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Introduction The increasing need for improvement of quality the world over led to the development of quality systems to take care of all relevant aspects related to and influencing quality starting from product design and culminating in service to the user. The increase in product complexity and size of operation, responsibility for product quality is gradually shifted from operator to the quality control department. Quality is defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Total Quality Management (TQM) is defined as a quality-centered, customer-focused, fact-based, teamdriven, senior-management-led process to achieve an organization s strategic imperative through continuous process improvement.
TQM MEANING. Total means All parts f the organization Everyone in the organization All costs of quality Quality means Can mean high specifications Can mean appropriate specifications Can mean conformance to specifications Management Top management support Providing all the resources to maintain the quality
materials and people. It is human nature to feel that they can make a difference to the success of the organization in which they work and feel that their participation and skills are valued.Objectives of the Study The major objectives of the study are to high light the various uses of Total Quality Management (TQM) as a tool for managerial decision making. Continuous Improvement-never ending push to improve.e. the study would also examine the different dimensions of TQM and its implementation strategy. . Customer Satisfaction-which involves meeting or exceeding customer expectation. The customer is the king" is truer today than ever before. Customers all over the world now demand that they be assured and satisfied that the product or services for which they are paying will meet their specifications and expectations and will perform as anticipated. demand for better quality services and products also increases. It covers equipment. on average. Empowerment has major implications for the way the organization is managed. There are two philosophies in this approach i. a. Keeping in mind the above situation. The partial objectives of this study are: i) To get an overall insight and to identify the familiar concepts of TQM ii)To find out the organizational setup aiding the implementation of TQM iii)To know the perception of TQM of Bangladeshi Management iv) To suggest possible ways of transforming corporate culture into TQM A Japanese worker produces. twenty seven improvement ideas a year which is the highest in the world because they are empowered and given freedom to exploit their talents. Total Quality Management The term Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to a quest for quality that involves everyone in an organization. b. Another object is to find out the inherent constraints in its application followed by an attempt to recommend for the betterment of the situation. methods.. As the quality of life improves.
3. you have to identify the companies or organizations that are the best for something. Employee Empowerment: . Make it ease touse and easy toproduce. methods. We can get the answer of this question by The surveys Focus groups Interviews or Some other techniques that integrates Customer¶s voice in the decision making process. L. materials and people. Design a product or service that meet or exceed what customer want. Keep track of results and use those to guide improvement in the system. Example: Xerox used the mail order company. But now it is very popular both in U. 3. 4. The company need not be the same line of business as yours. 2. Find out what customers want. Competitive Benchmark: For learning how to improve your operations. 5. Extend these concepts to suppliers and to distribution Some Other Elements in TQM 1.L. Continual Improvement: This is the philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvement to the process of converting input into output. In JAPAN the concept is known as Kaizen.Approaches of TQM: 1. We should include the internal customers (the next person in the process) as well as the external customers (The final customers). The concept was not used even few years back.S. Determine where mistakes are likely to occur and try to prevent them. Never stop trying to improve. Remember the concept during the design a production process DO THE JOB RIGHT THE FIRST TIME . It covers equipment. 2.Bean to Benchmark order filling.A and Japanese Companies.The concept developed by Philip Crosby.
c. 4. Program may not be linked to the strategies of the organization in the meaningful way. employee confusion and meaningless results .. Knowledge of tools: Employees and managers are trained in the use of quality tools criticism a.e. Blind Pursuit of TQM program: Overzealous advocates may focus attention on quality even though other priorities may be more important(i. This puts decision making into the hands of those who are closest to the job and have considerable insight into problems and solutions.Giving workers the responsibility for improvements. 6. Quality-related decision may not be tied to market performance. Decision based on facts rather than opinion. 5. d. Team Approach: The use of teams for problem solving and to achieve consensus.operation and shared values among employees. gets people involved and promotes a spirit of co. For example: customer satisfaction may be carried to the extent that its costs far exceeds any direct and indirect benefit of doing so. Failure to carefully plan a program before embarking on it can lead to false starts. takes advantages of group synergy. responding quickly to competitor¶s advances) b.
Method of Process Improvement There are four basic steps in the cycle- . Give problem definition careful consideration: don¶t rush through this step because this will serve as the focal point of problem solving efforts. Possible tools include check sheet. Step-2: Collect Data. Analysis For the purpose of improving the functioning of the process.PROBLEM SOLVING IN THE TQM APPROACH Problem solving is one of the basic procedures of TQM . Documentation ii. If not. histogram.Possible tools include control chart and run chart. The solution must be based on facts. Step-1: Define the problem and establish an improvement goal. It involvesi. scatter diagram. Methods includes brainstorming. modify the solution or return to step-1. Goals of Process improvement Increasing Customer satisfaction Achieving higher quality Reducing waste Reducing cost Increasing productivity and Speeding up the process. run chart and control chart. Step-4: Generate potential solutions. interviewing and surveying Step-5: Choose a solution Be sure what are the criteria are for choosing a solutions and select the best one.diagram. Measurement and iii. cause ±effect. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Process Improvement is a systematic approach to improve a process.An important aspect of problem solving in the TQM approach is eliminating the cause so that the problem does not reoccur. Step-3: Analyze the problem Possible tools include pareto chart. Step-6: Implement the solution Keep everyone informed Step-7: Monitor the solution to see if it accomplishes the goal.
If the results are unsuccessful revised the plan and repeat the process or cease this project. We are going to describe eight and first seven is known as seven basic quality tools. Implement training for the new method. Employing this sequence of steps provide a systematic approach to continuous improvement.Step-1: Plan Begin by studying the current process. These are Check sheets Flowcharts Scatter Diagrams Histograms Pareto Analysis Control Charts Cause and effect Diagram . In replicating successful results elsewhere in the organization. Next. Specify measures of evaluating the plan. TOOLS FOR PROCESS IMPROVEMENT There are a number of tools for process improvement. Then collect data to identify problems. If the plan is unsuccessful and we wish to make further modifications repeat this cycle. Document the process. survey data and develop a plan for improvement. Step-2: Do Implement the plan on a small scale if possible. Check how closely the results match the original goals of the plan phase. Collect data systematically for evaluation Step-3: Study Evaluate the data collection during the do phase. the cycle is repeated. Step-4: Act If the results are successful standardized the new method and communicate the new method to all people associated with the process. Document any changes made during this phase.
Run charts. .