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G.KARTHIK J.KARTHICK Mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org Ph: 9047888158, 9677151653
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to design an Autonomous Flying Quad copter, which will be capable of flying in a controlled manner. The principle behind the working of this Quad copter is the principle of quad-rotor flying objects. The motors used here is brushless dc motor which makes the propellers rotate. The Quad copter will lift itself off the ground and then use controlled flight mechanism to fly across definite path and after executing its task it will land. All this will be done by the copter itself without using any external remote control device i.e., it will be completely autonomous. Hence in this paper we have included a microcontroller which will control the copter. In the case of indoor usage of this robot it is not a matter, but when it comes to the outdoor usage of this quad copter there will be the wind which will affect the movement of the copter. So for this purpose a GPS based system will be used to give this plate form its navigation abilities. Including GPS will solve our problems in flight due to disturbance caused by winds as it has to reach our desired coordinates. It should be able to move around from one specified point to other in open environment up to the accuracy constrained by the GPS device. A GPS will be attached to the plate form which specifies the coordinates of location where it will move. So there is another job to program the GPS hardware such that it directs the quad copter in the right direction. Such robots are useful in a broad range of surveillance, security, and military applications. So basically we are going to design a microcontroller based embedded system application.
I. INTRODUCTION In this paper we will be designing an autonomous flying quad copter, which will be capable of flying in a controlled manner. It will lift itself off the ground and then use controlled flight mechanism to fly across define path and after executing its task it will land. All this will be done by
the copter itself without using any external remote control device i.e., it will be completely autonomous. So basically we are going to design a microcontroller based embedded system application. The quad copter will be capable of flying autonomously and will not require any human assistance. A. Innovative Aspects It’s functionality will be completely controlled by the embedded system that is designed which will make use of GPS (global positioning system) to obtain the desired features. The innovation in this autonomous flight feature is that most of the currently designed and commercially available systems need a remote control or some such controlling mechanism and none is completely autonomous. B. Controlled Flight Quad rotors are classified as rotorcraft because their lift is derived from four rotors. Each rotor produces both a thrust and torque about its center of rotation, as well as a drag force opposite to the vehicle's direction of flight. Control of vehicle motion can be achieved by varying the speed of each rotor to change the thrust and torque. If all rotors are spinning at the same angular velocity, with rotors one and three rotating clockwise and rotors two and four counter clockwise, the net aerodynamic torque, and hence the angular acceleration about the axis is exactly zero, which implies that the stabilizing rotor of conventional helicopters is not needed. II. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The Quad-rotor Flying Object (QFO) is a flying platform that uses four rotors. Each of the four rotors delivers an individually controllable amount of thrust. The rotors are positioned at the corners of a square. Any two adjacent rotors are contra-rotating. The QFO in this case is small, electrically powered, and controls individual rotor thrusts by varying the speed of their electric motors, rather than blade-pitch. This allows for the use of fixed-pitch propellers. A. The QFO As A Helicopter A QFO’s functionality is similar to that of a conventional helicopter. It can hover and exhibit the same basic motions. This QFO uses four simple fixed propellers in place of the more complicated main rotor of a conventional helicopter.
• • Like a conventional helicopter. Patented rotor structure to have super low cogging torque performance for IPM servomotor. the effects of actuation on system outputs in the QFO are highly intercoupled. No skewed slot on stator and rotor. Without mechanical commutation. if rotor thrust is controlled by varying rotor speed (as opposed to pitch). Power and torque density are much higher than the conventional motors. or a wound rotor excited by dc voltage through slip rings. Some of the benefits of using BL DC motor are: • • • • • Internal Permanent Magnet (IPM) rotor design to avoid the surface mount magnets disadvantaged. requires that the flux created by the current carrying conductors in the stator rotate around the inside of the stator in order to achieve servo motor action. Brushless dc The high efficiency range is much wider than conventional motors. low EMI and no brush maintenance. The speed of the motors can be controlled by using H-bridge for all the 4 motors. Standard Servo motors are built with • . The innovating structure has an excellent feature in energy saving during heavy-load operation.C Motor Microcontroller GPS (Global Positioning System) III. Furthermore. and small size structure. necessitating more automatic assistance.000 rpm. Dc servo motors feature permanent magnets. Electrical commutation can perform low noise.C MOTOR AND CONTROLLER: • Brushless dc servo motors resemble a dc shunt motor turned inside out. There may or may not be other limitations that prevent this. BRUSHLESS D. the rotational inertias of the rotors introduce additional lag dynamics in pitch and roll. QFOs can achieve the same efficiency as normal helicopters.According to the limits imposed by momentum theory. located on the rotor. it can increase reliabilities and reduce product costs. The servo motor features a rotating field is obtained by placing three stator windings around the interior of the stator punching. motor speed can be over 10. This makes the QFO more difficult to control than a conventional helicopter. Energy efficiency motor adopts the high magnetic energy permanent magnet NdFeB to have high power and torque density. The windings are then interconnected so that introducing a three-phase excitation voltage to the three stator windings (which are separated by 120 electrical degrees) produces a rotating magnetic field. servo motor construction speeds heat dissipation and reduces rotor inertia. The major components with which the AFO can be designed are as follows: Brushless D. and high torque at low speed driving.
So controller provides the protection to the motor. If we use this AFO indoor then we don’t need a GPS system for tracking the direction. 1msec pulse means the slowest rotation while 2msec pulse means maximum rotation. A UART is used to interface the GPS module with the microcontroller. But for outdoor use direction is important because of the wind factor so we have to use a GPS module so as to get the copter in the correct direction.1volt mode for the controller by removing its 2/3 batteries connector.NTC thermistor for motor temperature feedback. After the startup controller is ready to receive signal to start the motor. At maximum speed motor and the controller both operate at 10A. Furthermore high precision can also be obtained by interfacing the GPS module with the microcontroller. Current demand of the motor also increases with the speed of the motor if the propeller is attached to the motor. So a signal of 1msec to 2msec is given to the controller and motor starts rotating. IV. MICROCONTROLLER The microcontroller is programmed such that it rotates the rotor in the desired speed so as to attain the precision. The 10A controller we use with the motor generates the 3 phase sinusoidal signal required for the motor after getting an input pulse. In the case of using a GPS module the programming of the microcontroller is to be done in such a way that the BLDC motors run as per the directions obtained by the GPS. It generates 5 tones to indicate its initiation. Also the • • The PIC architecture has a number of new features including: The highest execution speed 80 MIPS (90+ Dhrystone MIPS @ 80 MHz) . The speed control of the BLDC motors can also be obtained by using PWM techniques and also by using the controllers. Controller also switches the motor off if the motor tries to draw current larger than 10A. we selected one of the available BL DC motors. • • The largest flash memory: 512 kByte One instruction per clock cycle execution The first cached processor allows execution from RAM Full Speed Host/Dual Role and OTG USB capabilities Real-time trace • • • BL DC Motor and Controller Selection So after understanding how BL DC motor works. (Higher voltage means higher rpm and maximum lift) Controller needs to be started with a pulse of 1msec at 100Hz. This microcontroller is programmed to obtain the data from the GPS system and accordingly the motor speed is controlled for every motor separately. We select 11. Without the propeller the motor only draws a fixed amount of 1A current. At this huge amount of current motor and the controller both start to heat up very fast and after about 10sec the controller automatically switches the motor off.
longitude.). GPS is made up of three segments: Space. Route: A path to a destination consisting of intermediate stops along the way (waypoints.S. . GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS): The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that GPS receivers use to provide three dimensional location (latitude. address and etc. 3.). Control and User. anywhere on or near the Earth which has an unobstructed view of four or more GPS satellites. Track: A previous path of travel that has been stored (logged) in the eTrex Legend. or a position and a waypoint. elevation information may be included. highway exists. The Space Segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in Medium Earth Orbit and also includes the boosters required to launch them into orbit. Travel progress reports. These distances along with the satellites' locations are used with the possible aid of trilateration to compute the position of the receiver. Go to: A direct path to a selected destination (waypoint. cities. 2. and a host of dedicated and shared Ground Antennas and Monitor Stations.feedback from the four motors is obtained with which the V. Calculation Of Position: The receiver utilizes the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distances to each satellite. etc. Accurate time measurement. It provides reliable positioning. day and night. perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude. 1. points of interest. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service. The distance and direction between any two waypoints. an Alternate Master Control Station.S. space-based global navigation satellite system. A track allows you to repeat a path or return to our starting point on the same path using the GPS Track Back feature. The Control Segment is composed of a Master Control Station. and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather. intersection. The User Segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U. There are four basic functions of GPS. city. This position is then displayed. and tens of millions of civil. A. • • • • Position and coordinates. The block diagram of the PIC microcontroller is shown above. and altitude) plus precise time. navigation. commercial and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service. current position is calculated and accordingly the next command is given.
if the waypoint is just to the left of the North direction and you are heading a little right of North. The waypoint can be marked if we stay stick button of GPS pressed for 2 seconds while it is showing your current location. this can be very inefficient in certain instances. The easiest. D. but definitely least effective. way of coding this algorithm is to say that if the aircraft heading is less than the waypoint heading. We marked four waypoints in each corner of ground near NBS. but not before flying in a complete circle (well almost). it is obvious that the aircraft should turn right to head towards the next waypoint. turn right. The driver requires a single supply of +5V. we have to make RS-232 communication of GPS compatible with microcontroller for which we need a level shifter as well as inverter to convert the levels to TTL. the next step is to arrange these waypoints in a order in which we want to perform the Navigation. Now that the current heading of the airplane and the next waypoint are known. This scenario is demonstrated in the graphic below Standard serial interfacing of microcontroller (TTL) with PC or any RS232C Standard device requires TTL to RS232 Level converter. The navigation page of GPS is shown below. the figure below shows one scenario given the waypoint heading angle and the true course angle. with the above algorithm the plane will get to the waypoint. Intuitively. C. we can discern which way and how much the aircraft should turn in order to hit the next way point. .The defining of waypoints is necessary to save the points from which we want our Autonomous flying object to pass through. Route is basically collection of waypoints. Otherwise turn left. For example. We move from first waypoint to last waypoint and the bearing pointer guided us in which direction we should go to reach the next way point and finally the destination. A Basic GPS Navigation Exercise: The next step is to navigate our self through the Route which we created. the plane should turn slightly left to hit the waypoint. However. As we needed the serial port for both GPS as well as ISP. It provides 2-channel RS232C port and requires external 10uF capacitors. Comparison Of Current And Waypoint Heading: B. The navigation page shows the rotating compass ring that shows our current course over ground and a bearing pointer indicates the direction in which we should move to reach the nearest waypoint. For example. A MAX232 is used for this purpose. However. therefore we use one DB9 connector in parallel to ISP as well as microcontroller using four DIP switches. GPS Interfacing With Microcontroller: To interface GPS with microcontroller.
Thus equilibrium is achieved in this case and the copter will start to fly. Hence the program is done in such a way that the speed of the motor in the right is less than that of the left. We have to write a code for this purpose. The copter as shown has four propellers. The schematic diagram is shown. The speed and position commands are fed to the driver board. Suppose if the copter is to be lifted then the controller will give the command to the driver and the driver board will make all the four rotors run in such a way that the opposite rotors rotate in the same direction.After decoding the RMB and RMC messages we have both true and next waypoint heading. The driver board is connected to the BLDC motors. hence the next step is to compare these two heading and then decide whether to turn right or left. . Centre of gravity below the aerodynamic centre of the craft (through placing the batteries below the intersection of the The final model of the copter is as shown. By this way we can achieve the right movement. There is a controller board and a driver board. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The whole system can be given by means of architecture which will depict the components used. hence it controls the rotor movement. Now if the copter has to be moved to the right then the thrust exerted by the propeller at the right should be less compared to that of the left. Achieving Balance And Motor Speed Control Sum of all forces and torques should be zero for balance. Each of these is connected to an individual brushless D. VI. A. The controller will give the commands to the driver board and it will control the BLDC motors. The microcontroller board is placed on the mica which forms the body of the AFO.C motor with the shaft of the motor pointing upwards. The controller gets the data from the GPS receiver system and also the feedback from the motor and accordingly it will drive the driver circuit.
APPLICATIONS Bring loads to hard to reach places (behind enemy lines.com/manuals/eTrexLegend_Owners Manual.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=51:qaudrotor&c atid=28:projektywbudowie&Itemd=44 http://www. Rescue Operations • Dropping equipment: live vests.garmin. pollution detection.edu/~weg22/gpsMagpie/gpsFix edWing.airframe). . treetops. rescue lines over water. on top of buildings. documenting development of construction sites Pipelines Off shore maintenance related control Underneath bridges • B. animal.edu/aersp/aersp055_r81/satellit es/gps_details.htm#RMB https://www. across a river etc. • • • Infrared detection Mine sweeping.courses.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System http://sodoityourself.psu.pb.html http://knr.gps-practice-and-fun. Aerial filming and photography • Video (on board recording and wireless air to ground recording) • Feature movies.pdf http://www.wikipedia.html • Such aircrafts are useful in a broad range of surveillance.org/dale/nmea.html http://en.html http://www. buildings or on mountains E. security. crowd and riot control. the inertia due to the mass of the batteries resists both pitch and roll. Civil • • • Traffic control Forest fire detection & control Avalanche monitoring C. A.com/solutionsinfligh.drexel. scouting and preventive triggering and path finding. inflatable boats.verhagenx2.) Geological and ecological surveys. Military And Law Enforcement • Border patrol.edu. REFERENCES http://www8.com/max232-serial-level-converter/ http://www. forest control. Carrying of tactical equipment D. agricultural. Aerial Transports • • This is the equation for lift. Engineering • • • • • • • Nuclear radiation areas Burn-off towers Railway Power lines filming Real estate sales. documentaries. and military applications • They can carry out complex missions from take off to landing completely autonomously.pages. VII.com/gps-exercises.pl/index.gpsinformation.
nl/english/gps_garmin_etrex_to_rs2 32.net/blog/index.com/maheshwankhede/rs232.weethet.got.eterrorist.gids.html http://www.php http://www.com/isp.in/avr-tutorials/rs232communication-the-level-conversion/ http://www.org/blog/ufo.html http://www.ikalogic.drexel.edu/~weg22/gpsEmaxx/gpsEm axx.html# motoresc .http://aprs.freewebs.nl/nmea/ http://extremeelectronics.kowoma.php http://www.de/en/gps/positioning.htm http://ufo.co.pages.
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