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Internet QoS

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Internet QoS

• What is QoS?
– Delay, delay jitter, bandwidth, drop rate, etc.
– Required for real-time/multimedia
real time/multimedia app
app.

• Best
Best-effort
effort service is not enough
enough.

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Overview

Application Layer QoS requirements

Transport Layer IntServ/DiffServ

Network Layer QoS routing

MPLS
Link Layer

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Integrated Services with RSVP

• Providing guaranteed service


• Using RSVP signaling protocol to reserve resource along
th path
the th
• Problem in scalability

PATH PATH

Sender R R R Receiver
RESV RESV

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Integrated Services with RSVP

• Service classes
– Guaranteed service
– Controlled load service
• Required mechanisms
– Flowspecs
– Admission control
– Signalling (Resource reservation)
– Packet scheduling

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Flowspecs

3
• Traffic characteristics – Tspec
– Average sending rate is not

th (MBps)
enough.
Flow B
– Using token bucket filter 2
• Service requested – Rspec

Bandwidt
– Controlled load service
– Guaranteed service – specify Flow A
delay bound 1

1 2 3 4
Time (seconds)

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Resource Reservation (RSVP)

• Receiver-oriented
– for multicasting support
• Soft-sate
S ft t
– for robustness
– periodically timed-out
timed out without refresh message
• PATH and RESV messages

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Packet Classifying and Scheduling

• Classifying
– associating each packet with the appropriate reservation
– source/destination addresses and port numbers
numbers, protocol
number
– flow label field in IPv6
• Scheduling
– FIFO is not enough
– WFQ – hard to implement

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Scalability Issues

• Per-flow state

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What is DiffServ?
• A scalable
l bl solution
l i proposed dbby IETF to provide
id service
i
differentiation in IP networks.
• RFCs on the DiffServ
– Definition of the DS Field in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers (RFC 2474)
– An Architecture for DiffServ (RFC 2475)
– A Expedited
An E dit d FForwarding
di PHB (RFC 2598)
– Assured Forwarding PHB Group (RFC 2597)

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Overview of a DiffServ Network

Edge Router H Core Router


- Conditioning - AF PHB
- Classifying M - EF PHB
- Markingg

H R R

H M
R
H
M
H
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Expedited Forwarding PHB
• C
Called
ll d P
Premium
i service,
i Vi
Virtuall L
Leased
d Li
Line or Vi
Virtuall Wi
Wire
• Guaranteeing low loss rate, low latency, low jitter and assured BW
through end-to-end path
• Intended to send circuit replacement traffic across a DiffServ network
• Mimic the behavior of a hard-wired circuit
• But, does not require per-circuit
per circuit state
• Suitable for IP telephony or video conferencing

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EF PHB (cont
(cont.))
• Rules
R l
– Each node in the domain must implement the EF PHB.
– Conditioning the aggregate so that it’s arrival rate at any node is always less
than that node’s
node s departure rate
rate.
• Characteristics
– The same as a wire
– Arrival rate ≤ Configured rate
• Delivered with a high degree of assurance and with almost no distortion of
the interpacket timing
– Arrival rate > Configured rate
• Unconditionally discarded

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EF PHB - Configuration

Priority Que.
Edge Router
SLA
EF packet
Packet Meter Marker EF packet Ht ff t
Best-effort
B

M
Discarded

H R R
H M
H R
M
H 14
EF PHB – Jitter Window
• A CBR flow of size S packets being sourced at rate R.
• Link bandwidth in the domain, B = nR.

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Potential Sources of Queueing
Delay
• Non-EF
N EF packets
k t
– EF priority queueing -> the only delay experienced for waiting the finish of a
packet that are being sent at the time it arrived.
– Worst-case
Worst case delay = S/B ->>B> >= 2R
• Another VW packet from the same customer
– The incoming VW stream is strictly shaped to a rate R.
– Inter-packet
I t k t spacing
i = S/R
S/R.
– No delay only of the link bandwidth > R
• VW packets from other customer
– Not
N shown
h at a receiver
i only
l if the
h li
link
kbbandwidth
d id h > nR
R

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Assured Forwarding PHB

• Providing better service


• Service Level Agreement (SLA) specify the amount of
BW
• Packet marked IN/OUT
• Different
Diff tddrop rate
t ffor IN/OUT packet
k t

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AF PHB (cont.)
(cont )

RED IN/OUT
Edge Router
p(drop)
SLA 1
P k t
Packets M
Meter M k
Marker IN/OUT H
OUT IN
M q

H R R
H M
H R
M
H 18
AF Example

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QoS Routing

• Providing a route that is most likely to be able to


meet the QoS requirements
• A tool for Traffic Engineering
• Difficulty in complexity and stability
• Helping DiffServ

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MultiProtocol Label Switching

• Forwarding scheme using fixed length header (label)


• Between L2 and L3
• Fast packet forwarding
• LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) required to setup LSP
(L b l SSwitched
(Label it h d P
Path)
th)
• Working with QoS routing

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