ENGLAND

ENGLAND GEOGRAPHY:
England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. England isbordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of mainland Britain, divided from France only by a 24-statute mile (52 km or 28.1 nmi) sea gap. The Channel Tunnel, near Folkestone, directly links England to mainland Europe. The English/French border is halfway along the tunnel. Much of England consists of rolling hills, but it is generally more mountainous in the north with a chain of mountains, the Pennines, dividing east and west. Other hilly areas in the north and Midlands are the Lake District, the North York Moors, and the Peak District. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. To the south of that line, there are larger areas of flatter land, including East Angliaand the Fens, although hilly areas include the Cotswolds, the Chilterns, and the North andSouth Downs. The largest natural harbour in England is at Poole, on the south-central coast. Some regard it as the second largest harbour in the world, after Sydney, Australia, although this fact is disputed. England was once almost entirely covered with woodland, but tree cover is now the second lowest in Europe (after Ireland). Since early this century the government has been planting conifers to reverse this situation, but the pines have turned the soils around them acid and destroyed large areas of ancient peatland. Other common trees include oak, elm, chestnut, lime (not the citrus variety), ash and beech. Although there isn't much tall flora around, you'll see plenty of lovely wildflowers in spring - snowdrops, daffodils, bluebells, primroses, buttercups and cowslips all lend a touch of colour to the English countryside. On the moors there are several varieties of flowering heathers.

CLIMATE:
England has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round, although the seasons are quite variable in temperature. However, temperatures rarely fall below í5 °C (23 °F) or rise above 30 °C (86 °F). The prevailing wind is from the south-west, bringing mild and wet weather to England regularly from the Atlantic Ocean. It is driest in the east and warmest in the south, which is closest to the European mainland. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring, although it is not that common away from high ground. The highest temperature recorded in England is 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 10 August 2003 at Brogdale, near Faversham, in Kent. The lowest temperature recorded in England is í26.1 °C (í15.0 °F) on 10 January 1982 at Edgmond, near Ribble, Ouse, Mersey, Dee, Aire, Avon and Medway.

MAJOR TOWNS AND CITIES:

London is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the largest and busiest cities in the world. Other cities, mainly in central and northern England, are of substantial size and influence. The list of England's largest cities or urban areas is open to debate because, although the normal meaning of city is "a continuously built-up urban area", this can be hard to define, particularly because administrative areas in England often do not correspond with the limits of urban development, and many towns and cities have, over the centuries, grown to form complex urban agglomerations. For the official definition of a UK (and therefore English) city, see City status in the United Kingdom. The largest cities in England are as follows (in alphabetical order):          Birmingham Bradford Bristol Coventry Derby Kingston upon Hull Leeds Leicester Liverpool

in a meeting between Henry II of England and Philip II of France. The red cross appeared as an emblem of England during the Middle Ages and the Crusades and is one of the earliest known emblems representing England. the two rivals agreed to exchange flags (France later changed its new white cross on red for a white cross on a dark blue flag). Saint George became the patron saint of England in the thirteenth century. the red cross on white became the typical crusader symbol regardless of nationality. like the French.              London Manchester Middlesbrough Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Wolverhampton FLAG OF ENGLAND: The Flag of England is the St George's Cross. the emblem associated with England's patron saint. Some French knights carried on using the red cross however. and the legend of Saint George slaying a dragon dates from the twelfth century. . In January 1188. a red cross on white was already associated with England because this was St George's cross. Although the Pope decided English crusaders would be distinguished by wearing a white cross on red. It achieved status as the national flag of England during the sixteenth century. and as English knights wore this pattern as well. English knights soon decided to claim "their" cross of red on white. and French crusaders a red cross on white (Italian knights were allocated a yellow cross on a white background). At the beginning of the Crusades.

as follows: God save our gracious Queen! Long live our noble Queen! God save the Queen! Send her victorious. It became known as the National Anthem from the beginning of the nineteenth century. when all other saints' banners were abandoned during the Reformation. was 1545. Happy and glorious. since the King of France had already recognised the red cross on white as an English symbol. Long may she reign. This theory is untrue. On official occasions the first verse is sung.The flag appeared during the Middle Ages. T he B r it ish Na t io n a l An t h e m: The National Anthem is God Save the Queen. God save the Queen. Thereafter it became recognised as the flag of England and Wales. to distinguish themselves from the white crosses used by the rebel barons at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier. for example. The use of a red cross on a white background was a symbol of St. The St George's Cross was used as an emblem (but not as a flag) of England was in a roll of account relating to the Welsh War of 1275. Long to reign over us. another country with Saint George as their patron saint. George in the Middle Ages. . This is seen. in the flag of Georgia. St George's cross may not have achieved the full status of national flag until the sixteenth century. The English royalist forces at the Battle of Evesham in 1265 used a red cross on their uniforms. The earliest record of St George's Cross at sea.The British National Anthem originated in a patriotic song first performed in 1745. as an English flag in conjunction with royal banners but no other saintly flags. The second verse is occasionally sung as well: Thy choicest gifts in store On her be pleased to pour. There is a theory that the flag is that the flag of Genoa was adopted by England and the City of London in 1190 for their ships entering the Mediterranean to benefit from the protection of the powerful Genoese fleet.

The widespread being heather. trout. Elm. and grayling.May she defend our laws. honeysuckle. Reindeer are extinct(englands larger mammals) but red and roedeer are protected for sport.847 bugs inhabit England the most common is the Caddisfly. Fish: The rivers and lakes abound in salmon. Implements such as sticks. dace. dating back to 1448. hares hedgehogs. fens. Common smaller animals are. To sing with heart and voice. swords. There is no mention of "morris" dancing earlier than the late 15th century. Insects: 21. chalk downs. pike. MORRIS DANCE: A morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music. . Birds: Roughly 230 species of birds reside in England and another 200 are migratory. rabbits.handkerchiefs and bells may also be wielded by the dancers. FLORA AND FAUNA: Trees: Oak. shrews. and mountain slopes. stoats. Ash. mention the morris dance are open to dispute. With reclimation of marshlands Waterfowl are moving into bird sanctuaries. It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers. perch. and red grouse which are protected for sport. Bear. foxes. rats. Claims that English records. God save the Queen. Wild vegetation consists of the natural flora of woods. And give us ever cause. mice. blackbird. and Beech are the most common trees of England Flowers: Some wild flowers you can find in england are wild rose. Mammals: Wolf. aand bracken of moorlands. steps are performed near and across a pair of clay tobaccopipes laid across each other on the floor. There are few reptiles and amphibians. partridge. otters(found in many rivers) and seals(seen frequently along the coast). sparrow. gorse. marshes. and starling. and sea lavender Plants: Varied vegetation of grasses and flowering plants. cliffs. The most bemourous are chaffin. In a small number of dances for one or two men. weasels. roach. grasses. although early records such as Bishops' "Visitation Articles" mention sword dancing. The number of large birds is declining except for pheasant.

Sikhism. In the past. the Angel of the North. There is certainly no evidencethat it is a pre-Christian ritual. New Zealand. Buddhism. both of which are religious in origin. Canada. Furthermore. as well as in Cyprus and Alsace. religions with the most adherents are Islam. Netherlands. Westminster Abbey.guising and other dancing activities as well as mumming plays. Anglo-Saxon paganism and Norse paganism. The festivals of Christmas and Easter. although there are around 150 morris sides (or teams) in the United States. Hinduism. the earliest records invariably mention "Morys" in a court setting. There are isolated groups in other countries. Roman polytheism.Judaism. RELIGION: Christianity is the most widely practiced and declared religion in England. it is commonly thought of as a uniquely English activity. The only widespread world religion that was created in England is the neopagan religion of Wicca. the Rastafari movement and Neopaganism. and secularism. In the modern day. are still widely commemorated in the country. atheist humanism. includingStonehenge. particularlyCeltic polytheism. and Hong Kong. St Paul's Cathedral and Canterbury Cathedral. After Christianity. . It is only later that it begins to be mentioned as something performed in the parishes. There are also organisations which promote irreligion. as is often claimed. the Bahá'í Faith. Many of England's most notable buildings and monuments are religious in nature. France. the Arctic Morris Group of Helsinki and Stockholm. various other religions (usually "pagan") have been important in the country. British expatriates form a larger part of the morris tradition in Australia. and both men and women are mentioned as dancing. for example those in Utrecht. and a little later in the Lord Mayors' Processions in London. The Anglican Church of England is the established church of England holding a special constitutional position for the United Kingdom.

000 Buddhists living in Britain in 2001. It is called Swaminarayan Temple. belong to smaller minority groups. London's Jewish community grew in the 19th century. and an avoidance of complex sauces which were commonly associated with Catholic Continental political affiliations Traditional meals have ancient . London's oldest synagogue is Bevis Marks in the City. Buddhists: Of the 149. honesty of flavour. range from ordinary local buildings to the impressive Central London Mosque in Regent's Park. then sent to London to be assembled. Many of the Indians living in London are Hindus. Many members of London's large Islamic community are Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Mu sl i ms: Around two fifths of Muslims (38 per cent) live in London. the city's Islamic places of worship. and its many parts were carved from marble and limestone in India.O t h e r R e lig io n s: Jews: The Jewish population is the most heavily concentrated in London. In 1995 some built a magnificent place of worship in the northwestern suburb of Neasden. with 56 per cent of the Jewish population of Great Britain living there. when refugees came from Nazi Germany. such as garlic. FOOD: Since the early modern era. others such as Arabs and Turks. This has resulted in a traditional cuisine which tended to veer from strong flavours. and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. Sikhs: 31 per cent of the Sikh population live in London. the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach. Hindus: Just over half (52 per cent) of Britain's Hindu population live in London. called mosques. 36 per cent live in London.

The full English breakfast is a variant of the traditional British fried breakfast. (Note that Belgian tradition. there are some forms of cuisine considered distinctively English. and freshwater and saltwater fish. as recorded in a manuscript of 1781. although outlets selling fried food occurred commonly throughout . eggs. Black pudding is added in some regions as well as fried leftover mashed potatoes (called potato cakes). such as bread and cheese. and William Hogarth's painting of the same name. the first fish and chip shop was opened in London by Jewish proprietor Joseph Malin who married together "fish fried in the Jewish fashion" with chips. The 14th century English cookbook. particularly the former. and the south of England has seen the reintroduction of vineyards producing high quality white wine on a comparatively small scale. may have first appeared in Britain in about the same period: the OED notes as its earliest usage of "chips" in this sense the mention inDickens' A Tale of Two Cities (published in 1859): "Husky chips of potatoes. The normal ingredients of a traditional full English breakfast arebacon.origins. and dates from the royal court of Richard II. FISH AND CHIPS: In the United Kingdom. the Forme of Cury. usually served with a mug of tea. fish and chips became a cheap food popular among the working classes with the rapid development of trawl fishing in the North Sea in the second half of the nineteenth century. meat and game pies. Deep-fried "chips" (slices or pieces of potato) as a dish. and sausages. Roast beef is a food traditionally associated with the English. fried or grilled tomatoes. dates the frying of potatoes carved into the shape of fish back at least as far as 1680. contains recipes for these. In 1860. Cider is produced in the West Country. Tea and beer are typical and rather iconic drinks in England. fried with some reluctant drops of oil". Modern English cuisine is difficult to differentiate from British cuisine as a whole. since the 1700s the phrase "les rosbifs" has been a popular French nickname for the English. Indeed.) The modern fish-and-chip shop ("chippy" or "chipper" in modern British slang) originated in the United Kingdom. the link was made famous by Henry Fielding's patriotic ballad "The Roast Beef of Old England". fried mushrooms. fried bread or toast. However. roasted and stewed meats.

The industry overcame this reputation because during World War II fish and chips remained one of the few foods in the United Kingdom not subject to rationing.Europe. but several local Trading Standards authorities and others do say it cannot be sold merely as "fish and chips". such establishments also emitted a smell associated with frying. not a drink. H IG H T E A : (The traditional 6 o'clock tea) The British working population did not have Afternoon Tea. They started offering their visitors sandwiches and cakes too. Early fish-and-chip shops had only very basic facilities. the Fish Labelling Regulations 2003 enact directive 2065/2001/EC and generally means that "fish" must be sold with the particular species named. and a meal after work. . This meal was called 'high tea' or just 'tea'. so "cod and chips" not "fish and chips". Afternoon tea became popular about one hundred and fifty years ago. a stigma retained until the interwar period. between five and seven o'clock. According to one story. The Food Standards Agency guidance excludes caterers from this. heated by a coal fire. However. In the United Kingdom and Ireland. fried-potato shops spreading south from Scotland merged with fried-fish shops spreading from southern England. Insanitary by modern standards. Usually these consisted principally of a large cauldron of cooking-fat. Assorted pastries. Soon everyone was enjoying Afternoon tea. you can still have Afternoon tea at the many tea rooms around England. when rich ladies invited their friends to their houses for an afternoon cup of tea. which led to the authorities classifying fish-and-chip supply as an "offensive trade". AF T E R NO O N T E A : (The traditional 4 o'clock tea) This is a small meal. Traditionally it consists of tea (or coffee) served with either of the following: Freshly baked scones: served with cream and jam (Known as a cream tea) Afternoon tea sandwiches: thinly sliced cucumber sandwiches with the crusts cut off. They had a meal about midday. A f t e r n o o n T e a t o d a y : Afternoon tea is not common these days because most adults go out to work.

His size and apparent gluttony represented prosperity in an age where rosy cheeks and plump faces were a sign of good health. averse to intellectualism. introduced John Bull as the typical Englishman: "an honest plain-dealing fellow. giving those outside the traditional political process a voice. cakes. doctor and political satirist. cold meats and pickles or poached eggs on toast. Although frequently used through World War II. John Bull became so familiar that his name frequently appeared in books. most people refer to the evening meal as dinner or supper. such as cheese on toast. This meal is now often replaced with a supper due to people eating their main meal in the evenings rather than at midday. . and country sports. ale. choleric. John Bull first appears as a character in a series of political satires by John Arbuthnot (1667-1735). He was the ordinary man in the street. 'The History of John Bull'. prepared to criticise the royal family and the government.(Today. and he appeared as a cartoon by Sir John Tenniel in Punch magazine. John Bull has been seen less often since the 1950s. dressed in the fashion of the Regency period. periodical titles. High tea was a substantial meal that combined delicious sweet foods. He is shown in cartoons and caricatures as a prosperous farmer of the 18th century. horses. and of resistance to French aggression. buns or tea breads. Symbols: JOHN BULL: John Bull is an imaginary figure who is a personification of England. The John Bull character was that of a drinking man. and of a very inconstant temper" (from Law is a Bottomless Pit). bold.) Traditionally eaten early evening. His series of John Bull pamphlets. Arbuthnot was a Scottish scientist. Bull is usually pictured as a stout man in a tailcoat with breeches and a Union Flag waistcoat. toasted crumpets. of loyalty to king and country. similar to the American 'Uncle Sam'. who would fight Napoleon with his bare hands if necessary. He also wears a low topper (sometimes called a John Bull topper) on his head and is often accompanied by a bulldog. reflected in the French nickname for English people les rosbifs (the "Roast Beefs"). with tempting savouries. During the Napoleonic Wars. fond of dogs. hard-headed. John Bull became the national symbol of freedom. and as a brand name or trademark. plays. John Bull's surname is reminiscent of the alleged fondness of the English for beef. down-to-earth. such as scones. By the 1800s he was seen as a more assertive figure in domestic politics as well. By 1762 James Gillray and other caricature engravers had incorporated John Bull into their work.

but abandoned before completion. In its first phase. the construction of Stonehenge was an impressive engineering feat. this presented quite a transportation problem. constructed approximately 5. wood. straightforward. The Bluestones: About 2. generous. a bank and ditch arrangement called a henge. Construction of the Henge: In its day. . As Uncle Sam is the iconic representation of the United States. requiring commitment. Symbols: . The oak: is the national tree of England. located roughly 240 miles away.000 years ago. . It is believed that the ditch was dug with tools made from the antlers of red deer and. The Three Lions Crest : A symbol of England Richard the Lionheart (1189 .1199) used the three golden lions (sometimes described as leopards) on their scarlet background as a powerful symbol of the English Throne during the time of the Crusades. The stones used in that first circle are believed to be from the Prescelly Mountains. time and vast amounts of manual labor. Modern experiments have shown that these tools were more than equal to the great task of earth digging and moving. was set up. so John Bull is the personification of the character of the English: honest. possibly. in all.000 BC. It was then loaded into baskets and carried away. the first stone circle (which is now the inner circle). Many of the original stones have fallen or been removed by previous generations for home construction or road repair. at the southwestern tip of Wales. comprised of small bluestones. STONEHENGE: The stones we see today represent Stonehenge in ruin. The underlying chalk was loosened with picks and shoveled with the shoulderblades of cattle. Stonehenge was a large earthwork. with a zest for life and ready to stand up and fight for what he believes in. .John Bull is still looked upon with affection by many English people. The bluestones weigh up to 4 tons each and about 80 stones were used. The red rose: is widely recognised as the national flower of England. Given the distance they had to travel. There has been serious damage to some of the smaller bluestones resulting from close visitor contact (prohibited since 1978) and the prehistoric carvings on the larger sarsen stones show signs of significant wear.

The Queen rides in a State coach to Westminster to open each new session of Parliament. The crown on the postbox also has the monarchs initials underneath. hence the name. -black taxi cabs. usually in the second week in November. Every King and Queen has been crowned in Westminster Abbey since William the Conqueror in 1066. The Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament) contain the bell Big Ben that is struck each quarter hour. Victoria Regina is latin for Queen Victorian and Georgeus Rex is latin for King George. Throughout its long history. It is the place where laws governing British life are debated and passed. the Palace of Westminster was the royal home to the Kings and Queens of England. The Palace of Westminster: known also as the Houses of Parliament. the Tower has served as a royal palace and fortress. -pillar box ( post box) -telephone box. Westminster Abbey: is one of the oldest buildings in London and one of the most important religious centres in the country. We have postboxes with VR (Victoria Regina) and GR (Georgeus Rex) still in use today. an arsenal. Famous Landmarks: Tower of London: For over 900 years the Tower of London has been one of the capital's most prominent landmarks and a world-famous visitor attraction. menagerie and jewel house. royal mint. A light in the clock tower tells when the House of Commons is in session. prison and place of execution. From the middle of the 11th century until 1512. Its founder. Many kings and Queens and famous people are buried or commemorated there. is where the twoHouses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) conduct their sittings.On the street: -red double decker buses. was made a saint after his death and he is buried in a special chapel dedicated to him. . Edward the Confessor. Both the post box and telephone box have a picture of a crown on them.

Britain's most famous sea Lord. The rebuilt cathedral was again burnt down in the Great Fire of London in 1666. covering over 180 acres. Officially "Big Ben" does not refer to the whole clocktower (also known as St Stephen's Tower). . it is 320m in diameter and 50m high with support towers reaching 100m. 40. Nelson died in this famous battle against Napoleon. The dome of St Pauls Cathedral is the second biggest dome in the world. The outside of the building consists of 24. It is the London home of the British Royal family. after St Peter's in Rome. St Paul·s cathedral: The first St Paul's Cathedral was built in 604 AD but burnt down in 675.Big Ben: is one of the most famous landmarks in the world. it promises views of up to 25 miles. and will carry 800 passengers at a time on a thirty-minute ride. At the dome's base is the Whispering Gallery. Trafalgar Square: was built in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson after his victory in 1805 at the Battle of Trafalgar.000 tulips are planted each year in front of Buckingham palace.000 square metres of glass arranged in diamond-shaped panes. The London Eye: next to County Hall. The present St Paul's Cathedral was built between 1675 and 1711 by Sir Christopher Wren. It is the world·s biggest ferris wheel. The clock tower is situated on the banks of the river Thames and is part of the Palace of Westminster. The 600 room palace is surrounded by a 40 acre garden. although its official opening was not until the end of May 2004. It can accomodate Nelson's Column standing upright and the Eiffel Tower placed horizontally. is another of London·s most modern landmarks. The O2: in London is the largest dome in the world. Infamously known as 'the Gherkin' due to its 3D oval shape. A whisper to the wall on one side can be heard on the other. 30 St Mary Axe: opened on 27 April 2004. From its highest point of 450 feet. Buckingham Palace: is one of the most popular landmarks in London. it is one of the first landmarks to become visible when you're travelling into London from many different places. but to the huge thirteen ton bell that strikes the hour. It was built on the Greenwich Meridian (0 degrees longitude) to commemorate the new millennium.

. Unlucky to spill salt. .. . Lucky to touch wood. On the first day of the month it is lucky to say "white rabbits. We touch. . Putting money in the pocket of new clothes brings good luck.G e n er a l S u pe r st it io n s: Good Luck: . . . Unlucky to see one magpie. . white rabbits white rabbits. etc. . Lucky to meet a black cat. knock on wood. The superstition is supposed to have originated in ancient times. Every leaf means a lucky month next year. The luck runs out of the horseshoe if it is upside down. Unlucky to walk underneath a ladder. to make something come true. Friday is considered to be an unlucky day because Jesus was crucified on a Friday. when mirrors were considered to be tools of the gods. Seven years bad luck to break a mirror. you must throw it over your shoulder to counteract the bad luck. Bad Luck: ." before uttering your first word of the day. Cut your hair when the moon is waxing and you will have good luck. . A horseshoe over the door brings good luck. . lucky to see two. But the horseshoe needs to be the right way up. Friday the thirteenth is a very unlucky day. The number thirteen is unlucky. Unlucky to open an umbrella in doors. Lucky to find a clover plant with four leaves. White heather is lucky. . If you do. . . Black Cats are featured on many good luck greetings cards and birthday cards in England. . Horseshoes are generally a sign of good luck and feature on many good luck cards. . Catch falling leaves in Autumn and you will have good luck.

Crossed cutlery on your plate and expect a quarrel. In the middle ages it was believed that witches were closely associated with bats. . It is said to be bad luck if you see bats flying and hear their cries. Unlucky to pass someone on the stairs. If you drop a table knife expect a male visitor. any Sparrow caught must be immediately killed otherwise the person who caught it will die. housewives used to believe that bread would not rise if there was a corpse (dead body) in the vicinity. White Rabbits are said to be really witches and some believe that saying 'White Rabbit' on the . . Leave a white tablecloth on a table overnight and expect a death. One ancient British superstition holds that if a child rides on abear's back it will be protected from whooping-cough. If a Sparrow enters a house it is an omen of death to one of the people who live there. In some parts of the UK meeting two or three Ravenstogether is considered really bad. One very English superstition concerns the tame Ravens at the Tower of London. In some areas it is believed that to avoid bad luck. Food Superstitions: . In some areas black Rabbits are thought to host the souls of human beings. . In Yorkshire. and to cut off both ends of the loaf would make the Devil fly over the house! Table Superstitions: .. . Unlucky to put new shoes on the table. Animal Superstitions: Animals feature a lot in our superstitions as they do in superstitions around the world. if you drop a fork a female visitor. It is believed if they leave then the crown of England will be lost. . . push the spoon through the bottom of the empty shell to let the devil out . . When finished eating a boiled egg. (Bears used to roam Britain but now they are not seen on our shores) .

e. the Evil-Eye associated with wickedness. something blue. UK B a n k Ho lid a y D a t e s 2 0 10 . . but not for the Rabbit. . 2 01 1 a n d 2 01 2 Bank holidays are public holidays in the United Kingdom. Wales.first day of each month brings luck. Scotland and Northern Ireland are shown below: Dates England & Scotland Wales Northern Ireland New Year's Day 1 Jan 2010 2 January St. It is thought very unlucky to have the feathers of a Peacockwithin the home or handle anything made with them. The expected dates of bank and public holidays in England. For good luck the bride should wear ´something borrowed. This is possibly because of the eye shape present upon these feathers i. . Patrick's Day 17 March 2010 17 March 2011 17 March 2012 No Yes No Yes Yes Yes 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2012 Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Good Friday . A common lucky charm is a Rabbit's foot. The husband should carry his new wife over the threshold of their home. The bride should never wear her complete wedding clothes before the day. . when banks and many other businesses are closed for the day. Bride and groom must not meet on the day of the wedding except at the altar. something old and something newµ. Wedding Superstitions: .

Stephen's Day . St.2 April 2010 22 April 2011 6 April 2012 Easter Monday 5 April 2010 25 April 2011 9 April 2012 Yes No Yes May Day or Early May Bank Holiday 3 May 2010 2 May 2011 7 May 2012 Yes Yes Yes Spring Bank Holiday 31 May 2010 30 May 2011 4 June 2012 5 June *extra Yes Yes Yes Battle of the Boyne Orangemen's Day 12 July 2010 12 July 2011 12 July 2012 No No Yes Summer Bank Holiday First Monday in August 2 Aug 2010 1 Aug 2011 6 Aug 2012 No Yes No Summer Bank Holiday Last Monday in August 30 August 29 Aug 2010 2011 St Andrew's Day 30 Nov 2010 30 Nov 2011 30 Nov 2012 27 August 2012 Yes No Yes No Yes No Christmas Day Bank Holiday 27 Dec 2010 26 Dec 2011 25 Dec 2012 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Boxing Day.

Among other novels. Achievements from the Italian period include T'he House of Fame'. A publication of biographical essays of English poets in 1781 under the title 'The Lives of the Poets' marked the end of his career.1400). 'Hard Times' (1854). essayist. His career as a novelist took off in 1833. Samuel Johnson: (1709 ² 1784) Dr. 'The Old Curiosity Shop' (1840-41). . journalist and critic made him one of the most conspicuous men of 18th-Century life and letters. His works are organised into three chronological sections: the French period (up to 1372). 'Oliver Twist' (1837-39). 'The Parliament of Fowls' and T'he Legend of Good Women'. His translation of Pope's 'Messiah' into Latin appeared in 1731. its central theme being a pilgrimage of about 30 people to the sanctuary of the martyr St. the Italian period (1372 . was 'A Dictionary of the English Language' (1755). Dickens is the author of many novels that are shining examples of his genius. 'A Tale Of Two Cities' (1859). Samuel Johnson's gifts as a poet. when his essays and short stories were published in periodicals. Chaucer is accorded a leading place among English poets prior to Shakespeare. A number of films based on Dickens's novels have been made. though. Charles Dickens: (1812 ² 1870) Recognised as one of the outstanding English prose writers.28 Dec 2010 27 Dec 2011 26 Dec 2012 Substitute Bank Holiday in lieu of 25th Dec because 25th falls at the weekend Substitute Bank Holiday in lieu of 26th Dec because 26th falls at the weekend Substitute Bank Holiday in lieu of 1st Jan Important people from England: Geoffrey Chaucer: (1434 ² 1400) Called the father of English literature. The most important work of the French period is 'Book of Duchess'.1385) and the English period (1387 . 'A Christmas Carol' (1843). Thomas a Becket. 'David Copperfield' (1849-50). one of the most noteworthy being David Lean's grave version of 'Oliver Twist'. he wrote 'The Pickwick Papers' (1836). from the English period. This author used the English language when most court poetry was still written either in Latin or Anglo-Norman. 'Proposals for a New Edition of Shakespeare' (1756) and 'The Prince of Abbyssinia' (1759). 'The Vanity of Human Wishes' (1749). His most outstanding accomplishment. 'Miscellaneous Observations on the Tragedy of Macbeth' (1745). is regarded as Chaucer's most outstanding poetic work. His novella A 'Christmas Carol'. T'he Canterbury Tales'. His other important works include 'A Voyage to Abbyssinia' (1735). has been adapted for the screen on countless occasions. 'Great Expectations' (1860-61) and T'he Mystery Of Edwin Drood' (1870). a much-cherished work. 'Little Dorrit' (1855-57). known for his opposition to social injustice and inequality.

she received a superb education at home. In 1930s he supported the programme of arming the country. known from around 1910 as the Bloomsbury Group. He acknowledged the existence of sexual instinct in infants and stated that the sexual drive was the most important shaper of a person's psyche. there is a natural sexual attraction towards the mother and repulsion and jealousy towards the father. as her father Leslie Stephen was a famous Victorian writer and mountaineer as well as the widower of William Thackeray's daughter. drowning herself in the River Ouse. He managed to maintain relations with Roosevelt and Stalin. he worked as a correspondent for the London Morning Post. called Hogarth Press. 'The Return of Sherlock Holmes' (1904). Later. 'The Voyage Out'. He also fought in the Second Boer War in South Africa. Virginia wolf: (1882 ² 1941) Born in London as Adeline Virginia Stephen. appeared in 1915. All her life. Though his theories shocked people of his day. She died tragically. she married the writer Leonard Woolf.Sigmund Freud: (1856 ² 1939) He was an Austrian psychiatrist and the inventor of psychoanalysis (a term he first used in 'The Aetiology of Hysteria' in 1896). She was raised by a literate family. she suffered from rapid mood swings. Randolph Churchill. Born in Blenheim Palace in Woodstock. Later. 'The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes' (1894). In 1895 he went to Cuba in a role of an observer of the Spanish fight against the Cuban guerrillas. In result. which all found a reflection in her poetic prose. feminist and lesbian themes are found in some of her books. Oxfordshire to a 19-Century Conservative minister. She also used rhythms that imitated the flow of the mind and intensified the experience of time passing. Her other notable novels are 'Mrs Dalloway' (1925). Churchill was the First Lord of the Admiralty. which made him a hero back in Britain. Virginia Woolf's first novel. during which he was captured. which is. 'The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes' (1892). in fact. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle also wrote 'The Hound of Baskervilles'. a holder of the Nobel Prize in Literature. as war with Germany was expected. and adapted into films and plays as well as radio and television series. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: (1859 ² 1930) While best remembered as the writer who brought Sherlock Holmes to life. His publications include 'The Interpretation of Dreams' (1900). From 1911 until World War I. In October of 1896 at his own request he was stationed in Bombay. as writer for the Daily Graphic he had a commission to write about the conflict. he served in the British Army as a young men. ipso facto opposing the 'appeasement policy' promoted by Prime Minister Chamberlain. it can't be denied that Freud was the most influential psychological theoretician of the 20th Century. As World War II broke out. The Freudian "Oedipus Complex" claims that in boys. After the war he was against Russian . In 1912. and in 1917 they founded a publishing company together. The 56 stories have been translated into a great many languages. . India. King George VI asked Churchill to take the post of PM. the British Prime Minister. Churchill was elected to the House of Commons. Watson were compiled into the books 'A Study in Scarlet' (1887). 'His Last Bow' (1917) and 'The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes' (1927). 'To the Lighthouse' (1927) and 'Orlando' (1928). 'The Analysis of the Ego' (1921) and 'The Future of an Illusion' (1927). She was a member of an artistic association. but he managed to escape. His short stories about the genius detective and his loyal friend Dr. she became one of the most recognised English novelists of Modernism. In 1900. he generated a similar theory for girls. T'hree Essays on the Theory of Sexuality' (1905). is undoubtedly considered the most influential person of his decade. believed by critics to be his most remarkable work. Virginia's godfather was the American poet and writer James Russell Lowell. and depression. Winston Churchill: (1874 ² 1965) Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill. She started to write professionally in 1905 for the Times Literary Supplement.

Fleming died of a heart attack in Canterbury. Throughout his literary career he produced different genres. James lived for a short period in Paris. staged in 1611. in Bishopsgate. he his first short story. Every summer season they performed at the famous Globe Theatre in London. travel writing. Among his other works one should list 'The Portrait of a Lady'. London to a prominent family. he stared to work for Reuters. Shakespeare's writings can be divided into comedies ('A Midsummer Night's Dream'. 'The Merchant of Venice'. a story about a European princess and her brother visiting their cousins in New England. novels. leaving notes for future stories or novels unfinished. He was also a journalist.tyranny. and probably became a teacher. Although many details of his life remain a mystery. and it was he who coined the term Iron Curtain. William Shakespeare: (1564 ² 1616) author of about 38 plays. he devoted his free time to writing historical books. spending some time in Moskow in 1933. in 1962. short stories. 'Casino Royale'. 'Otello'. His last production was 'The Tempest'. Harry Saltzman and Albert R. V'enus and Adonis'). was published anonymously. in 1953. Kent. Broccoli produced the film version of 'Dr. Eventually. became known as the King's Men. became the philosopher and psychologist. he received his education from Durnford School in Dorset. Aged 56. where he firstly dwelt in an apartment in London. 'A Tragedy of Error'. and back in London he was a stockbroker with Rowe and Pitman. and they developed a close friendship that lasted till James' death.µ it was later ascribed to Fleming's private Jamaican estate. In the early 1590s. During World War II. who. 'Hamlet'. the author met a young Norwegian-American sculptor. Hendrik Christian Andersen. 'King Lear') and poems ('Shakespeare's Sonnets'. Fleming published his first novel. definitely changed the state of the theatrical world. who was educated in Europe. 'Mackbeth'. Shakespeare moved back to his hometown. About three years later the couple and their children moved to London. As a result result. 'As You Like It'). He was only eighteen when he married Anne Hathaway. Later. literary criticism. and during World War II he served as a Naval Officer. Among his 22 novels the topic of the cultural differences between the American and European people was common. Remaining a member of the House of Commons until 1955. to improve his German and French. Shakespeare's first comedies were produced. and have defined the standards of literature. Throughout 1950s and 1960s he wrote 14 Bond novels all together which brought the author much acclaim and financial success. 'Julius Caesar'. tragedies ('Romeo and Juliet'. His father was a theologian and his brother. England. but also an actor and co-owner of an acting company. Born in the town of Stratford-on-Avon. East Sussex. 'Henry VIII'). In 1961 he sold the film rights to them. Henry James: (1843 ² ¡916) Born in New York. where he died on his birthday in 1616. 'The Golden Bowl' and 'The Turn of the Screw'. Eton College as well as from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Born in Mayfair. he went to the local grammar school. He . from 1603. Called ´Operation Goldeneye. No'. his works have been translated into numerous languages. William James. In 1864. By late 1594 he was recognised not only as a writer. introducing the secret agent 007. Fleming developed an Allied plan enabling communication with Gibraltar and monitoring Spain after the Spanish Civil War. Munich University and University of Geneva. Lord Chamberlain's Men. Ian Fleming: (1908 ² 1964) This British writer is primarily associated with the character of James Bond which he created. and later in the historic Lamb House in Rye. as well as biographies and an autobiography. histories ('Henry VI'. and in 1995 ² used as a title of the seventeenth James Bond film. He was also sent to Kitzbühel in Austria. until he moved permanently to England. 'Richard III'. . These include 'The Europeans'. and in 1869 he settled in England. After war. Henry James was a renowned American novelist. and 'The Ambassadors' about Americans in Paris.

Ignatius College in Enfield. who claimed to have visionary powers and was deeply interested in mysticism. Laurence Olivier: (1907 ² 1989) was one of the most acclaimed English actors of the 20th Century and was a holder of many international film awards. he became a British citizen. . especially due such films as 'Wuthering Heights'. including Oscars and Golden Globe. and that same year he had his debut as a director with 'Henry V'. Raised in a numerous family of English Dissenters. where his 'Rebecca' became an immediate success. The 'Lodger: A Story of the London Fog'. Nominated to the Academy Awards six times. he experimented with relief etching. At the end of his life he began his work on a series of engravings for Dante's 'Inferno'. and later at Gainsborough Pictures. He was knighted in 1980. artist and an illustrator. Notably. In 1937. as well as with his illustrations to the Biblical Book of Job. William Blake: (1757 ² 1827) London-born William Blake was a poet. where the Bible was commonly read. his future wife. His 'Poetical Sketches' were published around 1783. From his vast filmography. which he incorporated into his most famous written works. he attended St. and 'Pride and Prejudice' by MGM. he was educated firstly at the All Saint's Choir School in London. In 1940. such as 'Songs of Innocence' and 'Experience'. and later enrolled at the Royal Academy School and began working as an illustrator for magazines. and illuminated manuscripts. . His film debut came in the silent era. and Catherine Boucher. Alfred Hitchcock: (1899 ² 1980) This renowned British film director and producer. By 1772. 'The Marriage of Heaven and Hell'. London. He died in London at the end of that same year. In 1944 Laurence was appointed co-director of the Old Vic. From 1926 to 1928 Laurence Olivier was a member of the Birmingham Repertory Company. In his thirties. the director moved to the USA. Hitchock's 'Rebecca'. Surrey. in the school production. In the early 1780s. later at the Elsie Fogerty's Central School of Speech Training. His talent was noticed by critics in the early 30s after his performance in 'Private Lives' and in 'Romeo and Juliet'. Hitchcock always appeared in his own films ² usually in the background or in a busy crowd scene. 'The Pleasure Garden'. who soon became his patron. made at Ufa studios in Germany in 1925. From 1939 he was a popular Hollywood actor. was the master of suspense and a pioneer of the thriller genre. he was educated at home. who made his career in Hollywood. T'he Lady Vanishes' (1938) and 'The 39 Steps' (1935). he became a star of the Old Vic Theatre. playing major Shakespearean roles. 'The Taming of the Shrew'. directing nine and appearing in twelve plays during that time. Born in Dorking. upon the outbreak of World War I. In 1915. 'Vertigo' (1958) and 'Psycho' (1960). while a role in 'The Ghost Train' marked his professional debut on the stage. he was one of the founders of the National Theatre. he never won an Oscar for best diector. which was the start of their relationship as well as their artistic cooperation. A year later Hitchcock directed a thriller. Due to his achievements in British theatre he was knighted in 1947 and made baron in 1970. Blake is frequently associated with his allegorical painting of the scientist Isaac Newton. His 'talkie' films were Blackmail (1929). and J'erusalem'. and at the Dramatic Arts St Edward's School in Oxford. Soon after. He had his stage debut at the age of fourteen. He became a draftsman and advertising designer. he starred with Vivien Leigh in the film Fire Over England. he became an apprentice engraver at the Great Queen Street.visited the United States in 1904²05. however in 1920 he got a job at the Islington Studios in London. William Blake met John Flaxman. 'Strangers on a Train '(1951). one should list above all 'Shadow of a Doubt' (1943). which was acclaimed by both the public and critics. Born and raised in Leytonstone (London today).

and chose her political advisers wisely. he was sent to Cambridge University. as she allowed such sailors as Drake and Hawkins to attack Spanish and other Catholic ships in 1568. Newton importance is due to his laws and discoveries and he remains on the list of the greatest scientists of all time. Newton studied back home. gaining herself the title of the Virgin Queen. England was a powerful and prosperous monarchy. Queen of Scots. During her reign. This work contains Newton·s famous three universal laws of motion. in 1704. a conclusion of his scholarly work in that field. 1558 until her death Elisabeth was Queen of England. At the age of 19. she refused all proposals. the fifth and the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. and his second wife Anne Boleyn.Elisabeth I: (1533 ² 1603) From November. Upon the Queen's death at Richmond Palace in 1603. Isaac Newton: (1643 ² 1727) One most influential names in the world of physics. One of them was separating the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. and developing laws describing gravity and the movements of the planets and the tides. Elected president of the Royal Society in London in 1703. King of Spain. was a great threat to her power. She was born in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich as a daughter of Henry VIII. In 1668. He also experimented with light. Supported by the Catholics. using a curved mirror instead of a lens. making the observation of an apple falling from a tree. Moreover. known as the Elizabethan era. Later. he published 'The Principia'. Mary. As the college was closed for 18 months due to The Great Plague. it was also Newton who coined a conception of the universe based upon natural and rational laws ² a core of the philosophy of Enlightenment. until her half-sister Mary Tudor died. and she was to inherit the throne. Newton was made professor of mathematics. literature and philosophy flourished. Queen of France (in name only). he was re-elected every year until his death. Two decades later. Although Elisabeth was expected to marry and give birth to a child that would succeed her. the king disinherited Elisabeth. She proved herself a skilled politician. she got involved in a conflict with Philip II. they included Sir William Cecil and Sir Francis Walsingham. and the English colonisation of North America took place. separating white light into a spectrum of colours. He was born in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth in the county of Lincolnshire. where he received his primary education. After her mother's execution in 1534. . Later. he presented his theory in his work 'Opticks'. and Queen of Ireland. he built the first telescope that focused light. courageous and determined in her decisions. She was definitely dedicated to England. Upon his return to Cambridge in 1667. 17. and she lived a quiet life and studied for several years. so Elisabeth ordered her imprisoned and held her for almost twenty years.

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