the [.oaJitiOtT's· peasant Ieade rs. The NCO sector also '11i!~ped. raise fu s to sustal n CPAR's, c,ampalg ns,



:2. C;,etting COhgr@:5S hli!ld[lp:~th:e IPII"~pllu,ed bin With barely tl, fee menrhs 'W pr~pa.;re, ('PAR presented its proposed ,ag rarian reform bi II du r~ng '[he firslpubHc heJring raj~i1:d by (h~ House Corum lttee on A~'r<lrian Reformorl AuguSt' 2, '~987.'~ Tne roaltncn WOIS off ro a good starr, It hada dr(l:f~ bill, II 2115.0had asrrateqlcally- pl ..[:ed sponsor fn Rep. 8anrfacio C Illego who headed 'the House cornmtnee. sccnafter rne pUbl!ic huring i Ilego f! led He u Se Hili ~OOtha:l. except I~ora fe"'''' pfov'I'j,ICH'I~, tarried most of [PAR's proposals. OAR thus threw ~ls support behind HB4C10. '
I (-;

AIthough the upportunltres for (PAR to directly mrervsne mthe leg!slarlv.e process Lap~r(!01 down one e f-1B40a passed lh~ flrs,'~ n~adir1i{J 'the coa,lliit ion connn

LJed 1'0 rnenlter

the developments

i i"I (onSiifE!s,5. Kt'!:ep~r1g a tab On th~ flow of ewmh

aut! balance of fa rres j FI Cong r'~H 'II'!.'as ~~T1fl·oniHn for (PAR ro caHt'Jr.;m! Its OlCliviUe5 In the "mass fnOVetn~m track."

CPAR rellfec on a VUi,fHy of sourres ~o 'find out t10W lhe. dellberil,tlml!i and l~rQce:s~e~ Co.,grl!$.~ wer(! .jj, haplnq lJP. A~id'e frQIl'! the mlnuresand in I epo! ts is£yed by Congress. it also l'~gu~.Hly cC!f1louHfld !"",iHl mernaers uf th~ He,).J se (on'f'I1itI 'Itl'e ancllileir)taff. The same lechflic.a~ e)lpert·~. whe heJped CPAR draFt U~ propCl1)(llci bill keptthe cealtucn updatE!d on bow members af Congr~!i~ were aJ.lgning vis-aVI!. HS 400. Tln~ Mass .Move.m,ent Trock.
In the b~ghl ning. CPAft had planned Ht.a~the I~gtsla.tiv~ and ma!.s movement trn~ks were to be ,given equal emph.iisis. Bu[ because events moved fast In Con'~ress (PAR's ~Ilergles from July 1987 to D~cernber ~987 wen;: recused 0 n rhe 1e.9is~a'th..~ track. Thecoa~itio!fI started 10 rake l~@ mass mcverne nttrack (H11y ill ., Janu3,ty 1988, with mass a:cUCHH, pea,klil,g in AprH t 988, when (OJ~gressi.orll,a1 dellb-erattons on 1-18400 were ne~rl,]1g (OfJCh,oI.$IOfi. (PAR sccele rated irs actlvltles in the fiIl.'iL5,~ movement track not because lrwas ccnscieus lvchoos: Fig on e track overthe

ather. 011 the contrary; it was mef:e~'1didJustmg cnang irlg poiiHcaJ fortunes or HB !lew.

i15 e:frnrts ill

order torespond

to the

DPAR ,ane! rhe pmgr@:s~iv~ ~,fgi$r.awrs behind H[l. 40.0 c.haJked up Irnportant victories 1rr the first few months of the extsrence of t he Eighth House of FH~presen1ativ~s. However, JnIess than six months, the landla r:d b'QC ill the House was able to 'form al:llal:'lc,e~to fanUy iu.;}h~eadv 'Stiff resistance to HB400, wh lc h it deemed too radical." On :September], 1: S7, Rep_ RIH1H~U Cuanzun flled HE:'941 t:ll':l[ was 9 h~(ki1!d by 107 rnernbers of [ong ress, H8941 :iought ro exempt private aqriculturnl land from the (ovNageof agrartan reform. set a land rerennon Brn~t of 24 hectares, and pay landowners the current faLr markel value 0 f land they vol ~HHM1:lyoffer for redu5trUbutIO!1l,A)~die from riling a ceunter-brll, the landlord bloc also tde:d to til row Out HB ~00. To galnt,im.e to con5iO~~diUe rherr ranks rhe stalwarts CI f the l;wcHord bloc Rep's.. Hortensia St~rrke. jo:~a~Zubm <!i'I!dJo~e ROMO - rnaneuVJE!f~d to de~a.y rlDor deliberations on 1'18 40U by ~rlfflg "arccedural f[aw5i" ln the

.ngrarlan reform cO.mml'tu~~'.sendors~m!!nt

Df [he bi~L'

By thl!! end .of 198.,. it became .ap paren r thJt the I ""F'! d lord b loc 11 tlUl ~CI Upperl1ol111d In ns t1.15,'~leWil h 1he :Ilrog ru~i\f4' bloc. Wh~!le CWiegQ remal m~d head 0 f

the agrarian reform committee, he Md stx otherproqressive .Iegi!,!iator'S WElII'e q!JiiCkly o.t..!tflar!l<:~dby [he rest of the']l ;memo~r comlliht~~ that pro.(eede~ to ema.sculat€: 1"1 400. Still, msmbers of th'€: pro:g(i~:llsive bloc fOU9,nt torthe oligirJa-1 version of B th-e bill despitetlie cornbarfvehess 'tile landlords in Cotlgre:ss .. O~ts id@,.t'he"legi~lnture .rbe re-was g.row~tJg llQ.nmry aga.inst the prO'greSStW movement. s.ornl:·ofwho$e leade rs .b~·.c90me t2l'[gets of pnY$ical attacks; tncl ueli rrg a5sa~&if),inQrt:s . "" .
CP_AR'gmass rnovem.ent track 'took t!he fa rm of mass actions

and demo(mni-

'no n s 'to pu f;lJic Iy dramatiz.e it~ d'·ellnilJHi for'Jl, cornpre hensive ag.l'.lrian fefOlrmla.'~'1 and to put press ure on the 'land lord bloc- DlJrirlg one sps·sio n of th Ii! House, oOt! fu((ril2.I'S- who were part of CPARvisi bly wal k@'diout of the Hoor deltberatlons to show their dbg ust eve r tlri.e: s low progress of lhe ag rariJil reform bi II. Members' of the pr:og.rftss~ve.bloc it'! the I,Q use jo.ined the w2i1kOHL On Mar(h 22 .. ~9c$S, C i Ilego withd r~W 11 sponscrsh ip of HB 400, saVingtJHl.t rs

the. bU!1ha'd Il.!nde:rgone sc rnanv relJisi'ons, it W(l:S no tanger- the same. pro·p;ea'S,.ant bill he-and h'iscoHeag Lies:had o"r~g;irLaHy sllbrn~w~d. The Hquse. Bi II patterned alter-

CPAj:l,'s drah prd~o ~~d was now in 'its fina.l death rh roes, but tll,E'. coal ltlo n &fi"11 hoped to 5,dV@ the siittJzttion' hvlau m:l1ing the~ "Agrarj:<1.~ RHo rm E~pr€!$-s ,I' a .camp'aig n to gfathe ( 0 ne mllllon ,~:igna.tLIJ to mak~ dear to CO(!9Je:ss.~hfl,t itShO[Jrild res pass a pro-peasant ;·agrarlan reform IJ~w. PreparaU(in~ were q u i,d:ly made for ,<I; caravan that would bri tJpg peasant le.ade rsand ag rarian refo rrn aGHvists-to d rffer.ent
parts of



nay to sol lclt s:1gnMu res.


E);£s kicked off in llle ~ecotld w~~k of Apri I 198:8, leaders "Incl.youth actlvlsts - one ·.starling from Ilagan, lsane la in the noah arrd the other h'orr. Irosin, SorsogO'I1 i~. tlle south - hea:ded. toward Metro f\;.1arJ At eat h big town <l.klFlg the. ro ure, tfl,e caravan stopped for i la,
Two bu sloads Of peasant

The. Agra.ll'lart Reform

te.;v;.:h·1ns (hat discussed CPAR~ ag:rari'~:rlretQrrnage-n.d",_,tndas ke,q people. ~upportthe p~.0;16~ul.t?' Srru.g9~~ for ~and. T~~~two grOl.J 1:iS:; n~~ally c_0r'1y!U~.ed en April 2'1" the Agriifina Circle ~~1 dq'wnt.own Ma·r~~Id.. lnere they were joined w
to by thousands of. peasants and the i r xu PP0II"Vil rs, i ne.:iuding: members of progrf-5s~vf' bloc ~n COrilg ress.. Iron ic.aUy, this was alsothe day th-at Co rig res.s voted in favor tlf all IE mast ulated HB.400.


rvlontM 5 later,
A~ ran f·

an R.e.0rTl.1 Law;


0 njune


1 0,198:8, p~s ldent Aq u lno

5~g nedthe

Co mpl'"€ he~sho:e

The ImpcH::t 'Of CPAR/s Leghdotiv,e b1tervention
h'r the. end, ri6body
Wf,\S m:l~iy happy wtth the law. CPAR rejecfed

ur, stiyil'l~

pr(lVi'Si:Qn~'-are tPlnc!l;l.~d out or re nde:t~:d rne'l.nfng'1[<:5);by cthe r pre-land lord provu.s.i(ms. ..I'~; Sp.eciHcally. th-e coal ltlorr objected to PIP' vtslons that allowed landlords to giveten.lHt~ihares of stock: rather than larld" The 'law also d~:m~nlstH;::d the cove ra0"e of land rdonn :and allowed hl9h reletltio;n
ilnlcg rhat in effect excl L1ded 60 10 90 percent

that fts· "seernl ng IV pro-farmer

of private

3:g rlcultu ral lamh from


5i m i-!a.rlv un happy w-~re members of the pr,'J~ resstve

bloc ocf Cerrqress.Jronl-

cally', not even the ~'all"ldowneJs in CQrHd'r~S'~ wen~ ecstatit about 'RA 66S 7. Even now, Re p.. SI:"Q,,y.s 1'11a:t RA 0657 is a "co nHs·c.:;n.Q ry ~aw."

There are: those, however, who thin kthat the' law ts not all t:hat ho peless, Gerardo Bu latao, then aqrarlan reform assrstant secretary was convinced that aithouqh RA 66S7 has many d@fic-lencies, it also has prcvtstonsmat made to wo rk i n favo r 0 f 'and Iess peasants an d s mat" farme rs, II Fr. Am 0 n 10j. Lede.s rna ".5 ,j,.
whose. Southeast Asla RU't'al Social Leadership lnstlture

helped CPAR'swork in Mindanao, tho ught thatrhs prcvtstcris baran,gay agrarian reform torn nnttee s wou Id allow farmers
lmptementatlon of land


ill Xavier lJrJiversi;ty· had r the formatlon to 'participate i tl the



Certain key members of Cfi:A,Rnow ad mit 'that the. coalltlcn's outright rejec' tlon of AA56'5 7 WaS not based ona c rttlcal reading of the law's provtsto ns, but was instead 9 ready il1Tr'1 uenced by the "polltlrel necesslty" to take an Opp6S ltlon stance vis-a-vis the government.~· So meCPAR members beli@ve that while it is true the law bas many loopholes, that ean be used by tandcwners tocircumvent land redistribution, it also bas just as. many - lf not rnore provlsto ns rhat carl oenefit larrdless peasants and small farmers. Sig n rfklntexampl.e:s of these provisions are th.e unequlvocal declaration of cornpul ~,Qryacquisition as the government's !)fim-ary mode of land acqulsltlon ~11d1 distributkH;. the strlng.ent preconditfons f~f the. conversion of farm I. to other uses, anda viable land valuatlonscneme.


Fbll'owi1ng RA 66 J.7'5 p<l~:-s:age, most of members of CP.AR:found themselves i~H::re-asiligly faced with problems 0 n the, lmplantatlo n of land reform. TI'H!Y also il1cr"el'Singly realized that to be able res pond to the needs of their consntuerrctes at the baranga.y or comrnun ity level, (PAR must equ lp Itsmembers wlth a knowlsdqe of the law's provis ions and the means they can use to ensu re that the law promotes their welfare'. Des plte tts mtlltant rejection of the law, CPAR had rhe praqmarie sense to lncl ude the study of the 1';lWin tts ~:rai~hlg and ed ucatlon program, ,By the tl me CPAR d lsbanded most efits men'lb~rs hadajrea..oy started ro reth i 11k 'th~ir Mig i nal verdict on RA 6.657, and co roltart Iy, ttl@: rfIean:i ng and full Impact of the, coalition's. work 11 the legislative front,
r .


Most of the former rnernbe rs of OPAR h~y,egradu<l.lIy c hanqed thf.:ir attitude tQW,~rd the agrarian rete rm program and are now adopt! rtg more creative _:_that crincal but less antaqcn i stlc ~ ways of U5il1g the govern,mer'lt's ag rarl an reform program (.0 benefit poor farmers and Iandlass p,'eas.a.nts, This. attitude is also encou raged by the performance off the cu rre nt reform-mtnded leadership of the P)~partment of Ag rattan Reform. BlJt the more crucial factor that caused (11is ~Wtijo~e change is-the improvement in land tenu Fe arranqements, Mo re thantwo milliotil hectares of land have baen red lstrlbured s lnce RA 6657 was passed,



T·he verdlct now, it seems. is. this: RA G6S7 mav not have be-en 'the law that GPARorigli'n.a.Hy wanted, but partly because of the coal ltlon's ii nterventton in th-e. leg,itlative process, poor and' land less peasants, now have a,str'r;;mg ~.~aJ bas ina ¢Vn til'i!'land they ti II. Many peasant 0 rgari lzations are now working, to fast track
land dis't1ibution befon~ the ag rarlan reform prog ram expires at the, end

all indi(;a:lioCmthat the coalitjon's Pl".l:lgam have not beet"! wasted, r

efforts. to legisla.te

a. pro-peasant

of I 998,

3grnrlan reform

9-:il •



Strengths and Weaknesses
CPARjs Shrengths

The successesof ePAR's i ntervention i n th@ h:~gsJatioili of ag;raJiCi_i1 i reform (an be attrlbuted to s~v~ral factors, namely; strength in nu mbers, -SH~I1gth ln unity. a
well-defined Je:g lslative agenda, and cred ibiciaty..

1 •. Sb'@.hgth in "'umbers,

CPA~, ;l united fro nt based 0 n .a single issue, was founded to ens ll're that the peasantvolca was heard i I1t the dr~rfttng of the aqrarlan reform pfograrn1, fi rst ln the executlve, and the n in COrJ9re:5$-A~ a- coalltio n MI 2 peasant orgal1lz['Uions. vHfh, national con stltuencles, CPAR had th@ number's to back LIP its dem:af'ld~. A m<ljQrobjective. of the mass actions and the "Ag rarian Express:' W~S to let the legiti~atbrs, know that CPM{':s demand for gem1:i ne di9rarian refo rrn had the backing of teniM tho usands of farrne rs allow r the- country, -(PAR's n umertcal strenqth was taken sertously by gov~mment so muc h so that i [I 1 9:9:2, varia IJS 'candidates for rhe, pres ide so ughlt the .ccalltlo 11'$ su pport. 2. Strength in unity A fter the collapse of the peaceta] ks between the PhIlippine 9_overn rnentand d~e. N;,lth:mal Democ"_ra;tk Front Inearly 1987, the attacks 3,gai nst prp9 ress iv~ indio vlduals and 9 rou psi nten 5' ifted, The a$S~S$ i natlo n of k.ey leader's of thle pr6gre~si\'tmovement and the ane rnpts by rni Iit<'lJy fattlo ns to uns~alr.hl2 Aq,u i,rIO gove_tn-rI'l~M cornblned to foster anatmosphere of fear and lnstabllltv, .
In the agra~i-an reform from. the intense debate and! maneuverinqs arou nd I~:O 400 s plllsd out of' the halls of Co I1gress .. lan-downers all over the cou rurv, alarmed by thE. e-arly victories of H8 400 and the- show of force of peasant orqanlzatkms, startad m-organrze and consolidate their ranks." landowners and other antl-aqrarlan reform elements ace used CPAR of fronting torthe ullde.rg round l.eft,

Be-caus:~ CPAR was a. coalition .of qrgarniiZatiQlf1s with diverse p1Gil-itit2lJ oril'!I"1~~· tions and tradlrlons, it was able to ferrd off the attacks of landowners and other .antl-aqrarlan reform elements mar it was r(H!.reJy a cornrnu n,'f:lit front: CPAR._ W;l5

also seer! as a ge nulnelv COn5~_n sus-oriented -CO<il.litio FI where_ moderates have:'a,S mud .say as lad lcals, This helped draw the supportof .elements from pQlhk?i'ly moderate sectors; whir h in turn helped to net~tralize attacks from [OrlSeNatJv~ elements .:

To promote


unitv, the :coa.lition set up structures and processes to

fati fitate co nsens us- butld i ng i and to ensure that debates and mlsunderstandlngs do not lead to organ tzatlcnal paralysis. Asi de from the meeHngs, forums and work· shops, (PAR also held celebratory parties and -other lig ht, social acnvttles to e-,~Cciuragecandor, as well as,to QU i,~d fri@r1dshlp and pe rsonal ties, among its me-m· bers, ' -

3. Well-defined agenda
Although some: of the members of CPAR had fundamental d lfferences about Iinill'g-te-rmgoal.s:md Issues dealirlg with strateqles of soc ial change! these differences d ld not dimlnl'Sh CfJA,R'simpact on the. leg lslatlve process. .Onth~ co ntrary, th'e cQirliliQt1's 'credibility WZ9;S enhanced by its 'ability to hard ~Qg·.ether d'j'f'fNltr}'1 ,:gfOl!;PS, with differing long-term goal.~ andobjectives, Th€! coalltlon 'h ad a well'defined policy agenda, ernbodied ill its "Declaration of Principles," as. ~el~ as a :Clearly defined str~tegy Of engaging the I@gislature. This ctaruv 11'1 "common pur.p~se" was very important in keeping the coalrnon lntact and focused 01'1[he le:gis· lji{ive arena foralrno5 one


,4. Cred itlil ity A.lthough many of lts mernber-erqanlzatlons were pLlblidy percelved as ''(00 radkal", "biased again~t 'govenlhi11t'H"lt" Of "unraasonable," the coalmon ttself was pf!tr«(!!iv@.das: a cred lble organ izalicm. This credibl I ity was bolstered by its fmag:e as .a 9.f!ItU ine. "coallticn of equals" where rad Icals, and moderates co-exist and W'CH'k t(;')g~'ther, Having a well-defined I'egi's~ative aqenda also en hanced CPAR's credlbtliW and posrnvet mage not on Iy arne ng legiisJators but also among other s:eCiors ~ha~had an impact a n PLJblie opi nlcn. CPAR's.m lndfulness of ce rtain "standard operatino prccedu res (SOPs)" also made It more credible. The SOPs that it observed i n de~ali ng wtth CQng ress were rI89~l""r assessment and plan ning sesslons, research, feedback gath erl ng, and rolep~ayrng. observl ng SOPs promotes thorouq hness, which is unportant w hen dealtn:g wij'~hpowsrful canters of power like the ~egislaw re. (PAR's repre'Se.nttltiv~sr For tl~Mal'bC;e; lways ca:me· prepared whe n me~<t~ng With gove rnment offlctals: they a made-sure they knew tlhe agenda, the i:SiSUt!S, and' who would be arte ndtnq. ~"Someti'rhe.S. the coalition held ri:'le·playing exerc ises to prenare for rr1@.etings, .

The factors that contributed fa the 11 ltatlo rip 0 f [PAR's i rnpact 011 leg lslation m wer€! external rather than internal. Civen the considerable po I iticall c lout of landowners, and thei rail-out efforts to block ag rarian reform leg lslatlon, the re was very ~itfl.e: that (PAR coutd have: do F'I~ by way of di r"~Lt interve ntlon W prevent the inclusion ofaml-peasant provtslons during the floor debates en HlB 400, If anything, the .S uccess of the conservative bloc 1n rnanql it1g the 0 version of the bJ11 was mere Iy J. rsflectic 11of t119~ progres.s..ive bloc's weak positi.,r,)I1 in the power structure o'fC:Ol1gress.. When it came. down to dividi'ng th@:House on the agrarian reform bill, the prcqressive btoc was ill the nurnencai mill1oi"ity. Still, there WHe .other ways of indirect Irile rventlo n hat (PAR could have opted to use to parry the .efforts of the co nservatlve bloc in [ong ress, One way was to pressu re lleg! stators th rough their local constltue nts. As. a rule, congressmen, who are elected at the. district level, are not ve ry sensinve to national OP~II1' [on un less they plan 'W run fora natlonallv-elected post. The CCtlg ressronal dtsmct j& an lmportantarea of en9agement for elecHIl9 proqresstve officlals and Rl,Jttlng pressure on conservatlve i ncumbs nt offletals. .,

[PAR's Agrarian Reform [xpress' was a term of engagil19 the local consrituerus of 1!h~ l.egislawH, bl)t th i s was part of the last d ltc h e ffOr1 to save I"iIB ~rOO. 111 stead of a rnethodtcal and [I] Il si stern e'ngag ernenr. In fact, 11101.H1tin9 a earn paign to en.gage the ccnqresslcna' distncrs WiI.S never' even an option for (PAR. The CQa I ltion needed to co ncent F~te it effo rts at the nat tonal I eve I because ofthe v~r''I' srrort "w in doY'.· of oppo rru Fifty." II

Con cJusiion

People's orqanlzatlons and other members ot civil ~ooety stand to gain trom studvi l1"g andIearnmq fro m th-e experie 11ces of CPAR whk h, despite th e controversies surroundlnj; ns break-up in 1992, remains one ofthe more successful coalltion

projects in the last ten vears." Tn€! currant socto-ooturcat environment rnay be diUererH from th-e envlronment in which CPAR opera.led, but the need Tor civa soc lew to asse rt lrse] f In 01.11p h (e 5 of power and governance: s i ~ perhaps ever'!




Th*f~ arcas many "'1t· {>.o~ia" <lboljt ..... 'hal ql~~ed I.hi' k!"y indi v idu~h mlervif'w~d by- thi s writer. (F'Aii'~ break-up. Ihis )'et~.lor. ~ ~hdmcJ bv ;; number 01 i1otabh" Dirlky Solima-n. [(:(JnJin<l.[{Jr :)" ..__PAR',

i1r<'<11 n .. I ~~(rp.t8rt<ltt o and Mann-V" C!.i.llamh ..c, former KMP ·(lr~~.nIZN and political offipr, r'tu~M'~~~g~rll' I .~~rr~I~G who W(j,:o- ... lso 7! member of the nr~t wotling 6omi1nlu€!:!' frj.( cPAi~'h"d <! sl igb-fly tiltTo!!:fcnL~~l mere '1F1leras,ting ril<:5'ls: CI"P..R had outlived it" purpose. .

2 Cesar I~ . ,;1.1<1. ",>ynthQs,is! 5nro of h!',rrH~S!n Coal ilion-Iluildlng,' ·(.esar I? :::ala."ndJos·e Z. Gr.,<:;t:ua, \!t~h.i. ~!!,I(}i4?~ I'm C{,dWon Expe;·M!f)'~fi.~ in the PhtfipIJIM9 \"QllE>1._Cm Cily:.PCJC-HIW: I !:!.9c~!, -

l jes eZ, 08qHJa,

'·C(lngr~'S5. fur PI~aplo's Agr<?lri8Jn R8forrn," Cala and. t..r~fj("d~.\ I (ltl.:1;'. "r'lfJ~Ji~ ~nl,-I~ bread VI ew uf tI-.~<I(fl'iltl'-:s and ;:whl ~v etn~nt~ L)'I C.PAR_and touched On ~or11E? ")1 1 tb~ ~Jt~all,l~' rional h~ues 11l<!{ precinil_;at",d li'~ (Dllap~·p' In 1992. I I r)V.'(!V('lT, i:h" M!"ItIc" which '.... pi ~li5h~o In 1"~'11: ·.<;5 Qa\~t! no hinl~ thar tha coalition -r.....r"s ~If(~~.dy df!f!p trouble. I~I


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~. LH S I~ 0 ';VI1 ~~ Lhi ~ 1.1 'J;~ II n M - th at the pet! t i()rr€ rs s hou I Ci n .... ill ea dislm:\. ~ BDth s.~fllrr'iar~ and aLuamb,a~ ~~IU that ths t~""o-prong£!d


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I!\:rn the vcrv start.
1 0 Congre$~ Ft'lf People's /\waf1~n Rp(~)rrn, PCOplI.i,]r Cr;i5Sr~?"'A~ il'I,'idrrVIi!..S~ fow"lrd~ C['lwirw N~ril.'lim ~~ tonn, 19$9, I I IJr' .Imp"-H:~ tV~lu.qVr;t.f1 (;mimC!cgr~pr.€dl. P~a('p· roUndatiot:l, Inc., I ~~2. I'r~;lre Fo ndatton ..... one ·.;)5 or tlT~ ~'IJP~)tH't N.G05 01' CRlI.M q·nd had devoted a. b4fJ (hI]Jd< of 11:~ r~wt.In;:Q~ to pr?vlJl119 ~!o.irjport r(H p~~s<lln rlrlJ'lfll1.~I"I()ns that undertook i.<ln.d[l"rupatir,ln" and orhrr L''''r-~~ M dir~fI" }ctj"on to el"'~ln I,;no. I ~ secause i;i',.\R uld nct forrnallv ret~~ t 'II'~ twin pronged <::'Cll11p~ign" rMITI'r' Hf t 11' prnnt l'c'lali n~ [0 tTNn
an IVltio<~ in 199 I ,HI' .this wri((lr's O(t(lb~r 189·1. I ~ TI;I~ I~' b<.,~ed largely ecrsonel vt:~~r"';Jlion~ Soll man:



of (:j)AR trorn J3nl.JIV [0

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14 A kf!,/ qovernment ally {h"n 'was Gcr"<l1"ao ~ul"l"!)·.t()nt"ler"II"ian reform 'l·~s!~t;m1" ~(lne.tarv <mel 1l:J'i\' head 0 the Nl,rl K"I~ahan, ~",w"hll~ SOrYL~hm~s rfitit~al or hr)W Itw' roalltlon eondected II~ ,Il·ilv!· ~ie~. oil SfJ PWl;lid,[!d 11151!J.hT~()II how W approach c~n~ln (JrNeirtnlQnt polities ·~rr{.! ~q€"r.lriE"~.

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